Abstract

For strong field enhancement of ultrashort light pulses, a 3-D metallic funnel-waveguide is analyzed using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. Then the maximum intensity enhancement actually developed by the funnel-waveguide upon the injection of femtosecond laser pulses is observed using two-photon luminescence (TPL) microscopy. In addition, the ultrafast dephasing profile of the localized field at the hot spot of the funnel-waveguide is verified through the interferometric autocorrelation of the TPL signal. Finally it is concluded the funnel-waveguide is an effective 3-D nanostructure that is capable of boosting the peak pulse intensity of stronger than 80 TWcm−2 by an enhancement factor of 20 dB without significant degradation of the ultrafast spatiotemporal characteristics of the original pulses.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2014 (1)

N. Pfullmann, M. Noack, J. Cardoso de Andrade, S. Rausch, T. Nagy, C. Reinhardt, V. Knittel, R. Bratschitsch, A. Leitenstorfer, D. Akemeier, A. Hütten, M. Kovacev, and U. Morgner, “Nano-antennae assisted emission of extreme ultraviolet radiation,” Ann. Phys. 526(3–4), 119–134 (2014).
[CrossRef]

2013 (3)

M. Sivis, M. Duwe, B. Abel, and C. Ropers, “Extreme-ultraviolet light generation in plasmonic nanostructures,” Nat. Phys. 9(5), 304–309 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Lupetti, M. F. Kling, and A. Scrinzi, “Plasmon-enhanced-attosecond-extreme ultraviolet source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(22), 223903 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Y. Park, J. Choi, D. H. Lee, S. Han, S. Kim, and S. W. Kim, “Generation of EUV radiation by plasmonic field enhancement using nano‐structured bowties and funnel‐waveguides,” Ann. Phys. 525(1–2), 87–96 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (5)

B. Sharma, R. R. Frontiera, A.-I. Henry, E. Ringe, and R. P. Van Duyne, “SERS: Materials, applications, and the future,” Mater. Today 15(1–2), 16–25 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Biagioni, D. Brida, J. S. Huang, J. Kern, L. Duò, B. Hecht, M. Finazzi, and G. Cerullo, “Dynamics of four-Photon Photoluminescence in Gold Nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 2941–2947 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Choo, M.-K. Kim, M. Staffaroni, T. J. Seok, J. Bokor, S. Cabrini, P. J. Schuck, M. C. Wu, and E. Yablonovitch, “Nanofocusing in a metal–insulator–metal gap plasmon waveguide with a three-dimensional linear taper,” Nat. Photonics 6(12), 838–844 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Choi, S. Kim, I.-Y. Park, D.-H. Lee, S. Han, and S.-W. Kim, “Generation of isolated attosecond pulses using a plasmonic funnel-waveguide,” New J. Phys. 14(10), 103038 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Beermann, S. M. Novikov, T. Holmgaard, R. L. Eriksen, O. Albrektsen, K. Pedersen, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Polarization-resolved two-photon luminescence microscopy of V-groove arrays,” Opt. Express 20(1), 654–662 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (4)

M. I. Stockman, “Nanoplasmonics: past, present, and glimpse into future,” Opt. Express 19(22), 22029–22106 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I.-Y. Park, S. Kim, J. Choi, D.-H. Lee, and S.-W. Kim, “Plasmonic field enhancement for generating ultrashort extreme-ultraviolet light pulses,” Proc. SPIE 8096, 80960S (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. Y. Park, S. Kim, J. Choi, D. H. Lee, Y. J. Kim, M. F. Kling, M. I. Stockman, and S. W. Kim, “Plasmonic generation of ultrashort extreme-ultraviolet light pulses,” Nat. Photonics 5(11), 678–682 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Kern, M. Zürch, J. Petschulat, T. Pertsch, B. Kley, T. Käsebier, U. Hübner, and C. Spielmann, “Comparison of femtosecond laser-induced damage on unstructured vs. nano-structured Au-targets,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 104(1), 15–21 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

T. Hanke, G. Krauss, D. Träutlein, B. Wild, R. Bratschitsch, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Efficient nonlinear light emission of single gold optical antennas driven by few-cycle near-infrared pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(25), 257404 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Choi, D. F. P. Pile, S. Nam, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Compressing surface plasmons for nano-scale optical focusing,” Opt. Express 17(9), 7519–7524 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

2007 (1)

M. W. Vogel and D. K. Gramotnev, “Adiabatic nano-focusing of plasmons by metallic tapered rods in the presence of dissipation,” Phys. Lett. A 363(5–6), 507–511 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2005 (3)

P. J. Schuck, D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Improving the mismatch between light and nanoscale objects with gold bowtie nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(1), 017402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. M. Kim, S. S. Elovikov, T. V. Murzina, A. A. Nikulin, O. A. Aktsipetrov, M. A. Bader, and G. Marowsky, “Surface-enhanced optical third-harmonic generation in Ag island films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(22), 227402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. K. Gramotnev, “Adiabatic nanofocusing of plasmons by sharp metallic grooves: Geometrical optics approach,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(10), 104302 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

M. I. Stockman, “Nanofocusing of optical energy in tapered plasmonic waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(13), 137404 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Merschdorf, C. Kennerknecht, and W. Pfeiffer, “Collective and single-particle dynamics in time-resolved two-photon photoemission,” Phys. Rev. B 70(19), 193401 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, J. Beermann, and V. Coello, “Direct observation of localized second-harmonic enhancement in random metal nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(19), 197403 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

J. Lehmann, M. Merschdorf, W. Pfeiffer, A. Thon, S. Voll, and G. Gerber, “Surface plasmon dynamics in silver nanoparticles studied by femtosecond time-resolved photoemission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(14), 2921–2924 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

M. Li, S. Menon, J. P. Nibarger, and G. N. Gibson, “Ultrafast electron dynamics in femtosecond optical breakdown of dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2394–2397 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Abel, B.

