Abstract

In this paper, we consider a free-space optical (FSO) communication with multiple receive apertures over ℳ -distributed turbulence channels with pointing errors. In particular, we consider two different combining schemes at the receiver: optimal combining (OC) and selection combining (SC). With these setups, the statistic characters of the instantaneous electrical signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) are derived. Then, using the cumulative density function (CDF)-based method, we analyze the asymptotic bit-error rate (BER) performance. The derived results help quantifying the diversity order of our considered systems.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. G. Yang, M. A. Khalighi, S. Bourennane, and Z. Ghassemlooy, “Fading correlation and analytical performance evaluation of the space-diversity free-space optical communications system,” J. Opt. 16, 035403 (2014).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Perez, S. Zvanovec, Z. Ghassemlooy, and W. Popoola, “Experimental characterization and mitigation of turbulence induced signal fades within an ad hoc FSO network,” Opt. Express 22(3), 3208–3218 (2014).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. S. Zvanovec, J. Perez, Z. Ghassemlooy, S. Rajbhandari, and J. Libich, “Route diversity analyses for free-space optical wireless links within turbulent scenarios,” Opt. Express 21(6), 7641–7650 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. S. M. Haas and J. H. Shapiro, “Capacity of wireless optical communications,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21(8), 1346–1357 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  5. E. J. Shin and V. W. S. Chan, “Optical communication over the turbulent atmospheric channel using spatial diversity,” IEEE Globecom, 2055–2060 (2002).
  6. S. M. Navidpour, M. Uysal, and M. Kavehrad, “BER performance of free-space optical transmission with spatial diversity,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 6(8), 2813–2819 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  7. T. A. Tsiftsis, H. G. Sandalidis, G. K. Karagiannidis, and M. Uysal, “Optical wireless links with spatial diversity over strong atmospheric turbulence channels,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 8(2), 951–957 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Safari and M. Uysal, “Do we really need OSTBCS for free-space optical communication with direct detection? ” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 7(11), 4445–4448 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  9. N. D. Chatzidiamantis, M. Uysal, T. A. Tsiftsis, and G. K. Karagiannidis, “Iterative near maximum-likelihood sequence detection for MIMO optical wireless systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(7), 1064–1070 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. M. Aghajanzadeh and M. Uysal, “Diversity-multiplexing trade-off in coherent free-space optical systems with multiple receivers,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 2(12), 1087–1094 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. Moradi, H. H. Refai, and P. G. LoPresti, “Circular MIMO FSO nodes with transmit selection and receive generalized selection diversity,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol. 61(3), 1174–1181 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. Liu, J. Cheng, and J. F. Holzman, “Error rate performance comparison of coherent and subcarrier intensity modulated optical wireless communications,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 5(6), 554–564 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. J.- Navas, J. M. G.- Balsells, J. F. Paris, and A. P.- Notario, “A unifying statistical model for atmospheric optical scintillation,” in Numerical Simulations of Physical and Engneering Processed, J. Awrejcewicz, ed. (Intech, 2011), ch.8.
  14. A. A. Farid and S. Hranilovic, “Outage capacity optimization for free-space optical links with pointing errors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(7), 1702–1710 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  15. H. G. Sandalidis, T. A. Tsiftsis, G. K. Karagiannidis, and M. Uysal, “BER performance of FSO links over strong atmospheric turbulence channels with pointing errors,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 12(1), 44–46 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  16. H. Samimi and M. Uysal, “End-to-end performance of mixed RF/FSO transmission systems,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 5(11), 1139–1144 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. J.- Navas, J. M. G.- Balsells, J. F. Paris, M. C.- Vázquez, and A. P.- Notario, “Impact of pointing errors on the performance of generalized atmospheric optical channels,” Opt. Express 20(11), 12550–12562 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  18. I. E. Lee, Z. Ghassemlooy, W. P. Ng, and Mo.-A. Khalighi, “Joint optimization of a partially coherent Gaussian beam for free-space optical communication over turbulent channels with pointing errors,” Opt. Lett. 38(3), 350–352 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. H. Samimi, “Optical communication using subcarrier intensity modulation through generalized turbulence channels,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw,  4(5), 378–381 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  20. H. Samimi and M. Uysal, “Performance of coherent differential phase-shift keying free-space optical communication systems in M-distributed turbulence,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw,  5(7), 704–710 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  21. X. Song and J. Cheng, “Optical communication using subcarrier intensity modulation in strong atmospheric turbulence,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(22), 3484–3492 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  22. “The Wolfram Functions Site.”, [Online]. Available: http://functions.wolfram.com .
  23. Y. Zhao, R. Adve, and T. J. Lim, “Symbol error rate of selection amplify-and-forward relay systems,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 10(11), 757–759 (2006).
    [CrossRef]

