Abstract

We describe the application of scattering-type near-field optical microscopy to characterize various semiconducting materials using the electron storage ring Metrology Light Source (MLS) as a broadband synchrotron radiation source. For verifying high-resolution imaging and nano-FTIR spectroscopy we performed scans across nanoscale Si-based surface structures. The obtained results demonstrate that a spatial resolution below 40 nm can be achieved, despite the use of a radiation source with an extremely broad emission spectrum. This approach allows not only for the collection of optical information but also enables the acquisition of near-field spectral data in the mid-infrared range. The high sensitivity for spectroscopic material discrimination using synchrotron radiation is presented by recording near-field spectra from thin films composed of different materials used in semiconductor technology, such as SiO2, SiC, SixNy, and TiO2.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2014 (2)

N. Mauser and A. Hartschuh, “Tip-enhanced near-field optical microscopy,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 43(4), 1248–1262 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Pollard, E. A. Muller, K. Hinrichs, and M. B. Raschke, “Vibrational nano-spectroscopic imaging correlating structure with intermolecular coupling and dynamics,” Nat. Commun. 5, 3587 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2013 (5)

I. Amenabar, S. Poly, W. Nuansing, E. H. Hubrich, A. A. Govyadinov, F. Huth, R. Krutokhvostov, L. Zhang, M. Knez, J. Heberle, A. M. Bittner, and R. Hillenbrand, “Structural analysis and mapping of individual protein complexes by infrared nanospectroscopy,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2890 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Paulite, C. Blum, T. Schmid, L. Opilik, K. Eyer, G. C. Walker, and R. Zenobi, “Full spectroscopic tip-enhanced Raman imaging of single nanotapes formed from Β-amyloid(1-40) peptide fragments,” ACS Nano 7(2), 911–920 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. L. Daus, K. Wagenführ, A. Thomzig, S. Boerner, P. Hermann, A. Hermelink, M. Beekes, and P. Lasch, “Infrared microspectroscopy detects protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA)-induced conformational alterations in hamster scrapie Progeny seeds,” J. Biol. Chem. 288(49), 35068–35080 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. M. Craig, M. S. Taubman, A. S. Lea, M. C. Phillips, E. E. Josberger, and M. B. Raschke, “Infrared near-field spectroscopy of trace explosives using an external cavity quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express 21(25), 30401–30414 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Hermann, A. Hoehl, P. Patoka, F. Huth, E. Rühl, and G. Ulm, “Near-field imaging and nano-Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy using broadband synchrotron radiation,” Opt. Express 21(3), 2913–2919 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (7)

R. Müller, A. Hoehl, A. Matschulat, A. Serdyukov, G. Ulm, J. Feikes, M. Ries, and G. Wüstefeld, “Status of the IR and THz beamlines at the metrology light source,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 359, 012004 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Schmidt, E. Bründermann, and M. Havenith, “Combined far- and near-field chemical nanoscope at ANKA-IR2: applications and detection schemes,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 359, 012015 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Ishikawa, M. Katsura, S. Nakashima, Y. Ikemoto, and H. Okamura, “Broadband near-field mid-infrared spectroscopy and application to phonon resonances in quartz,” Opt. Express 20(10), 11064–11072 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Zhang, G. O. Andreev, Z. Fei, A. S. McLeod, G. Dominguez, M. Thiemens, A. H. Castro-Neto, D. N. Basov, and M. M. Fogler, “Near-field spectroscopy of silicon dioxide thin films,” Phys. Rev. B 85(7), 075419 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Hoffmann, B. Hauer, and T. Taubner, “Antenna-enhanced infrared near-field nanospectroscopy of a polymer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(19), 193105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

F. Huth, A. Govyadinov, S. Amarie, W. Nuansing, F. Keilmann, and R. Hillenbrand, “Nano-FTIR absorption spectroscopy of molecular fingerprints at 20 nm spatial resolution,” Nano Lett. 12(8), 3973–3978 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-González, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenović, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. Z. Elorza, N. Camara, F. J. García de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. L. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487(7405), 77–81 (2012).
[PubMed]

2011 (12)

