Abstract

We report an optical film with electrically tunable birefringence in which the liquid crystals (LCs), mixed with the host polymer, form long-range ordering. The film was prepared through polymerization without phase separation between the LCs and polymers. Driving voltage below 30 V for full switching of birefringence is achieved in a 6 μm-thick film. Electro-optical investigations for the film suggest that the long-range ordering of the LCs mixed in the film caused by polymerization lead to rotations of the LCs as well as optical anisotropy in the film. These films with electrically tunable birefringence could have applications as flexible light modulators and phase retardation films for 2D–3D image switching.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  3. D.-H. Chung, T. Fukuda, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, H. Matsuda, H. Takezoe, and M. A. Osipov, “Competitive effects of grooves and photoalignment on nematic liquid-crystal alignment using azobenzene polymer,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(4), 1841–1844 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S.-C. Jeng, C.-W. Kuo, H.-L. Wang, and C.-C. Liao, “Nanoparticles-induced vertical alignment in liquid crystal cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 061112 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  5. F. Nemoto, I. Nishiyama, Y. Takanishi, and J. Yamamoto, “Anchoring and alignment in a liquid crystal cell: self-alignment of homogeneous nematic,” Soft Matter 8(45), 11526–11530 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  6. O. Sato, T. Kasai, M. Sato, K. Sakajiri, Y. Tsujii, S. Kang, J. Watanabe, and M. Tokita, “High-density poly (hexyl methacrylate) brushes offering a surface for near-zero azimuthal anchoring of liquid crystals at room temperature,” J. Mater. Chem. C 1(48), 7992–7995 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. Ren and S.-T. Wu, “Anisotropic liquid crystal gels for switchable polarizers and displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(8), 1432–1434 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
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  9. S. J. Lee, C. K. Morizio, and M. Johnson, “Novel frame buffer pixel circuits for liquid-crystal-on-silicon microdisplays,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 39(1), 132–139 (2004).
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  10. F. Yaras, H. Kang, and L. Onural, “State of the art in holographic displays: a survey,” J. Display Techol. 6(10), 443–454 (2010).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  13. M. W. J. van der Wielen, M. A. Cohen Stuart, G. J. Fleer, D. K. G. de Boer, A. J. G. Leenaers, R. P. Nieuwhof, A. T. M. Marcelis, and E. J. R. Sudhölter, “Order in thin films of side-chain liquid-crystalline polymers,” Langmuir 13(17), 4762–4766 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. Schadt, H. Seiberle, A. Schuster, and S. M. Kelly, “Photo-induced alignment and patterning of liquid crystalline polymer on single substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34, L764 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. M. Geary, J. W. Goodby, A. R. Kmetz, and J. S. Patel, “The mechanism of polymer alignment of liquid-crystal materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 62(10), 4100–4108 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. F. Toney, T. P. Russell, J. A. Logan, H. Kikuchi, J. M. Sands, and S. K. Kumar, “Near surface alignment of polymers in rubbed films,” Nature 374(6524), 709–711 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  17. Y. R. Shen, “Studies of liquid crystal monolayers and films by optical second harmonic generation,” Liq. Cryst. 5(2), 635–643 (1989).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. S. H. Hwang, K. J. Yang, S. H. Woo, B. D. Choi, E. H. Kim, and B. K. Kim, “Preparation of newly designed reverse mode polymer dispersed liquid crystals and its electro-optic characteristics,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 470(1), 163–171 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  20. H. K. Shin, J. H. Lee, J. W. Kim, T. H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Fast polarization switching panel with high brightness and contrast ratio for three-dimensional display,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(6), 063505 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. J. H. Oh, W. H. Park, B. S. Oh, D. H. Kang, H. J. Kim, S. M. Hong, H. J. Hur, and J. Jang, “Stereoscopic TFT-LCD with wire grid polarizer and retarder,” Proc. SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 39, 444–447 (2008).
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    [CrossRef]
  25. J.-M. Jin, K. Parbhakar, and L. H. Dao, “Polymerization induced phase separation (PIPS) in a polymer dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) system: A Monte-Carlo simulation approach,” Liq. Cryst. 19(6), 791–795 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  26. C. H. Gooch and H. A. Tarry, “The optical properties of twisted nematic liquid crystal structures with twist angles ≤90 degrees,” J. Phys. D 8(13), 1575–1584 (1975).
    [CrossRef]

2013

O. Sato, T. Kasai, M. Sato, K. Sakajiri, Y. Tsujii, S. Kang, J. Watanabe, and M. Tokita, “High-density poly (hexyl methacrylate) brushes offering a surface for near-zero azimuthal anchoring of liquid crystals at room temperature,” J. Mater. Chem. C 1(48), 7992–7995 (2013).
[CrossRef]

V. Belyaev, A. Solomatin, and D. Chausov, “Phase retardation vs. pretilt angle in liquid crystal cells with homogeneous and inhomogeneous LC director configuration,” Opt. Express 21(4), 4244–4249 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012

F. Nemoto, I. Nishiyama, Y. Takanishi, and J. Yamamoto, “Anchoring and alignment in a liquid crystal cell: self-alignment of homogeneous nematic,” Soft Matter 8(45), 11526–11530 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

