Abstract

The surface chemical state and local electronic structure of AlxGa1-xN (x = 0~0.45) epi-layers have been systematically investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy. The results show that the surface of AlxGa1-xN is a composite of oxide and nitride of gallium and aluminum. In addition, it was identified that the Ga-O components were converted to Al-O components when the AlxGa1-xN sample was exposed to air. The EXAFS analysis also reveals that the Ga-N and Ga-Al bond lengths are independent of the Al composition, whereas the Ga-Ga bond length is a function of Al composition.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. F. Qian, M. Brewster, S. K. Lim, Y. Ling, C. Greene, O. Laboutin, J. W. Johnson, S. Gradečak, Y. Cao, and Y. Li, “Controlled synthesis of AlN/GaN multiple quantum well nanowire structures and their optical properties,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 3344–3350 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. S. Wang, X. Zhang, H. Guo, H. Yang, M. Zhu, L. Cheng, X. Zeng, and Y. Cui, “Enhanced performance of GaN-based light-emitting diodes by using a p-InAlGaN/GaN superlattice as electron blocking layer,” J. Mod. Opt. 60(21), 2012–2017 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Shatalov, W. Sun, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082101 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Zhang and N. Tansu, “Improvement in spontaneous emission rates for InGaN quantum wells on ternary InGaN substrate for light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(11), 113110 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Y. D. Ko, K. C. Kim, and Y. S. Kim, “Effects of substrate temperature on the Ga-doped ZnO films as an anode material of organic light emitting diodes,” Superlattices Microstruct. 51(6), 933–941 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. O. Jeon, S. E. Jang, H. S. Son, and J. Y. Lee, “External quantum efficiency above 20% in deep blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 23(12), 1436–1441 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. G. Ashkenasy, D. Cahen, R. Cohen, A. Shanzer, and A. Vilan, “Molecular engineering of semiconductor surfaces and devices,” Acc. Chem. Res. 35(2), 121–128 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. Y. Lei, S. Yang, M. Wu, and G. Wilde, “Surface patterning using templates: concept, properties and device applications,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 40(3), 1247–1258 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. Y. W. Lian, Y. S. Lin, J. M. Yang, C. H. Cheng, and S. S. H. Hsu, “AlGaN/GaN Schottky barrier diodes on silicon substrates with selective Si diffusion for low onset voltage and high reverse blocking,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 34(8), 981–983 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  10. P. S. Park, K. M. Reddy, D. N. Nath, Z. Yang, N. P. Padture, and S. Rajan, “Ohmic contact formation between metal and AlGaN/GaN heterostructure via graphene insertion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(15), 153501 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. Kochubey, V. Kaichev, A. Saraev, S. Tomyn, A. Belov, and Y. Voloshin, “Combined X-ray absorption near-edge structure and X-ray photoelectron study of the electrocatalytically active cobalt(I) cage complexes and the clathrochelate cobalt(II)- and cobalt(III)-containing precursors and analogs,” J. Phys. Chem. C 117(6), 2753–2759 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  12. L. S. Cavalcante, N. C. Batista, T. Badapanda, M. G. S. Costa, M. S. Li, W. Avansie, V. R. Mastelaro, E. Longo, J. W. M. Espinosa, and M. F. C. Gurgel, “Local electronic structure, optical bandgap and photoluminescence (PL) properties of Ba(Zr0.75Ti0.25)O3 powders,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 16(3), 1035–1045 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. C. Ray, H. C. Hsueh, C. H. Wu, C. W. Pao, K. Asokan, M. T. Liu, H. M. Tsai, C. H. Chuang, W. F. Pong, J. W. Chiou, M. H. Tsai, J. M. Lee, L. Y. Jang, J. M. Chen, and J. F. Lee, “Local atomic and electronic structures and ferroelectric properties of PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3: An x-ray absorption study,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(4), 042909 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  14. L. Q. Zhang, C. H. Zhang, J. Gou, L. H. Han, Y. T. Yang, Y. M. Sun, and Y. F. Jin, “PL and XPS study of radiation damage created by various slow highly charged heavy ions on GaN epitaxial layers,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B 269(23), 2835–2839 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  15. T. Fujishima, S. Joglekar, D. Piedra, H. S. Lee, Y. Zhang, A. Uedono, and T. Palacios, “Formation of low resistance ohmic contacts in GaN-based high electron mobility transistors with BCl3 surface plasma treatment,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(8), 083508 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. Higashiwaki, S. Chowdhury, B. L. Swenson, and U. K. Mishra, “Effects of oxidation on surface chemical states and barrier height of AlGaN/GaN heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(22), 222104 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  17. R. D. Long and P. C. McIntyre, “Surface preparation and deposited gate oxides for gallium nitride based metal oxide semiconductor devices,” Materials 5(12), 1297–1335 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  18. T. Hashizume, R. Nakasaki, S. Ootomo, S. Oyama, and H. Hasegawa, “Surface characterization of GaN and AlGaN layers grown by MOVPE,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 80(1-3), 309–312 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. Dumont, E. Monroy, E. Muñoz, R. Caudano, and R. Sporken, “Investigation of metal-GaN and metal-AlGaN contacts by XPS depth profiles and by electrical measurements,” J. Cryst. Growth 230(3-4), 558–563 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  20. C. L. Perkins, B. Egaas, I. Repins, and B. To, “Quantitative analysis of graded Cu(In1-x,Gax)Se2 thin films by AES, ICP-OES, and EPMA,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(3), 878–886 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  21. B. Ravel and M. Newville, “ATHENA, ARTEMIS, HEPHAESTUS: data analysis for X-ray absorption spectroscopy using IFEFFIT,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 12(4), 537–541 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. M. Newville, “IFEFFIT: interactive XAFS analysis and FEFF fitting,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 8(2), 322–324 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. T. Mattila and A. Zunger, “Predicted bond length variation in wurtzite and zinc-blende InGaN and AlGaN alloys,” J. Appl. Phys. 85(1), 160–167 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  24. M. Ferhat and F. Bechstedt, “First-principles calculations of gap bowing in InxGa1-xN and InxAl1-xN alloys: relation to structural and thermodynamic properties,” Phys. Rev. B 65(7), 075213 (2002).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (6)