M. Ishikawa, M. Katsura, S. Nakashima, K. Aizawa, T. Inoue, H. Okamura, and Y. Ikemoto, “Modulated near-field spectral extraction of broadband mid-infrared signals with a ceramic light source,” Opt. Express 19(13), 12469–12479 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Huth, M. Schnell, J. Wittborn, N. Ocelic, and R. Hillenbrand, “Infrared-spectroscopic nanoimaging with a thermal source,” Nat. Mater. 10(5), 352–356 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Paulite, Z. Fakhraai, I. T. S. Li, N. Gunari, A. E. Tanur, and G. C. Walker, “Imaging secondary structure of individual amyloid fibrils of a β2-microglobulin fragment using near-field infrared spectroscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133(19), 7376–7383 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Böhmler, Z. Wang, A. Myalitsin, A. Mews, and A. Hartschuh, “Optical imaging of CdSe nanowires with nanoscale resolution,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 50(48), 11536–11538 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Moon, E. Jung, M. Lim, Y. Do, and H. Han, “Terahertz near-field microscope: Analysis and measurement of scattering signals,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci. Technol. 1, 164–168 (2011).

P. Hermann, M. Hecker, D. Chumakov, M. Weisheit, J. Rinderknecht, A. Shelaev, P. Dorozhkin, and L. M. Eng, “Imaging and strain analysis of nano-scale SiGe structures by tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Ultramicroscopy 111(11), 1630–1635 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Hermann, H. Fabian, D. Naumann, and A. Hermelink, “Comparative study of far-field and near-field Raman spectra from silicon-based samples and biological nanostructures,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(50), 24512–24520 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Amarie and F. Keilmann, “Broadband-infrared assessment of phonon resonance in scattering-type near-field microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 83(4), 045404 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Hermann, M. Hecker, F. Renn, M. Rölke, K. Kolanek, J. Rinderknecht, and L. M. Eng, “Effects of patterning induced stress relaxation in strained SOI/SiGe layers and substrate,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(12), 124513 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Z. Fei, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, L. M. Zhang, A. S McLeod, C. Wang, M. K. Stewart, Z. Zhao, G. Dominguez, M. Thiemens, M. M. Fogler, M. J. Tauber, A. H. Castro-Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Infrared nanoscopy of Dirac plasmons at the graphene-SiO₂ interface,” Nano Lett. 11(11), 4701–4705 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ikemoto, T. Moriwaki, T. Kinoshita, M. Ishikawa, S. Nakashima, and H. Okamura, “Near-field spectroscopy with infrared synchrotron radiation source,” e-J. Surf. Sci. Nanotech. 9, 63–66 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Feikes, M. von Hartrott, M. Ries, P. Schmid, G. Wüstefeld, A. Hoehl, R. Klein, R. Müller, and G. Ulm, “Metrology Light Source: The first electron storage ring optimized for generating coherent THz radiation,” Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 14(3), 030705 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

A. J. Huber, J. Wittborn, and R. Hillenbrand, “Infrared spectroscopic near-field mapping of single nanotransistors,” Nanotechnology 21(23), 235702 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Stiegler, A. J. Huber, S. L. Diedenhofen, J. Gómez Rivas, R. E. Algra, E. P. A. M. Bakkers, and R. Hillenbrand, “Nanoscale free-carrier profiling of individual semiconductor nanowires by infrared near-field nanoscopy,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1387–1392 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

2008 (3)

G. Scardera, T. Puzzer, G. Conibeer, and M. A. Green, “Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of annealed silicon-rich nitride thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(10), 104310 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H.-G. von Ribbeck, M. Brehm, D. W. van der Weide, S. Winnerl, O. Drachenko, M. Helm, and F. Keilmann, “Spectroscopic THz near-field microscope,” Opt. Express 16(5), 3430–3438 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Kehr, M. Cebula, O. Mieth, T. Härtling, J. Seidel, S. Grafström, L. M. Eng, S. Winnerl, D. Stehr, and M. Helm, “Anisotropy contrast in phonon-enhanced apertureless near-field microscopy using a free-electron laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(25), 256403 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

A. J. Huber, D. Kazantsev, F. Keilmann, J. Wittborn, and R. Hillenbrand, “Simultaneous IR material recognition and conductivity mapping by nanoscale near-field microscopy,” Adv. Mater. 19(17), 2209–2212 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

A. Bek, R. Vogelgesang, and K. Kern, “Apertureless scanning near-field optical microscope with sub-10 nm resolution,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77(4), 043703 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Buersgens, R. Kersting, and H.-T. Chen, “Terahertz microscopy of charge carriers in semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 112115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