J. Vogelsang, J. Brazard, T. Adachi, J. C. Bolinger, and P. F. Barbara, “Watching the annealing process one polymer chain at a time,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 50(10), 2257–2261 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y.-C. Hsiao, C.-Y. Tang, and W. Lee, “Fast-switching bistable cholesteric intensity modulator,” Opt. Express 19(10), 9744–9749 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. K. Shin, J. H. Lee, J. W. Kim, T. H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Fast polarization switching panel with high brightness and contrast ratio for three-dimensional display,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(6), 063505 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

M. Vacha and M. Habuchi, “Conformation and physics of polymer chains: a single-molecule perspective,” NPG Asia Mater. 2(4), 134–142 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Yaras, H. Kang, and L. Onural, “State of the art in holographic displays: a survey,” J. Display Techol. 6(10), 443–454 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

S.-J. Sung, E. Ae Jung, K.-J. Yang, Y. Tae Park, J.-K. Kang, and B.-D. Choi, “Liquid crystal alignment properties of inorganic SiO2 layers prepared by reactive sputtering in nitrogen-argon mixtures,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 507(1), 137–149 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

J. H. Oh, W. H. Park, B. S. Oh, D. H. Kang, H. J. Kim, S. M. Hong, H. J. Hur, and J. Jang, “Stereoscopic TFT-LCD with wire grid polarizer and retarder,” Proc. SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 39, 444–447 (2008).

2007

S. H. Hwang, K. J. Yang, S. H. Woo, B. D. Choi, E. H. Kim, and B. K. Kim, “Preparation of newly designed reverse mode polymer dispersed liquid crystals and its electro-optic characteristics,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 470(1), 163–171 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S.-C. Jeng, C.-W. Kuo, H.-L. Wang, and C.-C. Liao, “Nanoparticles-induced vertical alignment in liquid crystal cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 061112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2004

S. J. Lee, C. K. Morizio, and M. Johnson, “Novel frame buffer pixel circuits for liquid-crystal-on-silicon microdisplays,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 39(1), 132–139 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

H. Ren and S.-T. Wu, “Anisotropic liquid crystal gels for switchable polarizers and displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(8), 1432–1434 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D.-H. Chung, T. Fukuda, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, H. Matsuda, H. Takezoe, and M. A. Osipov, “Competitive effects of grooves and photoalignment on nematic liquid-crystal alignment using azobenzene polymer,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(4), 1841–1844 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999

J. Stöhr and M. Samant, “Liquid crystal alignment by rubbed polymer surface: a microscopic bond orientation model,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 98–99, 189–207 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

M. W. J. van der Wielen, M. A. Cohen Stuart, G. J. Fleer, D. K. G. de Boer, A. J. G. Leenaers, R. P. Nieuwhof, A. T. M. Marcelis, and E. J. R. Sudhölter, “Order in thin films of side-chain liquid-crystalline polymers,” Langmuir 13(17), 4762–4766 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995

M. Schadt, H. Seiberle, A. Schuster, and S. M. Kelly, “Photo-induced alignment and patterning of liquid crystalline polymer on single substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34, L764 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Toney, T. P. Russell, J. A. Logan, H. Kikuchi, J. M. Sands, and S. K. Kumar, “Near surface alignment of polymers in rubbed films,” Nature 374(6524), 709–711 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J.-M. Jin, K. Parbhakar, and L. H. Dao, “Polymerization induced phase separation (PIPS) in a polymer dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) system: A Monte-Carlo simulation approach,” Liq. Cryst. 19(6), 791–795 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993

N. A. J. M. van Aerle, M. Barmentlo, and R. W. J. Hollering, “Effect of rubbing on the molecular orientation within polyimide orienting layers of liquid crystal displays,” J. Appl. Phys. 74(5), 3111–3120 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1989

Y. R. Shen, “Studies of liquid crystal monolayers and films by optical second harmonic generation,” Liq. Cryst. 5(2), 635–643 (1989).
[CrossRef]

W. Chen, M. B. Feller, and Y. R. Shen, “Investigation of anisotropic molecular orientational distributions of liquid-crystal monolayers by optical second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 63(24), 2665–2668 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987

J. M. Geary, J. W. Goodby, A. R. Kmetz, and J. S. Patel, “The mechanism of polymer alignment of liquid-crystal materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 62(10), 4100–4108 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1975

C. H. Gooch and H. A. Tarry, “The optical properties of twisted nematic liquid crystal structures with twist angles ≤90 degrees,” J. Phys. D 8(13), 1575–1584 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1948

Adachi, T.

J. Vogelsang, J. Brazard, T. Adachi, J. C. Bolinger, and P. F. Barbara, “Watching the annealing process one polymer chain at a time,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 50(10), 2257–2261 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ae Jung, E.

S.-J. Sung, E. Ae Jung, K.-J. Yang, Y. Tae Park, J.-K. Kang, and B.-D. Choi, “Liquid crystal alignment properties of inorganic SiO2 layers prepared by reactive sputtering in nitrogen-argon mixtures,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 507(1), 137–149 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Barbara, P. F.

J. Vogelsang, J. Brazard, T. Adachi, J. C. Bolinger, and P. F. Barbara, “Watching the annealing process one polymer chain at a time,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 50(10), 2257–2261 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barmentlo, M.

