Abstract

This paper proposes and demonstrates the creation of sections with a high polarization dependent loss (PDL) in a commercial highly birefringent (polarization maintaining) photonic crystal fiber (PCF), via tapering with pressure applied to the holes. The tapers had a 1-cm-long uniform section with a 66% scale reduction, in which the original microstructure aspect ratio was kept by the pressure application. The resulting waveguides show polarizing action across the entire tested wavelength range, 1510-1600 nm, with a peak PDL of 35.3 dB/cm (c.f. ~1 dB/cm for a typical commercial polarizing fiber). The resulting structure, as well as its production, is extremely simple, and enable a small section with a high PDL to be obtained in a polarization maintaining PCF, meaning that the polarization axes in the polarizing and polarization maintaining sections are automatically aligned.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. R. Chraplyvy, “High-capacity lightwave transmission experiments,” Bell Labs Tech. J. 4(1), 230–245 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. W. J. Bock, J. Chen, T. Eftimov, and W. Urbanczyk, “A photonic crystal fiber sensor for pressure measurements,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 55(4), 1119–1123 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. A. Bergh, H. C. Lefevre, and H. J. Shaw, “An overview of fiber-optic gyroscopes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 2(2), 91–107 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  4. W. Jacobsen, J. Mayfield, P. Fournier, D. Bolte, H. Elmaola, C. H. Wang, G. Drenzek, and A. Soufiane, “Single-polarization fiber,” Verrillon Inc., US Patent 8,369,672 B2, (2013).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  14. X. Zheng, Y. Liu, Z. Wang, T. Han, and B. Tai, “Tunable single-polarization single mode photonic crystal fiber based on liquid infiltrating,” IEEE Photon.Technol. Lett. 23, 709–711 (2011).
  15. A. V. Y. Espinel, M. A R. Franco, and C. M. B. Cordeiro, “Tunable single-polarization single-mode microstructure polymer optical fiber,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(16), 2372–2378 (2011).
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    [CrossRef]
  18. P. Romagnoli, C. R. Biazoli, M. A. R. Franco, C. M. B. Cordeiro, and C. J. S. de Matos, “Generation of polarizing sections in highly birefringent photonic crystal fibers via post-processing,” in CLEO:2013, (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper JTu4A.12.
  19. T. A. Birks and Y. W. Li, “The shape of fiber tapers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10(4), 432–438 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
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2012 (1)

A. C. Sodré, A. R. Nascimento, M. A. R. Franco, I. Oliveira, V. A. Serrão, and H. L. Fragnito, “Numerical and experimental analysis of polarization properties from hybrid PCFs across different photonic bandgaps,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 18(6), 462–469 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (4)

2010 (2)

M. Y. Chen, B. Sun, and Y. K. Zhang, “Broadband single-polarization operation in square-lattice photonic crystal fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(10), 1443–1446 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, J. Olszewski, M. Napiorkowski, G. Golojuch, T. Martynkien, K. Tarnowski, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, M. Makara, T. Nasilowski, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Polarizing photonic crystal fiber with lowindex inclusion in the core,” J. Opt. 12(7), 075402 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2006 (3)

2004 (2)

D. A. Nolan, G. E. Berkey, M. J. Li, X. Chen, W. A. Wood, and L. A. Zenteno, “Single-polarization fiber with a high extinction ratio,” Opt. Lett. 29(16), 1855–1857 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Kubota, S. Kawanishi, S. Koyanagi, M. Tanaka, and S. Yamaguchi, “Absolutely single polarization photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(1), 182–184 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

K. Saitoh and M. Koshiba, “Single-polarization single-mode photonic crystal fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(10), 1384–1386 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

A. R. Chraplyvy, “High-capacity lightwave transmission experiments,” Bell Labs Tech. J. 4(1), 230–245 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

T. A. Birks and Y. W. Li, “The shape of fiber tapers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10(4), 432–438 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

R. A. Bergh, H. C. Lefevre, and H. J. Shaw, “An overview of fiber-optic gyroscopes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 2(2), 91–107 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

Bergh, R. A.

R. A. Bergh, H. C. Lefevre, and H. J. Shaw, “An overview of fiber-optic gyroscopes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 2(2), 91–107 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Berghmans, F.

G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, J. Olszewski, M. Napiorkowski, G. Golojuch, T. Martynkien, K. Tarnowski, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, M. Makara, T. Nasilowski, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Polarizing photonic crystal fiber with lowindex inclusion in the core,” J. Opt. 12(7), 075402 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Berkey, G. E.