S. Wang, X. Zhang, H. Guo, H. Yang, M. Zhu, L. Cheng, X. Zeng, and Y. Cui, “Enhanced performance of GaN-based light-emitting diodes by using a p-InAlGaN/GaN superlattice as electron blocking layer,” J. Mod. Opt. 60(21), 2012–2017 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. W. Lian, Y. S. Lin, J. M. Yang, C. H. Cheng, and S. S. H. Hsu, “AlGaN/GaN Schottky barrier diodes on silicon substrates with selective Si diffusion for low onset voltage and high reverse blocking,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 34(8), 981–983 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Park, K. M. Reddy, D. N. Nath, Z. Yang, N. P. Padture, and S. Rajan, “Ohmic contact formation between metal and AlGaN/GaN heterostructure via graphene insertion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(15), 153501 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. Kochubey, V. Kaichev, A. Saraev, S. Tomyn, A. Belov, and Y. Voloshin, “Combined X-ray absorption near-edge structure and X-ray photoelectron study of the electrocatalytically active cobalt(I) cage complexes and the clathrochelate cobalt(II)- and cobalt(III)-containing precursors and analogs,” J. Phys. Chem. C 117(6), 2753–2759 (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Cavalcante, N. C. Batista, T. Badapanda, M. G. S. Costa, M. S. Li, W. Avansie, V. R. Mastelaro, E. Longo, J. W. M. Espinosa, and M. F. C. Gurgel, “Local electronic structure, optical bandgap and photoluminescence (PL) properties of Ba(Zr0.75Ti0.25)O3 powders,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 16(3), 1035–1045 (2013).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujishima, S. Joglekar, D. Piedra, H. S. Lee, Y. Zhang, A. Uedono, and T. Palacios, “Formation of low resistance ohmic contacts in GaN-based high electron mobility transistors with BCl3 surface plasma treatment,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(8), 083508 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (4)

F. Qian, M. Brewster, S. K. Lim, Y. Ling, C. Greene, O. Laboutin, J. W. Johnson, S. Gradečak, Y. Cao, and Y. Li, “Controlled synthesis of AlN/GaN multiple quantum well nanowire structures and their optical properties,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 3344–3350 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. D. Ko, K. C. Kim, and Y. S. Kim, “Effects of substrate temperature on the Ga-doped ZnO films as an anode material of organic light emitting diodes,” Superlattices Microstruct. 51(6), 933–941 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Long and P. C. McIntyre, “Surface preparation and deposited gate oxides for gallium nitride based metal oxide semiconductor devices,” Materials 5(12), 1297–1335 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (5)

S. O. Jeon, S. E. Jang, H. S. Son, and J. Y. Lee, “External quantum efficiency above 20% in deep blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 23(12), 1436–1441 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhang and N. Tansu, “Improvement in spontaneous emission rates for InGaN quantum wells on ternary InGaN substrate for light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(11), 113110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Ray, H. C. Hsueh, C. H. Wu, C. W. Pao, K. Asokan, M. T. Liu, H. M. Tsai, C. H. Chuang, W. F. Pong, J. W. Chiou, M. H. Tsai, J. M. Lee, L. Y. Jang, J. M. Chen, and J. F. Lee, “Local atomic and electronic structures and ferroelectric properties of PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3: An x-ray absorption study,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(4), 042909 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Q. Zhang, C. H. Zhang, J. Gou, L. H. Han, Y. T. Yang, Y. M. Sun, and Y. F. Jin, “PL and XPS study of radiation damage created by various slow highly charged heavy ions on GaN epitaxial layers,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B 269(23), 2835–2839 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Lei, S. Yang, M. Wu, and G. Wilde, “Surface patterning using templates: concept, properties and device applications,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 40(3), 1247–1258 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

M. Higashiwaki, S. Chowdhury, B. L. Swenson, and U. K. Mishra, “Effects of oxidation on surface chemical states and barrier height of AlGaN/GaN heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(22), 222104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Perkins, B. Egaas, I. Repins, and B. To, “Quantitative analysis of graded Cu(In1-x,Gax)Se2 thin films by AES, ICP-OES, and EPMA,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(3), 878–886 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

B. Ravel and M. Newville, “ATHENA, ARTEMIS, HEPHAESTUS: data analysis for X-ray absorption spectroscopy using IFEFFIT,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 12(4), 537–541 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

G. Ashkenasy, D. Cahen, R. Cohen, A. Shanzer, and A. Vilan, “Molecular engineering of semiconductor surfaces and devices,” Acc. Chem. Res. 35(2), 121–128 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ferhat and F. Bechstedt, “First-principles calculations of gap bowing in InxGa1-xN and InxAl1-xN alloys: relation to structural and thermodynamic properties,” Phys. Rev. B 65(7), 075213 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

T. Hashizume, R. Nakasaki, S. Ootomo, S. Oyama, and H. Hasegawa, “Surface characterization of GaN and AlGaN layers grown by MOVPE,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 80(1-3), 309–312 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Dumont, E. Monroy, E. Muñoz, R. Caudano, and R. Sporken, “Investigation of metal-GaN and metal-AlGaN contacts by XPS depth profiles and by electrical measurements,” J. Cryst. Growth 230(3-4), 558–563 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Newville, “IFEFFIT: interactive XAFS analysis and FEFF fitting,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 8(2), 322–324 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

T. Mattila and A. Zunger, “Predicted bond length variation in wurtzite and zinc-blende InGaN and AlGaN alloys,” J. Appl. Phys. 85(1), 160–167 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ashkenasy, G.

G. Ashkenasy, D. Cahen, R. Cohen, A. Shanzer, and A. Vilan, “Molecular engineering of semiconductor surfaces and devices,” Acc. Chem. Res. 35(2), 121–128 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Asokan, K.

S. C. Ray, H. C. Hsueh, C. H. Wu, C. W. Pao, K. Asokan, M. T. Liu, H. M. Tsai, C. H. Chuang, W. F. Pong, J. W. Chiou, M. H. Tsai, J. M. Lee, L. Y. Jang, J. M. Chen, and J. F. Lee, “Local atomic and electronic structures and ferroelectric properties of PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3: An x-ray absorption study,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(4), 042909 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Avansie, W.

L. S. Cavalcante, N. C. Batista, T. Badapanda, M. G. S. Costa, M. S. Li, W. Avansie, V. R. Mastelaro, E. Longo, J. W. M. Espinosa, and M. F. C. Gurgel, “Local electronic structure, optical bandgap and photoluminescence (PL) properties of Ba(Zr0.75Ti0.25)O3 powders,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 16(3), 1035–1045 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Badapanda, T.

L. S. Cavalcante, N. C. Batista, T. Badapanda, M. G. S. Costa, M. S. Li, W. Avansie, V. R. Mastelaro, E. Longo, J. W. M. Espinosa, and M. F. C. Gurgel, “Local electronic structure, optical bandgap and photoluminescence (PL) properties of Ba(Zr0.75Ti0.25)O3 powders,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 16(3), 1035–1045 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Batista, N. C.

L. S. Cavalcante, N. C. Batista, T. Badapanda, M. G. S. Costa, M. S. Li, W. Avansie, V. R. Mastelaro, E. Longo, J. W. M. Espinosa, and M. F. C. Gurgel, “Local electronic structure, optical bandgap and photoluminescence (PL) properties of Ba(Zr0.75Ti0.25)O3 powders,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 16(3), 1035–1045 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Bechstedt, F.