N. A. J. M. van Aerle, M. Barmentlo, and R. W. J. Hollering, “Effect of rubbing on the molecular orientation within polyimide orienting layers of liquid crystal displays,” J. Appl. Phys. 74(5), 3111–3120 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Belyaev, V.

Bolinger, J. C.

J. Vogelsang, J. Brazard, T. Adachi, J. C. Bolinger, and P. F. Barbara, “Watching the annealing process one polymer chain at a time,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 50(10), 2257–2261 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brazard, J.

J. Vogelsang, J. Brazard, T. Adachi, J. C. Bolinger, and P. F. Barbara, “Watching the annealing process one polymer chain at a time,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 50(10), 2257–2261 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chausov, D.

Chen, W.

W. Chen, M. B. Feller, and Y. R. Shen, “Investigation of anisotropic molecular orientational distributions of liquid-crystal monolayers by optical second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 63(24), 2665–2668 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, B. D.

S. H. Hwang, K. J. Yang, S. H. Woo, B. D. Choi, E. H. Kim, and B. K. Kim, “Preparation of newly designed reverse mode polymer dispersed liquid crystals and its electro-optic characteristics,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 470(1), 163–171 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Choi, B.-D.

S.-J. Sung, E. Ae Jung, K.-J. Yang, Y. Tae Park, J.-K. Kang, and B.-D. Choi, “Liquid crystal alignment properties of inorganic SiO2 layers prepared by reactive sputtering in nitrogen-argon mixtures,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 507(1), 137–149 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chung, D.-H.

D.-H. Chung, T. Fukuda, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, H. Matsuda, H. Takezoe, and M. A. Osipov, “Competitive effects of grooves and photoalignment on nematic liquid-crystal alignment using azobenzene polymer,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(4), 1841–1844 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cohen Stuart, M. A.

M. W. J. van der Wielen, M. A. Cohen Stuart, G. J. Fleer, D. K. G. de Boer, A. J. G. Leenaers, R. P. Nieuwhof, A. T. M. Marcelis, and E. J. R. Sudhölter, “Order in thin films of side-chain liquid-crystalline polymers,” Langmuir 13(17), 4762–4766 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dao, L. H.

J.-M. Jin, K. Parbhakar, and L. H. Dao, “Polymerization induced phase separation (PIPS) in a polymer dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) system: A Monte-Carlo simulation approach,” Liq. Cryst. 19(6), 791–795 (1995).
[CrossRef]

de Boer, D. K. G.

M. W. J. van der Wielen, M. A. Cohen Stuart, G. J. Fleer, D. K. G. de Boer, A. J. G. Leenaers, R. P. Nieuwhof, A. T. M. Marcelis, and E. J. R. Sudhölter, “Order in thin films of side-chain liquid-crystalline polymers,” Langmuir 13(17), 4762–4766 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Feller, M. B.

W. Chen, M. B. Feller, and Y. R. Shen, “Investigation of anisotropic molecular orientational distributions of liquid-crystal monolayers by optical second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 63(24), 2665–2668 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fleer, G. J.

M. W. J. van der Wielen, M. A. Cohen Stuart, G. J. Fleer, D. K. G. de Boer, A. J. G. Leenaers, R. P. Nieuwhof, A. T. M. Marcelis, and E. J. R. Sudhölter, “Order in thin films of side-chain liquid-crystalline polymers,” Langmuir 13(17), 4762–4766 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fukuda, T.

D.-H. Chung, T. Fukuda, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, H. Matsuda, H. Takezoe, and M. A. Osipov, “Competitive effects of grooves and photoalignment on nematic liquid-crystal alignment using azobenzene polymer,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(4), 1841–1844 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Geary, J. M.

J. M. Geary, J. W. Goodby, A. R. Kmetz, and J. S. Patel, “The mechanism of polymer alignment of liquid-crystal materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 62(10), 4100–4108 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Gooch, C. H.

C. H. Gooch and H. A. Tarry, “The optical properties of twisted nematic liquid crystal structures with twist angles ≤90 degrees,” J. Phys. D 8(13), 1575–1584 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Goodby, J. W.

J. M. Geary, J. W. Goodby, A. R. Kmetz, and J. S. Patel, “The mechanism of polymer alignment of liquid-crystal materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 62(10), 4100–4108 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Habuchi, M.

M. Vacha and M. Habuchi, “Conformation and physics of polymer chains: a single-molecule perspective,” NPG Asia Mater. 2(4), 134–142 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hollering, R. W. J.

N. A. J. M. van Aerle, M. Barmentlo, and R. W. J. Hollering, “Effect of rubbing on the molecular orientation within polyimide orienting layers of liquid crystal displays,” J. Appl. Phys. 74(5), 3111–3120 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hong, S. M.

J. H. Oh, W. H. Park, B. S. Oh, D. H. Kang, H. J. Kim, S. M. Hong, H. J. Hur, and J. Jang, “Stereoscopic TFT-LCD with wire grid polarizer and retarder,” Proc. SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 39, 444–447 (2008).

Hsiao, Y.-C.

Hur, H. J.

J. H. Oh, W. H. Park, B. S. Oh, D. H. Kang, H. J. Kim, S. M. Hong, H. J. Hur, and J. Jang, “Stereoscopic TFT-LCD with wire grid polarizer and retarder,” Proc. SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 39, 444–447 (2008).

