Abstract

High performance 365 nm vertical-type ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are demonstrated by the insertion of a self-textured oxide mask (STOM) structure using metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. The dislocation densities were reduced significantly via the STOM by the observation of the transmission electron microcopy image. Under an injection current of 20 mA, a 50% light output power enhancement was achieved, representing an enhancement of 35.4% in light extraction efficiency and injected electron efficiency of the LED with STOM in comparison to that without STOM. At 350 mA, the light output power of the STOM-LEDs was approximately 24.4% higher. Measurements of the optical and electrical properties of the LED showed that the corrugated STOM structure improved the light scattering and reflection which increased the light output, and also enhanced the current spreading to intensify radiative recombination.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. T. Nishida, N. Kobayashi, and T. Ban, “GaN-free transparent ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(1), 1–3 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. Zhu, C. X. Shan, L. K. Wang, Y. Yang, J. Y. Zhang, B. Yao, D. Z. Shen, and X. W. Fan, “A route to improved extraction efficiency of light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(4), 041110 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  3. B. J. Kim, G. Yang, H. Y. Kim, K. H. Baik, M. A. Mastro, J. K. Hite, C. R. Eddy, F. Ren, S. J. Pearton, and J. Kim, “GaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with AuCl₃-doped graphene electrodes,” Opt. Express 21(23), 29025–29030 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. Iwaya, S. Terao, N. Hayashi, T. Kashima, T. Takeuchi, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Realization of crack-free and high-quality thick AlxGa1−xN for UV optoelectronics using low-temperature interlayer,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 159–160, 405–413 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Y. Kida, T. Shibata, H. Naoi, H. Miyake, K. Hiramatsu, and M. Tanaka, “Growth of crack-free and high-quality AlGaN with high Al content using epitaxial AlN (0001) films on sapphire,” Phys. Status Solidi A 194(2), 498–501 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. P. Zhang, H. M. Wang, M. E. Gaevski, C. Q. Chen, Q. Fareed, J. W. Yang, G. Simin, and M. Asif Khan, “Crack-free thick AlGaN grown on sapphire using AlN/AlGaN superlattices for strain management,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(19), 3542–3544 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. Y. Ryu, K. S. Jeon, M. G. Kang, Y. Choi, and J. S. Lee, “Dependence of efficiencies in GaN-based vertical blue light-emitting diodes on the thickness and doping concentration of the n-GaN layer,” Opt. Express 21(S1Suppl 1), A190–A200 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. C. F. Chu, F. I. Lai, J. T. Chu, C. C. Yu, C. F. Lin, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Study of GaN light-emitting diodes fabricated by laser lift-off technique,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(8), 3916–3922 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. H. Horng, K. C. Shen, Y. W. Kuo, and D. S. Wuu, “GaN light emitting diodes with wing-type imbedded contacts,” Opt. Express 21(S1Suppl 1), A1–A6 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 071109 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. Son, J. K. Lee, and S. M. Kim, “Effect of SiO2 nanoextractor on far-field radiation pattern of vertical light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(10), 102102 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. Zhou, S. Liu, and H. Ding, “Enhancement in light extraction of LEDs with SiO2 current blocking layer deposited on naturally textured p-GaN surface,” Opt. Laser Technol. 47, 127–130 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  13. T. M. Chen, S. J. Wang, K. M. Uang, H. Y. Kuo, C. C. Tsai, W. C. Lee, and H. Kuan, “Current spreading and blocking designs for improving light output power from the vertical-structured GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(9), 703–705 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  14. K. C. Shen, W. Y. Lin, D. S. Wuu, S. Y. Huang, K. S. Wen, S. F. Pai, L. W. Wu, and R. H. Horng, “An 83% enhancement in the external quantum efficiency of ultraviolet flip-chip light-emitting diodes with the incorporation of a self-textured oxide mask,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 34(2), 274–276 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  15. W. Y. Lin, K. C. Shen, R. H. Horng, and D. S. Wuu, “Enhancing light output power of InGaN-based light-emitting diodes with an embedded self-textured oxide mask structure,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 158(12), H1242–H1246 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  16. K. C. Shen, D. S. Wuu, C. C. Shen, S. L. Ou, and R. H. Horng, “Surface modification on wet-etched patterned sapphire substrates using plasma treatments for improved GaN crystal quality and LED performance,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 158(10), H988–H993 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  17. M. L. Nakarmi, N. Nepal, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Photoluminescence studies of impurity transitions in Mg-doped AlGaN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(9), 091903 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  18. N. I. Bochkareva, V. V. Voronenkov, R. I. Gorbunov, A. S. Zubrilov, Y. S. Lelikov, P. E. Latyshev, Y. T. Rebane, A. I. Tsyuk, and Y. G. Shreter, “Defect-related tunneling mechanism of efficiency droop in III-nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(13), 133502 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  19. S. C. Huang, K. C. Shen, D. S. Wuu, P. M. Tu, H. C. Kuo, C. C. Tu, and R. H. Horng, “Study of 375nm ultraviolet InGaN/AlGaN light-emitting diodes with heavily Si-doped GaN transition layer in growth mode, internal quantum efficiency, and device performance,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(12), 123102 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  20. J. H. Ryou, P. D. Yoder, J. Liu, Z. Lochner, H. Kim, S. Choi, H. J. Kim, and R. D. Dupuis, “Control of quantum-confined stark effect in InGaN-based quantum wells,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1080–1091 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  21. C. C. Liao, S. W. Feng, C. C. Yang, Y. S. Lin, K. J. Ma, C. C. Chuo, C. M. Lee, and J. I. Chyi, “Stimulated emission study of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(3), 318–320 (2000).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (6)

