Abstract

We report on pseudo random binary sequence (PRBS) phase modulation for narrow-linewidth, kilowatt-class, monolithic (all-fiber) amplifiers. Stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) threshold enhancement factors for different patterns of PRBS modulated fiber amplifiers were experimentally analyzed and agreed well with the theoretical predictions. We also examined seeding of the SBS process by phase modulated signals when the effective linewidth is on the same order as the Brillouin shift frequency. Here ~30% variations in SBS power thresholds were observed from small tunings of the modulation frequency. In addition, a 3 GHz PRBS modulated, 1.17 kW fiber amplifier was demonstrated. Near diffraction-limited beam quality was achieved (M2 = 1.2) with an optical pump efficiency of 83%. Overall, the improved SBS suppression and narrow linewidth achieved through PRBS modulation can have a significant impact on the beam combining of kilowatt class fiber lasers.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. F. W. Willems, W. Muys, and J. S. Leong, “Simultaneous suppression of stimulated Brillouin scattering and interferometric noise in externally modulated lightwave AM-SCM systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6(12), 1476–1478 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. Hadjifotou and G. A. Hill, “Suppression of stimulated Brillouin backscattering by PSK modulation for high-power optical transmission,” IEE Proc., Optoelectron. 133(4), 256–258 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Nufern Product Brief. NukW: Kilowatt laser amplifier platform.
  4. E. C. Honea, R. Afzal, M. P. Savage-Leuchs, N. Gitkind, R. Humphreys, J. Henrie, K. Brar, and D. Jander, “Spectrally beam combined fiber lasers for high power, efficiency, and brightness,” Proc. SPIE 8601, 860115 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. D. Goodno, S. J. McNaught, J. E. Rothenberg, T. S. McComb, P. A. Thielen, M. G. Wickham, and M. E. Weber, “Active phase and polarization locking of a 1.4 kW fiber amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 35(10), 1542–1544 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. C. X. Yu, S. J. Augst, S. M. Redmond, K. C. Goldizen, D. V. Murphy, A. Sanchez, and T. Y. Fan, “Coherent combining of a 4 kW, eight-element fiber amplifier array,” Opt. Lett. 36(14), 2686–2688 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. A. Flores, C. Lu, C. Robin, S. Naderi, C. Vergien, and I. Dajani, “Experimental and theoretical studies of phase modulation in Yb-doped fiber amplifiers,” Proc. SPIE 8381, 83811B1 (2012).
  8. R. S. Williamson III, “Laser Coherence Control Using Homogeneous Linewidth Broadening,” U.S. Patent No. 7,280,568, Oct. 9 (2007).
  9. C. Zeringue, I. Dajani, S. Naderi, G. T. Moore, and C. A. Robin, “A theoretical study of transient stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical fibers seeded with phase-modulated light,” Opt. Express 20(19), 21196–21213 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. Y. Aoki, K. Tajima, and I. Mito, “Input power limits of single-mode optical fibers due to stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical communication systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6(5), 710–719 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  11. B. Anderson, C. Robin, A. Flores, and I. Dajani, “Experimental study of SBS suppression via white noise phase modulation,” Proc. SPIE 8961, 89611W (2014).
  12. C. Zeringue, C. Vergien, and I. Dajani, “Pump-limited, 203 W, single-frequency monolithic fiber amplifier based on laser gain competition,” Opt. Lett. 36(5), 618–620 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. L. Zhang, S. Cui, C. Liu, J. Zhou, and Y. Feng, “170 W, single-frequency, single-mode, linearly-polarized, Yb-doped all-fiber amplifier,” Opt. Express 21(5), 5456–5462 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2014 (1)

B. Anderson, C. Robin, A. Flores, and I. Dajani, “Experimental study of SBS suppression via white noise phase modulation,” Proc. SPIE 8961, 89611W (2014).