2014 (2)

G. Yang, M. A. Khalighi, S. Bourennane, and Z. Ghassemlooy, “Fading correlation and analytical performance evaluation of the space-diversity free-space optical communications system,” J. Opt. 16, 035403 (2014).
[CrossRef]

J. Perez, S. Zvanovec, Z. Ghassemlooy, and W. Popoola, “Experimental characterization and mitigation of turbulence induced signal fades within an ad hoc FSO network,” Opt. Express 22(3), 3208–3218 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2013 (5)

2012 (4)

H. Samimi, “Optical communication using subcarrier intensity modulation through generalized turbulence channels,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw,  4(5), 378–381 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Moradi, H. H. Refai, and P. G. LoPresti, “Circular MIMO FSO nodes with transmit selection and receive generalized selection diversity,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol. 61(3), 1174–1181 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. J.- Navas, J. M. G.- Balsells, J. F. Paris, M. C.- Vázquez, and A. P.- Notario, “Impact of pointing errors on the performance of generalized atmospheric optical channels,” Opt. Express 20(11), 12550–12562 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Song and J. Cheng, “Optical communication using subcarrier intensity modulation in strong atmospheric turbulence,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(22), 3484–3492 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

2009 (1)

T. A. Tsiftsis, H. G. Sandalidis, G. K. Karagiannidis, and M. Uysal, “Optical wireless links with spatial diversity over strong atmospheric turbulence channels,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 8(2), 951–957 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

M. Safari and M. Uysal, “Do we really need OSTBCS for free-space optical communication with direct detection? ” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 7(11), 4445–4448 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Sandalidis, T. A. Tsiftsis, G. K. Karagiannidis, and M. Uysal, “BER performance of FSO links over strong atmospheric turbulence channels with pointing errors,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 12(1), 44–46 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

S. M. Navidpour, M. Uysal, and M. Kavehrad, “BER performance of free-space optical transmission with spatial diversity,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 6(8), 2813–2819 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Farid and S. Hranilovic, “Outage capacity optimization for free-space optical links with pointing errors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 25(7), 1702–1710 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

Y. Zhao, R. Adve, and T. J. Lim, “Symbol error rate of selection amplify-and-forward relay systems,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 10(11), 757–759 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

S. M. Haas and J. H. Shapiro, “Capacity of wireless optical communications,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21(8), 1346–1357 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Adve, R.

Y. Zhao, R. Adve, and T. J. Lim, “Symbol error rate of selection amplify-and-forward relay systems,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 10(11), 757–759 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Aghajanzadeh, S. M.

Balsells, J. M. G.-

A. J.- Navas, J. M. G.- Balsells, J. F. Paris, M. C.- Vázquez, and A. P.- Notario, “Impact of pointing errors on the performance of generalized atmospheric optical channels,” Opt. Express 20(11), 12550–12562 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. J.- Navas, J. M. G.- Balsells, J. F. Paris, and A. P.- Notario, “A unifying statistical model for atmospheric optical scintillation,” in Numerical Simulations of Physical and Engneering Processed, J. Awrejcewicz, ed. (Intech, 2011), ch.8.

Bourennane, S.

G. Yang, M. A. Khalighi, S. Bourennane, and Z. Ghassemlooy, “Fading correlation and analytical performance evaluation of the space-diversity free-space optical communications system,” J. Opt. 16, 035403 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Chan, V. W. S.

E. J. Shin and V. W. S. Chan, “Optical communication over the turbulent atmospheric channel using spatial diversity,” IEEE Globecom, 2055–2060 (2002).

Chatzidiamantis, N. D.

Cheng, J.

Farid, A. A.

Ghassemlooy, Z.

Haas, S. M.

S. M. Haas and J. H. Shapiro, “Capacity of wireless optical communications,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21(8), 1346–1357 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Holzman, J. F.

Hranilovic, S.

Karagiannidis, G. K.

N. D. Chatzidiamantis, M. Uysal, T. A. Tsiftsis, and G. K. Karagiannidis, “Iterative near maximum-likelihood sequence detection for MIMO optical wireless systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(7), 1064–1070 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Tsiftsis, H. G. Sandalidis, G. K. Karagiannidis, and M. Uysal, “Optical wireless links with spatial diversity over strong atmospheric turbulence channels,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 8(2), 951–957 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Sandalidis, T. A. Tsiftsis, G. K. Karagiannidis, and M. Uysal, “BER performance of FSO links over strong atmospheric turbulence channels with pointing errors,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 12(1), 44–46 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kavehrad, M.

S. M. Navidpour, M. Uysal, and M. Kavehrad, “BER performance of free-space optical transmission with spatial diversity,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 6(8), 2813–2819 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Khalighi, M. A.