H. Son, J. K. Lee, and S. M. Kim, “Effect of SiO2 nanoextractor on far-field radiation pattern of vertical light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(10), 102102 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Zhou, S. Liu, and H. Ding, “Enhancement in light extraction of LEDs with SiO2 current blocking layer deposited on naturally textured p-GaN surface,” Opt. Laser Technol. 47, 127–130 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. C. Shen, W. Y. Lin, D. S. Wuu, S. Y. Huang, K. S. Wen, S. F. Pai, L. W. Wu, and R. H. Horng, “An 83% enhancement in the external quantum efficiency of ultraviolet flip-chip light-emitting diodes with the incorporation of a self-textured oxide mask,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 34(2), 274–276 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Horng, K. C. Shen, Y. W. Kuo, and D. S. Wuu, “GaN light emitting diodes with wing-type imbedded contacts,” Opt. Express 21(S1Suppl 1), A1–A6 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Y. Ryu, K. S. Jeon, M. G. Kang, Y. Choi, and J. S. Lee, “Dependence of efficiencies in GaN-based vertical blue light-emitting diodes on the thickness and doping concentration of the n-GaN layer,” Opt. Express 21(S1Suppl 1), A190–A200 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. Kim, G. Yang, H. Y. Kim, K. H. Baik, M. A. Mastro, J. K. Hite, C. R. Eddy, F. Ren, S. J. Pearton, and J. Kim, “GaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with AuCl₃-doped graphene electrodes,” Opt. Express 21(23), 29025–29030 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

W. Y. Lin, K. C. Shen, R. H. Horng, and D. S. Wuu, “Enhancing light output power of InGaN-based light-emitting diodes with an embedded self-textured oxide mask structure,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 158(12), H1242–H1246 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. C. Shen, D. S. Wuu, C. C. Shen, S. L. Ou, and R. H. Horng, “Surface modification on wet-etched patterned sapphire substrates using plasma treatments for improved GaN crystal quality and LED performance,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 158(10), H988–H993 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Huang, K. C. Shen, D. S. Wuu, P. M. Tu, H. C. Kuo, C. C. Tu, and R. H. Horng, “Study of 375nm ultraviolet InGaN/AlGaN light-emitting diodes with heavily Si-doped GaN transition layer in growth mode, internal quantum efficiency, and device performance,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(12), 123102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

N. I. Bochkareva, V. V. Voronenkov, R. I. Gorbunov, A. S. Zubrilov, Y. S. Lelikov, P. E. Latyshev, Y. T. Rebane, A. I. Tsyuk, and Y. G. Shreter, “Defect-related tunneling mechanism of efficiency droop in III-nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(13), 133502 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhu, C. X. Shan, L. K. Wang, Y. Yang, J. Y. Zhang, B. Yao, D. Z. Shen, and X. W. Fan, “A route to improved extraction efficiency of light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(4), 041110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

J. H. Ryou, P. D. Yoder, J. Liu, Z. Lochner, H. Kim, S. Choi, H. J. Kim, and R. D. Dupuis, “Control of quantum-confined stark effect in InGaN-based quantum wells,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1080–1091 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Nakarmi, N. Nepal, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Photoluminescence studies of impurity transitions in Mg-doped AlGaN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(9), 091903 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

T. M. Chen, S. J. Wang, K. M. Uang, H. Y. Kuo, C. C. Tsai, W. C. Lee, and H. Kuan, “Current spreading and blocking designs for improving light output power from the vertical-structured GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(9), 703–705 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 071109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

C. F. Chu, F. I. Lai, J. T. Chu, C. C. Yu, C. F. Lin, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Study of GaN light-emitting diodes fabricated by laser lift-off technique,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(8), 3916–3922 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

T. Nishida, N. Kobayashi, and T. Ban, “GaN-free transparent ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(1), 1–3 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

Y. Kida, T. Shibata, H. Naoi, H. Miyake, K. Hiramatsu, and M. Tanaka, “Growth of crack-free and high-quality AlGaN with high Al content using epitaxial AlN (0001) films on sapphire,” Phys. Status Solidi A 194(2), 498–501 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Zhang, H. M. Wang, M. E. Gaevski, C. Q. Chen, Q. Fareed, J. W. Yang, G. Simin, and M. Asif Khan, “Crack-free thick AlGaN grown on sapphire using AlN/AlGaN superlattices for strain management,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(19), 3542–3544 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

M. Iwaya, S. Terao, N. Hayashi, T. Kashima, T. Takeuchi, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Realization of crack-free and high-quality thick AlxGa1−xN for UV optoelectronics using low-temperature interlayer,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 159–160, 405–413 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Liao, S. W. Feng, C. C. Yang, Y. S. Lin, K. J. Ma, C. C. Chuo, C. M. Lee, and J. I. Chyi, “Stimulated emission study of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(3), 318–320 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Akasaki, I.