Hwang, S. H.

S. H. Hwang, K. J. Yang, S. H. Woo, B. D. Choi, E. H. Kim, and B. K. Kim, “Preparation of newly designed reverse mode polymer dispersed liquid crystals and its electro-optic characteristics,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 470(1), 163–171 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ishikawa, K.

D.-H. Chung, T. Fukuda, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, H. Matsuda, H. Takezoe, and M. A. Osipov, “Competitive effects of grooves and photoalignment on nematic liquid-crystal alignment using azobenzene polymer,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(4), 1841–1844 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jang, J.

J. H. Oh, W. H. Park, B. S. Oh, D. H. Kang, H. J. Kim, S. M. Hong, H. J. Hur, and J. Jang, “Stereoscopic TFT-LCD with wire grid polarizer and retarder,” Proc. SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 39, 444–447 (2008).

Jeng, S.-C.

S.-C. Jeng, C.-W. Kuo, H.-L. Wang, and C.-C. Liao, “Nanoparticles-induced vertical alignment in liquid crystal cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 061112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jerrard, H. G.

Jin, J.-M.

J.-M. Jin, K. Parbhakar, and L. H. Dao, “Polymerization induced phase separation (PIPS) in a polymer dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) system: A Monte-Carlo simulation approach,” Liq. Cryst. 19(6), 791–795 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, M.

S. J. Lee, C. K. Morizio, and M. Johnson, “Novel frame buffer pixel circuits for liquid-crystal-on-silicon microdisplays,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 39(1), 132–139 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kang, D. H.

J. H. Oh, W. H. Park, B. S. Oh, D. H. Kang, H. J. Kim, S. M. Hong, H. J. Hur, and J. Jang, “Stereoscopic TFT-LCD with wire grid polarizer and retarder,” Proc. SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 39, 444–447 (2008).

Kang, H.

F. Yaras, H. Kang, and L. Onural, “State of the art in holographic displays: a survey,” J. Display Techol. 6(10), 443–454 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kang, J.-K.

S.-J. Sung, E. Ae Jung, K.-J. Yang, Y. Tae Park, J.-K. Kang, and B.-D. Choi, “Liquid crystal alignment properties of inorganic SiO2 layers prepared by reactive sputtering in nitrogen-argon mixtures,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 507(1), 137–149 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kang, S.

O. Sato, T. Kasai, M. Sato, K. Sakajiri, Y. Tsujii, S. Kang, J. Watanabe, and M. Tokita, “High-density poly (hexyl methacrylate) brushes offering a surface for near-zero azimuthal anchoring of liquid crystals at room temperature,” J. Mater. Chem. C 1(48), 7992–7995 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kasai, T.

O. Sato, T. Kasai, M. Sato, K. Sakajiri, Y. Tsujii, S. Kang, J. Watanabe, and M. Tokita, “High-density poly (hexyl methacrylate) brushes offering a surface for near-zero azimuthal anchoring of liquid crystals at room temperature,” J. Mater. Chem. C 1(48), 7992–7995 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kelly, S. M.

M. Schadt, H. Seiberle, A. Schuster, and S. M. Kelly, “Photo-induced alignment and patterning of liquid crystalline polymer on single substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34, L764 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kikuchi, H.

M. F. Toney, T. P. Russell, J. A. Logan, H. Kikuchi, J. M. Sands, and S. K. Kumar, “Near surface alignment of polymers in rubbed films,” Nature 374(6524), 709–711 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kim, B. K.

S. H. Hwang, K. J. Yang, S. H. Woo, B. D. Choi, E. H. Kim, and B. K. Kim, “Preparation of newly designed reverse mode polymer dispersed liquid crystals and its electro-optic characteristics,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 470(1), 163–171 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, E. H.

S. H. Hwang, K. J. Yang, S. H. Woo, B. D. Choi, E. H. Kim, and B. K. Kim, “Preparation of newly designed reverse mode polymer dispersed liquid crystals and its electro-optic characteristics,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 470(1), 163–171 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. J.

J. H. Oh, W. H. Park, B. S. Oh, D. H. Kang, H. J. Kim, S. M. Hong, H. J. Hur, and J. Jang, “Stereoscopic TFT-LCD with wire grid polarizer and retarder,” Proc. SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 39, 444–447 (2008).

Kim, J. C.

H. K. Shin, J. H. Lee, J. W. Kim, T. H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Fast polarization switching panel with high brightness and contrast ratio for three-dimensional display,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(6), 063505 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, J. W.

H. K. Shin, J. H. Lee, J. W. Kim, T. H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Fast polarization switching panel with high brightness and contrast ratio for three-dimensional display,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(6), 063505 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kmetz, A. R.

J. M. Geary, J. W. Goodby, A. R. Kmetz, and J. S. Patel, “The mechanism of polymer alignment of liquid-crystal materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 62(10), 4100–4108 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, S. K.

M. F. Toney, T. P. Russell, J. A. Logan, H. Kikuchi, J. M. Sands, and S. K. Kumar, “Near surface alignment of polymers in rubbed films,” Nature 374(6524), 709–711 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, C.-W.