M. Sivis, M. Duwe, B. Abel, and C. Ropers, “Extreme-ultraviolet light generation in plasmonic nanostructures,” Nat. Phys. 9(5), 304–309 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Akemeier, D.

N. Pfullmann, M. Noack, J. Cardoso de Andrade, S. Rausch, T. Nagy, C. Reinhardt, V. Knittel, R. Bratschitsch, A. Leitenstorfer, D. Akemeier, A. Hütten, M. Kovacev, and U. Morgner, “Nano-antennae assisted emission of extreme ultraviolet radiation,” Ann. Phys. 526(3–4), 119–134 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Aktsipetrov, O. A.

E. M. Kim, S. S. Elovikov, T. V. Murzina, A. A. Nikulin, O. A. Aktsipetrov, M. A. Bader, and G. Marowsky, “Surface-enhanced optical third-harmonic generation in Ag island films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(22), 227402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Albrektsen, O.

Arbel, D.

Bader, M. A.

E. M. Kim, S. S. Elovikov, T. V. Murzina, A. A. Nikulin, O. A. Aktsipetrov, M. A. Bader, and G. Marowsky, “Surface-enhanced optical third-harmonic generation in Ag island films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(22), 227402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartal, G.

Beermann, J.

Biagioni, P.

P. Biagioni, D. Brida, J. S. Huang, J. Kern, L. Duò, B. Hecht, M. Finazzi, and G. Cerullo, “Dynamics of four-Photon Photoluminescence in Gold Nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 2941–2947 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bokor, J.

H. Choo, M.-K. Kim, M. Staffaroni, T. J. Seok, J. Bokor, S. Cabrini, P. J. Schuck, M. C. Wu, and E. Yablonovitch, “Nanofocusing in a metal–insulator–metal gap plasmon waveguide with a three-dimensional linear taper,” Nat. Photonics 6(12), 838–844 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Boltasseva, A. E.

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

Bratschitsch, R.

N. Pfullmann, M. Noack, J. Cardoso de Andrade, S. Rausch, T. Nagy, C. Reinhardt, V. Knittel, R. Bratschitsch, A. Leitenstorfer, D. Akemeier, A. Hütten, M. Kovacev, and U. Morgner, “Nano-antennae assisted emission of extreme ultraviolet radiation,” Ann. Phys. 526(3–4), 119–134 (2014).
[CrossRef]

T. Hanke, G. Krauss, D. Träutlein, B. Wild, R. Bratschitsch, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Efficient nonlinear light emission of single gold optical antennas driven by few-cycle near-infrared pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(25), 257404 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brida, D.

P. Biagioni, D. Brida, J. S. Huang, J. Kern, L. Duò, B. Hecht, M. Finazzi, and G. Cerullo, “Dynamics of four-Photon Photoluminescence in Gold Nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 2941–2947 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cabrini, S.

H. Choo, M.-K. Kim, M. Staffaroni, T. J. Seok, J. Bokor, S. Cabrini, P. J. Schuck, M. C. Wu, and E. Yablonovitch, “Nanofocusing in a metal–insulator–metal gap plasmon waveguide with a three-dimensional linear taper,” Nat. Photonics 6(12), 838–844 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cardoso de Andrade, J.

N. Pfullmann, M. Noack, J. Cardoso de Andrade, S. Rausch, T. Nagy, C. Reinhardt, V. Knittel, R. Bratschitsch, A. Leitenstorfer, D. Akemeier, A. Hütten, M. Kovacev, and U. Morgner, “Nano-antennae assisted emission of extreme ultraviolet radiation,” Ann. Phys. 526(3–4), 119–134 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Cerullo, G.

P. Biagioni, D. Brida, J. S. Huang, J. Kern, L. Duò, B. Hecht, M. Finazzi, and G. Cerullo, “Dynamics of four-Photon Photoluminescence in Gold Nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 2941–2947 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, H.

Choi, J.

I. Y. Park, J. Choi, D. H. Lee, S. Han, S. Kim, and S. W. Kim, “Generation of EUV radiation by plasmonic field enhancement using nano‐structured bowties and funnel‐waveguides,” Ann. Phys. 525(1–2), 87–96 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Choi, S. Kim, I.-Y. Park, D.-H. Lee, S. Han, and S.-W. Kim, “Generation of isolated attosecond pulses using a plasmonic funnel-waveguide,” New J. Phys. 14(10), 103038 (2012).
[CrossRef]

I.-Y. Park, S. Kim, J. Choi, D.-H. Lee, and S.-W. Kim, “Plasmonic field enhancement for generating ultrashort extreme-ultraviolet light pulses,” Proc. SPIE 8096, 80960S (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. Y. Park, S. Kim, J. Choi, D. H. Lee, Y. J. Kim, M. F. Kling, M. I. Stockman, and S. W. Kim, “Plasmonic generation of ultrashort extreme-ultraviolet light pulses,” Nat. Photonics 5(11), 678–682 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Choo, H.