M. Ferhat and F. Bechstedt, “First-principles calculations of gap bowing in InxGa1-xN and InxAl1-xN alloys: relation to structural and thermodynamic properties,” Phys. Rev. B 65(7), 075213 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Belov, A.

D. Kochubey, V. Kaichev, A. Saraev, S. Tomyn, A. Belov, and Y. Voloshin, “Combined X-ray absorption near-edge structure and X-ray photoelectron study of the electrocatalytically active cobalt(I) cage complexes and the clathrochelate cobalt(II)- and cobalt(III)-containing precursors and analogs,” J. Phys. Chem. C 117(6), 2753–2759 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Bilenko, Y.

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Brewster, M.

F. Qian, M. Brewster, S. K. Lim, Y. Ling, C. Greene, O. Laboutin, J. W. Johnson, S. Gradečak, Y. Cao, and Y. Li, “Controlled synthesis of AlN/GaN multiple quantum well nanowire structures and their optical properties,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 3344–3350 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cahen, D.

G. Ashkenasy, D. Cahen, R. Cohen, A. Shanzer, and A. Vilan, “Molecular engineering of semiconductor surfaces and devices,” Acc. Chem. Res. 35(2), 121–128 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cao, Y.

F. Qian, M. Brewster, S. K. Lim, Y. Ling, C. Greene, O. Laboutin, J. W. Johnson, S. Gradečak, Y. Cao, and Y. Li, “Controlled synthesis of AlN/GaN multiple quantum well nanowire structures and their optical properties,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 3344–3350 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Caudano, R.

J. Dumont, E. Monroy, E. Muñoz, R. Caudano, and R. Sporken, “Investigation of metal-GaN and metal-AlGaN contacts by XPS depth profiles and by electrical measurements,” J. Cryst. Growth 230(3-4), 558–563 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cavalcante, L. S.

L. S. Cavalcante, N. C. Batista, T. Badapanda, M. G. S. Costa, M. S. Li, W. Avansie, V. R. Mastelaro, E. Longo, J. W. M. Espinosa, and M. F. C. Gurgel, “Local electronic structure, optical bandgap and photoluminescence (PL) properties of Ba(Zr0.75Ti0.25)O3 powders,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 16(3), 1035–1045 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J. M.

S. C. Ray, H. C. Hsueh, C. H. Wu, C. W. Pao, K. Asokan, M. T. Liu, H. M. Tsai, C. H. Chuang, W. F. Pong, J. W. Chiou, M. H. Tsai, J. M. Lee, L. Y. Jang, J. M. Chen, and J. F. Lee, “Local atomic and electronic structures and ferroelectric properties of PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3: An x-ray absorption study,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(4), 042909 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, C. H.

Y. W. Lian, Y. S. Lin, J. M. Yang, C. H. Cheng, and S. S. H. Hsu, “AlGaN/GaN Schottky barrier diodes on silicon substrates with selective Si diffusion for low onset voltage and high reverse blocking,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 34(8), 981–983 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, L.

S. Wang, X. Zhang, H. Guo, H. Yang, M. Zhu, L. Cheng, X. Zeng, and Y. Cui, “Enhanced performance of GaN-based light-emitting diodes by using a p-InAlGaN/GaN superlattice as electron blocking layer,” J. Mod. Opt. 60(21), 2012–2017 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Chiou, J. W.

S. C. Ray, H. C. Hsueh, C. H. Wu, C. W. Pao, K. Asokan, M. T. Liu, H. M. Tsai, C. H. Chuang, W. F. Pong, J. W. Chiou, M. H. Tsai, J. M. Lee, L. Y. Jang, J. M. Chen, and J. F. Lee, “Local atomic and electronic structures and ferroelectric properties of PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3: An x-ray absorption study,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(4), 042909 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chowdhury, S.

M. Higashiwaki, S. Chowdhury, B. L. Swenson, and U. K. Mishra, “Effects of oxidation on surface chemical states and barrier height of AlGaN/GaN heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(22), 222104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chuang, C. H.

S. C. Ray, H. C. Hsueh, C. H. Wu, C. W. Pao, K. Asokan, M. T. Liu, H. M. Tsai, C. H. Chuang, W. F. Pong, J. W. Chiou, M. H. Tsai, J. M. Lee, L. Y. Jang, J. M. Chen, and J. F. Lee, “Local atomic and electronic structures and ferroelectric properties of PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3: An x-ray absorption study,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(4), 042909 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, R.

G. Ashkenasy, D. Cahen, R. Cohen, A. Shanzer, and A. Vilan, “Molecular engineering of semiconductor surfaces and devices,” Acc. Chem. Res. 35(2), 121–128 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Costa, M. G. S.

L. S. Cavalcante, N. C. Batista, T. Badapanda, M. G. S. Costa, M. S. Li, W. Avansie, V. R. Mastelaro, E. Longo, J. W. M. Espinosa, and M. F. C. Gurgel, “Local electronic structure, optical bandgap and photoluminescence (PL) properties of Ba(Zr0.75Ti0.25)O3 powders,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 16(3), 1035–1045 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Cui, Y.

S. Wang, X. Zhang, H. Guo, H. Yang, M. Zhu, L. Cheng, X. Zeng, and Y. Cui, “Enhanced performance of GaN-based light-emitting diodes by using a p-InAlGaN/GaN superlattice as electron blocking layer,” J. Mod. Opt. 60(21), 2012–2017 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Dobrinsky, A.

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Dumont, J.

J. Dumont, E. Monroy, E. Muñoz, R. Caudano, and R. Sporken, “Investigation of metal-GaN and metal-AlGaN contacts by XPS depth profiles and by electrical measurements,” J. Cryst. Growth 230(3-4), 558–563 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Egaas, B.

C. L. Perkins, B. Egaas, I. Repins, and B. To, “Quantitative analysis of graded Cu(In1-x,Gax)Se2 thin films by AES, ICP-OES, and EPMA,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(3), 878–886 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Espinosa, J. W. M.

L. S. Cavalcante, N. C. Batista, T. Badapanda, M. G. S. Costa, M. S. Li, W. Avansie, V. R. Mastelaro, E. Longo, J. W. M. Espinosa, and M. F. C. Gurgel, “Local electronic structure, optical bandgap and photoluminescence (PL) properties of Ba(Zr0.75Ti0.25)O3 powders,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 16(3), 1035–1045 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Ferhat, M.

M. Ferhat and F. Bechstedt, “First-principles calculations of gap bowing in InxGa1-xN and InxAl1-xN alloys: relation to structural and thermodynamic properties,” Phys. Rev. B 65(7), 075213 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Fujishima, T.

T. Fujishima, S. Joglekar, D. Piedra, H. S. Lee, Y. Zhang, A. Uedono, and T. Palacios, “Formation of low resistance ohmic contacts in GaN-based high electron mobility transistors with BCl3 surface plasma treatment,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(8), 083508 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Garrett, G.

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Gaska, R.

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Gou, J.