T. Taubner, F. Keilmann, and R. Hillenbrand, “Nanoscale-resolved subsurface imaging by scattering-type near-field optical microscopy,” Opt. Express 13(22), 8893–8899 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. B. Raschke, L. Molina, T. Elsaesser, D. H. Kim, W. Knoll, and K. Hinrichs, “Apertureless near-field vibrational imaging of block-copolymer nanostructures with ultrahigh spatial resolution,” ChemPhysChem 6(10), 2197–2203 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

U. Schade, K. Holldack, P. Kuske, G. Wüstefeld, and H.-W. Hübers, “THz near-field imaging employing synchrotron radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(8), 1422–1424 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Wang, D. M. Mittleman, N. C. J. van der Valk, and P. C. M. Planken, “Antenna effects in terahertz apertureless near-field optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(14), 2715–2717 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. Sunkara, S. Sharma, H. Chandrasekaran, M. Talbott, K. Krogman, and G. Bhimarasetti, “Bulk synthesis of a-SixNyH and a-SixOy straight and coiled nanowires,” J. Mater. Chem. 14(4), 590–594 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

C. Pecharromán, F. Gracía, J. P. Holgado, M. Ocana, A. R. Gonzalez-Elipe, J. Bassas, J. Santiso, and A. Figueras, “Determination of texture by infrared spectroscopy in titanium oxide-anatase thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(8), 4634–4645 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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R. Hillenbrand, T. Taubner, and F. Keilmann, “Phonon-enhanced light matter interaction at the nanometre scale,” Nature 418(6894), 159–162 (2002).
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2000 (1)

R. Hillenbrand and F. Keilmann, “Complex optical constants on a subwavelength scale,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 3029–3032 (2000).

1999 (1)

B. Knoll and F. Keilmann, “Near-field probing of vibrational absorption for chemical microscopy,” Nature 399(6732), 134–137 (1999).
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1996 (1)

S. C. Jain, H. E. Maes, K. Pinardi, and I. De Wolf, “Stresses and strains in lattice-mismatched stripes, quantum wires, quantum dots, and substrates in Si technology,” J. Appl. Phys. 79(11), 8145–8165 (1996).
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Aizawa, K.

Algra, R. E.

J. M. Stiegler, A. J. Huber, S. L. Diedenhofen, J. Gómez Rivas, R. E. Algra, E. P. A. M. Bakkers, and R. Hillenbrand, “Nanoscale free-carrier profiling of individual semiconductor nanowires by infrared near-field nanoscopy,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1387–1392 (2010).
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Alonso-González, P.

J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-González, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenović, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. Z. Elorza, N. Camara, F. J. García de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. L. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487(7405), 77–81 (2012).
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Amarie, S.

F. Huth, A. Govyadinov, S. Amarie, W. Nuansing, F. Keilmann, and R. Hillenbrand, “Nano-FTIR absorption spectroscopy of molecular fingerprints at 20 nm spatial resolution,” Nano Lett. 12(8), 3973–3978 (2012).
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S. Amarie and F. Keilmann, “Broadband-infrared assessment of phonon resonance in scattering-type near-field microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 83(4), 045404 (2011).
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Andreev, G. O.

L. M. Zhang, G. O. Andreev, Z. Fei, A. S. McLeod, G. Dominguez, M. Thiemens, A. H. Castro-Neto, D. N. Basov, and M. M. Fogler, “Near-field spectroscopy of silicon dioxide thin films,” Phys. Rev. B 85(7), 075419 (2012).
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Z. Fei, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, L. M. Zhang, A. S McLeod, C. Wang, M. K. Stewart, Z. Zhao, G. Dominguez, M. Thiemens, M. M. Fogler, M. J. Tauber, A. H. Castro-Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Infrared nanoscopy of Dirac plasmons at the graphene-SiO₂ interface,” Nano Lett. 11(11), 4701–4705 (2011).
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Bachelot, R.

Badioli, M.

J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-González, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenović, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. Z. Elorza, N. Camara, F. J. García de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. L. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487(7405), 77–81 (2012).
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Bakkers, E. P. A. M.

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Bao, W.

