Abstract

The detection and characterization of extra-solar planets is a major theme driving modern astronomy. Direct imaging of exoplanets allows access to a parameter space complementary to other detection methods, and potentially the characterization of exoplanetary atmospheres and surfaces. However achieving the required levels of performance with direct imaging from ground-based telescopes (subject to Earth’s turbulent atmosphere) has been extremely challenging. Here we demonstrate a new generation of photonic pupil-remapping devices which build upon the Dragonfly instrument, a high contrast waveguide-based interferometer. This new generation overcomes problems caused by interference from unguided light and low throughput. Closure phase measurement scatter of only ∼ 0.2° has been achieved, with waveguide throughputs of > 70%. This translates to a maximum contrast-ratio sensitivity between star and planet at 1λ/D (1σ detection) of 5.3 × 10−4 (with a conventional adaptive-optics system) or 1.8 × 10−4 (with ‘extreme-AO’), improving even further when random error is minimized by averaging over multiple exposures. This is an order of magnitude beyond conventional pupil-segmenting interferometry techniques (such as aperture masking), allowing a previously inaccessible part of the star to planet contrast-separation parameter space to be explored.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2014 (1)

T. Meany, S. Gross, N. Jovanovic, A. Arriola, M. Steel, and M. Withford, “Towards low-loss lightwave circuits for non-classical optics at 800 and 1,550 nm,” Appl. Phys. A-Mater. 114, 113–118 (2014).
[CrossRef]

2013 (2)

2012 (4)

N. Charles, N. Jovanovic, S. Gross, P. Stewart, B. Norris, J. O’Byrne, J. S. Lawrence, M. J. Withford, and P. G. Tuthill, “Design of optically path-length-matched, three-dimensional photonic circuits comprising uniquely routed waveguides,” Appl. Opt. 51, 6489–6497 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Kraus and M. J. Ireland, “LkCa 15: a young exoplanet caught at formation?” Astrophys. J. 745, 5 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. Jovanovic, P. G. Tuthill, B. Norris, S. Gross, P. Stewart, N. Charles, S. Lacour, M. Ams, J. S. Lawrence, A. Lehmann, C. Niel, J. G. Robertson, G. D. Marshall, M. Ireland, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Starlight demonstration of the Dragonfly instrument: an integrated photonic pupil-remapping interferometer for high-contrast imaging,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 427, 806–815 (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. Huby, G. Perrin, F. Marchis, S. Lacour, T. Kotani, G. Duchêne, E. Choquet, E. L. Gates, J. M. Woillez, O. Lai, P. Fédou, C. Collin, F. Chapron, V. Arslanyan, and K. J. Burns, “FIRST, a fibered aperture masking instrument. I. First on-sky test results,” Astron. Astrophys. 541, A55 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (4)

N. Huélamo, S. Lacour, P. Tuthill, M. Ireland, A. Kraus, and G. Chauvin, “A companion candidate in the gap of the T Chamaeleontis transitional disk,” Astron. Astrophys. 528, L7 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Wright, O. Fakhouri, G. W. Marcy, E. Han, Y. Feng, J. A. Johnson, A. W. Howard, D. A. Fischer, J. A. Valenti, J. Anderson, and N. Piskunov, “The Exoplanet Orbit Database,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 123, 412–422 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Lacour, P. Tuthill, P. Amico, M. Ireland, D. Ehrenreich, N. Huélamo, and A. M. Lagrange, “Sparse aperture masking at the VLT. I. Faint companion detection limits for the two debris disk stars HD 92945 and HD 141569,” Astron. Astrophys. 532, 72 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Thomson, T. Birks, S. Leon-Saval, A. Kar, and J. Bland-Hawthorn, “Ultrafast laser inscription of an integrated photonic lantern,” Opt. Express 19, 5698–5705 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (4)

F. Martinache, “Kernel phase in Fizeau interferometry,” Astrophys. J. 724, 464–469 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Martinez, E. Aller-Carpentier, and M. Kasper, “The high order test bench: evaluating high contrast imaging concepts for SPHERE and EPICS,” Messenger 140, 10–14 (2010).

O. Absil and D. Mawet, “Formation and evolution of planetary systems: the impact of high-angular resolution optical techniques,” Astron. Astrophys. Rev. 18, 317–382 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Marois, B. Zuckerman, Q. M. Konopacky, B. Macintosh, and T. Barman, “Images of a fourth planet orbiting HR 8799,” Nature 468, 1080–1083 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (4)

M. Benisty, J.-P. Berger, L. Jocou, P. Labeye, F. Malbet, K. Perraut, and P. Kern, “An integrated optics beam combiner for the second generation VLTI instruments,” Astron. Astrophys. 498, 601–613 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Kane, S. Mahadevan, K. von Braun, G. Laughlin, and D. R. Ciardi, “Refining exoplanet ephemerides and transit observing strategies,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 121, 1386–1394 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. J. O’Toole, C. G. Tinney, H. R. A. Jones, R. P. Butler, G. W. Marcy, B. Carter, and J. Bailey, “Selection functions in doppler planet searches,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 392, 641–654 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Mordasini, Y. Alibert, and W. Benz, “Extrasolar planet population synthesis. I. Method, formation tracks, and mass-distance distribution,” Astron. Astrophys. 501, 1139–1160 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

E. L. Nielsen, L. M. Close, B. A. Biller, E. Masciadri, and R. Lenzen, “Constraints on extrasolar planet populations from VLT NACO/SDI and MMT SDI and direct adaptive optics imaging surveys: giant planets are rare at large separations,” Astrophys. J. 674, 466–481 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nat. Photon. 2, 219–225 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