M. Iwaya, S. Terao, N. Hayashi, T. Kashima, T. Takeuchi, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Realization of crack-free and high-quality thick AlxGa1−xN for UV optoelectronics using low-temperature interlayer,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 159–160, 405–413 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Amano, H.

M. Iwaya, S. Terao, N. Hayashi, T. Kashima, T. Takeuchi, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Realization of crack-free and high-quality thick AlxGa1−xN for UV optoelectronics using low-temperature interlayer,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 159–160, 405–413 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Asif Khan, M.

J. P. Zhang, H. M. Wang, M. E. Gaevski, C. Q. Chen, Q. Fareed, J. W. Yang, G. Simin, and M. Asif Khan, “Crack-free thick AlGaN grown on sapphire using AlN/AlGaN superlattices for strain management,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(19), 3542–3544 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Baik, K. H.

Ban, T.

T. Nishida, N. Kobayashi, and T. Ban, “GaN-free transparent ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(1), 1–3 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bochkareva, N. I.

N. I. Bochkareva, V. V. Voronenkov, R. I. Gorbunov, A. S. Zubrilov, Y. S. Lelikov, P. E. Latyshev, Y. T. Rebane, A. I. Tsyuk, and Y. G. Shreter, “Defect-related tunneling mechanism of efficiency droop in III-nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(13), 133502 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. Q.

J. P. Zhang, H. M. Wang, M. E. Gaevski, C. Q. Chen, Q. Fareed, J. W. Yang, G. Simin, and M. Asif Khan, “Crack-free thick AlGaN grown on sapphire using AlN/AlGaN superlattices for strain management,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(19), 3542–3544 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chen, T. M.

T. M. Chen, S. J. Wang, K. M. Uang, H. Y. Kuo, C. C. Tsai, W. C. Lee, and H. Kuan, “Current spreading and blocking designs for improving light output power from the vertical-structured GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(9), 703–705 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Choi, S.

J. H. Ryou, P. D. Yoder, J. Liu, Z. Lochner, H. Kim, S. Choi, H. J. Kim, and R. D. Dupuis, “Control of quantum-confined stark effect in InGaN-based quantum wells,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1080–1091 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Choi, Y.

Chu, C. F.

C. F. Chu, F. I. Lai, J. T. Chu, C. C. Yu, C. F. Lin, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Study of GaN light-emitting diodes fabricated by laser lift-off technique,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(8), 3916–3922 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chu, J. T.

C. F. Chu, F. I. Lai, J. T. Chu, C. C. Yu, C. F. Lin, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Study of GaN light-emitting diodes fabricated by laser lift-off technique,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(8), 3916–3922 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chuo, C. C.

C. C. Liao, S. W. Feng, C. C. Yang, Y. S. Lin, K. J. Ma, C. C. Chuo, C. M. Lee, and J. I. Chyi, “Stimulated emission study of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(3), 318–320 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chyi, J. I.

C. C. Liao, S. W. Feng, C. C. Yang, Y. S. Lin, K. J. Ma, C. C. Chuo, C. M. Lee, and J. I. Chyi, “Stimulated emission study of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(3), 318–320 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ding, H.

S. Zhou, S. Liu, and H. Ding, “Enhancement in light extraction of LEDs with SiO2 current blocking layer deposited on naturally textured p-GaN surface,” Opt. Laser Technol. 47, 127–130 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Dupuis, R. D.

J. H. Ryou, P. D. Yoder, J. Liu, Z. Lochner, H. Kim, S. Choi, H. J. Kim, and R. D. Dupuis, “Control of quantum-confined stark effect in InGaN-based quantum wells,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1080–1091 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Eddy, C. R.

Epler, J. E.

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 071109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fan, X. W.

H. Zhu, C. X. Shan, L. K. Wang, Y. Yang, J. Y. Zhang, B. Yao, D. Z. Shen, and X. W. Fan, “A route to improved extraction efficiency of light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(4), 041110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fareed, Q.

J. P. Zhang, H. M. Wang, M. E. Gaevski, C. Q. Chen, Q. Fareed, J. W. Yang, G. Simin, and M. Asif Khan, “Crack-free thick AlGaN grown on sapphire using AlN/AlGaN superlattices for strain management,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(19), 3542–3544 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Feng, S. W.

C. C. Liao, S. W. Feng, C. C. Yang, Y. S. Lin, K. J. Ma, C. C. Chuo, C. M. Lee, and J. I. Chyi, “Stimulated emission study of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(3), 318–320 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gaevski, M. E.

J. P. Zhang, H. M. Wang, M. E. Gaevski, C. Q. Chen, Q. Fareed, J. W. Yang, G. Simin, and M. Asif Khan, “Crack-free thick AlGaN grown on sapphire using AlN/AlGaN superlattices for strain management,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(19), 3542–3544 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Gorbunov, R. I.

N. I. Bochkareva, V. V. Voronenkov, R. I. Gorbunov, A. S. Zubrilov, Y. S. Lelikov, P. E. Latyshev, Y. T. Rebane, A. I. Tsyuk, and Y. G. Shreter, “Defect-related tunneling mechanism of efficiency droop in III-nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(13), 133502 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hayashi, N.

M. Iwaya, S. Terao, N. Hayashi, T. Kashima, T. Takeuchi, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Realization of crack-free and high-quality thick AlxGa1−xN for UV optoelectronics using low-temperature interlayer,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 159–160, 405–413 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hiramatsu, K.