S.-C. Jeng, C.-W. Kuo, H.-L. Wang, and C.-C. Liao, “Nanoparticles-induced vertical alignment in liquid crystal cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 061112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. H.

H. K. Shin, J. H. Lee, J. W. Kim, T. H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Fast polarization switching panel with high brightness and contrast ratio for three-dimensional display,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(6), 063505 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, S. J.

S. J. Lee, C. K. Morizio, and M. Johnson, “Novel frame buffer pixel circuits for liquid-crystal-on-silicon microdisplays,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 39(1), 132–139 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, W.

Leenaers, A. J. G.

M. W. J. van der Wielen, M. A. Cohen Stuart, G. J. Fleer, D. K. G. de Boer, A. J. G. Leenaers, R. P. Nieuwhof, A. T. M. Marcelis, and E. J. R. Sudhölter, “Order in thin films of side-chain liquid-crystalline polymers,” Langmuir 13(17), 4762–4766 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Liao, C.-C.

S.-C. Jeng, C.-W. Kuo, H.-L. Wang, and C.-C. Liao, “Nanoparticles-induced vertical alignment in liquid crystal cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 061112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Logan, J. A.

M. F. Toney, T. P. Russell, J. A. Logan, H. Kikuchi, J. M. Sands, and S. K. Kumar, “Near surface alignment of polymers in rubbed films,” Nature 374(6524), 709–711 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Marcelis, A. T. M.

M. W. J. van der Wielen, M. A. Cohen Stuart, G. J. Fleer, D. K. G. de Boer, A. J. G. Leenaers, R. P. Nieuwhof, A. T. M. Marcelis, and E. J. R. Sudhölter, “Order in thin films of side-chain liquid-crystalline polymers,” Langmuir 13(17), 4762–4766 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Matsuda, H.

D.-H. Chung, T. Fukuda, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, H. Matsuda, H. Takezoe, and M. A. Osipov, “Competitive effects of grooves and photoalignment on nematic liquid-crystal alignment using azobenzene polymer,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(4), 1841–1844 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Morizio, C. K.

S. J. Lee, C. K. Morizio, and M. Johnson, “Novel frame buffer pixel circuits for liquid-crystal-on-silicon microdisplays,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 39(1), 132–139 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nemoto, F.

F. Nemoto, I. Nishiyama, Y. Takanishi, and J. Yamamoto, “Anchoring and alignment in a liquid crystal cell: self-alignment of homogeneous nematic,” Soft Matter 8(45), 11526–11530 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nieuwhof, R. P.

M. W. J. van der Wielen, M. A. Cohen Stuart, G. J. Fleer, D. K. G. de Boer, A. J. G. Leenaers, R. P. Nieuwhof, A. T. M. Marcelis, and E. J. R. Sudhölter, “Order in thin films of side-chain liquid-crystalline polymers,” Langmuir 13(17), 4762–4766 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nishiyama, I.

F. Nemoto, I. Nishiyama, Y. Takanishi, and J. Yamamoto, “Anchoring and alignment in a liquid crystal cell: self-alignment of homogeneous nematic,” Soft Matter 8(45), 11526–11530 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Oh, B. S.

J. H. Oh, W. H. Park, B. S. Oh, D. H. Kang, H. J. Kim, S. M. Hong, H. J. Hur, and J. Jang, “Stereoscopic TFT-LCD with wire grid polarizer and retarder,” Proc. SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 39, 444–447 (2008).

Oh, J. H.

J. H. Oh, W. H. Park, B. S. Oh, D. H. Kang, H. J. Kim, S. M. Hong, H. J. Hur, and J. Jang, “Stereoscopic TFT-LCD with wire grid polarizer and retarder,” Proc. SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 39, 444–447 (2008).

Onural, L.

F. Yaras, H. Kang, and L. Onural, “State of the art in holographic displays: a survey,” J. Display Techol. 6(10), 443–454 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Osipov, M. A.

D.-H. Chung, T. Fukuda, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, H. Matsuda, H. Takezoe, and M. A. Osipov, “Competitive effects of grooves and photoalignment on nematic liquid-crystal alignment using azobenzene polymer,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(4), 1841–1844 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Parbhakar, K.

J.-M. Jin, K. Parbhakar, and L. H. Dao, “Polymerization induced phase separation (PIPS) in a polymer dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) system: A Monte-Carlo simulation approach,” Liq. Cryst. 19(6), 791–795 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Park, W. H.

J. H. Oh, W. H. Park, B. S. Oh, D. H. Kang, H. J. Kim, S. M. Hong, H. J. Hur, and J. Jang, “Stereoscopic TFT-LCD with wire grid polarizer and retarder,” Proc. SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 39, 444–447 (2008).

Patel, J. S.

J. M. Geary, J. W. Goodby, A. R. Kmetz, and J. S. Patel, “The mechanism of polymer alignment of liquid-crystal materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 62(10), 4100–4108 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Ren, H.

H. Ren and S.-T. Wu, “Anisotropic liquid crystal gels for switchable polarizers and displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(8), 1432–1434 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Russell, T. P.

M. F. Toney, T. P. Russell, J. A. Logan, H. Kikuchi, J. M. Sands, and S. K. Kumar, “Near surface alignment of polymers in rubbed films,” Nature 374(6524), 709–711 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sakajiri, K.