2013 (2)

E. C. Honea, R. Afzal, M. P. Savage-Leuchs, N. Gitkind, R. Humphreys, J. Henrie, K. Brar, and D. Jander, “Spectrally beam combined fiber lasers for high power, efficiency, and brightness,” Proc. SPIE 8601, 860115 (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. Zhang, S. Cui, C. Liu, J. Zhou, and Y. Feng, “170 W, single-frequency, single-mode, linearly-polarized, Yb-doped all-fiber amplifier,” Opt. Express 21(5), 5456–5462 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

C. Zeringue, I. Dajani, S. Naderi, G. T. Moore, and C. A. Robin, “A theoretical study of transient stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical fibers seeded with phase-modulated light,” Opt. Express 20(19), 21196–21213 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Flores, C. Lu, C. Robin, S. Naderi, C. Vergien, and I. Dajani, “Experimental and theoretical studies of phase modulation in Yb-doped fiber amplifiers,” Proc. SPIE 8381, 83811B1 (2012).

2011 (2)

2010 (1)

1994 (1)

F. W. Willems, W. Muys, and J. S. Leong, “Simultaneous suppression of stimulated Brillouin scattering and interferometric noise in externally modulated lightwave AM-SCM systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6(12), 1476–1478 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

Y. Aoki, K. Tajima, and I. Mito, “Input power limits of single-mode optical fibers due to stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical communication systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6(5), 710–719 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

A. Hadjifotou and G. A. Hill, “Suppression of stimulated Brillouin backscattering by PSK modulation for high-power optical transmission,” IEE Proc., Optoelectron. 133(4), 256–258 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Afzal, R.

E. C. Honea, R. Afzal, M. P. Savage-Leuchs, N. Gitkind, R. Humphreys, J. Henrie, K. Brar, and D. Jander, “Spectrally beam combined fiber lasers for high power, efficiency, and brightness,” Proc. SPIE 8601, 860115 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, B.

B. Anderson, C. Robin, A. Flores, and I. Dajani, “Experimental study of SBS suppression via white noise phase modulation,” Proc. SPIE 8961, 89611W (2014).

Aoki, Y.

Y. Aoki, K. Tajima, and I. Mito, “Input power limits of single-mode optical fibers due to stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical communication systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6(5), 710–719 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Augst, S. J.

Brar, K.

E. C. Honea, R. Afzal, M. P. Savage-Leuchs, N. Gitkind, R. Humphreys, J. Henrie, K. Brar, and D. Jander, “Spectrally beam combined fiber lasers for high power, efficiency, and brightness,” Proc. SPIE 8601, 860115 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Cui, S.

Dajani, I.

B. Anderson, C. Robin, A. Flores, and I. Dajani, “Experimental study of SBS suppression via white noise phase modulation,” Proc. SPIE 8961, 89611W (2014).

A. Flores, C. Lu, C. Robin, S. Naderi, C. Vergien, and I. Dajani, “Experimental and theoretical studies of phase modulation in Yb-doped fiber amplifiers,” Proc. SPIE 8381, 83811B1 (2012).

C. Zeringue, I. Dajani, S. Naderi, G. T. Moore, and C. A. Robin, “A theoretical study of transient stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical fibers seeded with phase-modulated light,” Opt. Express 20(19), 21196–21213 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Zeringue, C. Vergien, and I. Dajani, “Pump-limited, 203 W, single-frequency monolithic fiber amplifier based on laser gain competition,” Opt. Lett. 36(5), 618–620 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fan, T. Y.

Feng, Y.

Flores, A.

B. Anderson, C. Robin, A. Flores, and I. Dajani, “Experimental study of SBS suppression via white noise phase modulation,” Proc. SPIE 8961, 89611W (2014).

A. Flores, C. Lu, C. Robin, S. Naderi, C. Vergien, and I. Dajani, “Experimental and theoretical studies of phase modulation in Yb-doped fiber amplifiers,” Proc. SPIE 8381, 83811B1 (2012).

Gitkind, N.

E. C. Honea, R. Afzal, M. P. Savage-Leuchs, N. Gitkind, R. Humphreys, J. Henrie, K. Brar, and D. Jander, “Spectrally beam combined fiber lasers for high power, efficiency, and brightness,” Proc. SPIE 8601, 860115 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Goldizen, K. C.

Goodno, G. D.

Hadjifotou, A.

A. Hadjifotou and G. A. Hill, “Suppression of stimulated Brillouin backscattering by PSK modulation for high-power optical transmission,” IEE Proc., Optoelectron. 133(4), 256–258 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Henrie, J.