H. Choo, M.-K. Kim, M. Staffaroni, T. J. Seok, J. Bokor, S. Cabrini, P. J. Schuck, M. C. Wu, and E. Yablonovitch, “Nanofocusing in a metal–insulator–metal gap plasmon waveguide with a three-dimensional linear taper,” Nat. Photonics 6(12), 838–844 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Coello, V.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, J. Beermann, and V. Coello, “Direct observation of localized second-harmonic enhancement in random metal nanostructures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(19), 197403 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duò, L.

P. Biagioni, D. Brida, J. S. Huang, J. Kern, L. Duò, B. Hecht, M. Finazzi, and G. Cerullo, “Dynamics of four-Photon Photoluminescence in Gold Nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 2941–2947 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duwe, M.

M. Sivis, M. Duwe, B. Abel, and C. Ropers, “Extreme-ultraviolet light generation in plasmonic nanostructures,” Nat. Phys. 9(5), 304–309 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Elovikov, S. S.

E. M. Kim, S. S. Elovikov, T. V. Murzina, A. A. Nikulin, O. A. Aktsipetrov, M. A. Bader, and G. Marowsky, “Surface-enhanced optical third-harmonic generation in Ag island films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(22), 227402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eriksen, R. L.

Finazzi, M.

P. Biagioni, D. Brida, J. S. Huang, J. Kern, L. Duò, B. Hecht, M. Finazzi, and G. Cerullo, “Dynamics of four-Photon Photoluminescence in Gold Nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 2941–2947 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fromm, D. P.

P. J. Schuck, D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Improving the mismatch between light and nanoscale objects with gold bowtie nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(1), 017402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frontiera, R. R.

B. Sharma, R. R. Frontiera, A.-I. Henry, E. Ringe, and R. P. Van Duyne, “SERS: Materials, applications, and the future,” Mater. Today 15(1–2), 16–25 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Gerber, G.

J. Lehmann, M. Merschdorf, W. Pfeiffer, A. Thon, S. Voll, and G. Gerber, “Surface plasmon dynamics in silver nanoparticles studied by femtosecond time-resolved photoemission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(14), 2921–2924 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gibson, G. N.

M. Li, S. Menon, J. P. Nibarger, and G. N. Gibson, “Ultrafast electron dynamics in femtosecond optical breakdown of dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2394–2397 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ginzburg, P.

Gramotnev, D. K.

M. W. Vogel and D. K. Gramotnev, “Adiabatic nano-focusing of plasmons by metallic tapered rods in the presence of dissipation,” Phys. Lett. A 363(5–6), 507–511 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Gramotnev, “Adiabatic nanofocusing of plasmons by sharp metallic grooves: Geometrical optics approach,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(10), 104302 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Han, S.

I. Y. Park, J. Choi, D. H. Lee, S. Han, S. Kim, and S. W. Kim, “Generation of EUV radiation by plasmonic field enhancement using nano‐structured bowties and funnel‐waveguides,” Ann. Phys. 525(1–2), 87–96 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Choi, S. Kim, I.-Y. Park, D.-H. Lee, S. Han, and S.-W. Kim, “Generation of isolated attosecond pulses using a plasmonic funnel-waveguide,” New J. Phys. 14(10), 103038 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hanke, T.

T. Hanke, G. Krauss, D. Träutlein, B. Wild, R. Bratschitsch, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Efficient nonlinear light emission of single gold optical antennas driven by few-cycle near-infrared pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(25), 257404 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hecht, B.

P. Biagioni, D. Brida, J. S. Huang, J. Kern, L. Duò, B. Hecht, M. Finazzi, and G. Cerullo, “Dynamics of four-Photon Photoluminescence in Gold Nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 2941–2947 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Henry, A.-I.

B. Sharma, R. R. Frontiera, A.-I. Henry, E. Ringe, and R. P. Van Duyne, “SERS: Materials, applications, and the future,” Mater. Today 15(1–2), 16–25 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Holmgaard, T.

Huang, J. S.

P. Biagioni, D. Brida, J. S. Huang, J. Kern, L. Duò, B. Hecht, M. Finazzi, and G. Cerullo, “Dynamics of four-Photon Photoluminescence in Gold Nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 2941–2947 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hübner, U.

C. Kern, M. Zürch, J. Petschulat, T. Pertsch, B. Kley, T. Käsebier, U. Hübner, and C. Spielmann, “Comparison of femtosecond laser-induced damage on unstructured vs. nano-structured Au-targets,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 104(1), 15–21 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hütten, A.

N. Pfullmann, M. Noack, J. Cardoso de Andrade, S. Rausch, T. Nagy, C. Reinhardt, V. Knittel, R. Bratschitsch, A. Leitenstorfer, D. Akemeier, A. Hütten, M. Kovacev, and U. Morgner, “Nano-antennae assisted emission of extreme ultraviolet radiation,” Ann. Phys. 526(3–4), 119–134 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Jin, J.

S. Kim, J. Jin, Y. J. Kim, I. Y. Park, Y. Kim, and S. W. Kim, “High-harmonic generation by resonant plasmon field enhancement,” Nature 453(7196), 757–760 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Käsebier, T.

C. Kern, M. Zürch, J. Petschulat, T. Pertsch, B. Kley, T. Käsebier, U. Hübner, and C. Spielmann, “Comparison of femtosecond laser-induced damage on unstructured vs. nano-structured Au-targets,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 104(1), 15–21 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kennerknecht, C.

M. Merschdorf, C. Kennerknecht, and W. Pfeiffer, “Collective and single-particle dynamics in time-resolved two-photon photoemission,” Phys. Rev. B 70(19), 193401 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kern, C.