Birks, T. A.

T. A. Birks and Y. W. Li, “The shape of fiber tapers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10(4), 432–438 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bock, W. J.

W. J. Bock, J. Chen, T. Eftimov, and W. Urbanczyk, “A photonic crystal fiber sensor for pressure measurements,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 55(4), 1119–1123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chan, C. C.

Chen, J.

W. J. Bock, J. Chen, T. Eftimov, and W. Urbanczyk, “A photonic crystal fiber sensor for pressure measurements,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 55(4), 1119–1123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, M. Y.

Chen, X.

Chraplyvy, A. R.

A. R. Chraplyvy, “High-capacity lightwave transmission experiments,” Bell Labs Tech. J. 4(1), 230–245 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cordeiro, C. M. B.

de Matos, C. J. S.

Demokan, M. S.

Eftimov, T.

W. J. Bock, J. Chen, T. Eftimov, and W. Urbanczyk, “A photonic crystal fiber sensor for pressure measurements,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 55(4), 1119–1123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Espinel, A. V. Y.

Fragnito, H. L.

A. C. Sodré, A. R. Nascimento, M. A. R. Franco, I. Oliveira, V. A. Serrão, and H. L. Fragnito, “Numerical and experimental analysis of polarization properties from hybrid PCFs across different photonic bandgaps,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 18(6), 462–469 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Franco, M. A R.

Franco, M. A. R.

A. C. Sodré, A. R. Nascimento, M. A. R. Franco, I. Oliveira, V. A. Serrão, and H. L. Fragnito, “Numerical and experimental analysis of polarization properties from hybrid PCFs across different photonic bandgaps,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 18(6), 462–469 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Gerosa, R. M.

Golojuch, G.

G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, J. Olszewski, M. Napiorkowski, G. Golojuch, T. Martynkien, K. Tarnowski, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, M. Makara, T. Nasilowski, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Polarizing photonic crystal fiber with lowindex inclusion in the core,” J. Opt. 12(7), 075402 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Han, T.

X. Zheng, Y. Liu, Z. Wang, T. Han, and B. Tai, “Tunable single-polarization single mode photonic crystal fiber based on liquid infiltrating,” IEEE Photon.Technol. Lett. 23, 709–711 (2011).

Jin, W.

Ju, J.

Kawanishi, S.

H. Kubota, S. Kawanishi, S. Koyanagi, M. Tanaka, and S. Yamaguchi, “Absolutely single polarization photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(1), 182–184 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Koshiba, M.

K. Saitoh and M. Koshiba, “Single-polarization single-mode photonic crystal fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(10), 1384–1386 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Koyanagi, S.

H. Kubota, S. Kawanishi, S. Koyanagi, M. Tanaka, and S. Yamaguchi, “Absolutely single polarization photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(1), 182–184 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kubota, H.

H. Kubota, S. Kawanishi, S. Koyanagi, M. Tanaka, and S. Yamaguchi, “Absolutely single polarization photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(1), 182–184 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lefevre, H. C.

R. A. Bergh, H. C. Lefevre, and H. J. Shaw, “An overview of fiber-optic gyroscopes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 2(2), 91–107 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Li, M. J.

Li, Y. W.

T. A. Birks and Y. W. Li, “The shape of fiber tapers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10(4), 432–438 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Liu, S.

Liu, X.

Liu, Y.

X. Zheng, Y. Liu, Z. Wang, T. Han, and B. Tai, “Tunable single-polarization single mode photonic crystal fiber based on liquid infiltrating,” IEEE Photon.Technol. Lett. 23, 709–711 (2011).

Makara, M.

G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, J. Olszewski, M. Napiorkowski, G. Golojuch, T. Martynkien, K. Tarnowski, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, M. Makara, T. Nasilowski, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Polarizing photonic crystal fiber with lowindex inclusion in the core,” J. Opt. 12(7), 075402 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Malitson, I. H.

Martynkien, T.

G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, J. Olszewski, M. Napiorkowski, G. Golojuch, T. Martynkien, K. Tarnowski, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, M. Makara, T. Nasilowski, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Polarizing photonic crystal fiber with lowindex inclusion in the core,” J. Opt. 12(7), 075402 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Menezes, L. S.

Mergo, P.