E. C. Honea, R. Afzal, M. P. Savage-Leuchs, N. Gitkind, R. Humphreys, J. Henrie, K. Brar, and D. Jander, “Spectrally beam combined fiber lasers for high power, efficiency, and brightness,” Proc. SPIE 8601, 860115 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Hill, G. A.

A. Hadjifotou and G. A. Hill, “Suppression of stimulated Brillouin backscattering by PSK modulation for high-power optical transmission,” IEE Proc., Optoelectron. 133(4), 256–258 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Honea, E. C.

E. C. Honea, R. Afzal, M. P. Savage-Leuchs, N. Gitkind, R. Humphreys, J. Henrie, K. Brar, and D. Jander, “Spectrally beam combined fiber lasers for high power, efficiency, and brightness,” Proc. SPIE 8601, 860115 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Humphreys, R.

E. C. Honea, R. Afzal, M. P. Savage-Leuchs, N. Gitkind, R. Humphreys, J. Henrie, K. Brar, and D. Jander, “Spectrally beam combined fiber lasers for high power, efficiency, and brightness,” Proc. SPIE 8601, 860115 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Jander, D.

E. C. Honea, R. Afzal, M. P. Savage-Leuchs, N. Gitkind, R. Humphreys, J. Henrie, K. Brar, and D. Jander, “Spectrally beam combined fiber lasers for high power, efficiency, and brightness,” Proc. SPIE 8601, 860115 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Leong, J. S.

F. W. Willems, W. Muys, and J. S. Leong, “Simultaneous suppression of stimulated Brillouin scattering and interferometric noise in externally modulated lightwave AM-SCM systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6(12), 1476–1478 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Liu, C.

Lu, C.

A. Flores, C. Lu, C. Robin, S. Naderi, C. Vergien, and I. Dajani, “Experimental and theoretical studies of phase modulation in Yb-doped fiber amplifiers,” Proc. SPIE 8381, 83811B1 (2012).

McComb, T. S.

McNaught, S. J.

Mito, I.

Y. Aoki, K. Tajima, and I. Mito, “Input power limits of single-mode optical fibers due to stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical communication systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6(5), 710–719 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Moore, G. T.

Murphy, D. V.

Muys, W.

F. W. Willems, W. Muys, and J. S. Leong, “Simultaneous suppression of stimulated Brillouin scattering and interferometric noise in externally modulated lightwave AM-SCM systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6(12), 1476–1478 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Naderi, S.

A. Flores, C. Lu, C. Robin, S. Naderi, C. Vergien, and I. Dajani, “Experimental and theoretical studies of phase modulation in Yb-doped fiber amplifiers,” Proc. SPIE 8381, 83811B1 (2012).

C. Zeringue, I. Dajani, S. Naderi, G. T. Moore, and C. A. Robin, “A theoretical study of transient stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical fibers seeded with phase-modulated light,” Opt. Express 20(19), 21196–21213 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Redmond, S. M.

Robin, C.

B. Anderson, C. Robin, A. Flores, and I. Dajani, “Experimental study of SBS suppression via white noise phase modulation,” Proc. SPIE 8961, 89611W (2014).

A. Flores, C. Lu, C. Robin, S. Naderi, C. Vergien, and I. Dajani, “Experimental and theoretical studies of phase modulation in Yb-doped fiber amplifiers,” Proc. SPIE 8381, 83811B1 (2012).

Robin, C. A.

Rothenberg, J. E.

Sanchez, A.

Savage-Leuchs, M. P.

E. C. Honea, R. Afzal, M. P. Savage-Leuchs, N. Gitkind, R. Humphreys, J. Henrie, K. Brar, and D. Jander, “Spectrally beam combined fiber lasers for high power, efficiency, and brightness,” Proc. SPIE 8601, 860115 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Tajima, K.

Y. Aoki, K. Tajima, and I. Mito, “Input power limits of single-mode optical fibers due to stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical communication systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6(5), 710–719 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Thielen, P. A.

Vergien, C.

A. Flores, C. Lu, C. Robin, S. Naderi, C. Vergien, and I. Dajani, “Experimental and theoretical studies of phase modulation in Yb-doped fiber amplifiers,” Proc. SPIE 8381, 83811B1 (2012).