L. Q. Zhang, C. H. Zhang, J. Gou, L. H. Han, Y. T. Yang, Y. M. Sun, and Y. F. Jin, “PL and XPS study of radiation damage created by various slow highly charged heavy ions on GaN epitaxial layers,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B 269(23), 2835–2839 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gradecak, S.

F. Qian, M. Brewster, S. K. Lim, Y. Ling, C. Greene, O. Laboutin, J. W. Johnson, S. Gradečak, Y. Cao, and Y. Li, “Controlled synthesis of AlN/GaN multiple quantum well nanowire structures and their optical properties,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 3344–3350 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Greene, C.

F. Qian, M. Brewster, S. K. Lim, Y. Ling, C. Greene, O. Laboutin, J. W. Johnson, S. Gradečak, Y. Cao, and Y. Li, “Controlled synthesis of AlN/GaN multiple quantum well nanowire structures and their optical properties,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 3344–3350 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guo, H.

S. Wang, X. Zhang, H. Guo, H. Yang, M. Zhu, L. Cheng, X. Zeng, and Y. Cui, “Enhanced performance of GaN-based light-emitting diodes by using a p-InAlGaN/GaN superlattice as electron blocking layer,” J. Mod. Opt. 60(21), 2012–2017 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Gurgel, M. F. C.

L. S. Cavalcante, N. C. Batista, T. Badapanda, M. G. S. Costa, M. S. Li, W. Avansie, V. R. Mastelaro, E. Longo, J. W. M. Espinosa, and M. F. C. Gurgel, “Local electronic structure, optical bandgap and photoluminescence (PL) properties of Ba(Zr0.75Ti0.25)O3 powders,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 16(3), 1035–1045 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Han, L. H.

L. Q. Zhang, C. H. Zhang, J. Gou, L. H. Han, Y. T. Yang, Y. M. Sun, and Y. F. Jin, “PL and XPS study of radiation damage created by various slow highly charged heavy ions on GaN epitaxial layers,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B 269(23), 2835–2839 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hasegawa, H.

T. Hashizume, R. Nakasaki, S. Ootomo, S. Oyama, and H. Hasegawa, “Surface characterization of GaN and AlGaN layers grown by MOVPE,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 80(1-3), 309–312 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hashizume, T.

T. Hashizume, R. Nakasaki, S. Ootomo, S. Oyama, and H. Hasegawa, “Surface characterization of GaN and AlGaN layers grown by MOVPE,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 80(1-3), 309–312 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Higashiwaki, M.

M. Higashiwaki, S. Chowdhury, B. L. Swenson, and U. K. Mishra, “Effects of oxidation on surface chemical states and barrier height of AlGaN/GaN heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(22), 222104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, S. S. H.

Y. W. Lian, Y. S. Lin, J. M. Yang, C. H. Cheng, and S. S. H. Hsu, “AlGaN/GaN Schottky barrier diodes on silicon substrates with selective Si diffusion for low onset voltage and high reverse blocking,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 34(8), 981–983 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Hsueh, H. C.

S. C. Ray, H. C. Hsueh, C. H. Wu, C. W. Pao, K. Asokan, M. T. Liu, H. M. Tsai, C. H. Chuang, W. F. Pong, J. W. Chiou, M. H. Tsai, J. M. Lee, L. Y. Jang, J. M. Chen, and J. F. Lee, “Local atomic and electronic structures and ferroelectric properties of PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3: An x-ray absorption study,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(4), 042909 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hu, X.

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jang, L. Y.

S. C. Ray, H. C. Hsueh, C. H. Wu, C. W. Pao, K. Asokan, M. T. Liu, H. M. Tsai, C. H. Chuang, W. F. Pong, J. W. Chiou, M. H. Tsai, J. M. Lee, L. Y. Jang, J. M. Chen, and J. F. Lee, “Local atomic and electronic structures and ferroelectric properties of PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3: An x-ray absorption study,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(4), 042909 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jang, S. E.

S. O. Jeon, S. E. Jang, H. S. Son, and J. Y. Lee, “External quantum efficiency above 20% in deep blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 23(12), 1436–1441 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jeon, S. O.

S. O. Jeon, S. E. Jang, H. S. Son, and J. Y. Lee, “External quantum efficiency above 20% in deep blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 23(12), 1436–1441 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jin, Y. F.

L. Q. Zhang, C. H. Zhang, J. Gou, L. H. Han, Y. T. Yang, Y. M. Sun, and Y. F. Jin, “PL and XPS study of radiation damage created by various slow highly charged heavy ions on GaN epitaxial layers,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B 269(23), 2835–2839 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Joglekar, S.

T. Fujishima, S. Joglekar, D. Piedra, H. S. Lee, Y. Zhang, A. Uedono, and T. Palacios, “Formation of low resistance ohmic contacts in GaN-based high electron mobility transistors with BCl3 surface plasma treatment,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(8), 083508 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, J. W.

F. Qian, M. Brewster, S. K. Lim, Y. Ling, C. Greene, O. Laboutin, J. W. Johnson, S. Gradečak, Y. Cao, and Y. Li, “Controlled synthesis of AlN/GaN multiple quantum well nanowire structures and their optical properties,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 3344–3350 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaichev, V.

D. Kochubey, V. Kaichev, A. Saraev, S. Tomyn, A. Belov, and Y. Voloshin, “Combined X-ray absorption near-edge structure and X-ray photoelectron study of the electrocatalytically active cobalt(I) cage complexes and the clathrochelate cobalt(II)- and cobalt(III)-containing precursors and analogs,” J. Phys. Chem. C 117(6), 2753–2759 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K. C.

Y. D. Ko, K. C. Kim, and Y. S. Kim, “Effects of substrate temperature on the Ga-doped ZnO films as an anode material of organic light emitting diodes,” Superlattices Microstruct. 51(6), 933–941 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y. S.

Y. D. Ko, K. C. Kim, and Y. S. Kim, “Effects of substrate temperature on the Ga-doped ZnO films as an anode material of organic light emitting diodes,” Superlattices Microstruct. 51(6), 933–941 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ko, Y. D.

Y. D. Ko, K. C. Kim, and Y. S. Kim, “Effects of substrate temperature on the Ga-doped ZnO films as an anode material of organic light emitting diodes,” Superlattices Microstruct. 51(6), 933–941 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kochubey, D.

D. Kochubey, V. Kaichev, A. Saraev, S. Tomyn, A. Belov, and Y. Voloshin, “Combined X-ray absorption near-edge structure and X-ray photoelectron study of the electrocatalytically active cobalt(I) cage complexes and the clathrochelate cobalt(II)- and cobalt(III)-containing precursors and analogs,” J. Phys. Chem. C 117(6), 2753–2759 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Laboutin, O.

F. Qian, M. Brewster, S. K. Lim, Y. Ling, C. Greene, O. Laboutin, J. W. Johnson, S. Gradečak, Y. Cao, and Y. Li, “Controlled synthesis of AlN/GaN multiple quantum well nanowire structures and their optical properties,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 3344–3350 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, H. S.