Z. Fei, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, L. M. Zhang, A. S McLeod, C. Wang, M. K. Stewart, Z. Zhao, G. Dominguez, M. Thiemens, M. M. Fogler, M. J. Tauber, A. H. Castro-Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Infrared nanoscopy of Dirac plasmons at the graphene-SiO₂ interface,” Nano Lett. 11(11), 4701–4705 (2011).
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Basov, D. N.

L. M. Zhang, G. O. Andreev, Z. Fei, A. S. McLeod, G. Dominguez, M. Thiemens, A. H. Castro-Neto, D. N. Basov, and M. M. Fogler, “Near-field spectroscopy of silicon dioxide thin films,” Phys. Rev. B 85(7), 075419 (2012).
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Z. Fei, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, L. M. Zhang, A. S McLeod, C. Wang, M. K. Stewart, Z. Zhao, G. Dominguez, M. Thiemens, M. M. Fogler, M. J. Tauber, A. H. Castro-Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Infrared nanoscopy of Dirac plasmons at the graphene-SiO₂ interface,” Nano Lett. 11(11), 4701–4705 (2011).
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Bassas, J.

C. Pecharromán, F. Gracía, J. P. Holgado, M. Ocana, A. R. Gonzalez-Elipe, J. Bassas, J. Santiso, and A. Figueras, “Determination of texture by infrared spectroscopy in titanium oxide-anatase thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(8), 4634–4645 (2003).
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Bauer, M.

Beekes, M.

M. L. Daus, K. Wagenführ, A. Thomzig, S. Boerner, P. Hermann, A. Hermelink, M. Beekes, and P. Lasch, “Infrared microspectroscopy detects protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA)-induced conformational alterations in hamster scrapie Progeny seeds,” J. Biol. Chem. 288(49), 35068–35080 (2013).
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Bhimarasetti, G.

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I. Amenabar, S. Poly, W. Nuansing, E. H. Hubrich, A. A. Govyadinov, F. Huth, R. Krutokhvostov, L. Zhang, M. Knez, J. Heberle, A. M. Bittner, and R. Hillenbrand, “Structural analysis and mapping of individual protein complexes by infrared nanospectroscopy,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2890 (2013).
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Blum, C.

M. Paulite, C. Blum, T. Schmid, L. Opilik, K. Eyer, G. C. Walker, and R. Zenobi, “Full spectroscopic tip-enhanced Raman imaging of single nanotapes formed from Β-amyloid(1-40) peptide fragments,” ACS Nano 7(2), 911–920 (2013).
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Boccara, A. C.

Boerner, S.

M. L. Daus, K. Wagenführ, A. Thomzig, S. Boerner, P. Hermann, A. Hermelink, M. Beekes, and P. Lasch, “Infrared microspectroscopy detects protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA)-induced conformational alterations in hamster scrapie Progeny seeds,” J. Biol. Chem. 288(49), 35068–35080 (2013).
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Böhmler, M.

M. Böhmler, Z. Wang, A. Myalitsin, A. Mews, and A. Hartschuh, “Optical imaging of CdSe nanowires with nanoscale resolution,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 50(48), 11536–11538 (2011).
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Brehm, M.

Bründermann, E.

D. A. Schmidt, E. Bründermann, and M. Havenith, “Combined far- and near-field chemical nanoscope at ANKA-IR2: applications and detection schemes,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 359, 012015 (2012).
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Buersgens, F.

F. Buersgens, R. Kersting, and H.-T. Chen, “Terahertz microscopy of charge carriers in semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 112115 (2006).
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Camara, N.

J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-González, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenović, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. Z. Elorza, N. Camara, F. J. García de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. L. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487(7405), 77–81 (2012).
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Castro-Neto, A. H.

L. M. Zhang, G. O. Andreev, Z. Fei, A. S. McLeod, G. Dominguez, M. Thiemens, A. H. Castro-Neto, D. N. Basov, and M. M. Fogler, “Near-field spectroscopy of silicon dioxide thin films,” Phys. Rev. B 85(7), 075419 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. Fei, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, L. M. Zhang, A. S McLeod, C. Wang, M. K. Stewart, Z. Zhao, G. Dominguez, M. Thiemens, M. M. Fogler, M. J. Tauber, A. H. Castro-Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Infrared nanoscopy of Dirac plasmons at the graphene-SiO₂ interface,” Nano Lett. 11(11), 4701–4705 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cebula, M.