Y. Kida, T. Shibata, H. Naoi, H. Miyake, K. Hiramatsu, and M. Tanaka, “Growth of crack-free and high-quality AlGaN with high Al content using epitaxial AlN (0001) films on sapphire,” Phys. Status Solidi A 194(2), 498–501 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hite, J. K.

Holcomb, M. O.

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 071109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Horng, R. H.

K. C. Shen, W. Y. Lin, D. S. Wuu, S. Y. Huang, K. S. Wen, S. F. Pai, L. W. Wu, and R. H. Horng, “An 83% enhancement in the external quantum efficiency of ultraviolet flip-chip light-emitting diodes with the incorporation of a self-textured oxide mask,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 34(2), 274–276 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Horng, K. C. Shen, Y. W. Kuo, and D. S. Wuu, “GaN light emitting diodes with wing-type imbedded contacts,” Opt. Express 21(S1Suppl 1), A1–A6 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. C. Shen, D. S. Wuu, C. C. Shen, S. L. Ou, and R. H. Horng, “Surface modification on wet-etched patterned sapphire substrates using plasma treatments for improved GaN crystal quality and LED performance,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 158(10), H988–H993 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Huang, K. C. Shen, D. S. Wuu, P. M. Tu, H. C. Kuo, C. C. Tu, and R. H. Horng, “Study of 375nm ultraviolet InGaN/AlGaN light-emitting diodes with heavily Si-doped GaN transition layer in growth mode, internal quantum efficiency, and device performance,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(12), 123102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. Y. Lin, K. C. Shen, R. H. Horng, and D. S. Wuu, “Enhancing light output power of InGaN-based light-emitting diodes with an embedded self-textured oxide mask structure,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 158(12), H1242–H1246 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Huang, S. C.

S. C. Huang, K. C. Shen, D. S. Wuu, P. M. Tu, H. C. Kuo, C. C. Tu, and R. H. Horng, “Study of 375nm ultraviolet InGaN/AlGaN light-emitting diodes with heavily Si-doped GaN transition layer in growth mode, internal quantum efficiency, and device performance,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(12), 123102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Huang, S. Y.

K. C. Shen, W. Y. Lin, D. S. Wuu, S. Y. Huang, K. S. Wen, S. F. Pai, L. W. Wu, and R. H. Horng, “An 83% enhancement in the external quantum efficiency of ultraviolet flip-chip light-emitting diodes with the incorporation of a self-textured oxide mask,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 34(2), 274–276 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Iwaya, M.

M. Iwaya, S. Terao, N. Hayashi, T. Kashima, T. Takeuchi, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Realization of crack-free and high-quality thick AlxGa1−xN for UV optoelectronics using low-temperature interlayer,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 159–160, 405–413 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jeon, K. S.

Jiang, H. X.

M. L. Nakarmi, N. Nepal, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Photoluminescence studies of impurity transitions in Mg-doped AlGaN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(9), 091903 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kang, M. G.

Kashima, T.

M. Iwaya, S. Terao, N. Hayashi, T. Kashima, T. Takeuchi, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Realization of crack-free and high-quality thick AlxGa1−xN for UV optoelectronics using low-temperature interlayer,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 159–160, 405–413 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kida, Y.

Y. Kida, T. Shibata, H. Naoi, H. Miyake, K. Hiramatsu, and M. Tanaka, “Growth of crack-free and high-quality AlGaN with high Al content using epitaxial AlN (0001) films on sapphire,” Phys. Status Solidi A 194(2), 498–501 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kim, B. J.

Kim, H.

J. H. Ryou, P. D. Yoder, J. Liu, Z. Lochner, H. Kim, S. Choi, H. J. Kim, and R. D. Dupuis, “Control of quantum-confined stark effect in InGaN-based quantum wells,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1080–1091 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. J.

J. H. Ryou, P. D. Yoder, J. Liu, Z. Lochner, H. Kim, S. Choi, H. J. Kim, and R. D. Dupuis, “Control of quantum-confined stark effect in InGaN-based quantum wells,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1080–1091 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. Y.

Kim, J.

Kim, S. M.

H. Son, J. K. Lee, and S. M. Kim, “Effect of SiO2 nanoextractor on far-field radiation pattern of vertical light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(10), 102102 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, N.

T. Nishida, N. Kobayashi, and T. Ban, “GaN-free transparent ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(1), 1–3 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Krames, M. R.

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 071109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kuan, H.

T. M. Chen, S. J. Wang, K. M. Uang, H. Y. Kuo, C. C. Tsai, W. C. Lee, and H. Kuan, “Current spreading and blocking designs for improving light output power from the vertical-structured GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(9), 703–705 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, H. C.

S. C. Huang, K. C. Shen, D. S. Wuu, P. M. Tu, H. C. Kuo, C. C. Tu, and R. H. Horng, “Study of 375nm ultraviolet InGaN/AlGaN light-emitting diodes with heavily Si-doped GaN transition layer in growth mode, internal quantum efficiency, and device performance,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(12), 123102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Chu, F. I. Lai, J. T. Chu, C. C. Yu, C. F. Lin, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Study of GaN light-emitting diodes fabricated by laser lift-off technique,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(8), 3916–3922 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, H. Y.