L. Labadie, E. Le Coarer, R. Maurand, P. Labeye, P. Kern, B. Arezki, and J.-E. Broquin, “Mid-infrared laser light nulling experiment using single-mode conductive waveguides,” Astron. Astrophys. 471, 355–360 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

A. Burrows, “A theoretical look at the direct detection of giant planets outside the Solar System,” Nature 433, 261–268 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

Y. Alibert, C. Mordasini, and W. Benz, “Migration and giant planet formation,” Astron. Astrophys. 417, L25–L28 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, “Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics,” Appl. Phys. A-Mater. 77, 109–111 (2003).
[CrossRef]

O. Guyon, “Phase-induced amplitude apodization of telescope pupils for extrasolar terrestrial planet imaging,” Astron. Astrophys. 404, 379–387 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

P. G. Tuthill, J. D. Monnier, W. C. Danchi, E. H. Wishnow, and C. A. Haniff, “Michelson interferometry with the Keck I Telescope,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 555–565 (2000).
[CrossRef]

V. Coudé du Foresto, M. Faucherre, N. Hubin, and P. Gitton, “Using single-mode fibers to monitor fast Strehl ratio fluctuations. Application to a 3.6 m telescope corrected by adaptive optics,” Astron. Astrophys. Sup. 145, 305–310 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

A. P. Boss, “Giant planet formation by gravitational instability,” Science 276, 1836–1839 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

J. B. Pollack, O. Hubickyj, P. Bodenheimer, J. J. Lissauer, M. Podolak, and Y. Greenzweig, “Formation of the giant planets by concurrent accretion of solids and gas,” Icarus 124, 62–85 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

M. Mayor and D. Queloz, “A Jupiter-mass companion to a solar-type star,” Nature 378, 355–359 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

J. E. Baldwin, C. A. Haniff, C. D. Mackay, and P. J. Warner, “Closure phase in high-resolution optical imaging,” Nature 320, 595–597 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Abe, L.

J.-L. Beuzit, A. Boccaletti, M. Feldt, K. Dohlen, D. Mouillet, P. Puget, F. Wildi, L. Abe, J. Antichi, A. Baruffolo, P. Baudoz, M. Carbillet, J. Charton, R. Claudi, S. Desidera, M. Downing, C. Fabron, P. Feautrier, E. Fedrigo, T. Fusco, J.-L. Gach, E. Giro, R. Gratton, T. Henning, N. Hubin, F. Joos, M. Kasper, A.-M. Lagrange, M. Langlois, R. Lenzen, C. Moutou, A. Pavlov, C. Petit, J. Pragt, P. Rabou, F. Rigal, S. Rochat, R. Roelfsema, G. Rousset, M. Saisse, H.-M. Schmid, E. Stadler, C. Thalmann, M. Turatto, S. Udry, F. Vakili, A. Vigan, and R. Waters, “Direct detection of giant extrasolar planets with SPHERE on the VLT,” in Pathways Towards Habitable Planets, Vol. 430 of Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series, V. Coudé du Foresto, D. M. Gelino, and I. Ribas, eds. (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 2010), pp. 231–238.

Absil, O.

O. Absil and D. Mawet, “Formation and evolution of planetary systems: the impact of high-angular resolution optical techniques,” Astron. Astrophys. Rev. 18, 317–382 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Alibert, Y.

C. Mordasini, Y. Alibert, and W. Benz, “Extrasolar planet population synthesis. I. Method, formation tracks, and mass-distance distribution,” Astron. Astrophys. 501, 1139–1160 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Alibert, C. Mordasini, and W. Benz, “Migration and giant planet formation,” Astron. Astrophys. 417, L25–L28 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Aller-Carpentier, E.

P. Martinez, E. Aller-Carpentier, and M. Kasper, “The high order test bench: evaluating high contrast imaging concepts for SPHERE and EPICS,” Messenger 140, 10–14 (2010).

Allington-Smith, J. R.

R. J. Harris, D. G. MacLachlan, D. Choudhury, T. J. Morris, E. Gendron, A. G. Basden, G. Brown, J. R. Allington-Smith, and R. R. Thomson, “Photonic spatial reformatting of stellar light for diffraction-limited spectroscopy,” arXiv:1402.2547 (2014).

Amico, P.

S. Lacour, P. Tuthill, P. Amico, M. Ireland, D. Ehrenreich, N. Huélamo, and A. M. Lagrange, “Sparse aperture masking at the VLT. I. Faint companion detection limits for the two debris disk stars HD 92945 and HD 141569,” Astron. Astrophys. 532, 72 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ams, M.

N. Jovanovic, P. G. Tuthill, B. Norris, S. Gross, P. Stewart, N. Charles, S. Lacour, M. Ams, J. S. Lawrence, A. Lehmann, C. Niel, J. G. Robertson, G. D. Marshall, M. Ireland, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Starlight demonstration of the Dragonfly instrument: an integrated photonic pupil-remapping interferometer for high-contrast imaging,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 427, 806–815 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, J.

J. T. Wright, O. Fakhouri, G. W. Marcy, E. Han, Y. Feng, J. A. Johnson, A. W. Howard, D. A. Fischer, J. A. Valenti, J. Anderson, and N. Piskunov, “The Exoplanet Orbit Database,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 123, 412–422 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Antichi, J.