S. C. Kehr, M. Cebula, O. Mieth, T. Härtling, J. Seidel, S. Grafström, L. M. Eng, S. Winnerl, D. Stehr, and M. Helm, “Anisotropy contrast in phonon-enhanced apertureless near-field microscopy using a free-electron laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(25), 256403 (2008).
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Centeno, A.

J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-González, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenović, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. Z. Elorza, N. Camara, F. J. García de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. L. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487(7405), 77–81 (2012).
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Chandrasekaran, H.

M. Sunkara, S. Sharma, H. Chandrasekaran, M. Talbott, K. Krogman, and G. Bhimarasetti, “Bulk synthesis of a-SixNyH and a-SixOy straight and coiled nanowires,” J. Mater. Chem. 14(4), 590–594 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.-T.

F. Buersgens, R. Kersting, and H.-T. Chen, “Terahertz microscopy of charge carriers in semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(11), 112115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-González, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenović, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. Z. Elorza, N. Camara, F. J. García de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. L. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487(7405), 77–81 (2012).
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Chumakov, D.

P. Hermann, M. Hecker, D. Chumakov, M. Weisheit, J. Rinderknecht, A. Shelaev, P. Dorozhkin, and L. M. Eng, “Imaging and strain analysis of nano-scale SiGe structures by tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Ultramicroscopy 111(11), 1630–1635 (2011).
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Conibeer, G.

G. Scardera, T. Puzzer, G. Conibeer, and M. A. Green, “Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of annealed silicon-rich nitride thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(10), 104310 (2008).
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Craig, I. M.

Daus, M. L.

M. L. Daus, K. Wagenführ, A. Thomzig, S. Boerner, P. Hermann, A. Hermelink, M. Beekes, and P. Lasch, “Infrared microspectroscopy detects protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA)-induced conformational alterations in hamster scrapie Progeny seeds,” J. Biol. Chem. 288(49), 35068–35080 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Wolf, I.

S. C. Jain, H. E. Maes, K. Pinardi, and I. De Wolf, “Stresses and strains in lattice-mismatched stripes, quantum wires, quantum dots, and substrates in Si technology,” J. Appl. Phys. 79(11), 8145–8165 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Diedenhofen, S. L.

J. M. Stiegler, A. J. Huber, S. L. Diedenhofen, J. Gómez Rivas, R. E. Algra, E. P. A. M. Bakkers, and R. Hillenbrand, “Nanoscale free-carrier profiling of individual semiconductor nanowires by infrared near-field nanoscopy,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1387–1392 (2010).
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Do, Y.

K. Moon, E. Jung, M. Lim, Y. Do, and H. Han, “Terahertz near-field microscope: Analysis and measurement of scattering signals,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci. Technol. 1, 164–168 (2011).

Dominguez, G.

L. M. Zhang, G. O. Andreev, Z. Fei, A. S. McLeod, G. Dominguez, M. Thiemens, A. H. Castro-Neto, D. N. Basov, and M. M. Fogler, “Near-field spectroscopy of silicon dioxide thin films,” Phys. Rev. B 85(7), 075419 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. Fei, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, L. M. Zhang, A. S McLeod, C. Wang, M. K. Stewart, Z. Zhao, G. Dominguez, M. Thiemens, M. M. Fogler, M. J. Tauber, A. H. Castro-Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Infrared nanoscopy of Dirac plasmons at the graphene-SiO₂ interface,” Nano Lett. 11(11), 4701–4705 (2011).
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Dorozhkin, P.

P. Hermann, M. Hecker, D. Chumakov, M. Weisheit, J. Rinderknecht, A. Shelaev, P. Dorozhkin, and L. M. Eng, “Imaging and strain analysis of nano-scale SiGe structures by tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Ultramicroscopy 111(11), 1630–1635 (2011).
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Drachenko, O.

Elorza, A. Z.

J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-González, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenović, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. Z. Elorza, N. Camara, F. J. García de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. L. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487(7405), 77–81 (2012).
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Elsaesser, T.

M. B. Raschke, L. Molina, T. Elsaesser, D. H. Kim, W. Knoll, and K. Hinrichs, “Apertureless near-field vibrational imaging of block-copolymer nanostructures with ultrahigh spatial resolution,” ChemPhysChem 6(10), 2197–2203 (2005).
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Eng, L. M.