G. Yang, M. A. Khalighi, S. Bourennane, and Z. Ghassemlooy, “Fading correlation and analytical performance evaluation of the space-diversity free-space optical communications system,” J. Opt. 16, 035403 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Khalighi, Mo.-A.

Lee, I. E.

Libich, J.

Lim, T. J.

Y. Zhao, R. Adve, and T. J. Lim, “Symbol error rate of selection amplify-and-forward relay systems,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 10(11), 757–759 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liu, M.

LoPresti, P. G.

H. Moradi, H. H. Refai, and P. G. LoPresti, “Circular MIMO FSO nodes with transmit selection and receive generalized selection diversity,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol. 61(3), 1174–1181 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Moradi, H.

H. Moradi, H. H. Refai, and P. G. LoPresti, “Circular MIMO FSO nodes with transmit selection and receive generalized selection diversity,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol. 61(3), 1174–1181 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Navas, A. J.-

A. J.- Navas, J. M. G.- Balsells, J. F. Paris, M. C.- Vázquez, and A. P.- Notario, “Impact of pointing errors on the performance of generalized atmospheric optical channels,” Opt. Express 20(11), 12550–12562 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. J.- Navas, J. M. G.- Balsells, J. F. Paris, and A. P.- Notario, “A unifying statistical model for atmospheric optical scintillation,” in Numerical Simulations of Physical and Engneering Processed, J. Awrejcewicz, ed. (Intech, 2011), ch.8.

Navidpour, S. M.

S. M. Navidpour, M. Uysal, and M. Kavehrad, “BER performance of free-space optical transmission with spatial diversity,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 6(8), 2813–2819 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ng, W. P.

Notario, A. P.-

A. J.- Navas, J. M. G.- Balsells, J. F. Paris, M. C.- Vázquez, and A. P.- Notario, “Impact of pointing errors on the performance of generalized atmospheric optical channels,” Opt. Express 20(11), 12550–12562 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. J.- Navas, J. M. G.- Balsells, J. F. Paris, and A. P.- Notario, “A unifying statistical model for atmospheric optical scintillation,” in Numerical Simulations of Physical and Engneering Processed, J. Awrejcewicz, ed. (Intech, 2011), ch.8.

Paris, J. F.

A. J.- Navas, J. M. G.- Balsells, J. F. Paris, M. C.- Vázquez, and A. P.- Notario, “Impact of pointing errors on the performance of generalized atmospheric optical channels,” Opt. Express 20(11), 12550–12562 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. J.- Navas, J. M. G.- Balsells, J. F. Paris, and A. P.- Notario, “A unifying statistical model for atmospheric optical scintillation,” in Numerical Simulations of Physical and Engneering Processed, J. Awrejcewicz, ed. (Intech, 2011), ch.8.

Perez, J.

Popoola, W.

Rajbhandari, S.

Refai, H. H.

H. Moradi, H. H. Refai, and P. G. LoPresti, “Circular MIMO FSO nodes with transmit selection and receive generalized selection diversity,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol. 61(3), 1174–1181 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Safari, M.

M. Safari and M. Uysal, “Do we really need OSTBCS for free-space optical communication with direct detection? ” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 7(11), 4445–4448 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Samimi, H.

H. Samimi and M. Uysal, “Performance of coherent differential phase-shift keying free-space optical communication systems in M-distributed turbulence,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw,  5(7), 704–710 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Samimi and M. Uysal, “End-to-end performance of mixed RF/FSO transmission systems,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 5(11), 1139–1144 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Samimi, “Optical communication using subcarrier intensity modulation through generalized turbulence channels,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw,  4(5), 378–381 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sandalidis, H. G.

T. A. Tsiftsis, H. G. Sandalidis, G. K. Karagiannidis, and M. Uysal, “Optical wireless links with spatial diversity over strong atmospheric turbulence channels,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 8(2), 951–957 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Sandalidis, T. A. Tsiftsis, G. K. Karagiannidis, and M. Uysal, “BER performance of FSO links over strong atmospheric turbulence channels with pointing errors,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 12(1), 44–46 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shapiro, J. H.

S. M. Haas and J. H. Shapiro, “Capacity of wireless optical communications,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21(8), 1346–1357 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shin, E. J.

E. J. Shin and V. W. S. Chan, “Optical communication over the turbulent atmospheric channel using spatial diversity,” IEEE Globecom, 2055–2060 (2002).

Song, X.

Tsiftsis, T. A.