C. Kern, M. Zürch, J. Petschulat, T. Pertsch, B. Kley, T. Käsebier, U. Hübner, and C. Spielmann, “Comparison of femtosecond laser-induced damage on unstructured vs. nano-structured Au-targets,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 104(1), 15–21 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kern, J.

P. Biagioni, D. Brida, J. S. Huang, J. Kern, L. Duò, B. Hecht, M. Finazzi, and G. Cerullo, “Dynamics of four-Photon Photoluminescence in Gold Nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 2941–2947 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, E. M.

E. M. Kim, S. S. Elovikov, T. V. Murzina, A. A. Nikulin, O. A. Aktsipetrov, M. A. Bader, and G. Marowsky, “Surface-enhanced optical third-harmonic generation in Ag island films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(22), 227402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, M.-K.

H. Choo, M.-K. Kim, M. Staffaroni, T. J. Seok, J. Bokor, S. Cabrini, P. J. Schuck, M. C. Wu, and E. Yablonovitch, “Nanofocusing in a metal–insulator–metal gap plasmon waveguide with a three-dimensional linear taper,” Nat. Photonics 6(12), 838–844 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S.

I. Y. Park, J. Choi, D. H. Lee, S. Han, S. Kim, and S. W. Kim, “Generation of EUV radiation by plasmonic field enhancement using nano‐structured bowties and funnel‐waveguides,” Ann. Phys. 525(1–2), 87–96 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Choi, S. Kim, I.-Y. Park, D.-H. Lee, S. Han, and S.-W. Kim, “Generation of isolated attosecond pulses using a plasmonic funnel-waveguide,” New J. Phys. 14(10), 103038 (2012).
[CrossRef]

I.-Y. Park, S. Kim, J. Choi, D.-H. Lee, and S.-W. Kim, “Plasmonic field enhancement for generating ultrashort extreme-ultraviolet light pulses,” Proc. SPIE 8096, 80960S (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. Y. Park, S. Kim, J. Choi, D. H. Lee, Y. J. Kim, M. F. Kling, M. I. Stockman, and S. W. Kim, “Plasmonic generation of ultrashort extreme-ultraviolet light pulses,” Nat. Photonics 5(11), 678–682 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Kim, J. Jin, Y. J. Kim, I. Y. Park, Y. Kim, and S. W. Kim, “High-harmonic generation by resonant plasmon field enhancement,” Nature 453(7196), 757–760 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, S. W.

I. Y. Park, J. Choi, D. H. Lee, S. Han, S. Kim, and S. W. Kim, “Generation of EUV radiation by plasmonic field enhancement using nano‐structured bowties and funnel‐waveguides,” Ann. Phys. 525(1–2), 87–96 (2013).
[CrossRef]

I. Y. Park, S. Kim, J. Choi, D. H. Lee, Y. J. Kim, M. F. Kling, M. I. Stockman, and S. W. Kim, “Plasmonic generation of ultrashort extreme-ultraviolet light pulses,” Nat. Photonics 5(11), 678–682 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Kim, J. Jin, Y. J. Kim, I. Y. Park, Y. Kim, and S. W. Kim, “High-harmonic generation by resonant plasmon field enhancement,” Nature 453(7196), 757–760 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, S.-W.

J. Choi, S. Kim, I.-Y. Park, D.-H. Lee, S. Han, and S.-W. Kim, “Generation of isolated attosecond pulses using a plasmonic funnel-waveguide,” New J. Phys. 14(10), 103038 (2012).
[CrossRef]

I.-Y. Park, S. Kim, J. Choi, D.-H. Lee, and S.-W. Kim, “Plasmonic field enhancement for generating ultrashort extreme-ultraviolet light pulses,” Proc. SPIE 8096, 80960S (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y.

S. Kim, J. Jin, Y. J. Kim, I. Y. Park, Y. Kim, and S. W. Kim, “High-harmonic generation by resonant plasmon field enhancement,” Nature 453(7196), 757–760 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, Y. J.

I. Y. Park, S. Kim, J. Choi, D. H. Lee, Y. J. Kim, M. F. Kling, M. I. Stockman, and S. W. Kim, “Plasmonic generation of ultrashort extreme-ultraviolet light pulses,” Nat. Photonics 5(11), 678–682 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Kim, J. Jin, Y. J. Kim, I. Y. Park, Y. Kim, and S. W. Kim, “High-harmonic generation by resonant plasmon field enhancement,” Nature 453(7196), 757–760 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kino, G. S.

P. J. Schuck, D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Improving the mismatch between light and nanoscale objects with gold bowtie nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(1), 017402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kley, B.

C. Kern, M. Zürch, J. Petschulat, T. Pertsch, B. Kley, T. Käsebier, U. Hübner, and C. Spielmann, “Comparison of femtosecond laser-induced damage on unstructured vs. nano-structured Au-targets,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 104(1), 15–21 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kling, M. F.

M. Lupetti, M. F. Kling, and A. Scrinzi, “Plasmon-enhanced-attosecond-extreme ultraviolet source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(22), 223903 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Y. Park, S. Kim, J. Choi, D. H. Lee, Y. J. Kim, M. F. Kling, M. I. Stockman, and S. W. Kim, “Plasmonic generation of ultrashort extreme-ultraviolet light pulses,” Nat. Photonics 5(11), 678–682 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Knittel, V.

N. Pfullmann, M. Noack, J. Cardoso de Andrade, S. Rausch, T. Nagy, C. Reinhardt, V. Knittel, R. Bratschitsch, A. Leitenstorfer, D. Akemeier, A. Hütten, M. Kovacev, and U. Morgner, “Nano-antennae assisted emission of extreme ultraviolet radiation,” Ann. Phys. 526(3–4), 119–134 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Kovacev, M.