P. Hermann, M. Hecker, D. Chumakov, M. Weisheit, J. Rinderknecht, A. Shelaev, P. Dorozhkin, and L. M. Eng, “Imaging and strain analysis of nano-scale SiGe structures by tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Ultramicroscopy 111(11), 1630–1635 (2011).
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P. Hermann, M. Hecker, F. Renn, M. Rölke, K. Kolanek, J. Rinderknecht, and L. M. Eng, “Effects of patterning induced stress relaxation in strained SOI/SiGe layers and substrate,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(12), 124513 (2011).
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S. C. Kehr, M. Cebula, O. Mieth, T. Härtling, J. Seidel, S. Grafström, L. M. Eng, S. Winnerl, D. Stehr, and M. Helm, “Anisotropy contrast in phonon-enhanced apertureless near-field microscopy using a free-electron laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(25), 256403 (2008).
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Eyer, K.

M. Paulite, C. Blum, T. Schmid, L. Opilik, K. Eyer, G. C. Walker, and R. Zenobi, “Full spectroscopic tip-enhanced Raman imaging of single nanotapes formed from Β-amyloid(1-40) peptide fragments,” ACS Nano 7(2), 911–920 (2013).
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Fabian, H.

P. Hermann, H. Fabian, D. Naumann, and A. Hermelink, “Comparative study of far-field and near-field Raman spectra from silicon-based samples and biological nanostructures,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(50), 24512–24520 (2011).
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Fakhraai, Z.

M. Paulite, Z. Fakhraai, I. T. S. Li, N. Gunari, A. E. Tanur, and G. C. Walker, “Imaging secondary structure of individual amyloid fibrils of a β2-microglobulin fragment using near-field infrared spectroscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133(19), 7376–7383 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fei, Z.

L. M. Zhang, G. O. Andreev, Z. Fei, A. S. McLeod, G. Dominguez, M. Thiemens, A. H. Castro-Neto, D. N. Basov, and M. M. Fogler, “Near-field spectroscopy of silicon dioxide thin films,” Phys. Rev. B 85(7), 075419 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. Fei, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, L. M. Zhang, A. S McLeod, C. Wang, M. K. Stewart, Z. Zhao, G. Dominguez, M. Thiemens, M. M. Fogler, M. J. Tauber, A. H. Castro-Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Infrared nanoscopy of Dirac plasmons at the graphene-SiO₂ interface,” Nano Lett. 11(11), 4701–4705 (2011).
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Feikes, J.

R. Müller, A. Hoehl, A. Matschulat, A. Serdyukov, G. Ulm, J. Feikes, M. Ries, and G. Wüstefeld, “Status of the IR and THz beamlines at the metrology light source,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 359, 012004 (2012).
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J. Feikes, M. von Hartrott, M. Ries, P. Schmid, G. Wüstefeld, A. Hoehl, R. Klein, R. Müller, and G. Ulm, “Metrology Light Source: The first electron storage ring optimized for generating coherent THz radiation,” Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 14(3), 030705 (2011).
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Figueras, A.

C. Pecharromán, F. Gracía, J. P. Holgado, M. Ocana, A. R. Gonzalez-Elipe, J. Bassas, J. Santiso, and A. Figueras, “Determination of texture by infrared spectroscopy in titanium oxide-anatase thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(8), 4634–4645 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fogler, M. M.

L. M. Zhang, G. O. Andreev, Z. Fei, A. S. McLeod, G. Dominguez, M. Thiemens, A. H. Castro-Neto, D. N. Basov, and M. M. Fogler, “Near-field spectroscopy of silicon dioxide thin films,” Phys. Rev. B 85(7), 075419 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. Fei, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, L. M. Zhang, A. S McLeod, C. Wang, M. K. Stewart, Z. Zhao, G. Dominguez, M. Thiemens, M. M. Fogler, M. J. Tauber, A. H. Castro-Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Infrared nanoscopy of Dirac plasmons at the graphene-SiO₂ interface,” Nano Lett. 11(11), 4701–4705 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ganz, T.

García de Abajo, F. J.

J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-González, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenović, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. Z. Elorza, N. Camara, F. J. García de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. L. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487(7405), 77–81 (2012).
[PubMed]

Gigler, A. M.

Gleyzes, P.

Godignon, P.

J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-González, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenović, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. Z. Elorza, N. Camara, F. J. García de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. L. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature 487(7405), 77–81 (2012).
[PubMed]

Gómez Rivas, J.