T. M. Chen, S. J. Wang, K. M. Uang, H. Y. Kuo, C. C. Tsai, W. C. Lee, and H. Kuan, “Current spreading and blocking designs for improving light output power from the vertical-structured GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(9), 703–705 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, Y. W.

Lai, F. I.

C. F. Chu, F. I. Lai, J. T. Chu, C. C. Yu, C. F. Lin, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Study of GaN light-emitting diodes fabricated by laser lift-off technique,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(8), 3916–3922 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Latyshev, P. E.

N. I. Bochkareva, V. V. Voronenkov, R. I. Gorbunov, A. S. Zubrilov, Y. S. Lelikov, P. E. Latyshev, Y. T. Rebane, A. I. Tsyuk, and Y. G. Shreter, “Defect-related tunneling mechanism of efficiency droop in III-nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(13), 133502 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. M.

C. C. Liao, S. W. Feng, C. C. Yang, Y. S. Lin, K. J. Ma, C. C. Chuo, C. M. Lee, and J. I. Chyi, “Stimulated emission study of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(3), 318–320 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. K.

H. Son, J. K. Lee, and S. M. Kim, “Effect of SiO2 nanoextractor on far-field radiation pattern of vertical light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(10), 102102 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. S.

Lee, W. C.

T. M. Chen, S. J. Wang, K. M. Uang, H. Y. Kuo, C. C. Tsai, W. C. Lee, and H. Kuan, “Current spreading and blocking designs for improving light output power from the vertical-structured GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(9), 703–705 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lelikov, Y. S.

N. I. Bochkareva, V. V. Voronenkov, R. I. Gorbunov, A. S. Zubrilov, Y. S. Lelikov, P. E. Latyshev, Y. T. Rebane, A. I. Tsyuk, and Y. G. Shreter, “Defect-related tunneling mechanism of efficiency droop in III-nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(13), 133502 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liao, C. C.

C. C. Liao, S. W. Feng, C. C. Yang, Y. S. Lin, K. J. Ma, C. C. Chuo, C. M. Lee, and J. I. Chyi, “Stimulated emission study of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(3), 318–320 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. F.

C. F. Chu, F. I. Lai, J. T. Chu, C. C. Yu, C. F. Lin, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Study of GaN light-emitting diodes fabricated by laser lift-off technique,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(8), 3916–3922 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lin, J. Y.

M. L. Nakarmi, N. Nepal, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Photoluminescence studies of impurity transitions in Mg-doped AlGaN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(9), 091903 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lin, W. Y.

K. C. Shen, W. Y. Lin, D. S. Wuu, S. Y. Huang, K. S. Wen, S. F. Pai, L. W. Wu, and R. H. Horng, “An 83% enhancement in the external quantum efficiency of ultraviolet flip-chip light-emitting diodes with the incorporation of a self-textured oxide mask,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 34(2), 274–276 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. Y. Lin, K. C. Shen, R. H. Horng, and D. S. Wuu, “Enhancing light output power of InGaN-based light-emitting diodes with an embedded self-textured oxide mask structure,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 158(12), H1242–H1246 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y. S.

C. C. Liao, S. W. Feng, C. C. Yang, Y. S. Lin, K. J. Ma, C. C. Chuo, C. M. Lee, and J. I. Chyi, “Stimulated emission study of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(3), 318–320 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

J. H. Ryou, P. D. Yoder, J. Liu, Z. Lochner, H. Kim, S. Choi, H. J. Kim, and R. D. Dupuis, “Control of quantum-confined stark effect in InGaN-based quantum wells,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1080–1091 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, S.

S. Zhou, S. Liu, and H. Ding, “Enhancement in light extraction of LEDs with SiO2 current blocking layer deposited on naturally textured p-GaN surface,” Opt. Laser Technol. 47, 127–130 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lochner, Z.

J. H. Ryou, P. D. Yoder, J. Liu, Z. Lochner, H. Kim, S. Choi, H. J. Kim, and R. D. Dupuis, “Control of quantum-confined stark effect in InGaN-based quantum wells,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1080–1091 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ma, K. J.

C. C. Liao, S. W. Feng, C. C. Yang, Y. S. Lin, K. J. Ma, C. C. Chuo, C. M. Lee, and J. I. Chyi, “Stimulated emission study of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(3), 318–320 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Margalith, T.

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 071109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Martin, P. S.

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 071109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mastro, M. A.

Miyake, H.

Y. Kida, T. Shibata, H. Naoi, H. Miyake, K. Hiramatsu, and M. Tanaka, “Growth of crack-free and high-quality AlGaN with high Al content using epitaxial AlN (0001) films on sapphire,” Phys. Status Solidi A 194(2), 498–501 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nakarmi, M. L.

M. L. Nakarmi, N. Nepal, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Photoluminescence studies of impurity transitions in Mg-doped AlGaN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(9), 091903 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Naoi, H.

Y. Kida, T. Shibata, H. Naoi, H. Miyake, K. Hiramatsu, and M. Tanaka, “Growth of crack-free and high-quality AlGaN with high Al content using epitaxial AlN (0001) films on sapphire,” Phys. Status Solidi A 194(2), 498–501 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nepal, N.

M. L. Nakarmi, N. Nepal, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Photoluminescence studies of impurity transitions in Mg-doped AlGaN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(9), 091903 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nishida, T.