N. Pfullmann, M. Noack, J. Cardoso de Andrade, S. Rausch, T. Nagy, C. Reinhardt, V. Knittel, R. Bratschitsch, A. Leitenstorfer, D. Akemeier, A. Hütten, M. Kovacev, and U. Morgner, “Nano-antennae assisted emission of extreme ultraviolet radiation,” Ann. Phys. 526(3–4), 119–134 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Krauss, G.

T. Hanke, G. Krauss, D. Träutlein, B. Wild, R. Bratschitsch, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Efficient nonlinear light emission of single gold optical antennas driven by few-cycle near-infrared pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(25), 257404 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuipers, L. K.

Lee, D. H.

I. Y. Park, J. Choi, D. H. Lee, S. Han, S. Kim, and S. W. Kim, “Generation of EUV radiation by plasmonic field enhancement using nano‐structured bowties and funnel‐waveguides,” Ann. Phys. 525(1–2), 87–96 (2013).
[CrossRef]

I. Y. Park, S. Kim, J. Choi, D. H. Lee, Y. J. Kim, M. F. Kling, M. I. Stockman, and S. W. Kim, “Plasmonic generation of ultrashort extreme-ultraviolet light pulses,” Nat. Photonics 5(11), 678–682 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lee, D.-H.

J. Choi, S. Kim, I.-Y. Park, D.-H. Lee, S. Han, and S.-W. Kim, “Generation of isolated attosecond pulses using a plasmonic funnel-waveguide,” New J. Phys. 14(10), 103038 (2012).
[CrossRef]

I.-Y. Park, S. Kim, J. Choi, D.-H. Lee, and S.-W. Kim, “Plasmonic field enhancement for generating ultrashort extreme-ultraviolet light pulses,” Proc. SPIE 8096, 80960S (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lehmann, J.

J. Lehmann, M. Merschdorf, W. Pfeiffer, A. Thon, S. Voll, and G. Gerber, “Surface plasmon dynamics in silver nanoparticles studied by femtosecond time-resolved photoemission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(14), 2921–2924 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leitenstorfer, A.

N. Pfullmann, M. Noack, J. Cardoso de Andrade, S. Rausch, T. Nagy, C. Reinhardt, V. Knittel, R. Bratschitsch, A. Leitenstorfer, D. Akemeier, A. Hütten, M. Kovacev, and U. Morgner, “Nano-antennae assisted emission of extreme ultraviolet radiation,” Ann. Phys. 526(3–4), 119–134 (2014).
[CrossRef]

T. Hanke, G. Krauss, D. Träutlein, B. Wild, R. Bratschitsch, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Efficient nonlinear light emission of single gold optical antennas driven by few-cycle near-infrared pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(25), 257404 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, M.

M. Li, S. Menon, J. P. Nibarger, and G. N. Gibson, “Ultrafast electron dynamics in femtosecond optical breakdown of dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2394–2397 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lupetti, M.

M. Lupetti, M. F. Kling, and A. Scrinzi, “Plasmon-enhanced-attosecond-extreme ultraviolet source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(22), 223903 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marowsky, G.

E. M. Kim, S. S. Elovikov, T. V. Murzina, A. A. Nikulin, O. A. Aktsipetrov, M. A. Bader, and G. Marowsky, “Surface-enhanced optical third-harmonic generation in Ag island films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(22), 227402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Menon, S.

M. Li, S. Menon, J. P. Nibarger, and G. N. Gibson, “Ultrafast electron dynamics in femtosecond optical breakdown of dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2394–2397 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Merschdorf, M.

M. Merschdorf, C. Kennerknecht, and W. Pfeiffer, “Collective and single-particle dynamics in time-resolved two-photon photoemission,” Phys. Rev. B 70(19), 193401 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Lehmann, M. Merschdorf, W. Pfeiffer, A. Thon, S. Voll, and G. Gerber, “Surface plasmon dynamics in silver nanoparticles studied by femtosecond time-resolved photoemission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(14), 2921–2924 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moerner, W. E.

P. J. Schuck, D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Improving the mismatch between light and nanoscale objects with gold bowtie nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(1), 017402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morgner, U.

N. Pfullmann, M. Noack, J. Cardoso de Andrade, S. Rausch, T. Nagy, C. Reinhardt, V. Knittel, R. Bratschitsch, A. Leitenstorfer, D. Akemeier, A. Hütten, M. Kovacev, and U. Morgner, “Nano-antennae assisted emission of extreme ultraviolet radiation,” Ann. Phys. 526(3–4), 119–134 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Murzina, T. V.

E. M. Kim, S. S. Elovikov, T. V. Murzina, A. A. Nikulin, O. A. Aktsipetrov, M. A. Bader, and G. Marowsky, “Surface-enhanced optical third-harmonic generation in Ag island films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(22), 227402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nagy, T.

N. Pfullmann, M. Noack, J. Cardoso de Andrade, S. Rausch, T. Nagy, C. Reinhardt, V. Knittel, R. Bratschitsch, A. Leitenstorfer, D. Akemeier, A. Hütten, M. Kovacev, and U. Morgner, “Nano-antennae assisted emission of extreme ultraviolet radiation,” Ann. Phys. 526(3–4), 119–134 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Nam, S.

Nibarger, J. P.

M. Li, S. Menon, J. P. Nibarger, and G. N. Gibson, “Ultrafast electron dynamics in femtosecond optical breakdown of dielectrics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2394–2397 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nikulin, A. A.