J.-L. Beuzit, A. Boccaletti, M. Feldt, K. Dohlen, D. Mouillet, P. Puget, F. Wildi, L. Abe, J. Antichi, A. Baruffolo, P. Baudoz, M. Carbillet, J. Charton, R. Claudi, S. Desidera, M. Downing, C. Fabron, P. Feautrier, E. Fedrigo, T. Fusco, J.-L. Gach, E. Giro, R. Gratton, T. Henning, N. Hubin, F. Joos, M. Kasper, A.-M. Lagrange, M. Langlois, R. Lenzen, C. Moutou, A. Pavlov, C. Petit, J. Pragt, P. Rabou, F. Rigal, S. Rochat, R. Roelfsema, G. Rousset, M. Saisse, H.-M. Schmid, E. Stadler, C. Thalmann, M. Turatto, S. Udry, F. Vakili, A. Vigan, and R. Waters, “Direct detection of giant extrasolar planets with SPHERE on the VLT,” in Pathways Towards Habitable Planets, Vol. 430 of Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series, V. Coudé du Foresto, D. M. Gelino, and I. Ribas, eds. (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 2010), pp. 231–238.

Arezki, B.

L. Labadie, E. Le Coarer, R. Maurand, P. Labeye, P. Kern, B. Arezki, and J.-E. Broquin, “Mid-infrared laser light nulling experiment using single-mode conductive waveguides,” Astron. Astrophys. 471, 355–360 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Ródenas, G. Martin, B. Arezki, N. Psaila, G. Jose, A. Jha, L. Labadie, P. Kern, A. Kar, and R. Thomson, “Three-dimensional mid-infrared photonic circuits in chalcogenide glass,” Opt. Lett.37, 392–394 (2012).

Arriola, A.

T. Meany, S. Gross, N. Jovanovic, A. Arriola, M. Steel, and M. Withford, “Towards low-loss lightwave circuits for non-classical optics at 800 and 1,550 nm,” Appl. Phys. A-Mater. 114, 113–118 (2014).
[CrossRef]

A. Arriola, S. Gross, N. Jovanovic, N. Charles, P. G. Tuthill, S. M. Olaizola, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Low bend loss waveguides enable compact, efficient 3D photonic chips,” Opt. Express 21, 2978–2986 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arslanyan, V.

E. Huby, G. Perrin, F. Marchis, S. Lacour, T. Kotani, G. Duchêne, E. Choquet, E. L. Gates, J. M. Woillez, O. Lai, P. Fédou, C. Collin, F. Chapron, V. Arslanyan, and K. J. Burns, “FIRST, a fibered aperture masking instrument. I. First on-sky test results,” Astron. Astrophys. 541, A55 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bailey, J.

S. J. O’Toole, C. G. Tinney, H. R. A. Jones, R. P. Butler, G. W. Marcy, B. Carter, and J. Bailey, “Selection functions in doppler planet searches,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 392, 641–654 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Baldwin, J. E.

J. E. Baldwin, C. A. Haniff, C. D. Mackay, and P. J. Warner, “Closure phase in high-resolution optical imaging,” Nature 320, 595–597 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Barman, T.

C. Marois, B. Zuckerman, Q. M. Konopacky, B. Macintosh, and T. Barman, “Images of a fourth planet orbiting HR 8799,” Nature 468, 1080–1083 (2010).
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J.-L. Beuzit, A. Boccaletti, M. Feldt, K. Dohlen, D. Mouillet, P. Puget, F. Wildi, L. Abe, J. Antichi, A. Baruffolo, P. Baudoz, M. Carbillet, J. Charton, R. Claudi, S. Desidera, M. Downing, C. Fabron, P. Feautrier, E. Fedrigo, T. Fusco, J.-L. Gach, E. Giro, R. Gratton, T. Henning, N. Hubin, F. Joos, M. Kasper, A.-M. Lagrange, M. Langlois, R. Lenzen, C. Moutou, A. Pavlov, C. Petit, J. Pragt, P. Rabou, F. Rigal, S. Rochat, R. Roelfsema, G. Rousset, M. Saisse, H.-M. Schmid, E. Stadler, C. Thalmann, M. Turatto, S. Udry, F. Vakili, A. Vigan, and R. Waters, “Direct detection of giant extrasolar planets with SPHERE on the VLT,” in Pathways Towards Habitable Planets, Vol. 430 of Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series, V. Coudé du Foresto, D. M. Gelino, and I. Ribas, eds. (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 2010), pp. 231–238.

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J.-L. Beuzit, A. Boccaletti, M. Feldt, K. Dohlen, D. Mouillet, P. Puget, F. Wildi, L. Abe, J. Antichi, A. Baruffolo, P. Baudoz, M. Carbillet, J. Charton, R. Claudi, S. Desidera, M. Downing, C. Fabron, P. Feautrier, E. Fedrigo, T. Fusco, J.-L. Gach, E. Giro, R. Gratton, T. Henning, N. Hubin, F. Joos, M. Kasper, A.-M. Lagrange, M. Langlois, R. Lenzen, C. Moutou, A. Pavlov, C. Petit, J. Pragt, P. Rabou, F. Rigal, S. Rochat, R. Roelfsema, G. Rousset, M. Saisse, H.-M. Schmid, E. Stadler, C. Thalmann, M. Turatto, S. Udry, F. Vakili, A. Vigan, and R. Waters, “Direct detection of giant extrasolar planets with SPHERE on the VLT,” in Pathways Towards Habitable Planets, Vol. 430 of Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series, V. Coudé du Foresto, D. M. Gelino, and I. Ribas, eds. (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 2010), pp. 231–238.