G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, J. Olszewski, M. Napiorkowski, G. Golojuch, T. Martynkien, K. Tarnowski, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, M. Makara, T. Nasilowski, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Polarizing photonic crystal fiber with lowindex inclusion in the core,” J. Opt. 12(7), 075402 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Napiorkowski, M.

G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, J. Olszewski, M. Napiorkowski, G. Golojuch, T. Martynkien, K. Tarnowski, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, M. Makara, T. Nasilowski, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Polarizing photonic crystal fiber with lowindex inclusion in the core,” J. Opt. 12(7), 075402 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nascimento, A. R.

A. C. Sodré, A. R. Nascimento, M. A. R. Franco, I. Oliveira, V. A. Serrão, and H. L. Fragnito, “Numerical and experimental analysis of polarization properties from hybrid PCFs across different photonic bandgaps,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 18(6), 462–469 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nasilowski, T.

G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, J. Olszewski, M. Napiorkowski, G. Golojuch, T. Martynkien, K. Tarnowski, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, M. Makara, T. Nasilowski, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Polarizing photonic crystal fiber with lowindex inclusion in the core,” J. Opt. 12(7), 075402 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nolan, D. A.

Oliveira, I.

A. C. Sodré, A. R. Nascimento, M. A. R. Franco, I. Oliveira, V. A. Serrão, and H. L. Fragnito, “Numerical and experimental analysis of polarization properties from hybrid PCFs across different photonic bandgaps,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 18(6), 462–469 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Olszewski, J.

G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, J. Olszewski, M. Napiorkowski, G. Golojuch, T. Martynkien, K. Tarnowski, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, M. Makara, T. Nasilowski, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Polarizing photonic crystal fiber with lowindex inclusion in the core,” J. Opt. 12(7), 075402 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Qian, W.

Russell, P.

Saitoh, K.

K. Saitoh and M. Koshiba, “Single-polarization single-mode photonic crystal fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(10), 1384–1386 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Serrão, V. A.

A. C. Sodré, A. R. Nascimento, M. A. R. Franco, I. Oliveira, V. A. Serrão, and H. L. Fragnito, “Numerical and experimental analysis of polarization properties from hybrid PCFs across different photonic bandgaps,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 18(6), 462–469 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Shaw, H. J.

R. A. Bergh, H. C. Lefevre, and H. J. Shaw, “An overview of fiber-optic gyroscopes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 2(2), 91–107 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Sodré, A. C.

A. C. Sodré, A. R. Nascimento, M. A. R. Franco, I. Oliveira, V. A. Serrão, and H. L. Fragnito, “Numerical and experimental analysis of polarization properties from hybrid PCFs across different photonic bandgaps,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 18(6), 462–469 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Spadoti, D. H.

Statkiewicz-Barabach, G.

G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, J. Olszewski, M. Napiorkowski, G. Golojuch, T. Martynkien, K. Tarnowski, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, M. Makara, T. Nasilowski, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Polarizing photonic crystal fiber with lowindex inclusion in the core,” J. Opt. 12(7), 075402 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sun, B.

Tai, B.

X. Zheng, Y. Liu, Z. Wang, T. Han, and B. Tai, “Tunable single-polarization single mode photonic crystal fiber based on liquid infiltrating,” IEEE Photon.Technol. Lett. 23, 709–711 (2011).

Tanaka, M.

H. Kubota, S. Kawanishi, S. Koyanagi, M. Tanaka, and S. Yamaguchi, “Absolutely single polarization photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(1), 182–184 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tarnowski, K.

G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, J. Olszewski, M. Napiorkowski, G. Golojuch, T. Martynkien, K. Tarnowski, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, M. Makara, T. Nasilowski, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Polarizing photonic crystal fiber with lowindex inclusion in the core,” J. Opt. 12(7), 075402 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Thienpont, H.

G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, J. Olszewski, M. Napiorkowski, G. Golojuch, T. Martynkien, K. Tarnowski, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, M. Makara, T. Nasilowski, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Polarizing photonic crystal fiber with lowindex inclusion in the core,” J. Opt. 12(7), 075402 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Urbanczyk, W.

G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, J. Olszewski, M. Napiorkowski, G. Golojuch, T. Martynkien, K. Tarnowski, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, M. Makara, T. Nasilowski, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Polarizing photonic crystal fiber with lowindex inclusion in the core,” J. Opt. 12(7), 075402 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Bock, J. Chen, T. Eftimov, and W. Urbanczyk, “A photonic crystal fiber sensor for pressure measurements,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 55(4), 1119–1123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

Wang, Z.