C. Zeringue, C. Vergien, and I. Dajani, “Pump-limited, 203 W, single-frequency monolithic fiber amplifier based on laser gain competition,” Opt. Lett. 36(5), 618–620 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weber, M. E.

Wickham, M. G.

Willems, F. W.

F. W. Willems, W. Muys, and J. S. Leong, “Simultaneous suppression of stimulated Brillouin scattering and interferometric noise in externally modulated lightwave AM-SCM systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6(12), 1476–1478 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Yu, C. X.

Zeringue, C.

Zhang, L.

Zhou, J.

IEE Proc., Optoelectron. (1)

A. Hadjifotou and G. A. Hill, “Suppression of stimulated Brillouin backscattering by PSK modulation for high-power optical transmission,” IEE Proc., Optoelectron. 133(4), 256–258 (1986).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

F. W. Willems, W. Muys, and J. S. Leong, “Simultaneous suppression of stimulated Brillouin scattering and interferometric noise in externally modulated lightwave AM-SCM systems,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6(12), 1476–1478 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Y. Aoki, K. Tajima, and I. Mito, “Input power limits of single-mode optical fibers due to stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical communication systems,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6(5), 710–719 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Proc. SPIE (3)

B. Anderson, C. Robin, A. Flores, and I. Dajani, “Experimental study of SBS suppression via white noise phase modulation,” Proc. SPIE 8961, 89611W (2014).

A. Flores, C. Lu, C. Robin, S. Naderi, C. Vergien, and I. Dajani, “Experimental and theoretical studies of phase modulation in Yb-doped fiber amplifiers,” Proc. SPIE 8381, 83811B1 (2012).

E. C. Honea, R. Afzal, M. P. Savage-Leuchs, N. Gitkind, R. Humphreys, J. Henrie, K. Brar, and D. Jander, “Spectrally beam combined fiber lasers for high power, efficiency, and brightness,” Proc. SPIE 8601, 860115 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

Nufern Product Brief. NukW: Kilowatt laser amplifier platform.

R. S. Williamson III, “Laser Coherence Control Using Homogeneous Linewidth Broadening,” U.S. Patent No. 7,280,568, Oct. 9 (2007).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Nominal PRBS pattern frequency spectrum exhibiting discrete frequency comb within sinc2 envelope.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental arrangement for PRBS modulated monolithic, fiber amplifier. Amplifier included three intermediate stages and a backward power heterodyne diagnostic for Stokes light characterization. The fiber used in the final stage was a non-PM Yb-doped Nufern 25/400.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Normalized SBS threshold enhancement vs. modulation frequency for the PRBS patterns, n = 3,5. Solid lines represent time-dependent SBS simulation with * depicting experimental data.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Signal power (left axes, black curve) and reflectivity (right axes, blue curve) vs. pump power for 3 GHz, 1170 W fiber amplifier. The gain fiber was comprised of a non-PM Yb-doped Nufern 25/400.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

M2 beam quality and beam profile (inset) measurements of our kW class monolithic fiber amplifier. Notably, excellent beam quality with M2 of 1.2 was attained.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Forward power spectrum showing amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) suppression of better than 50 dB was achieved at 1 kW of output power.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Brillouin gain spectrum obtained from self-heterodyne of single-frequency fiber amplifier. In this case, the gain fiber was comprised of a non-PM Yb-doped Nufern 20/400. The measured data is fit with a Lorentzian lineshape (solid line) to give an estimated gain-narrowed FWHM of 22 MHz.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

a) Backward power measurements made with self-heterodyne experimental setup. The broad spectral components are associated with the Stokes response of the PRBS signal. The narrow peaks are associated with back reflected signal light. b) Fiber amplifier reflectivity for the three modulation frequencies inferring phase modulation can lead to seeding of SBS process.

Equations (3)

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c n A L z + A L t = iω γ e 2 n 2 ρ o ρ A s
c n A S z + A S t = iω γ e 2 n 2 ρ o ρ A L
2 ρ t 2 +( Γ B 2i Ω B ) ρ t i Ω B Γ B ρ= ε o γ e q 2 A L A S 2i Ω B f

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