T. Nishida, N. Kobayashi, and T. Ban, “GaN-free transparent ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(1), 1–3 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ou, S. L.

K. C. Shen, D. S. Wuu, C. C. Shen, S. L. Ou, and R. H. Horng, “Surface modification on wet-etched patterned sapphire substrates using plasma treatments for improved GaN crystal quality and LED performance,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 158(10), H988–H993 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pai, S. F.

K. C. Shen, W. Y. Lin, D. S. Wuu, S. Y. Huang, K. S. Wen, S. F. Pai, L. W. Wu, and R. H. Horng, “An 83% enhancement in the external quantum efficiency of ultraviolet flip-chip light-emitting diodes with the incorporation of a self-textured oxide mask,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 34(2), 274–276 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Pearton, S. J.

Rebane, Y. T.

N. I. Bochkareva, V. V. Voronenkov, R. I. Gorbunov, A. S. Zubrilov, Y. S. Lelikov, P. E. Latyshev, Y. T. Rebane, A. I. Tsyuk, and Y. G. Shreter, “Defect-related tunneling mechanism of efficiency droop in III-nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(13), 133502 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ren, F.

Ryou, J. H.

J. H. Ryou, P. D. Yoder, J. Liu, Z. Lochner, H. Kim, S. Choi, H. J. Kim, and R. D. Dupuis, “Control of quantum-confined stark effect in InGaN-based quantum wells,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1080–1091 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ryu, H. Y.

Shan, C. X.

H. Zhu, C. X. Shan, L. K. Wang, Y. Yang, J. Y. Zhang, B. Yao, D. Z. Shen, and X. W. Fan, “A route to improved extraction efficiency of light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(4), 041110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shchekin, O. B.

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 071109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shen, C. C.

K. C. Shen, D. S. Wuu, C. C. Shen, S. L. Ou, and R. H. Horng, “Surface modification on wet-etched patterned sapphire substrates using plasma treatments for improved GaN crystal quality and LED performance,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 158(10), H988–H993 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shen, D. Z.

H. Zhu, C. X. Shan, L. K. Wang, Y. Yang, J. Y. Zhang, B. Yao, D. Z. Shen, and X. W. Fan, “A route to improved extraction efficiency of light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(4), 041110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shen, K. C.

R. H. Horng, K. C. Shen, Y. W. Kuo, and D. S. Wuu, “GaN light emitting diodes with wing-type imbedded contacts,” Opt. Express 21(S1Suppl 1), A1–A6 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. C. Shen, W. Y. Lin, D. S. Wuu, S. Y. Huang, K. S. Wen, S. F. Pai, L. W. Wu, and R. H. Horng, “An 83% enhancement in the external quantum efficiency of ultraviolet flip-chip light-emitting diodes with the incorporation of a self-textured oxide mask,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 34(2), 274–276 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. C. Shen, D. S. Wuu, C. C. Shen, S. L. Ou, and R. H. Horng, “Surface modification on wet-etched patterned sapphire substrates using plasma treatments for improved GaN crystal quality and LED performance,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 158(10), H988–H993 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Huang, K. C. Shen, D. S. Wuu, P. M. Tu, H. C. Kuo, C. C. Tu, and R. H. Horng, “Study of 375nm ultraviolet InGaN/AlGaN light-emitting diodes with heavily Si-doped GaN transition layer in growth mode, internal quantum efficiency, and device performance,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(12), 123102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. Y. Lin, K. C. Shen, R. H. Horng, and D. S. Wuu, “Enhancing light output power of InGaN-based light-emitting diodes with an embedded self-textured oxide mask structure,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 158(12), H1242–H1246 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shibata, T.

Y. Kida, T. Shibata, H. Naoi, H. Miyake, K. Hiramatsu, and M. Tanaka, “Growth of crack-free and high-quality AlGaN with high Al content using epitaxial AlN (0001) films on sapphire,” Phys. Status Solidi A 194(2), 498–501 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shreter, Y. G.

N. I. Bochkareva, V. V. Voronenkov, R. I. Gorbunov, A. S. Zubrilov, Y. S. Lelikov, P. E. Latyshev, Y. T. Rebane, A. I. Tsyuk, and Y. G. Shreter, “Defect-related tunneling mechanism of efficiency droop in III-nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(13), 133502 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Simin, G.

J. P. Zhang, H. M. Wang, M. E. Gaevski, C. Q. Chen, Q. Fareed, J. W. Yang, G. Simin, and M. Asif Khan, “Crack-free thick AlGaN grown on sapphire using AlN/AlGaN superlattices for strain management,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(19), 3542–3544 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Son, H.

H. Son, J. K. Lee, and S. M. Kim, “Effect of SiO2 nanoextractor on far-field radiation pattern of vertical light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(10), 102102 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Steigerwald, D. A.

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 071109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Takeuchi, T.

M. Iwaya, S. Terao, N. Hayashi, T. Kashima, T. Takeuchi, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Realization of crack-free and high-quality thick AlxGa1−xN for UV optoelectronics using low-temperature interlayer,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 159–160, 405–413 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, M.

Y. Kida, T. Shibata, H. Naoi, H. Miyake, K. Hiramatsu, and M. Tanaka, “Growth of crack-free and high-quality AlGaN with high Al content using epitaxial AlN (0001) films on sapphire,” Phys. Status Solidi A 194(2), 498–501 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Terao, S.