O. Sato, T. Kasai, M. Sato, K. Sakajiri, Y. Tsujii, S. Kang, J. Watanabe, and M. Tokita, “High-density poly (hexyl methacrylate) brushes offering a surface for near-zero azimuthal anchoring of liquid crystals at room temperature,” J. Mater. Chem. C 1(48), 7992–7995 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Samant, M.

J. Stöhr and M. Samant, “Liquid crystal alignment by rubbed polymer surface: a microscopic bond orientation model,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 98–99, 189–207 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sands, J. M.

M. F. Toney, T. P. Russell, J. A. Logan, H. Kikuchi, J. M. Sands, and S. K. Kumar, “Near surface alignment of polymers in rubbed films,” Nature 374(6524), 709–711 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sato, M.

O. Sato, T. Kasai, M. Sato, K. Sakajiri, Y. Tsujii, S. Kang, J. Watanabe, and M. Tokita, “High-density poly (hexyl methacrylate) brushes offering a surface for near-zero azimuthal anchoring of liquid crystals at room temperature,” J. Mater. Chem. C 1(48), 7992–7995 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Sato, O.

O. Sato, T. Kasai, M. Sato, K. Sakajiri, Y. Tsujii, S. Kang, J. Watanabe, and M. Tokita, “High-density poly (hexyl methacrylate) brushes offering a surface for near-zero azimuthal anchoring of liquid crystals at room temperature,” J. Mater. Chem. C 1(48), 7992–7995 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Schadt, M.

M. Schadt, H. Seiberle, A. Schuster, and S. M. Kelly, “Photo-induced alignment and patterning of liquid crystalline polymer on single substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34, L764 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Schuster, A.

M. Schadt, H. Seiberle, A. Schuster, and S. M. Kelly, “Photo-induced alignment and patterning of liquid crystalline polymer on single substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34, L764 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Seiberle, H.

M. Schadt, H. Seiberle, A. Schuster, and S. M. Kelly, “Photo-induced alignment and patterning of liquid crystalline polymer on single substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34, L764 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Y. R.

W. Chen, M. B. Feller, and Y. R. Shen, “Investigation of anisotropic molecular orientational distributions of liquid-crystal monolayers by optical second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 63(24), 2665–2668 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. R. Shen, “Studies of liquid crystal monolayers and films by optical second harmonic generation,” Liq. Cryst. 5(2), 635–643 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Shin, H. K.

H. K. Shin, J. H. Lee, J. W. Kim, T. H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Fast polarization switching panel with high brightness and contrast ratio for three-dimensional display,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(6), 063505 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Solomatin, A.

Stöhr, J.

J. Stöhr and M. Samant, “Liquid crystal alignment by rubbed polymer surface: a microscopic bond orientation model,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 98–99, 189–207 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sudhölter, E. J. R.

M. W. J. van der Wielen, M. A. Cohen Stuart, G. J. Fleer, D. K. G. de Boer, A. J. G. Leenaers, R. P. Nieuwhof, A. T. M. Marcelis, and E. J. R. Sudhölter, “Order in thin films of side-chain liquid-crystalline polymers,” Langmuir 13(17), 4762–4766 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sung, S.-J.

S.-J. Sung, E. Ae Jung, K.-J. Yang, Y. Tae Park, J.-K. Kang, and B.-D. Choi, “Liquid crystal alignment properties of inorganic SiO2 layers prepared by reactive sputtering in nitrogen-argon mixtures,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 507(1), 137–149 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tae Park, Y.

S.-J. Sung, E. Ae Jung, K.-J. Yang, Y. Tae Park, J.-K. Kang, and B.-D. Choi, “Liquid crystal alignment properties of inorganic SiO2 layers prepared by reactive sputtering in nitrogen-argon mixtures,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 507(1), 137–149 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Takanishi, Y.

F. Nemoto, I. Nishiyama, Y. Takanishi, and J. Yamamoto, “Anchoring and alignment in a liquid crystal cell: self-alignment of homogeneous nematic,” Soft Matter 8(45), 11526–11530 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D.-H. Chung, T. Fukuda, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, H. Matsuda, H. Takezoe, and M. A. Osipov, “Competitive effects of grooves and photoalignment on nematic liquid-crystal alignment using azobenzene polymer,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(4), 1841–1844 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Takezoe, H.

D.-H. Chung, T. Fukuda, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, H. Matsuda, H. Takezoe, and M. A. Osipov, “Competitive effects of grooves and photoalignment on nematic liquid-crystal alignment using azobenzene polymer,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(4), 1841–1844 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tang, C.-Y.

Tarry, H. A.

C. H. Gooch and H. A. Tarry, “The optical properties of twisted nematic liquid crystal structures with twist angles ≤90 degrees,” J. Phys. D 8(13), 1575–1584 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Tokita, M.

O. Sato, T. Kasai, M. Sato, K. Sakajiri, Y. Tsujii, S. Kang, J. Watanabe, and M. Tokita, “High-density poly (hexyl methacrylate) brushes offering a surface for near-zero azimuthal anchoring of liquid crystals at room temperature,” J. Mater. Chem. C 1(48), 7992–7995 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Toney, M. F.