T. Fujishima, S. Joglekar, D. Piedra, H. S. Lee, Y. Zhang, A. Uedono, and T. Palacios, “Formation of low resistance ohmic contacts in GaN-based high electron mobility transistors with BCl3 surface plasma treatment,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(8), 083508 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. F.

S. C. Ray, H. C. Hsueh, C. H. Wu, C. W. Pao, K. Asokan, M. T. Liu, H. M. Tsai, C. H. Chuang, W. F. Pong, J. W. Chiou, M. H. Tsai, J. M. Lee, L. Y. Jang, J. M. Chen, and J. F. Lee, “Local atomic and electronic structures and ferroelectric properties of PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3: An x-ray absorption study,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(4), 042909 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. M.

S. C. Ray, H. C. Hsueh, C. H. Wu, C. W. Pao, K. Asokan, M. T. Liu, H. M. Tsai, C. H. Chuang, W. F. Pong, J. W. Chiou, M. H. Tsai, J. M. Lee, L. Y. Jang, J. M. Chen, and J. F. Lee, “Local atomic and electronic structures and ferroelectric properties of PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3: An x-ray absorption study,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(4), 042909 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. Y.

S. O. Jeon, S. E. Jang, H. S. Son, and J. Y. Lee, “External quantum efficiency above 20% in deep blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 23(12), 1436–1441 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Y. Lei, S. Yang, M. Wu, and G. Wilde, “Surface patterning using templates: concept, properties and device applications,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 40(3), 1247–1258 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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L. S. Cavalcante, N. C. Batista, T. Badapanda, M. G. S. Costa, M. S. Li, W. Avansie, V. R. Mastelaro, E. Longo, J. W. M. Espinosa, and M. F. C. Gurgel, “Local electronic structure, optical bandgap and photoluminescence (PL) properties of Ba(Zr0.75Ti0.25)O3 powders,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 16(3), 1035–1045 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

F. Qian, M. Brewster, S. K. Lim, Y. Ling, C. Greene, O. Laboutin, J. W. Johnson, S. Gradečak, Y. Cao, and Y. Li, “Controlled synthesis of AlN/GaN multiple quantum well nanowire structures and their optical properties,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 3344–3350 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lian, Y. W.

Y. W. Lian, Y. S. Lin, J. M. Yang, C. H. Cheng, and S. S. H. Hsu, “AlGaN/GaN Schottky barrier diodes on silicon substrates with selective Si diffusion for low onset voltage and high reverse blocking,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 34(8), 981–983 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lim, S. K.

F. Qian, M. Brewster, S. K. Lim, Y. Ling, C. Greene, O. Laboutin, J. W. Johnson, S. Gradečak, Y. Cao, and Y. Li, “Controlled synthesis of AlN/GaN multiple quantum well nanowire structures and their optical properties,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 3344–3350 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, Y. S.

Y. W. Lian, Y. S. Lin, J. M. Yang, C. H. Cheng, and S. S. H. Hsu, “AlGaN/GaN Schottky barrier diodes on silicon substrates with selective Si diffusion for low onset voltage and high reverse blocking,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 34(8), 981–983 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Ling, Y.

F. Qian, M. Brewster, S. K. Lim, Y. Ling, C. Greene, O. Laboutin, J. W. Johnson, S. Gradečak, Y. Cao, and Y. Li, “Controlled synthesis of AlN/GaN multiple quantum well nanowire structures and their optical properties,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 3344–3350 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, M. T.

S. C. Ray, H. C. Hsueh, C. H. Wu, C. W. Pao, K. Asokan, M. T. Liu, H. M. Tsai, C. H. Chuang, W. F. Pong, J. W. Chiou, M. H. Tsai, J. M. Lee, L. Y. Jang, J. M. Chen, and J. F. Lee, “Local atomic and electronic structures and ferroelectric properties of PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3: An x-ray absorption study,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(4), 042909 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Long, R. D.

R. D. Long and P. C. McIntyre, “Surface preparation and deposited gate oxides for gallium nitride based metal oxide semiconductor devices,” Materials 5(12), 1297–1335 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Longo, E.

L. S. Cavalcante, N. C. Batista, T. Badapanda, M. G. S. Costa, M. S. Li, W. Avansie, V. R. Mastelaro, E. Longo, J. W. M. Espinosa, and M. F. C. Gurgel, “Local electronic structure, optical bandgap and photoluminescence (PL) properties of Ba(Zr0.75Ti0.25)O3 powders,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 16(3), 1035–1045 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lunev, A.

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Mastelaro, V. R.

L. S. Cavalcante, N. C. Batista, T. Badapanda, M. G. S. Costa, M. S. Li, W. Avansie, V. R. Mastelaro, E. Longo, J. W. M. Espinosa, and M. F. C. Gurgel, “Local electronic structure, optical bandgap and photoluminescence (PL) properties of Ba(Zr0.75Ti0.25)O3 powders,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 16(3), 1035–1045 (2013).
[CrossRef]

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T. Mattila and A. Zunger, “Predicted bond length variation in wurtzite and zinc-blende InGaN and AlGaN alloys,” J. Appl. Phys. 85(1), 160–167 (1999).
[CrossRef]

McIntyre, P. C.

R. D. Long and P. C. McIntyre, “Surface preparation and deposited gate oxides for gallium nitride based metal oxide semiconductor devices,” Materials 5(12), 1297–1335 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Mishra, U. K.

M. Higashiwaki, S. Chowdhury, B. L. Swenson, and U. K. Mishra, “Effects of oxidation on surface chemical states and barrier height of AlGaN/GaN heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(22), 222104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Moe, C.

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Monroy, E.

J. Dumont, E. Monroy, E. Muñoz, R. Caudano, and R. Sporken, “Investigation of metal-GaN and metal-AlGaN contacts by XPS depth profiles and by electrical measurements,” J. Cryst. Growth 230(3-4), 558–563 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Muñoz, E.

J. Dumont, E. Monroy, E. Muñoz, R. Caudano, and R. Sporken, “Investigation of metal-GaN and metal-AlGaN contacts by XPS depth profiles and by electrical measurements,” J. Cryst. Growth 230(3-4), 558–563 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nakasaki, R.

T. Hashizume, R. Nakasaki, S. Ootomo, S. Oyama, and H. Hasegawa, “Surface characterization of GaN and AlGaN layers grown by MOVPE,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 80(1-3), 309–312 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nath, D. N.

P. S. Park, K. M. Reddy, D. N. Nath, Z. Yang, N. P. Padture, and S. Rajan, “Ohmic contact formation between metal and AlGaN/GaN heterostructure via graphene insertion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(15), 153501 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Newville, M.