E. M. Kim, S. S. Elovikov, T. V. Murzina, A. A. Nikulin, O. A. Aktsipetrov, M. A. Bader, and G. Marowsky, “Surface-enhanced optical third-harmonic generation in Ag island films,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(22), 227402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Noack, M.

N. Pfullmann, M. Noack, J. Cardoso de Andrade, S. Rausch, T. Nagy, C. Reinhardt, V. Knittel, R. Bratschitsch, A. Leitenstorfer, D. Akemeier, A. Hütten, M. Kovacev, and U. Morgner, “Nano-antennae assisted emission of extreme ultraviolet radiation,” Ann. Phys. 526(3–4), 119–134 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Novikov, S. M.

Orenstein, M.

Park, I. Y.

I. Y. Park, J. Choi, D. H. Lee, S. Han, S. Kim, and S. W. Kim, “Generation of EUV radiation by plasmonic field enhancement using nano‐structured bowties and funnel‐waveguides,” Ann. Phys. 525(1–2), 87–96 (2013).
[CrossRef]

I. Y. Park, S. Kim, J. Choi, D. H. Lee, Y. J. Kim, M. F. Kling, M. I. Stockman, and S. W. Kim, “Plasmonic generation of ultrashort extreme-ultraviolet light pulses,” Nat. Photonics 5(11), 678–682 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Kim, J. Jin, Y. J. Kim, I. Y. Park, Y. Kim, and S. W. Kim, “High-harmonic generation by resonant plasmon field enhancement,” Nature 453(7196), 757–760 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, I.-Y.

J. Choi, S. Kim, I.-Y. Park, D.-H. Lee, S. Han, and S.-W. Kim, “Generation of isolated attosecond pulses using a plasmonic funnel-waveguide,” New J. Phys. 14(10), 103038 (2012).
[CrossRef]

I.-Y. Park, S. Kim, J. Choi, D.-H. Lee, and S.-W. Kim, “Plasmonic field enhancement for generating ultrashort extreme-ultraviolet light pulses,” Proc. SPIE 8096, 80960S (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pedersen, K.

Pertsch, T.

C. Kern, M. Zürch, J. Petschulat, T. Pertsch, B. Kley, T. Käsebier, U. Hübner, and C. Spielmann, “Comparison of femtosecond laser-induced damage on unstructured vs. nano-structured Au-targets,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 104(1), 15–21 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Petschulat, J.

C. Kern, M. Zürch, J. Petschulat, T. Pertsch, B. Kley, T. Käsebier, U. Hübner, and C. Spielmann, “Comparison of femtosecond laser-induced damage on unstructured vs. nano-structured Au-targets,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 104(1), 15–21 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pfeiffer, W.

M. Merschdorf, C. Kennerknecht, and W. Pfeiffer, “Collective and single-particle dynamics in time-resolved two-photon photoemission,” Phys. Rev. B 70(19), 193401 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Lehmann, M. Merschdorf, W. Pfeiffer, A. Thon, S. Voll, and G. Gerber, “Surface plasmon dynamics in silver nanoparticles studied by femtosecond time-resolved photoemission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(14), 2921–2924 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pfullmann, N.

N. Pfullmann, M. Noack, J. Cardoso de Andrade, S. Rausch, T. Nagy, C. Reinhardt, V. Knittel, R. Bratschitsch, A. Leitenstorfer, D. Akemeier, A. Hütten, M. Kovacev, and U. Morgner, “Nano-antennae assisted emission of extreme ultraviolet radiation,” Ann. Phys. 526(3–4), 119–134 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Pile, D. F. P.

Polman, A.

Rausch, S.

N. Pfullmann, M. Noack, J. Cardoso de Andrade, S. Rausch, T. Nagy, C. Reinhardt, V. Knittel, R. Bratschitsch, A. Leitenstorfer, D. Akemeier, A. Hütten, M. Kovacev, and U. Morgner, “Nano-antennae assisted emission of extreme ultraviolet radiation,” Ann. Phys. 526(3–4), 119–134 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Reinhardt, C.

N. Pfullmann, M. Noack, J. Cardoso de Andrade, S. Rausch, T. Nagy, C. Reinhardt, V. Knittel, R. Bratschitsch, A. Leitenstorfer, D. Akemeier, A. Hütten, M. Kovacev, and U. Morgner, “Nano-antennae assisted emission of extreme ultraviolet radiation,” Ann. Phys. 526(3–4), 119–134 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Ringe, E.

B. Sharma, R. R. Frontiera, A.-I. Henry, E. Ringe, and R. P. Van Duyne, “SERS: Materials, applications, and the future,” Mater. Today 15(1–2), 16–25 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ropers, C.

M. Sivis, M. Duwe, B. Abel, and C. Ropers, “Extreme-ultraviolet light generation in plasmonic nanostructures,” Nat. Phys. 9(5), 304–309 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Schuck, P. J.

H. Choo, M.-K. Kim, M. Staffaroni, T. J. Seok, J. Bokor, S. Cabrini, P. J. Schuck, M. C. Wu, and E. Yablonovitch, “Nanofocusing in a metal–insulator–metal gap plasmon waveguide with a three-dimensional linear taper,” Nat. Photonics 6(12), 838–844 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Schuck, D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Improving the mismatch between light and nanoscale objects with gold bowtie nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(1), 017402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scrinzi, A.