M. F. Toney, T. P. Russell, J. A. Logan, H. Kikuchi, J. M. Sands, and S. K. Kumar, “Near surface alignment of polymers in rubbed films,” Nature 374(6524), 709–711 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tsujii, Y.

O. Sato, T. Kasai, M. Sato, K. Sakajiri, Y. Tsujii, S. Kang, J. Watanabe, and M. Tokita, “High-density poly (hexyl methacrylate) brushes offering a surface for near-zero azimuthal anchoring of liquid crystals at room temperature,” J. Mater. Chem. C 1(48), 7992–7995 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Vacha, M.

M. Vacha and M. Habuchi, “Conformation and physics of polymer chains: a single-molecule perspective,” NPG Asia Mater. 2(4), 134–142 (2010).
[CrossRef]

van Aerle, N. A. J. M.

N. A. J. M. van Aerle, M. Barmentlo, and R. W. J. Hollering, “Effect of rubbing on the molecular orientation within polyimide orienting layers of liquid crystal displays,” J. Appl. Phys. 74(5), 3111–3120 (1993).
[CrossRef]

van der Wielen, M. W. J.

M. W. J. van der Wielen, M. A. Cohen Stuart, G. J. Fleer, D. K. G. de Boer, A. J. G. Leenaers, R. P. Nieuwhof, A. T. M. Marcelis, and E. J. R. Sudhölter, “Order in thin films of side-chain liquid-crystalline polymers,” Langmuir 13(17), 4762–4766 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Vogelsang, J.

J. Vogelsang, J. Brazard, T. Adachi, J. C. Bolinger, and P. F. Barbara, “Watching the annealing process one polymer chain at a time,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 50(10), 2257–2261 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, H.-L.

S.-C. Jeng, C.-W. Kuo, H.-L. Wang, and C.-C. Liao, “Nanoparticles-induced vertical alignment in liquid crystal cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 061112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, J.

O. Sato, T. Kasai, M. Sato, K. Sakajiri, Y. Tsujii, S. Kang, J. Watanabe, and M. Tokita, “High-density poly (hexyl methacrylate) brushes offering a surface for near-zero azimuthal anchoring of liquid crystals at room temperature,” J. Mater. Chem. C 1(48), 7992–7995 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Woo, S. H.

S. H. Hwang, K. J. Yang, S. H. Woo, B. D. Choi, E. H. Kim, and B. K. Kim, “Preparation of newly designed reverse mode polymer dispersed liquid crystals and its electro-optic characteristics,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 470(1), 163–171 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S.-T.

H. Ren and S.-T. Wu, “Anisotropic liquid crystal gels for switchable polarizers and displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(8), 1432–1434 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, J.

F. Nemoto, I. Nishiyama, Y. Takanishi, and J. Yamamoto, “Anchoring and alignment in a liquid crystal cell: self-alignment of homogeneous nematic,” Soft Matter 8(45), 11526–11530 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yang, K. J.

S. H. Hwang, K. J. Yang, S. H. Woo, B. D. Choi, E. H. Kim, and B. K. Kim, “Preparation of newly designed reverse mode polymer dispersed liquid crystals and its electro-optic characteristics,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 470(1), 163–171 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yang, K.-J.

S.-J. Sung, E. Ae Jung, K.-J. Yang, Y. Tae Park, J.-K. Kang, and B.-D. Choi, “Liquid crystal alignment properties of inorganic SiO2 layers prepared by reactive sputtering in nitrogen-argon mixtures,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 507(1), 137–149 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yaras, F.

F. Yaras, H. Kang, and L. Onural, “State of the art in holographic displays: a survey,” J. Display Techol. 6(10), 443–454 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, T. H.

H. K. Shin, J. H. Lee, J. W. Kim, T. H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Fast polarization switching panel with high brightness and contrast ratio for three-dimensional display,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(6), 063505 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.

J. Vogelsang, J. Brazard, T. Adachi, J. C. Bolinger, and P. F. Barbara, “Watching the annealing process one polymer chain at a time,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 50(10), 2257–2261 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

S.-C. Jeng, C.-W. Kuo, H.-L. Wang, and C.-C. Liao, “Nanoparticles-induced vertical alignment in liquid crystal cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(6), 061112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Ren and S.-T. Wu, “Anisotropic liquid crystal gels for switchable polarizers and displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(8), 1432–1434 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. K. Shin, J. H. Lee, J. W. Kim, T. H. Yoon, and J. C. Kim, “Fast polarization switching panel with high brightness and contrast ratio for three-dimensional display,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(6), 063505 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits

S. J. Lee, C. K. Morizio, and M. Johnson, “Novel frame buffer pixel circuits for liquid-crystal-on-silicon microdisplays,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits 39(1), 132–139 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

N. A. J. M. van Aerle, M. Barmentlo, and R. W. J. Hollering, “Effect of rubbing on the molecular orientation within polyimide orienting layers of liquid crystal displays,” J. Appl. Phys. 74(5), 3111–3120 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D.-H. Chung, T. Fukuda, Y. Takanishi, K. Ishikawa, H. Matsuda, H. Takezoe, and M. A. Osipov, “Competitive effects of grooves and photoalignment on nematic liquid-crystal alignment using azobenzene polymer,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(4), 1841–1844 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Geary, J. W. Goodby, A. R. Kmetz, and J. S. Patel, “The mechanism of polymer alignment of liquid-crystal materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 62(10), 4100–4108 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Display Techol.