B. Ravel and M. Newville, “ATHENA, ARTEMIS, HEPHAESTUS: data analysis for X-ray absorption spectroscopy using IFEFFIT,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 12(4), 537–541 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Newville, “IFEFFIT: interactive XAFS analysis and FEFF fitting,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 8(2), 322–324 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ootomo, S.

T. Hashizume, R. Nakasaki, S. Ootomo, S. Oyama, and H. Hasegawa, “Surface characterization of GaN and AlGaN layers grown by MOVPE,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 80(1-3), 309–312 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Oyama, S.

T. Hashizume, R. Nakasaki, S. Ootomo, S. Oyama, and H. Hasegawa, “Surface characterization of GaN and AlGaN layers grown by MOVPE,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 80(1-3), 309–312 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Padture, N. P.

P. S. Park, K. M. Reddy, D. N. Nath, Z. Yang, N. P. Padture, and S. Rajan, “Ohmic contact formation between metal and AlGaN/GaN heterostructure via graphene insertion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(15), 153501 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Palacios, T.

T. Fujishima, S. Joglekar, D. Piedra, H. S. Lee, Y. Zhang, A. Uedono, and T. Palacios, “Formation of low resistance ohmic contacts in GaN-based high electron mobility transistors with BCl3 surface plasma treatment,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(8), 083508 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Pao, C. W.

S. C. Ray, H. C. Hsueh, C. H. Wu, C. W. Pao, K. Asokan, M. T. Liu, H. M. Tsai, C. H. Chuang, W. F. Pong, J. W. Chiou, M. H. Tsai, J. M. Lee, L. Y. Jang, J. M. Chen, and J. F. Lee, “Local atomic and electronic structures and ferroelectric properties of PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3: An x-ray absorption study,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(4), 042909 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Park, P. S.

P. S. Park, K. M. Reddy, D. N. Nath, Z. Yang, N. P. Padture, and S. Rajan, “Ohmic contact formation between metal and AlGaN/GaN heterostructure via graphene insertion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(15), 153501 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Perkins, C. L.

C. L. Perkins, B. Egaas, I. Repins, and B. To, “Quantitative analysis of graded Cu(In1-x,Gax)Se2 thin films by AES, ICP-OES, and EPMA,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(3), 878–886 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Piedra, D.

T. Fujishima, S. Joglekar, D. Piedra, H. S. Lee, Y. Zhang, A. Uedono, and T. Palacios, “Formation of low resistance ohmic contacts in GaN-based high electron mobility transistors with BCl3 surface plasma treatment,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(8), 083508 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Pong, W. F.

S. C. Ray, H. C. Hsueh, C. H. Wu, C. W. Pao, K. Asokan, M. T. Liu, H. M. Tsai, C. H. Chuang, W. F. Pong, J. W. Chiou, M. H. Tsai, J. M. Lee, L. Y. Jang, J. M. Chen, and J. F. Lee, “Local atomic and electronic structures and ferroelectric properties of PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3: An x-ray absorption study,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(4), 042909 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Qian, F.

F. Qian, M. Brewster, S. K. Lim, Y. Ling, C. Greene, O. Laboutin, J. W. Johnson, S. Gradečak, Y. Cao, and Y. Li, “Controlled synthesis of AlN/GaN multiple quantum well nanowire structures and their optical properties,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 3344–3350 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rajan, S.

P. S. Park, K. M. Reddy, D. N. Nath, Z. Yang, N. P. Padture, and S. Rajan, “Ohmic contact formation between metal and AlGaN/GaN heterostructure via graphene insertion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(15), 153501 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Ravel, B.

B. Ravel and M. Newville, “ATHENA, ARTEMIS, HEPHAESTUS: data analysis for X-ray absorption spectroscopy using IFEFFIT,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 12(4), 537–541 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ray, S. C.

S. C. Ray, H. C. Hsueh, C. H. Wu, C. W. Pao, K. Asokan, M. T. Liu, H. M. Tsai, C. H. Chuang, W. F. Pong, J. W. Chiou, M. H. Tsai, J. M. Lee, L. Y. Jang, J. M. Chen, and J. F. Lee, “Local atomic and electronic structures and ferroelectric properties of PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3: An x-ray absorption study,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(4), 042909 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Reddy, K. M.

P. S. Park, K. M. Reddy, D. N. Nath, Z. Yang, N. P. Padture, and S. Rajan, “Ohmic contact formation between metal and AlGaN/GaN heterostructure via graphene insertion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(15), 153501 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Repins, I.

C. L. Perkins, B. Egaas, I. Repins, and B. To, “Quantitative analysis of graded Cu(In1-x,Gax)Se2 thin films by AES, ICP-OES, and EPMA,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(3), 878–886 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Saraev, A.

D. Kochubey, V. Kaichev, A. Saraev, S. Tomyn, A. Belov, and Y. Voloshin, “Combined X-ray absorption near-edge structure and X-ray photoelectron study of the electrocatalytically active cobalt(I) cage complexes and the clathrochelate cobalt(II)- and cobalt(III)-containing precursors and analogs,” J. Phys. Chem. C 117(6), 2753–2759 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Shanzer, A.

G. Ashkenasy, D. Cahen, R. Cohen, A. Shanzer, and A. Vilan, “Molecular engineering of semiconductor surfaces and devices,” Acc. Chem. Res. 35(2), 121–128 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shatalov, M.

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Shur, M.

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Son, H. S.

S. O. Jeon, S. E. Jang, H. S. Son, and J. Y. Lee, “External quantum efficiency above 20% in deep blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 23(12), 1436–1441 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sporken, R.

J. Dumont, E. Monroy, E. Muñoz, R. Caudano, and R. Sporken, “Investigation of metal-GaN and metal-AlGaN contacts by XPS depth profiles and by electrical measurements,” J. Cryst. Growth 230(3-4), 558–563 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sun, W.

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Y. M.

L. Q. Zhang, C. H. Zhang, J. Gou, L. H. Han, Y. T. Yang, Y. M. Sun, and Y. F. Jin, “PL and XPS study of radiation damage created by various slow highly charged heavy ions on GaN epitaxial layers,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B 269(23), 2835–2839 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Swenson, B. L.

M. Higashiwaki, S. Chowdhury, B. L. Swenson, and U. K. Mishra, “Effects of oxidation on surface chemical states and barrier height of AlGaN/GaN heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(22), 222104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tansu, N.

J. Zhang and N. Tansu, “Improvement in spontaneous emission rates for InGaN quantum wells on ternary InGaN substrate for light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(11), 113110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

To, B.

C. L. Perkins, B. Egaas, I. Repins, and B. To, “Quantitative analysis of graded Cu(In1-x,Gax)Se2 thin films by AES, ICP-OES, and EPMA,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(3), 878–886 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tomyn, S.