M. Lupetti, M. F. Kling, and A. Scrinzi, “Plasmon-enhanced-attosecond-extreme ultraviolet source,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(22), 223903 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seok, T. J.

H. Choo, M.-K. Kim, M. Staffaroni, T. J. Seok, J. Bokor, S. Cabrini, P. J. Schuck, M. C. Wu, and E. Yablonovitch, “Nanofocusing in a metal–insulator–metal gap plasmon waveguide with a three-dimensional linear taper,” Nat. Photonics 6(12), 838–844 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sharma, B.

B. Sharma, R. R. Frontiera, A.-I. Henry, E. Ringe, and R. P. Van Duyne, “SERS: Materials, applications, and the future,” Mater. Today 15(1–2), 16–25 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sivis, M.

M. Sivis, M. Duwe, B. Abel, and C. Ropers, “Extreme-ultraviolet light generation in plasmonic nanostructures,” Nat. Phys. 9(5), 304–309 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Søndergaard, T.

Spielmann, C.

C. Kern, M. Zürch, J. Petschulat, T. Pertsch, B. Kley, T. Käsebier, U. Hübner, and C. Spielmann, “Comparison of femtosecond laser-induced damage on unstructured vs. nano-structured Au-targets,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 104(1), 15–21 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Staffaroni, M.

H. Choo, M.-K. Kim, M. Staffaroni, T. J. Seok, J. Bokor, S. Cabrini, P. J. Schuck, M. C. Wu, and E. Yablonovitch, “Nanofocusing in a metal–insulator–metal gap plasmon waveguide with a three-dimensional linear taper,” Nat. Photonics 6(12), 838–844 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Stockman, M. I.

I. Y. Park, S. Kim, J. Choi, D. H. Lee, Y. J. Kim, M. F. Kling, M. I. Stockman, and S. W. Kim, “Plasmonic generation of ultrashort extreme-ultraviolet light pulses,” Nat. Photonics 5(11), 678–682 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Stockman, “Nanoplasmonics: past, present, and glimpse into future,” Opt. Express 19(22), 22029–22106 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. I. Stockman, “Nanofocusing of optical energy in tapered plasmonic waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(13), 137404 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sundaramurthy, A.

P. J. Schuck, D. P. Fromm, A. Sundaramurthy, G. S. Kino, and W. E. Moerner, “Improving the mismatch between light and nanoscale objects with gold bowtie nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(1), 017402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thon, A.

J. Lehmann, M. Merschdorf, W. Pfeiffer, A. Thon, S. Voll, and G. Gerber, “Surface plasmon dynamics in silver nanoparticles studied by femtosecond time-resolved photoemission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(14), 2921–2924 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Träutlein, D.

T. Hanke, G. Krauss, D. Träutlein, B. Wild, R. Bratschitsch, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Efficient nonlinear light emission of single gold optical antennas driven by few-cycle near-infrared pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(25), 257404 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Duyne, R. P.

B. Sharma, R. R. Frontiera, A.-I. Henry, E. Ringe, and R. P. Van Duyne, “SERS: Materials, applications, and the future,” Mater. Today 15(1–2), 16–25 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Verhagen, E.

Vogel, M. W.

M. W. Vogel and D. K. Gramotnev, “Adiabatic nano-focusing of plasmons by metallic tapered rods in the presence of dissipation,” Phys. Lett. A 363(5–6), 507–511 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Voll, S.

J. Lehmann, M. Merschdorf, W. Pfeiffer, A. Thon, S. Voll, and G. Gerber, “Surface plasmon dynamics in silver nanoparticles studied by femtosecond time-resolved photoemission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(14), 2921–2924 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wild, B.

T. Hanke, G. Krauss, D. Träutlein, B. Wild, R. Bratschitsch, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Efficient nonlinear light emission of single gold optical antennas driven by few-cycle near-infrared pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(25), 257404 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, M. C.

H. Choo, M.-K. Kim, M. Staffaroni, T. J. Seok, J. Bokor, S. Cabrini, P. J. Schuck, M. C. Wu, and E. Yablonovitch, “Nanofocusing in a metal–insulator–metal gap plasmon waveguide with a three-dimensional linear taper,” Nat. Photonics 6(12), 838–844 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yablonovitch, E.

H. Choo, M.-K. Kim, M. Staffaroni, T. J. Seok, J. Bokor, S. Cabrini, P. J. Schuck, M. C. Wu, and E. Yablonovitch, “Nanofocusing in a metal–insulator–metal gap plasmon waveguide with a three-dimensional linear taper,” Nat. Photonics 6(12), 838–844 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

Zürch, M.

C. Kern, M. Zürch, J. Petschulat, T. Pertsch, B. Kley, T. Käsebier, U. Hübner, and C. Spielmann, “Comparison of femtosecond laser-induced damage on unstructured vs. nano-structured Au-targets,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 104(1), 15–21 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ann. Phys. (2)

I. Y. Park, J. Choi, D. H. Lee, S. Han, S. Kim, and S. W. Kim, “Generation of EUV radiation by plasmonic field enhancement using nano‐structured bowties and funnel‐waveguides,” Ann. Phys. 525(1–2), 87–96 (2013).
[CrossRef]

N. Pfullmann, M. Noack, J. Cardoso de Andrade, S. Rausch, T. Nagy, C. Reinhardt, V. Knittel, R. Bratschitsch, A. Leitenstorfer, D. Akemeier, A. Hütten, M. Kovacev, and U. Morgner, “Nano-antennae assisted emission of extreme ultraviolet radiation,” Ann. Phys. 526(3–4), 119–134 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. (1)