F. Yaras, H. Kang, and L. Onural, “State of the art in holographic displays: a survey,” J. Display Techol. 6(10), 443–454 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom.

J. Stöhr and M. Samant, “Liquid crystal alignment by rubbed polymer surface: a microscopic bond orientation model,” J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 98–99, 189–207 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Chem. C

O. Sato, T. Kasai, M. Sato, K. Sakajiri, Y. Tsujii, S. Kang, J. Watanabe, and M. Tokita, “High-density poly (hexyl methacrylate) brushes offering a surface for near-zero azimuthal anchoring of liquid crystals at room temperature,” J. Mater. Chem. C 1(48), 7992–7995 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Phys. D

C. H. Gooch and H. A. Tarry, “The optical properties of twisted nematic liquid crystal structures with twist angles ≤90 degrees,” J. Phys. D 8(13), 1575–1584 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

M. Schadt, H. Seiberle, A. Schuster, and S. M. Kelly, “Photo-induced alignment and patterning of liquid crystalline polymer on single substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34, L764 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Langmuir

M. W. J. van der Wielen, M. A. Cohen Stuart, G. J. Fleer, D. K. G. de Boer, A. J. G. Leenaers, R. P. Nieuwhof, A. T. M. Marcelis, and E. J. R. Sudhölter, “Order in thin films of side-chain liquid-crystalline polymers,” Langmuir 13(17), 4762–4766 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Liq. Cryst.

Y. R. Shen, “Studies of liquid crystal monolayers and films by optical second harmonic generation,” Liq. Cryst. 5(2), 635–643 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J.-M. Jin, K. Parbhakar, and L. H. Dao, “Polymerization induced phase separation (PIPS) in a polymer dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) system: A Monte-Carlo simulation approach,” Liq. Cryst. 19(6), 791–795 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst.

S. H. Hwang, K. J. Yang, S. H. Woo, B. D. Choi, E. H. Kim, and B. K. Kim, “Preparation of newly designed reverse mode polymer dispersed liquid crystals and its electro-optic characteristics,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 470(1), 163–171 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S.-J. Sung, E. Ae Jung, K.-J. Yang, Y. Tae Park, J.-K. Kang, and B.-D. Choi, “Liquid crystal alignment properties of inorganic SiO2 layers prepared by reactive sputtering in nitrogen-argon mixtures,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 507(1), 137–149 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nature

M. F. Toney, T. P. Russell, J. A. Logan, H. Kikuchi, J. M. Sands, and S. K. Kumar, “Near surface alignment of polymers in rubbed films,” Nature 374(6524), 709–711 (1995).
[CrossRef]

NPG Asia Mater.

M. Vacha and M. Habuchi, “Conformation and physics of polymer chains: a single-molecule perspective,” NPG Asia Mater. 2(4), 134–142 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Phys. Rev. Lett.

W. Chen, M. B. Feller, and Y. R. Shen, “Investigation of anisotropic molecular orientational distributions of liquid-crystal monolayers by optical second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 63(24), 2665–2668 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap.

J. H. Oh, W. H. Park, B. S. Oh, D. H. Kang, H. J. Kim, S. M. Hong, H. J. Hur, and J. Jang, “Stereoscopic TFT-LCD with wire grid polarizer and retarder,” Proc. SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 39, 444–447 (2008).

Soft Matter

F. Nemoto, I. Nishiyama, Y. Takanishi, and J. Yamamoto, “Anchoring and alignment in a liquid crystal cell: self-alignment of homogeneous nematic,” Soft Matter 8(45), 11526–11530 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Phase retardation of the cells filled with LC-polymer composite. (a) Cell #1 with rubbed PI films, (b) Cell #2, no PI film, and (c) schematic illustration for the configuration of Cell #1 and Cell #2.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Phase retardation by birefringence of the cells (Cell #1) with anti-parallel rubbing directions. (a) the polar plot for transmittance along the rotation angle and (b) the corresponding intensity.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Phase retardation by birefringence of the cells (Cell #3) with crossed rubbing directions. (a) the polar plot for transmittance along the rotation angle and (b) the corresponding intensity.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Cross-sectional SEM images the cell with a 6 μm cell-gap filled with the 50%-LC composite. (a) low magnification and (b) high magnification.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Transmittance of the cells according to LC content. (a) transparent cell (b) milky cell.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Schematic illustration of polymerization and long-range ordering of LCs in the mixture of LCs and polymer.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Electrical switching of the transmitted light. (a) digital photo images for the cell with a 6 μm cell-gap filled with pure LC (reference sample) and (b) with the 50%-LC composite (Cell #1).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Electrical switching of the transmitted light. (a) V–T curves of the cells filled with the composite according to LC content and (b) intensity of the transmitted light according to the content of LC.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Electrical switching of the transmitted light. (a) V–T curves of the cells filled with the composite according to LC content for a 20 μm cell-gap and (b) the intensity of the transmitted light according to the content of LC, which depends on the thickness of LC as sine function.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

V–T curves of the composite in (a) glass cell and (b) polyarylate films.

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