M. Iwaya, S. Terao, N. Hayashi, T. Kashima, T. Takeuchi, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Realization of crack-free and high-quality thick AlxGa1−xN for UV optoelectronics using low-temperature interlayer,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 159–160, 405–413 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Trottier, T. A.

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 071109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, C. C.

T. M. Chen, S. J. Wang, K. M. Uang, H. Y. Kuo, C. C. Tsai, W. C. Lee, and H. Kuan, “Current spreading and blocking designs for improving light output power from the vertical-structured GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(9), 703–705 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tsyuk, A. I.

N. I. Bochkareva, V. V. Voronenkov, R. I. Gorbunov, A. S. Zubrilov, Y. S. Lelikov, P. E. Latyshev, Y. T. Rebane, A. I. Tsyuk, and Y. G. Shreter, “Defect-related tunneling mechanism of efficiency droop in III-nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(13), 133502 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tu, C. C.

S. C. Huang, K. C. Shen, D. S. Wuu, P. M. Tu, H. C. Kuo, C. C. Tu, and R. H. Horng, “Study of 375nm ultraviolet InGaN/AlGaN light-emitting diodes with heavily Si-doped GaN transition layer in growth mode, internal quantum efficiency, and device performance,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(12), 123102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tu, P. M.

S. C. Huang, K. C. Shen, D. S. Wuu, P. M. Tu, H. C. Kuo, C. C. Tu, and R. H. Horng, “Study of 375nm ultraviolet InGaN/AlGaN light-emitting diodes with heavily Si-doped GaN transition layer in growth mode, internal quantum efficiency, and device performance,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(12), 123102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Uang, K. M.

T. M. Chen, S. J. Wang, K. M. Uang, H. Y. Kuo, C. C. Tsai, W. C. Lee, and H. Kuan, “Current spreading and blocking designs for improving light output power from the vertical-structured GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(9), 703–705 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Voronenkov, V. V.

N. I. Bochkareva, V. V. Voronenkov, R. I. Gorbunov, A. S. Zubrilov, Y. S. Lelikov, P. E. Latyshev, Y. T. Rebane, A. I. Tsyuk, and Y. G. Shreter, “Defect-related tunneling mechanism of efficiency droop in III-nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(13), 133502 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H. M.

J. P. Zhang, H. M. Wang, M. E. Gaevski, C. Q. Chen, Q. Fareed, J. W. Yang, G. Simin, and M. Asif Khan, “Crack-free thick AlGaN grown on sapphire using AlN/AlGaN superlattices for strain management,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(19), 3542–3544 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L. K.

H. Zhu, C. X. Shan, L. K. Wang, Y. Yang, J. Y. Zhang, B. Yao, D. Z. Shen, and X. W. Fan, “A route to improved extraction efficiency of light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(4), 041110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S. C.

C. F. Chu, F. I. Lai, J. T. Chu, C. C. Yu, C. F. Lin, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Study of GaN light-emitting diodes fabricated by laser lift-off technique,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(8), 3916–3922 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S. J.

T. M. Chen, S. J. Wang, K. M. Uang, H. Y. Kuo, C. C. Tsai, W. C. Lee, and H. Kuan, “Current spreading and blocking designs for improving light output power from the vertical-structured GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(9), 703–705 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wen, K. S.

K. C. Shen, W. Y. Lin, D. S. Wuu, S. Y. Huang, K. S. Wen, S. F. Pai, L. W. Wu, and R. H. Horng, “An 83% enhancement in the external quantum efficiency of ultraviolet flip-chip light-emitting diodes with the incorporation of a self-textured oxide mask,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 34(2), 274–276 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Wu, L. W.

K. C. Shen, W. Y. Lin, D. S. Wuu, S. Y. Huang, K. S. Wen, S. F. Pai, L. W. Wu, and R. H. Horng, “An 83% enhancement in the external quantum efficiency of ultraviolet flip-chip light-emitting diodes with the incorporation of a self-textured oxide mask,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 34(2), 274–276 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Wuu, D. S.

K. C. Shen, W. Y. Lin, D. S. Wuu, S. Y. Huang, K. S. Wen, S. F. Pai, L. W. Wu, and R. H. Horng, “An 83% enhancement in the external quantum efficiency of ultraviolet flip-chip light-emitting diodes with the incorporation of a self-textured oxide mask,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 34(2), 274–276 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Horng, K. C. Shen, Y. W. Kuo, and D. S. Wuu, “GaN light emitting diodes with wing-type imbedded contacts,” Opt. Express 21(S1Suppl 1), A1–A6 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. C. Shen, D. S. Wuu, C. C. Shen, S. L. Ou, and R. H. Horng, “Surface modification on wet-etched patterned sapphire substrates using plasma treatments for improved GaN crystal quality and LED performance,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 158(10), H988–H993 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. Y. Lin, K. C. Shen, R. H. Horng, and D. S. Wuu, “Enhancing light output power of InGaN-based light-emitting diodes with an embedded self-textured oxide mask structure,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 158(12), H1242–H1246 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Huang, K. C. Shen, D. S. Wuu, P. M. Tu, H. C. Kuo, C. C. Tu, and R. H. Horng, “Study of 375nm ultraviolet InGaN/AlGaN light-emitting diodes with heavily Si-doped GaN transition layer in growth mode, internal quantum efficiency, and device performance,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(12), 123102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C. C.