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J.-L. Beuzit, A. Boccaletti, M. Feldt, K. Dohlen, D. Mouillet, P. Puget, F. Wildi, L. Abe, J. Antichi, A. Baruffolo, P. Baudoz, M. Carbillet, J. Charton, R. Claudi, S. Desidera, M. Downing, C. Fabron, P. Feautrier, E. Fedrigo, T. Fusco, J.-L. Gach, E. Giro, R. Gratton, T. Henning, N. Hubin, F. Joos, M. Kasper, A.-M. Lagrange, M. Langlois, R. Lenzen, C. Moutou, A. Pavlov, C. Petit, J. Pragt, P. Rabou, F. Rigal, S. Rochat, R. Roelfsema, G. Rousset, M. Saisse, H.-M. Schmid, E. Stadler, C. Thalmann, M. Turatto, S. Udry, F. Vakili, A. Vigan, and R. Waters, “Direct detection of giant extrasolar planets with SPHERE on the VLT,” in Pathways Towards Habitable Planets, Vol. 430 of Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series, V. Coudé du Foresto, D. M. Gelino, and I. Ribas, eds. (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 2010), pp. 231–238.

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J. T. Wright, O. Fakhouri, G. W. Marcy, E. Han, Y. Feng, J. A. Johnson, A. W. Howard, D. A. Fischer, J. A. Valenti, J. Anderson, and N. Piskunov, “The Exoplanet Orbit Database,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 123, 412–422 (2011).
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V. Coudé du Foresto, M. Faucherre, N. Hubin, and P. Gitton, “Using single-mode fibers to monitor fast Strehl ratio fluctuations. Application to a 3.6 m telescope corrected by adaptive optics,” Astron. Astrophys. Sup. 145, 305–310 (2000).
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E. Huby, G. Perrin, F. Marchis, S. Lacour, T. Kotani, G. Duchêne, E. Choquet, E. L. Gates, J. M. Woillez, O. Lai, P. Fédou, C. Collin, F. Chapron, V. Arslanyan, and K. J. Burns, “FIRST, a fibered aperture masking instrument. I. First on-sky test results,” Astron. Astrophys. 541, A55 (2012).
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S. Lacour, P. Tuthill, P. Amico, M. Ireland, D. Ehrenreich, N. Huélamo, and A. M. Lagrange, “Sparse aperture masking at the VLT. I. Faint companion detection limits for the two debris disk stars HD 92945 and HD 141569,” Astron. Astrophys. 532, 72 (2011).
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N. Huélamo, S. Lacour, P. Tuthill, M. Ireland, A. Kraus, and G. Chauvin, “A companion candidate in the gap of the T Chamaeleontis transitional disk,” Astron. Astrophys. 528, L7 (2011).
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M. Benisty, J.-P. Berger, L. Jocou, P. Labeye, F. Malbet, K. Perraut, and P. Kern, “An integrated optics beam combiner for the second generation VLTI instruments,” Astron. Astrophys. 498, 601–613 (2009).
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A. Ródenas, G. Martin, B. Arezki, N. Psaila, G. Jose, A. Jha, L. Labadie, P. Kern, A. Kar, and R. Thomson, “Three-dimensional mid-infrared photonic circuits in chalcogenide glass,” Opt. Lett.37, 392–394 (2012).

Jovanovic, N.

T. Meany, S. Gross, N. Jovanovic, A. Arriola, M. Steel, and M. Withford, “Towards low-loss lightwave circuits for non-classical optics at 800 and 1,550 nm,” Appl. Phys. A-Mater. 114, 113–118 (2014).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

N. Cvetojevic, S. Gross, S. Madden, D. Hudson, N. Jovanovic, B. Luther-Davies, B. Eggleton, M. Withford, J. Lawrence, and P. Tuthill, “Exploring new material platforms for photonic on-chip nulling interferometry in the mid-ir”, Vol. 9146 of Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series (2014), in press.

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Udry, S.

J.-L. Beuzit, A. Boccaletti, M. Feldt, K. Dohlen, D. Mouillet, P. Puget, F. Wildi, L. Abe, J. Antichi, A. Baruffolo, P. Baudoz, M. Carbillet, J. Charton, R. Claudi, S. Desidera, M. Downing, C. Fabron, P. Feautrier, E. Fedrigo, T. Fusco, J.-L. Gach, E. Giro, R. Gratton, T. Henning, N. Hubin, F. Joos, M. Kasper, A.-M. Lagrange, M. Langlois, R. Lenzen, C. Moutou, A. Pavlov, C. Petit, J. Pragt, P. Rabou, F. Rigal, S. Rochat, R. Roelfsema, G. Rousset, M. Saisse, H.-M. Schmid, E. Stadler, C. Thalmann, M. Turatto, S. Udry, F. Vakili, A. Vigan, and R. Waters, “Direct detection of giant extrasolar planets with SPHERE on the VLT,” in Pathways Towards Habitable Planets, Vol. 430 of Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series, V. Coudé du Foresto, D. M. Gelino, and I. Ribas, eds. (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 2010), pp. 231–238.

Vakili, F.

J.-L. Beuzit, A. Boccaletti, M. Feldt, K. Dohlen, D. Mouillet, P. Puget, F. Wildi, L. Abe, J. Antichi, A. Baruffolo, P. Baudoz, M. Carbillet, J. Charton, R. Claudi, S. Desidera, M. Downing, C. Fabron, P. Feautrier, E. Fedrigo, T. Fusco, J.-L. Gach, E. Giro, R. Gratton, T. Henning, N. Hubin, F. Joos, M. Kasper, A.-M. Lagrange, M. Langlois, R. Lenzen, C. Moutou, A. Pavlov, C. Petit, J. Pragt, P. Rabou, F. Rigal, S. Rochat, R. Roelfsema, G. Rousset, M. Saisse, H.-M. Schmid, E. Stadler, C. Thalmann, M. Turatto, S. Udry, F. Vakili, A. Vigan, and R. Waters, “Direct detection of giant extrasolar planets with SPHERE on the VLT,” in Pathways Towards Habitable Planets, Vol. 430 of Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series, V. Coudé du Foresto, D. M. Gelino, and I. Ribas, eds. (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 2010), pp. 231–238.