J. M. Stiegler, A. J. Huber, S. L. Diedenhofen, J. Gómez Rivas, R. E. Algra, E. P. A. M. Bakkers, and R. Hillenbrand, “Nanoscale free-carrier profiling of individual semiconductor nanowires by infrared near-field nanoscopy,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1387–1392 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gonzalez-Elipe, A. R.

C. Pecharromán, F. Gracía, J. P. Holgado, M. Ocana, A. R. Gonzalez-Elipe, J. Bassas, J. Santiso, and A. Figueras, “Determination of texture by infrared spectroscopy in titanium oxide-anatase thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(8), 4634–4645 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Govyadinov, A.

F. Huth, A. Govyadinov, S. Amarie, W. Nuansing, F. Keilmann, and R. Hillenbrand, “Nano-FTIR absorption spectroscopy of molecular fingerprints at 20 nm spatial resolution,” Nano Lett. 12(8), 3973–3978 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Govyadinov, A. A.

I. Amenabar, S. Poly, W. Nuansing, E. H. Hubrich, A. A. Govyadinov, F. Huth, R. Krutokhvostov, L. Zhang, M. Knez, J. Heberle, A. M. Bittner, and R. Hillenbrand, “Structural analysis and mapping of individual protein complexes by infrared nanospectroscopy,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2890 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gracía, F.

C. Pecharromán, F. Gracía, J. P. Holgado, M. Ocana, A. R. Gonzalez-Elipe, J. Bassas, J. Santiso, and A. Figueras, “Determination of texture by infrared spectroscopy in titanium oxide-anatase thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(8), 4634–4645 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Grafström, S.

S. C. Kehr, M. Cebula, O. Mieth, T. Härtling, J. Seidel, S. Grafström, L. M. Eng, S. Winnerl, D. Stehr, and M. Helm, “Anisotropy contrast in phonon-enhanced apertureless near-field microscopy using a free-electron laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(25), 256403 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Green, M. A.

G. Scardera, T. Puzzer, G. Conibeer, and M. A. Green, “Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of annealed silicon-rich nitride thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(10), 104310 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gunari, N.

M. Paulite, Z. Fakhraai, I. T. S. Li, N. Gunari, A. E. Tanur, and G. C. Walker, “Imaging secondary structure of individual amyloid fibrils of a β2-microglobulin fragment using near-field infrared spectroscopy,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133(19), 7376–7383 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Han, H.

K. Moon, E. Jung, M. Lim, Y. Do, and H. Han, “Terahertz near-field microscope: Analysis and measurement of scattering signals,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci. Technol. 1, 164–168 (2011).

Härtling, T.

S. C. Kehr, M. Cebula, O. Mieth, T. Härtling, J. Seidel, S. Grafström, L. M. Eng, S. Winnerl, D. Stehr, and M. Helm, “Anisotropy contrast in phonon-enhanced apertureless near-field microscopy using a free-electron laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(25), 256403 (2008).
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Hartschuh, A.

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M. Paulite, C. Blum, T. Schmid, L. Opilik, K. Eyer, G. C. Walker, and R. Zenobi, “Full spectroscopic tip-enhanced Raman imaging of single nanotapes formed from Β-amyloid(1-40) peptide fragments,” ACS Nano 7(2), 911–920 (2013).
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Zhang, L.

I. Amenabar, S. Poly, W. Nuansing, E. H. Hubrich, A. A. Govyadinov, F. Huth, R. Krutokhvostov, L. Zhang, M. Knez, J. Heberle, A. M. Bittner, and R. Hillenbrand, “Structural analysis and mapping of individual protein complexes by infrared nanospectroscopy,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2890 (2013).
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L. M. Zhang, G. O. Andreev, Z. Fei, A. S. McLeod, G. Dominguez, M. Thiemens, A. H. Castro-Neto, D. N. Basov, and M. M. Fogler, “Near-field spectroscopy of silicon dioxide thin films,” Phys. Rev. B 85(7), 075419 (2012).
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Z. Fei, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, L. M. Zhang, A. S McLeod, C. Wang, M. K. Stewart, Z. Zhao, G. Dominguez, M. Thiemens, M. M. Fogler, M. J. Tauber, A. H. Castro-Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Infrared nanoscopy of Dirac plasmons at the graphene-SiO₂ interface,” Nano Lett. 11(11), 4701–4705 (2011).
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ACS Nano (1)