C. C. Liao, S. W. Feng, C. C. Yang, Y. S. Lin, K. J. Ma, C. C. Chuo, C. M. Lee, and J. I. Chyi, “Stimulated emission study of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(3), 318–320 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yang, G.

Yang, J. W.

J. P. Zhang, H. M. Wang, M. E. Gaevski, C. Q. Chen, Q. Fareed, J. W. Yang, G. Simin, and M. Asif Khan, “Crack-free thick AlGaN grown on sapphire using AlN/AlGaN superlattices for strain management,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(19), 3542–3544 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Y.

H. Zhu, C. X. Shan, L. K. Wang, Y. Yang, J. Y. Zhang, B. Yao, D. Z. Shen, and X. W. Fan, “A route to improved extraction efficiency of light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(4), 041110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yao, B.

H. Zhu, C. X. Shan, L. K. Wang, Y. Yang, J. Y. Zhang, B. Yao, D. Z. Shen, and X. W. Fan, “A route to improved extraction efficiency of light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(4), 041110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yoder, P. D.

J. H. Ryou, P. D. Yoder, J. Liu, Z. Lochner, H. Kim, S. Choi, H. J. Kim, and R. D. Dupuis, “Control of quantum-confined stark effect in InGaN-based quantum wells,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 15(4), 1080–1091 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yu, C. C.

C. F. Chu, F. I. Lai, J. T. Chu, C. C. Yu, C. F. Lin, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Study of GaN light-emitting diodes fabricated by laser lift-off technique,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(8), 3916–3922 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J. P.

J. P. Zhang, H. M. Wang, M. E. Gaevski, C. Q. Chen, Q. Fareed, J. W. Yang, G. Simin, and M. Asif Khan, “Crack-free thick AlGaN grown on sapphire using AlN/AlGaN superlattices for strain management,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(19), 3542–3544 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J. Y.

H. Zhu, C. X. Shan, L. K. Wang, Y. Yang, J. Y. Zhang, B. Yao, D. Z. Shen, and X. W. Fan, “A route to improved extraction efficiency of light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(4), 041110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, S.

S. Zhou, S. Liu, and H. Ding, “Enhancement in light extraction of LEDs with SiO2 current blocking layer deposited on naturally textured p-GaN surface,” Opt. Laser Technol. 47, 127–130 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, H.

H. Zhu, C. X. Shan, L. K. Wang, Y. Yang, J. Y. Zhang, B. Yao, D. Z. Shen, and X. W. Fan, “A route to improved extraction efficiency of light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(4), 041110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zubrilov, A. S.

N. I. Bochkareva, V. V. Voronenkov, R. I. Gorbunov, A. S. Zubrilov, Y. S. Lelikov, P. E. Latyshev, Y. T. Rebane, A. I. Tsyuk, and Y. G. Shreter, “Defect-related tunneling mechanism of efficiency droop in III-nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(13), 133502 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

H. Son, J. K. Lee, and S. M. Kim, “Effect of SiO2 nanoextractor on far-field radiation pattern of vertical light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Express 6(10), 102102 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (7)

J. P. Zhang, H. M. Wang, M. E. Gaevski, C. Q. Chen, Q. Fareed, J. W. Yang, G. Simin, and M. Asif Khan, “Crack-free thick AlGaN grown on sapphire using AlN/AlGaN superlattices for strain management,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(19), 3542–3544 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Nishida, N. Kobayashi, and T. Ban, “GaN-free transparent ultraviolet light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(1), 1–3 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhu, C. X. Shan, L. K. Wang, Y. Yang, J. Y. Zhang, B. Yao, D. Z. Shen, and X. W. Fan, “A route to improved extraction efficiency of light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(4), 041110 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

M. Iwaya, S. Terao, N. Hayashi, T. Kashima, T. Takeuchi, H. Amano, and I. Akasaki, “Realization of crack-free and high-quality thick AlxGa1−xN for UV optoelectronics using low-temperature interlayer,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 159–160, 405–413 (2000).
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K. C. Shen, W. Y. Lin, D. S. Wuu, S. Y. Huang, K. S. Wen, S. F. Pai, L. W. Wu, and R. H. Horng, “An 83% enhancement in the external quantum efficiency of ultraviolet flip-chip light-emitting diodes with the incorporation of a self-textured oxide mask,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 34(2), 274–276 (2013).
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[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic structure and (b) scanning electron microscopy image of the UVLED with STOM. The inset of TEM image of Fig. 1(b) shows the some voids occurred beneath the STOM.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

XRD rocking curves of n-AlGaN template with and without STOM for the (002) and (102) reflection plane.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

PL spectra measurements for the STOM- and C-LEDs at −175 °C and 25 °C. The inset illustrates the defect-related donor and Mg-doped acceptor transition via carrier leakages.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) LED output power as functions of injection current of STOM- and C-LEDs. In the inset, forward I-V characteristics of the STOM-LEDs and C-LEDs. (b) LED emission patterns of the STOM- and C-LEDs at an injection current of 350 mA.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a)–(f) Current density distribution in the LT-AlGaN, n-AlGaN, and MQW layer of the STOM- and C-LEDs at 350 mA injected current

Equations (1)

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η EQE = η EE × η IQE × η LEE .

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