Valenti, J. A.

J. T. Wright, O. Fakhouri, G. W. Marcy, E. Han, Y. Feng, J. A. Johnson, A. W. Howard, D. A. Fischer, J. A. Valenti, J. Anderson, and N. Piskunov, “The Exoplanet Orbit Database,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 123, 412–422 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Vigan, A.

J.-L. Beuzit, A. Boccaletti, M. Feldt, K. Dohlen, D. Mouillet, P. Puget, F. Wildi, L. Abe, J. Antichi, A. Baruffolo, P. Baudoz, M. Carbillet, J. Charton, R. Claudi, S. Desidera, M. Downing, C. Fabron, P. Feautrier, E. Fedrigo, T. Fusco, J.-L. Gach, E. Giro, R. Gratton, T. Henning, N. Hubin, F. Joos, M. Kasper, A.-M. Lagrange, M. Langlois, R. Lenzen, C. Moutou, A. Pavlov, C. Petit, J. Pragt, P. Rabou, F. Rigal, S. Rochat, R. Roelfsema, G. Rousset, M. Saisse, H.-M. Schmid, E. Stadler, C. Thalmann, M. Turatto, S. Udry, F. Vakili, A. Vigan, and R. Waters, “Direct detection of giant extrasolar planets with SPHERE on the VLT,” in Pathways Towards Habitable Planets, Vol. 430 of Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series, V. Coudé du Foresto, D. M. Gelino, and I. Ribas, eds. (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 2010), pp. 231–238.

von Braun, K.

S. R. Kane, S. Mahadevan, K. von Braun, G. Laughlin, and D. R. Ciardi, “Refining exoplanet ephemerides and transit observing strategies,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 121, 1386–1394 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Warner, P. J.

J. E. Baldwin, C. A. Haniff, C. D. Mackay, and P. J. Warner, “Closure phase in high-resolution optical imaging,” Nature 320, 595–597 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Waters, R.

J.-L. Beuzit, A. Boccaletti, M. Feldt, K. Dohlen, D. Mouillet, P. Puget, F. Wildi, L. Abe, J. Antichi, A. Baruffolo, P. Baudoz, M. Carbillet, J. Charton, R. Claudi, S. Desidera, M. Downing, C. Fabron, P. Feautrier, E. Fedrigo, T. Fusco, J.-L. Gach, E. Giro, R. Gratton, T. Henning, N. Hubin, F. Joos, M. Kasper, A.-M. Lagrange, M. Langlois, R. Lenzen, C. Moutou, A. Pavlov, C. Petit, J. Pragt, P. Rabou, F. Rigal, S. Rochat, R. Roelfsema, G. Rousset, M. Saisse, H.-M. Schmid, E. Stadler, C. Thalmann, M. Turatto, S. Udry, F. Vakili, A. Vigan, and R. Waters, “Direct detection of giant extrasolar planets with SPHERE on the VLT,” in Pathways Towards Habitable Planets, Vol. 430 of Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series, V. Coudé du Foresto, D. M. Gelino, and I. Ribas, eds. (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 2010), pp. 231–238.

White, J.

J. M. Woillez, G. S. Perrin, J. Guerin, O. Lai, F. Reynaud, P. L. Wizinowich, C. R. Neyman, D. Le Mignant, K. C. Roth, and J. White, “’OHANA phase I: adaptive optics and single mode fiber coupling,” in New Frontiers in Stellar Interferometry, Vol. 5491 of Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series, W. A. Traub, ed. (SPIE, 2004), pp. 1425–1434.
[CrossRef]

Wildi, F.

J.-L. Beuzit, A. Boccaletti, M. Feldt, K. Dohlen, D. Mouillet, P. Puget, F. Wildi, L. Abe, J. Antichi, A. Baruffolo, P. Baudoz, M. Carbillet, J. Charton, R. Claudi, S. Desidera, M. Downing, C. Fabron, P. Feautrier, E. Fedrigo, T. Fusco, J.-L. Gach, E. Giro, R. Gratton, T. Henning, N. Hubin, F. Joos, M. Kasper, A.-M. Lagrange, M. Langlois, R. Lenzen, C. Moutou, A. Pavlov, C. Petit, J. Pragt, P. Rabou, F. Rigal, S. Rochat, R. Roelfsema, G. Rousset, M. Saisse, H.-M. Schmid, E. Stadler, C. Thalmann, M. Turatto, S. Udry, F. Vakili, A. Vigan, and R. Waters, “Direct detection of giant extrasolar planets with SPHERE on the VLT,” in Pathways Towards Habitable Planets, Vol. 430 of Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series, V. Coudé du Foresto, D. M. Gelino, and I. Ribas, eds. (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 2010), pp. 231–238.

Will, M.

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, “Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics,” Appl. Phys. A-Mater. 77, 109–111 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wishnow, E. H.

P. G. Tuthill, J. D. Monnier, W. C. Danchi, E. H. Wishnow, and C. A. Haniff, “Michelson interferometry with the Keck I Telescope,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 555–565 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Withford, M.