N. D. Chatzidiamantis, M. Uysal, T. A. Tsiftsis, and G. K. Karagiannidis, “Iterative near maximum-likelihood sequence detection for MIMO optical wireless systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(7), 1064–1070 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Tsiftsis, H. G. Sandalidis, G. K. Karagiannidis, and M. Uysal, “Optical wireless links with spatial diversity over strong atmospheric turbulence channels,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 8(2), 951–957 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Sandalidis, T. A. Tsiftsis, G. K. Karagiannidis, and M. Uysal, “BER performance of FSO links over strong atmospheric turbulence channels with pointing errors,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 12(1), 44–46 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Uysal, M.

H. Samimi and M. Uysal, “End-to-end performance of mixed RF/FSO transmission systems,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 5(11), 1139–1144 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Samimi and M. Uysal, “Performance of coherent differential phase-shift keying free-space optical communication systems in M-distributed turbulence,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw,  5(7), 704–710 (2013).
[CrossRef]

N. D. Chatzidiamantis, M. Uysal, T. A. Tsiftsis, and G. K. Karagiannidis, “Iterative near maximum-likelihood sequence detection for MIMO optical wireless systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(7), 1064–1070 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Aghajanzadeh and M. Uysal, “Diversity-multiplexing trade-off in coherent free-space optical systems with multiple receivers,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 2(12), 1087–1094 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Tsiftsis, H. G. Sandalidis, G. K. Karagiannidis, and M. Uysal, “Optical wireless links with spatial diversity over strong atmospheric turbulence channels,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 8(2), 951–957 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Sandalidis, T. A. Tsiftsis, G. K. Karagiannidis, and M. Uysal, “BER performance of FSO links over strong atmospheric turbulence channels with pointing errors,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 12(1), 44–46 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Safari and M. Uysal, “Do we really need OSTBCS for free-space optical communication with direct detection? ” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 7(11), 4445–4448 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Navidpour, M. Uysal, and M. Kavehrad, “BER performance of free-space optical transmission with spatial diversity,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 6(8), 2813–2819 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vázquez, M. C.-

Yang, G.

G. Yang, M. A. Khalighi, S. Bourennane, and Z. Ghassemlooy, “Fading correlation and analytical performance evaluation of the space-diversity free-space optical communications system,” J. Opt. 16, 035403 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y.

Y. Zhao, R. Adve, and T. J. Lim, “Symbol error rate of selection amplify-and-forward relay systems,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 10(11), 757–759 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zvanovec, S.

IEEE Commun. Lett. (2)

H. G. Sandalidis, T. A. Tsiftsis, G. K. Karagiannidis, and M. Uysal, “BER performance of FSO links over strong atmospheric turbulence channels with pointing errors,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 12(1), 44–46 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhao, R. Adve, and T. J. Lim, “Symbol error rate of selection amplify-and-forward relay systems,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 10(11), 757–759 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. (1)

S. M. Haas and J. H. Shapiro, “Capacity of wireless optical communications,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 21(8), 1346–1357 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol. (1)

H. Moradi, H. H. Refai, and P. G. LoPresti, “Circular MIMO FSO nodes with transmit selection and receive generalized selection diversity,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol. 61(3), 1174–1181 (2012).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. (3)

S. M. Navidpour, M. Uysal, and M. Kavehrad, “BER performance of free-space optical transmission with spatial diversity,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 6(8), 2813–2819 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Tsiftsis, H. G. Sandalidis, G. K. Karagiannidis, and M. Uysal, “Optical wireless links with spatial diversity over strong atmospheric turbulence channels,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 8(2), 951–957 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Safari and M. Uysal, “Do we really need OSTBCS for free-space optical communication with direct detection? ” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun. 7(11), 4445–4448 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

J. Opt. (1)

G. Yang, M. A. Khalighi, S. Bourennane, and Z. Ghassemlooy, “Fading correlation and analytical performance evaluation of the space-diversity free-space optical communications system,” J. Opt. 16, 035403 (2014).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Commun. Netw (2)

H. Samimi, “Optical communication using subcarrier intensity modulation through generalized turbulence channels,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw,  4(5), 378–381 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Samimi and M. Uysal, “Performance of coherent differential phase-shift keying free-space optical communication systems in M-distributed turbulence,” J. Opt. Commun. Netw,  5(7), 704–710 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Commun. Netw. (3)

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (3)

“The Wolfram Functions Site.”, [Online]. Available: http://functions.wolfram.com .

A. J.- Navas, J. M. G.- Balsells, J. F. Paris, and A. P.- Notario, “A unifying statistical model for atmospheric optical scintillation,” in Numerical Simulations of Physical and Engneering Processed, J. Awrejcewicz, ed. (Intech, 2011), ch.8.

E. J. Shin and V. W. S. Chan, “Optical communication over the turbulent atmospheric channel using spatial diversity,” IEEE Globecom, 2055–2060 (2002).

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