X. Zheng, Y. Liu, Z. Wang, T. Han, and B. Tai, “Tunable single-polarization single mode photonic crystal fiber based on liquid infiltrating,” IEEE Photon.Technol. Lett. 23, 709–711 (2011).

Wojcik, J.

G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, J. Olszewski, M. Napiorkowski, G. Golojuch, T. Martynkien, K. Tarnowski, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, M. Makara, T. Nasilowski, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Polarizing photonic crystal fiber with lowindex inclusion in the core,” J. Opt. 12(7), 075402 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wood, W. A.

Yamaguchi, S.

H. Kubota, S. Kawanishi, S. Koyanagi, M. Tanaka, and S. Yamaguchi, “Absolutely single polarization photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(1), 182–184 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ye, P.

Zenteno, L. A.

Zhang, F.

Zhang, M.

Zhang, Y. K.

Zhao, C. L.

Zheng, X.

X. Zheng, Y. Liu, Z. Wang, T. Han, and B. Tai, “Tunable single-polarization single mode photonic crystal fiber based on liquid infiltrating,” IEEE Photon.Technol. Lett. 23, 709–711 (2011).

Bell Labs Tech. J. (1)

A. R. Chraplyvy, “High-capacity lightwave transmission experiments,” Bell Labs Tech. J. 4(1), 230–245 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

K. Saitoh and M. Koshiba, “Single-polarization single-mode photonic crystal fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15(10), 1384–1386 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Kubota, S. Kawanishi, S. Koyanagi, M. Tanaka, and S. Yamaguchi, “Absolutely single polarization photonic crystal fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16(1), 182–184 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon.Technol. Lett. (1)

X. Zheng, Y. Liu, Z. Wang, T. Han, and B. Tai, “Tunable single-polarization single mode photonic crystal fiber based on liquid infiltrating,” IEEE Photon.Technol. Lett. 23, 709–711 (2011).

IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. (1)

W. J. Bock, J. Chen, T. Eftimov, and W. Urbanczyk, “A photonic crystal fiber sensor for pressure measurements,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 55(4), 1119–1123 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (7)

J. Opt. (1)

G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, J. Olszewski, M. Napiorkowski, G. Golojuch, T. Martynkien, K. Tarnowski, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, M. Makara, T. Nasilowski, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Polarizing photonic crystal fiber with lowindex inclusion in the core,” J. Opt. 12(7), 075402 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

A. C. Sodré, A. R. Nascimento, M. A. R. Franco, I. Oliveira, V. A. Serrão, and H. L. Fragnito, “Numerical and experimental analysis of polarization properties from hybrid PCFs across different photonic bandgaps,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 18(6), 462–469 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (4)

P. Romagnoli, C. R. Biazoli, M. A. R. Franco, C. M. B. Cordeiro, and C. J. S. de Matos, “Generation of polarizing sections in highly birefringent photonic crystal fibers via post-processing,” in CLEO:2013, (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper JTu4A.12.

V. A. Serrão and M. A. R. Franco, “A new approach to obtain single-polarization hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber,” Proc. SPIE 8794, Fifth European Workshop on Optical Fibre Sensors, 879428 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. Jacobsen, J. Mayfield, P. Fournier, D. Bolte, H. Elmaola, C. H. Wang, G. Drenzek, and A. Soufiane, “Single-polarization fiber,” Verrillon Inc., US Patent 8,369,672 B2, (2013).

J. Ju, W. Jin, and Y. Yang, “Introduction of birefringence into photonic crystal fibers,” Proc. SPIE 7753, 21st International Conference on Optical Fiber Sensors, 77536J (2011).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Scanning electron micrographs of the commercially-available polarization maintaining PCF used in the experiments before (a) and after (b) tapering.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Simulated PDL as a function of the scale reduction factor. (b) Simulated light intensity distribution on the cross section of the tapered PCF. (c) Simulated confinement loss as a function of wavelength.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Tapering rig setup with differential pressure. (b) Tapered section profile: sections 1 and 3 are the transition regions, while section 2 is the down-tapered region with a constant diameter.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Optical characterization setup. Ob.: objective lens.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Fiber transmittance as a function of input polarization angle at 1560 nm. Measured PDL spectra in the 1510-1600 nm range for tapered PCF samples 1 (b) and 2 (c).

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