T. Meany, S. Gross, N. Jovanovic, A. Arriola, M. Steel, and M. Withford, “Towards low-loss lightwave circuits for non-classical optics at 800 and 1,550 nm,” Appl. Phys. A-Mater. 114, 113–118 (2014).
[CrossRef]

N. Cvetojevic, S. Gross, S. Madden, D. Hudson, N. Jovanovic, B. Luther-Davies, B. Eggleton, M. Withford, J. Lawrence, and P. Tuthill, “Exploring new material platforms for photonic on-chip nulling interferometry in the mid-ir”, Vol. 9146 of Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series (2014), in press.

Withford, M. J.

Wizinowich, P. L.

J. M. Woillez, G. S. Perrin, J. Guerin, O. Lai, F. Reynaud, P. L. Wizinowich, C. R. Neyman, D. Le Mignant, K. C. Roth, and J. White, “’OHANA phase I: adaptive optics and single mode fiber coupling,” in New Frontiers in Stellar Interferometry, Vol. 5491 of Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series, W. A. Traub, ed. (SPIE, 2004), pp. 1425–1434.
[CrossRef]

Woillez, J. M.

E. Huby, G. Perrin, F. Marchis, S. Lacour, T. Kotani, G. Duchêne, E. Choquet, E. L. Gates, J. M. Woillez, O. Lai, P. Fédou, C. Collin, F. Chapron, V. Arslanyan, and K. J. Burns, “FIRST, a fibered aperture masking instrument. I. First on-sky test results,” Astron. Astrophys. 541, A55 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Woillez, G. S. Perrin, J. Guerin, O. Lai, F. Reynaud, P. L. Wizinowich, C. R. Neyman, D. Le Mignant, K. C. Roth, and J. White, “’OHANA phase I: adaptive optics and single mode fiber coupling,” in New Frontiers in Stellar Interferometry, Vol. 5491 of Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series, W. A. Traub, ed. (SPIE, 2004), pp. 1425–1434.
[CrossRef]

Wright, J. T.

J. T. Wright, O. Fakhouri, G. W. Marcy, E. Han, Y. Feng, J. A. Johnson, A. W. Howard, D. A. Fischer, J. A. Valenti, J. Anderson, and N. Piskunov, “The Exoplanet Orbit Database,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 123, 412–422 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zuckerman, B.

C. Marois, B. Zuckerman, Q. M. Konopacky, B. Macintosh, and T. Barman, “Images of a fourth planet orbiting HR 8799,” Nature 468, 1080–1083 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. A-Mater. (2)

T. Meany, S. Gross, N. Jovanovic, A. Arriola, M. Steel, and M. Withford, “Towards low-loss lightwave circuits for non-classical optics at 800 and 1,550 nm,” Appl. Phys. A-Mater. 114, 113–118 (2014).
[CrossRef]

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, “Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics,” Appl. Phys. A-Mater. 77, 109–111 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Astron. Astrophys. (8)

S. Lacour, P. Tuthill, P. Amico, M. Ireland, D. Ehrenreich, N. Huélamo, and A. M. Lagrange, “Sparse aperture masking at the VLT. I. Faint companion detection limits for the two debris disk stars HD 92945 and HD 141569,” Astron. Astrophys. 532, 72 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Alibert, C. Mordasini, and W. Benz, “Migration and giant planet formation,” Astron. Astrophys. 417, L25–L28 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Mordasini, Y. Alibert, and W. Benz, “Extrasolar planet population synthesis. I. Method, formation tracks, and mass-distance distribution,” Astron. Astrophys. 501, 1139–1160 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O. Guyon, “Phase-induced amplitude apodization of telescope pupils for extrasolar terrestrial planet imaging,” Astron. Astrophys. 404, 379–387 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Huélamo, S. Lacour, P. Tuthill, M. Ireland, A. Kraus, and G. Chauvin, “A companion candidate in the gap of the T Chamaeleontis transitional disk,” Astron. Astrophys. 528, L7 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Huby, G. Perrin, F. Marchis, S. Lacour, T. Kotani, G. Duchêne, E. Choquet, E. L. Gates, J. M. Woillez, O. Lai, P. Fédou, C. Collin, F. Chapron, V. Arslanyan, and K. J. Burns, “FIRST, a fibered aperture masking instrument. I. First on-sky test results,” Astron. Astrophys. 541, A55 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Benisty, J.-P. Berger, L. Jocou, P. Labeye, F. Malbet, K. Perraut, and P. Kern, “An integrated optics beam combiner for the second generation VLTI instruments,” Astron. Astrophys. 498, 601–613 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Labadie, E. Le Coarer, R. Maurand, P. Labeye, P. Kern, B. Arezki, and J.-E. Broquin, “Mid-infrared laser light nulling experiment using single-mode conductive waveguides,” Astron. Astrophys. 471, 355–360 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Astron. Astrophys. Rev. (1)

O. Absil and D. Mawet, “Formation and evolution of planetary systems: the impact of high-angular resolution optical techniques,” Astron. Astrophys. Rev. 18, 317–382 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Astron. Astrophys. Sup. (1)

V. Coudé du Foresto, M. Faucherre, N. Hubin, and P. Gitton, “Using single-mode fibers to monitor fast Strehl ratio fluctuations. Application to a 3.6 m telescope corrected by adaptive optics,” Astron. Astrophys. Sup. 145, 305–310 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Astrophys. J. (3)

F. Martinache, “Kernel phase in Fizeau interferometry,” Astrophys. J. 724, 464–469 (2010).
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A. L. Kraus and M. J. Ireland, “LkCa 15: a young exoplanet caught at formation?” Astrophys. J. 745, 5 (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. L. Nielsen, L. M. Close, B. A. Biller, E. Masciadri, and R. Lenzen, “Constraints on extrasolar planet populations from VLT NACO/SDI and MMT SDI and direct adaptive optics imaging surveys: giant planets are rare at large separations,” Astrophys. J. 674, 466–481 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Icarus (1)

J. B. Pollack, O. Hubickyj, P. Bodenheimer, J. J. Lissauer, M. Podolak, and Y. Greenzweig, “Formation of the giant planets by concurrent accretion of solids and gas,” Icarus 124, 62–85 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Messenger (1)

P. Martinez, E. Aller-Carpentier, and M. Kasper, “The high order test bench: evaluating high contrast imaging concepts for SPHERE and EPICS,” Messenger 140, 10–14 (2010).

Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. (2)

S. J. O’Toole, C. G. Tinney, H. R. A. Jones, R. P. Butler, G. W. Marcy, B. Carter, and J. Bailey, “Selection functions in doppler planet searches,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 392, 641–654 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Jovanovic, P. G. Tuthill, B. Norris, S. Gross, P. Stewart, N. Charles, S. Lacour, M. Ams, J. S. Lawrence, A. Lehmann, C. Niel, J. G. Robertson, G. D. Marshall, M. Ireland, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Starlight demonstration of the Dragonfly instrument: an integrated photonic pupil-remapping interferometer for high-contrast imaging,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 427, 806–815 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photon. (1)

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nat. Photon. 2, 219–225 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature (4)

A. Burrows, “A theoretical look at the direct detection of giant planets outside the Solar System,” Nature 433, 261–268 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Baldwin, C. A. Haniff, C. D. Mackay, and P. J. Warner, “Closure phase in high-resolution optical imaging,” Nature 320, 595–597 (1986).
[CrossRef]

C. Marois, B. Zuckerman, Q. M. Konopacky, B. Macintosh, and T. Barman, “Images of a fourth planet orbiting HR 8799,” Nature 468, 1080–1083 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mayor and D. Queloz, “A Jupiter-mass companion to a solar-type star,” Nature 378, 355–359 (1995).
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Opt. Express (3)

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J. T. Wright, O. Fakhouri, G. W. Marcy, E. Han, Y. Feng, J. A. Johnson, A. W. Howard, D. A. Fischer, J. A. Valenti, J. Anderson, and N. Piskunov, “The Exoplanet Orbit Database,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 123, 412–422 (2011).
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S. R. Kane, S. Mahadevan, K. von Braun, G. Laughlin, and D. R. Ciardi, “Refining exoplanet ephemerides and transit observing strategies,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 121, 1386–1394 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Tuthill, J. D. Monnier, W. C. Danchi, E. H. Wishnow, and C. A. Haniff, “Michelson interferometry with the Keck I Telescope,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 112, 555–565 (2000).
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Science (1)

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Other (8)

J.-L. Beuzit, A. Boccaletti, M. Feldt, K. Dohlen, D. Mouillet, P. Puget, F. Wildi, L. Abe, J. Antichi, A. Baruffolo, P. Baudoz, M. Carbillet, J. Charton, R. Claudi, S. Desidera, M. Downing, C. Fabron, P. Feautrier, E. Fedrigo, T. Fusco, J.-L. Gach, E. Giro, R. Gratton, T. Henning, N. Hubin, F. Joos, M. Kasper, A.-M. Lagrange, M. Langlois, R. Lenzen, C. Moutou, A. Pavlov, C. Petit, J. Pragt, P. Rabou, F. Rigal, S. Rochat, R. Roelfsema, G. Rousset, M. Saisse, H.-M. Schmid, E. Stadler, C. Thalmann, M. Turatto, S. Udry, F. Vakili, A. Vigan, and R. Waters, “Direct detection of giant extrasolar planets with SPHERE on the VLT,” in Pathways Towards Habitable Planets, Vol. 430 of Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series, V. Coudé du Foresto, D. M. Gelino, and I. Ribas, eds. (Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 2010), pp. 231–238.

R. J. Harris, D. G. MacLachlan, D. Choudhury, T. J. Morris, E. Gendron, A. G. Basden, G. Brown, J. R. Allington-Smith, and R. R. Thomson, “Photonic spatial reformatting of stellar light for diffraction-limited spectroscopy,” arXiv:1402.2547 (2014).

D. F. Buscher and S. B. Shaklan, “Low-order adaptive optics and single-mode fibers in stellar interferometry,” in Adaptive Optics in Astronomy, Vol. 2201 of Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series, M. A. Ealey and F. Merkle, eds. (SPIE, 1994), pp. 980–988.
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G. Perrin, M. Ollivier, and V. Coudé du Foresto, “Spatial filtering with single-mode fibers for 10-um interferometry,” in Interferometry in Optical Astronomy, Vol. 4006 of Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series, P. Léna and A. Quirrenbach, eds. (SPIE, 2000), pp. 1007–1013.
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V. Coudé du Foresto and S. T. Ridgway, “Fluor - a stellar interferometer using single-mode fibers,” in European Southern Observatory Conference and Workshop Proceedings, Vol. 39 of European Southern Observatory Conference and Workshop Proceedings, J. M. Beckers and F. Merkle, eds. (1992), pp. 731–740.

J. M. Woillez, G. S. Perrin, J. Guerin, O. Lai, F. Reynaud, P. L. Wizinowich, C. R. Neyman, D. Le Mignant, K. C. Roth, and J. White, “’OHANA phase I: adaptive optics and single mode fiber coupling,” in New Frontiers in Stellar Interferometry, Vol. 5491 of Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series, W. A. Traub, ed. (SPIE, 2004), pp. 1425–1434.
[CrossRef]

A. Ródenas, G. Martin, B. Arezki, N. Psaila, G. Jose, A. Jha, L. Labadie, P. Kern, A. Kar, and R. Thomson, “Three-dimensional mid-infrared photonic circuits in chalcogenide glass,” Opt. Lett.37, 392–394 (2012).