D. Kochubey, V. Kaichev, A. Saraev, S. Tomyn, A. Belov, and Y. Voloshin, “Combined X-ray absorption near-edge structure and X-ray photoelectron study of the electrocatalytically active cobalt(I) cage complexes and the clathrochelate cobalt(II)- and cobalt(III)-containing precursors and analogs,” J. Phys. Chem. C 117(6), 2753–2759 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, H. M.

S. C. Ray, H. C. Hsueh, C. H. Wu, C. W. Pao, K. Asokan, M. T. Liu, H. M. Tsai, C. H. Chuang, W. F. Pong, J. W. Chiou, M. H. Tsai, J. M. Lee, L. Y. Jang, J. M. Chen, and J. F. Lee, “Local atomic and electronic structures and ferroelectric properties of PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3: An x-ray absorption study,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(4), 042909 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, M. H.

S. C. Ray, H. C. Hsueh, C. H. Wu, C. W. Pao, K. Asokan, M. T. Liu, H. M. Tsai, C. H. Chuang, W. F. Pong, J. W. Chiou, M. H. Tsai, J. M. Lee, L. Y. Jang, J. M. Chen, and J. F. Lee, “Local atomic and electronic structures and ferroelectric properties of PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3: An x-ray absorption study,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(4), 042909 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Uedono, A.

T. Fujishima, S. Joglekar, D. Piedra, H. S. Lee, Y. Zhang, A. Uedono, and T. Palacios, “Formation of low resistance ohmic contacts in GaN-based high electron mobility transistors with BCl3 surface plasma treatment,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(8), 083508 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Vilan, A.

G. Ashkenasy, D. Cahen, R. Cohen, A. Shanzer, and A. Vilan, “Molecular engineering of semiconductor surfaces and devices,” Acc. Chem. Res. 35(2), 121–128 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Voloshin, Y.

D. Kochubey, V. Kaichev, A. Saraev, S. Tomyn, A. Belov, and Y. Voloshin, “Combined X-ray absorption near-edge structure and X-ray photoelectron study of the electrocatalytically active cobalt(I) cage complexes and the clathrochelate cobalt(II)- and cobalt(III)-containing precursors and analogs,” J. Phys. Chem. C 117(6), 2753–2759 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S.

S. Wang, X. Zhang, H. Guo, H. Yang, M. Zhu, L. Cheng, X. Zeng, and Y. Cui, “Enhanced performance of GaN-based light-emitting diodes by using a p-InAlGaN/GaN superlattice as electron blocking layer,” J. Mod. Opt. 60(21), 2012–2017 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Wilde, G.

Y. Lei, S. Yang, M. Wu, and G. Wilde, “Surface patterning using templates: concept, properties and device applications,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 40(3), 1247–1258 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wraback, M.

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C. H.

S. C. Ray, H. C. Hsueh, C. H. Wu, C. W. Pao, K. Asokan, M. T. Liu, H. M. Tsai, C. H. Chuang, W. F. Pong, J. W. Chiou, M. H. Tsai, J. M. Lee, L. Y. Jang, J. M. Chen, and J. F. Lee, “Local atomic and electronic structures and ferroelectric properties of PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3: An x-ray absorption study,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(4), 042909 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wu, M.

Y. Lei, S. Yang, M. Wu, and G. Wilde, “Surface patterning using templates: concept, properties and device applications,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 40(3), 1247–1258 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, H.

S. Wang, X. Zhang, H. Guo, H. Yang, M. Zhu, L. Cheng, X. Zeng, and Y. Cui, “Enhanced performance of GaN-based light-emitting diodes by using a p-InAlGaN/GaN superlattice as electron blocking layer,” J. Mod. Opt. 60(21), 2012–2017 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J.

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J. M.

Y. W. Lian, Y. S. Lin, J. M. Yang, C. H. Cheng, and S. S. H. Hsu, “AlGaN/GaN Schottky barrier diodes on silicon substrates with selective Si diffusion for low onset voltage and high reverse blocking,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 34(8), 981–983 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Yang, S.

Y. Lei, S. Yang, M. Wu, and G. Wilde, “Surface patterning using templates: concept, properties and device applications,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 40(3), 1247–1258 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, Y. T.

L. Q. Zhang, C. H. Zhang, J. Gou, L. H. Han, Y. T. Yang, Y. M. Sun, and Y. F. Jin, “PL and XPS study of radiation damage created by various slow highly charged heavy ions on GaN epitaxial layers,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B 269(23), 2835–2839 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Z.

P. S. Park, K. M. Reddy, D. N. Nath, Z. Yang, N. P. Padture, and S. Rajan, “Ohmic contact formation between metal and AlGaN/GaN heterostructure via graphene insertion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(15), 153501 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zeng, X.

S. Wang, X. Zhang, H. Guo, H. Yang, M. Zhu, L. Cheng, X. Zeng, and Y. Cui, “Enhanced performance of GaN-based light-emitting diodes by using a p-InAlGaN/GaN superlattice as electron blocking layer,” J. Mod. Opt. 60(21), 2012–2017 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, C. H.

L. Q. Zhang, C. H. Zhang, J. Gou, L. H. Han, Y. T. Yang, Y. M. Sun, and Y. F. Jin, “PL and XPS study of radiation damage created by various slow highly charged heavy ions on GaN epitaxial layers,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B 269(23), 2835–2839 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

J. Zhang and N. Tansu, “Improvement in spontaneous emission rates for InGaN quantum wells on ternary InGaN substrate for light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(11), 113110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L. Q.

L. Q. Zhang, C. H. Zhang, J. Gou, L. H. Han, Y. T. Yang, Y. M. Sun, and Y. F. Jin, “PL and XPS study of radiation damage created by various slow highly charged heavy ions on GaN epitaxial layers,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B 269(23), 2835–2839 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

S. Wang, X. Zhang, H. Guo, H. Yang, M. Zhu, L. Cheng, X. Zeng, and Y. Cui, “Enhanced performance of GaN-based light-emitting diodes by using a p-InAlGaN/GaN superlattice as electron blocking layer,” J. Mod. Opt. 60(21), 2012–2017 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

T. Fujishima, S. Joglekar, D. Piedra, H. S. Lee, Y. Zhang, A. Uedono, and T. Palacios, “Formation of low resistance ohmic contacts in GaN-based high electron mobility transistors with BCl3 surface plasma treatment,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(8), 083508 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, M.

S. Wang, X. Zhang, H. Guo, H. Yang, M. Zhu, L. Cheng, X. Zeng, and Y. Cui, “Enhanced performance of GaN-based light-emitting diodes by using a p-InAlGaN/GaN superlattice as electron blocking layer,” J. Mod. Opt. 60(21), 2012–2017 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zunger, A.