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A. J. Huber, D. Kazantsev, F. Keilmann, J. Wittborn, and R. Hillenbrand, “Simultaneous IR material recognition and conductivity mapping by nanoscale near-field microscopy,” Adv. Mater. 19(17), 2209–2212 (2007).
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F. Huth, A. Govyadinov, S. Amarie, W. Nuansing, F. Keilmann, and R. Hillenbrand, “Nano-FTIR absorption spectroscopy of molecular fingerprints at 20 nm spatial resolution,” Nano Lett. 12(8), 3973–3978 (2012).
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Nanotechnology (1)

A. J. Huber, J. Wittborn, and R. Hillenbrand, “Infrared spectroscopic near-field mapping of single nanotransistors,” Nanotechnology 21(23), 235702 (2010).
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Nat. Mater. (1)

F. Huth, M. Schnell, J. Wittborn, N. Ocelic, and R. Hillenbrand, “Infrared-spectroscopic nanoimaging with a thermal source,” Nat. Mater. 10(5), 352–356 (2011).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the experimental s-SNOM setup using broadband synchrotron radiation in the IR regime from the electron storage ring MLS. The IR radiation is coupled out at a bending magnet and guided by several mirrors (not shown in the image) to the experimental setup. The focused IR beam has a diameter of about 80 µm (inset with an optical microscopy image).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Topography ((a) and (c)) and corresponding optical images (O2-, O3- and O4-signal) ((b), (d), (e), and (f)) obtained from a Si-sample with rectangular SiO2 structures. The 20 nm high SiO2 patterns with an edge length of 1 µm x 1.5 µm on (100) Si substrate appear bright in the AFM image and dark in the corresponding near-field image due to the stronger absorption of SiO2 compared to Si in the mid-IR range. The acquisition time for the scan is about 20 minutes. The averaged current in the storage ring during the measurements was about 100 mA and the oscillation amplitude of the tip was set to about 50 nm. The red lines in (d) mark the position of the two scans (trace 1 and 2) shown in Figs. 3(a) and 3(b) while the scanning direction is indicated by the white arrows.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Line scans performed across a SiO2-pattern edge and some nanoscale particles on the flat Si surface. The first line scan (a) is performed across the edge of a rectangular SiO2 structure (see Fig. 2(d), trace 1). The AFM- and optical signal (O2-signal) change at the pattern edge (SiO2 surface indicated by gray area) within a distance of < 40 nm. The averaged data obtained from 16 adjacent line scans across the same pattern edge are indicated by the dotted lines in the corresponding AFM and optical scan. The second line scan (b) illustrates the data obtained from three 5 nm to 10 nm height particles distributed over the plane Si surface (see Fig. 2(d), trace 2). According to the AFM and optical signals the distance between two adjacent particles is 60 nm and 66 nm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Interferograms recorded from SiC, SiO2, TiO2 (anatase) and SixNy. The corresponding nano-FTIR spectra obtained from a subsequent Fourier transformation. The interferograms (Fig. 4(a)) were acquired from different samples with various layer thickness: bulk 6H-SiC, 10 nm TiO2 (anatase), and 30 nm thick SiO2, and 50 nm SixNy. The interferograms show the section from 200 µm to 500 µm of the optical beam path difference and were gathered by averaging four interferograms acquired successively at the same position. The nano-FTIR spectra (S2 spectra) from SiC, SiO2, TiO2 (anatase), and SixNy in (b) demonstrate the material discrimination capabilities of this method. (The near-field spectra of SiO2 and TiO2 were rescaled for better comparison. The numbers in the color of the corresponding curves and the gray bars indicate the position of the highest intensity.).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Intensity (a) and spectroscopic nanoimaging (b) using ultra-broadband IR radiation provided by the electron storage ring MLS. The intensity (S2 spectra) from the Si phonon band at 1135 cm−1 decreases within about 40 nm when performing a scan across a SiO2/Si edge (cf. Fig. 2(d), trace 1) as documented in the two insets in Fig. 5(a) showing the two nano-FTIR spectra from the line scan recorded from the SiO2 and the Si surface. The same spatial resolution is obtained from spectroscopic nanoimaging as derived from results shown in Fig. 3(a). The spectral resolution is about 6.25 cm−1.

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