N. Cvetojevic, S. Gross, S. Madden, D. Hudson, N. Jovanovic, B. Luther-Davies, B. Eggleton, M. Withford, J. Lawrence, and P. Tuthill, “Exploring new material platforms for photonic on-chip nulling interferometry in the mid-ir”, Vol. 9146 of Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) Conference Series (2014), in press.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the optical testbed used to produce interferometric data. See text for a full description. Inset: the fringe pattern produced on the detector. Three fringe frequencies are present, corresponding to the three baselines, which are extracted via Fourier transform.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The output end-face of the original photonic chip, imaged with a 4X microscope objective at two exposures: top panel is 100 μs (chosen such that the waveguides do not saturate), bottom panel: 6400 μs. The dashed line indicates the edges of the chip. All 8 waveguides are illuminated, while in the long exposure image the unguided background light is visible, adorned with fringes due to interference between various radiation fields. As the piston applied to any given waveguide is varied, the phase of the fringes adjacent to that waveguide’s output is observed to shift proportionally. The decrease in background light toward the left-hand side of the image is due to the edge of the cone of unguided stray light projected from the input face.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

A set of closure phase measurements, recovered while adding successive increments to the piston in one waveguide. Here, three waveguides for the original (straight-through) pupil remapper chip are illuminated. Top: the recovered closure phase as a function of applied piston. Ideally, the closure phase would remain constant, however a periodic variation of several degrees (of period 1λ) is seen. Bottom: The phase as a function of spatial frequency, where the applied piston offset is encoded in the colour bar. The power spectrum is overplotted in black (arbitrary units), showing three large peaks corresponding to the illuminated baselines. The phase is sampled at the spatial frequency corresponding to each of the peaks of the three waveguides; the vector sum of these three phases forms the closure phase. Small amounts of power are also seen between the expected peaks in the power spectrum (blue arrows) suggesting other waveguides are partially illuminated.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The mode field at the output of a waveguide in the original photonic chip design, at λ = 1550 nm, imaged with a 20X microscope objective. Panel (b) has a 775 nm (λ/2) piston added to it (using the MEMS mirror) with respect to panel (a). The mode field is seen to deform, due to interference with coherent unguided background light. The background light itself is not visible at this camera exposure level.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The power (a) and spatial frequencies (b) of the three power spectrum peaks for a case where three waveguides are illuminated, and piston offset is varied. The three colors correspond to the three baselines. The spatial frequency has been normalized with respect to the expected spatial frequency for that baseline. As piston is varied, both the power and the spatial frequency of the baseline is seen to vary periodically.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Diagrams showing the three pupil-remapper topologies tested. The ‘side-step’ and ‘90-degree’ versions are designed to mitigate the interference effects of unguided light, by moving the waveguide outputs outside the cone of unguided stray light (shown in red). Additionally, topologies (a) and (b) have been manufactured and tested in two versions: the original design (denoted ‘old-generation’) and the improved design (denoted ‘new-generation’) which feature the advancements described in the text. The sketches given are illustrative only: actual waveguides are carefully designed (in three dimensions) to be of equal optical path-length.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Images of the output face of three chip designs, at various camera exposure times. The exposure time for the first (left-most) image was set such that the waveguides themselves just saturate. It is seen that the new-generation chips exhibit far less unguided light at the output face. Note that at the exposure levels needed to see any stray light for the new chips (right panels), the background light levels for the original chip saturate the detector.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Waveguide throughputs for both the old- and new-generation remapper chips. Panel (a) gives throughputs for the original straight-through and side-step designs, and for the new side-step. Note that the throughputs for the new side-step chip exceed those of the old straight-through chip. Panel (b) gives the throughputs for the new 90 degree chip, along with minimum write depth. Waveguides with small write depths (i.e. guides are written close to the glass surface) suffer from poor throughputs. In all devices the minimum bend radius was 25 mm.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

A set of closure phase measurements taken while successively incrementing piston in one waveguide for the new-generation side-step design pupil remapper chip. Here, three waveguides are illuminated forming a single closing triangle. Top: the closure phase is far more consistent as piston is applied (as compared with the old-generation chips shown in Figure 3), with σCP = 0.22°. Bottom: the phase as a function of spatial frequency, for each piston offset (colors). The power spectrum is overplotted in black (arbitrary units). In contrast to the old-generation chip, only the three expected peaks in the power spectrum are seen.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

A histogram showing the distribution of σCP when the pupil-remapper and microlens-array are subjected to repeated realignments. The frequencies have been normalized such that the integral of each histogram is unity.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Ψ 1 2 = ϕ 1 2 + ε 2 Ψ 2 3 = ϕ 2 3 + ε 3 ε 2 Ψ 3-1 = ϕ 3-1 ε 3
CP = Ψ 1 2 + Ψ 2 3 + Ψ 3-1 = ( ϕ 1 2 + ε 2 ) + ( ϕ 2 3 + ε 3 ε 2 ) + ( ϕ 3-1 ε 3 ) = ϕ 1 2 + ϕ 2 3 + ϕ 3-1
Bispectrum = V 1 2 ˜ * V 2 3 ˜ * V 3-1 ˜
Contrast ratio detection ( 1 σ ) = 2.5 × 10 3 × σ CP
σ CP O n s k y = 3 ε A O 1.8 σ CP Expt

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