T. Mattila and A. Zunger, “Predicted bond length variation in wurtzite and zinc-blende InGaN and AlGaN alloys,” J. Appl. Phys. 85(1), 160–167 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Acc. Chem. Res. (1)

G. Ashkenasy, D. Cahen, R. Cohen, A. Shanzer, and A. Vilan, “Molecular engineering of semiconductor surfaces and devices,” Acc. Chem. Res. 35(2), 121–128 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater. (1)

S. O. Jeon, S. E. Jang, H. S. Son, and J. Y. Lee, “External quantum efficiency above 20% in deep blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes,” Adv. Mater. 23(12), 1436–1441 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with external quantum efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

P. S. Park, K. M. Reddy, D. N. Nath, Z. Yang, N. P. Padture, and S. Rajan, “Ohmic contact formation between metal and AlGaN/GaN heterostructure via graphene insertion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(15), 153501 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Ray, H. C. Hsueh, C. H. Wu, C. W. Pao, K. Asokan, M. T. Liu, H. M. Tsai, C. H. Chuang, W. F. Pong, J. W. Chiou, M. H. Tsai, J. M. Lee, L. Y. Jang, J. M. Chen, and J. F. Lee, “Local atomic and electronic structures and ferroelectric properties of PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3: An x-ray absorption study,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(4), 042909 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujishima, S. Joglekar, D. Piedra, H. S. Lee, Y. Zhang, A. Uedono, and T. Palacios, “Formation of low resistance ohmic contacts in GaN-based high electron mobility transistors with BCl3 surface plasma treatment,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(8), 083508 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Higashiwaki, S. Chowdhury, B. L. Swenson, and U. K. Mishra, “Effects of oxidation on surface chemical states and barrier height of AlGaN/GaN heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(22), 222104 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

C. L. Perkins, B. Egaas, I. Repins, and B. To, “Quantitative analysis of graded Cu(In1-x,Gax)Se2 thin films by AES, ICP-OES, and EPMA,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 257(3), 878–886 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Soc. Rev. (1)

Y. Lei, S. Yang, M. Wu, and G. Wilde, “Surface patterning using templates: concept, properties and device applications,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 40(3), 1247–1258 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Electron Device Lett. (1)

Y. W. Lian, Y. S. Lin, J. M. Yang, C. H. Cheng, and S. S. H. Hsu, “AlGaN/GaN Schottky barrier diodes on silicon substrates with selective Si diffusion for low onset voltage and high reverse blocking,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 34(8), 981–983 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

J. Zhang and N. Tansu, “Improvement in spontaneous emission rates for InGaN quantum wells on ternary InGaN substrate for light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 110(11), 113110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Mattila and A. Zunger, “Predicted bond length variation in wurtzite and zinc-blende InGaN and AlGaN alloys,” J. Appl. Phys. 85(1), 160–167 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

J. Dumont, E. Monroy, E. Muñoz, R. Caudano, and R. Sporken, “Investigation of metal-GaN and metal-AlGaN contacts by XPS depth profiles and by electrical measurements,” J. Cryst. Growth 230(3-4), 558–563 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

S. Wang, X. Zhang, H. Guo, H. Yang, M. Zhu, L. Cheng, X. Zeng, and Y. Cui, “Enhanced performance of GaN-based light-emitting diodes by using a p-InAlGaN/GaN superlattice as electron blocking layer,” J. Mod. Opt. 60(21), 2012–2017 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. C (1)

D. Kochubey, V. Kaichev, A. Saraev, S. Tomyn, A. Belov, and Y. Voloshin, “Combined X-ray absorption near-edge structure and X-ray photoelectron study of the electrocatalytically active cobalt(I) cage complexes and the clathrochelate cobalt(II)- and cobalt(III)-containing precursors and analogs,” J. Phys. Chem. C 117(6), 2753–2759 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Synchrotron Radiat. (2)

B. Ravel and M. Newville, “ATHENA, ARTEMIS, HEPHAESTUS: data analysis for X-ray absorption spectroscopy using IFEFFIT,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 12(4), 537–541 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Newville, “IFEFFIT: interactive XAFS analysis and FEFF fitting,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 8(2), 322–324 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mater. Sci. Eng. B (1)

T. Hashizume, R. Nakasaki, S. Ootomo, S. Oyama, and H. Hasegawa, “Surface characterization of GaN and AlGaN layers grown by MOVPE,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 80(1-3), 309–312 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. (1)

L. S. Cavalcante, N. C. Batista, T. Badapanda, M. G. S. Costa, M. S. Li, W. Avansie, V. R. Mastelaro, E. Longo, J. W. M. Espinosa, and M. F. C. Gurgel, “Local electronic structure, optical bandgap and photoluminescence (PL) properties of Ba(Zr0.75Ti0.25)O3 powders,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 16(3), 1035–1045 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Materials (1)

R. D. Long and P. C. McIntyre, “Surface preparation and deposited gate oxides for gallium nitride based metal oxide semiconductor devices,” Materials 5(12), 1297–1335 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

F. Qian, M. Brewster, S. K. Lim, Y. Ling, C. Greene, O. Laboutin, J. W. Johnson, S. Gradečak, Y. Cao, and Y. Li, “Controlled synthesis of AlN/GaN multiple quantum well nanowire structures and their optical properties,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 3344–3350 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B (1)

L. Q. Zhang, C. H. Zhang, J. Gou, L. H. Han, Y. T. Yang, Y. M. Sun, and Y. F. Jin, “PL and XPS study of radiation damage created by various slow highly charged heavy ions on GaN epitaxial layers,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. B 269(23), 2835–2839 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

M. Ferhat and F. Bechstedt, “First-principles calculations of gap bowing in InxGa1-xN and InxAl1-xN alloys: relation to structural and thermodynamic properties,” Phys. Rev. B 65(7), 075213 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Superlattices Microstruct. (1)

Y. D. Ko, K. C. Kim, and Y. S. Kim, “Effects of substrate temperature on the Ga-doped ZnO films as an anode material of organic light emitting diodes,” Superlattices Microstruct. 51(6), 933–941 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Ga 3d core-level XPS spectra of AlxGa1-xN epi-layers as a function of Al composition without Ar+ sputtering (a) with Ar+ sputtering for 50 s (b).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

XPS fitting results for Ga 3d core-level spectra of (a) GaN and (b) Al0.45Ga0.55N without Ar+ sputtering.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Al 2p core-level XPS spectra of AlxGa1-xN epi-layers as a function of Al composition without (a) and with Ar+ sputtering for 50 s (b).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

N 1s core-level XPS spectra for AlxGa1-xN epi-layers as a function of Al composition without Ar+ sputtering (a) and with Ar+ sputtering for 50 s (b).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) The Ga K-edge oscillation signal k2χ(k) of AlxGa1-xN epi-layer samples; (b) R-space signal of the Fourier transformed k2χ(k) (indicated with black solid line) as a function of spacing R together with the best fitted results (indicated by blue circle).

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 The fitted peak positions and related results for Ga 3d spectra of GaN and Al0.45Ga0.55N epi-layers.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Extracted structural parameters from the EXAFS data for all the AlxGa1-xN epi-layer samples. R-factor is the parameter used to evaluate the fitting quality.

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