C. Kern, M. Zürch, J. Petschulat, T. Pertsch, B. Kley, T. Käsebier, U. Hübner, and C. Spielmann, “Comparison of femtosecond laser-induced damage on unstructured vs. nano-structured Au-targets,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 104(1), 15–21 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

D. K. Gramotnev, “Adiabatic nanofocusing of plasmons by sharp metallic grooves: Geometrical optics approach,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(10), 104302 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Today (1)

B. Sharma, R. R. Frontiera, A.-I. Henry, E. Ringe, and R. P. Van Duyne, “SERS: Materials, applications, and the future,” Mater. Today 15(1–2), 16–25 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

P. Biagioni, D. Brida, J. S. Huang, J. Kern, L. Duò, B. Hecht, M. Finazzi, and G. Cerullo, “Dynamics of four-Photon Photoluminescence in Gold Nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 2941–2947 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (2)

H. Choo, M.-K. Kim, M. Staffaroni, T. J. Seok, J. Bokor, S. Cabrini, P. J. Schuck, M. C. Wu, and E. Yablonovitch, “Nanofocusing in a metal–insulator–metal gap plasmon waveguide with a three-dimensional linear taper,” Nat. Photonics 6(12), 838–844 (2012).
[CrossRef]

I. Y. Park, S. Kim, J. Choi, D. H. Lee, Y. J. Kim, M. F. Kling, M. I. Stockman, and S. W. Kim, “Plasmonic generation of ultrashort extreme-ultraviolet light pulses,” Nat. Photonics 5(11), 678–682 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Phys. (1)

M. Sivis, M. Duwe, B. Abel, and C. Ropers, “Extreme-ultraviolet light generation in plasmonic nanostructures,” Nat. Phys. 9(5), 304–309 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

S. Kim, J. Jin, Y. J. Kim, I. Y. Park, Y. Kim, and S. W. Kim, “High-harmonic generation by resonant plasmon field enhancement,” Nature 453(7196), 757–760 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

New J. Phys. (1)

J. Choi, S. Kim, I.-Y. Park, D.-H. Lee, S. Han, and S.-W. Kim, “Generation of isolated attosecond pulses using a plasmonic funnel-waveguide,” New J. Phys. 14(10), 103038 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Lett. A (1)

M. W. Vogel and D. K. Gramotnev, “Adiabatic nano-focusing of plasmons by metallic tapered rods in the presence of dissipation,” Phys. Lett. A 363(5–6), 507–511 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

M. Merschdorf, C. Kennerknecht, and W. Pfeiffer, “Collective and single-particle dynamics in time-resolved two-photon photoemission,” Phys. Rev. B 70(19), 193401 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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Proc. SPIE (1)

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[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic drawing and scanning electron microscope (SEM) image of the funnel-waveguide. (a) Cutaway drawing of the funnel-waveguide made of a single tapered hollow core of 9 μm depth and 0.5 elliptic ratio cross-section. (b) SEM image of the funnel-waveguide fabricated on a micro cantilever. Inset images are the top view of the inlet aperture (2.2 μm, minor axis diameter) and the bottom view of the exit aperture (70 nm, minor axis diameter).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

FDTD calculations for evolution of the field enhancement within the funnel-waveguide. (a) Cross-sectional view of the funnel-waveguide being cut along the minor axis. Polarization direction of the incident laser with respect to the funnel-waveguide is also shown. (b) The effective refractive index inside the funnel-waveguide obtained along the z-axis for λ = 800 nm. (c)-(e) FDTD simulation snapshots of the spatial intensity distribution inside the funnel when the incident field is propagating at the positions indicated in (b).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

FDTD calculation of the power coupling efficiency at the hot spot of the funnel-waveguide. (a) A straight hollow tube of elliptical cross-section (260 nm x 520 nm) is virtually attached at the exit aperture to eliminate the mode-cutoff reflected light from near the exit aperture. (b) Transmittance curve calculated along the z-axis.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental setup for TPL microscopy and results. (a) System layout to implement TPL microscopy in reflection mode. The autocorrelation trace of the TPL signal is also measured by incorporating a Michelson-type interferometer after the femtosecond laser source (not shown). (b) TPL signal measured by varying the polarization direction of the driving laser field. The incident femtosecond light was scanned along the major-axis of the elliptical cross-section of the waveguide. The TPL signals were normalized to their respective reference values taken from the smooth silver surface. The inset SEM image shows the inlet aperture of the funnel-waveguide, indicating the polarization directions for the two measured TPL signals. (c) Quadratic dependence of the measured TPL signal on the incident power that was increased and then reversely decreased in two cycles.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Temporal characteristics of the enhanced field at the hot spot of the funnel-waveguide. (a) FDTD calculation results showing how the pulse duration (solid red line) as well as the center wavelength (dotted blue line) of the enhanced field varies along the distance from the exit aperture. (b) FDTD calculation results for the incident field versus the enhanced field in their temporal profiles at the maximum field position. The notations ti and te denote the given incident pulse duration and the enhanced pulse duration, respectively. (c) Experimental results for the IAC signal of the incident and enhanced field actually measured with a Michelson interferometer. (d) FDTD calculation results for the relation between ti and te at the maximum field position. The degree of temporal pulse broadening is defined as (te-ti)/t0 with t0 ( = 2.67 fs) being the one-oscillation period of the incident field centered at an 800 nm wavelength.

Equations (2)

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α 2 = TP L hot A ref P ref 2 TP L ref A hot P hot 2
A hot = surface E hot 4 da / E max 4

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