Abstract

We demonstrate an erbium-doped fiber laser passively mode-locked by a multilayer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) saturable absorber (SA). The multilayer MoS2 is prepared by the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method and transferred onto the end-face of a fiber connector. Taking advantage of the excellent saturable absorption of the fabricated MoS2-based SA, stable mode locking is obtained at a pump threshold of 31 mW. Resultant output soliton pulses have central wavelength, spectral width, pulse duration, and repetition rate of 1568.9 nm, 2.6 nm, 1.28 ps, and 8.288 MHz, respectively. The experimental results show that multilayer MoS2 is a promising material for ultrafast laser systems.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2014

2013

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Sobon, J. Sotor, I. Pasternak, A. Krajewska, W. Strupinski, and K. M. Abramski, “Thulium-doped all-fiber laser mode-locked by CVD-graphene/PMMA saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 21(10), 12797–12802 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Cui and X. Liu, “Graphene and nanotube mode-locked fiber laser emitting dissipative and conventional solitons,” Opt. Express 21(16), 18969–18974 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. C. Luo, M. Liu, H. Liu, X. W. Zheng, A. P. Luo, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, and W. C. Xu, “2 GHz passively harmonic mode-locked fiber laser by a microfiber-based topological insulator saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 38(24), 5212–5215 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Najmaei, Z. Liu, W. Zhou, X. Zou, G. Shi, S. Lei, B. I. Yakobson, J.-C. Idrobo, P. M. Ajayan, and J. Lou, “Vapour phase growth and grain boundary structure of molybdenum disulphide atomic layers,” Nat. Mater. 12(8), 754–759 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Yu, C. Li, Y. Liu, L. Su, Y. Zhang, and L. Cao, “Controlled scalable synthesis of uniform, high-quality monolayer and few-layer MoS2 films,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1866 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Zhao, B. Wang, S. Wen, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Topological insulator as an optical modulator for pulsed solid-state lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7(6), L77–L83 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

2011

X. L. Qi and S. C. Zhang, “Topological insulators and superconductors,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 83(4), 1057–1110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, and A. Ferrari, “Sub 200 fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 203106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. F. Mak, C. Lee, J. Hone, J. Shan, and T. F. Heinz, “Atomically thin MoS2: a new direct-gap semiconductor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(13), 136805 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Tang, H. Zhang, X. Wu, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Dissipative soliton operation of an ytterbium-doped fiber laser mode locked with atomic multilayer graphene,” Opt. Lett. 35(21), 3622–3624 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

A. Cabasse, G. Martel, and J. L. Oudar, “High power dissipative soliton in an Erbium-doped fiber laser mode-locked with a high modulation depth saturable absorber mirror,” Opt. Express 17(12), 9537–9542 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Y. L. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, C. X. Liu, X. L. Qi, X. Dai, Z. Fang, and S. C. Zhang, “Topological insulators in Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 with a single Dirac cone on the surface,” Nat. Phys. 5(6), 438–442 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(12), 738–742 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, B. Zhao, and A. Q. Liu, “Mechanism of multisoliton formation and soliton energy quantization in passively mode-locked fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 72(4), 043816 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003

U. Keller, “Recent developments in compact ultrafast lasers,” Nature 424(6950), 831–838 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

1997

L. Nelson, D. Jones, K. Tamura, H. Haus, and E. Ippen, “Ultrashort-pulse fiber ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 65(2), 277–294 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Abramski, K. M.

Ahn, J.-H.

Y. Lee, J. Lee, H. Bark, I.-K. Oh, G. H. Ryu, Z. Lee, H. Kim, J. H. Cho, J.-H. Ahn, and C. Lee, “Synthesis of wafer-scale uniform molybdenum disulfide films with control over the layer number using a gas phase sulfur precursor,” Nanoscale 6(5), 2821–2826 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ajayan, P. M.

S. Najmaei, Z. Liu, W. Zhou, X. Zou, G. Shi, S. Lei, B. I. Yakobson, J.-C. Idrobo, P. M. Ajayan, and J. Lou, “Vapour phase growth and grain boundary structure of molybdenum disulphide atomic layers,” Nat. Mater. 12(8), 754–759 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bao, Q. L.

L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Tang, H. Zhang, X. Wu, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Dissipative soliton operation of an ytterbium-doped fiber laser mode locked with atomic multilayer graphene,” Opt. Lett. 35(21), 3622–3624 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Y. L. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bark, H.

Y. Lee, J. Lee, H. Bark, I.-K. Oh, G. H. Ryu, Z. Lee, H. Kim, J. H. Cho, J.-H. Ahn, and C. Lee, “Synthesis of wafer-scale uniform molybdenum disulfide films with control over the layer number using a gas phase sulfur precursor,” Nanoscale 6(5), 2821–2826 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Basko, D. M.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blau, W. J.

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bonaccorso, F.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Brown, C. T.

Cabasse, A.

Cao, L.

Y. Yu, C. Li, Y. Liu, L. Su, Y. Zhang, and L. Cao, “Controlled scalable synthesis of uniform, high-quality monolayer and few-layer MoS2 films,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1866 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, A. Wang, M. Zhao, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26(21), 3538–3544 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Zhao, Y. Zou, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Lu, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Wavelength-tunable picosecond soliton fiber laser with Topological Insulator: Bi2Se3 as a mode locker,” Opt. Express 20(25), 27888–27895 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cho, J. H.

Y. Lee, J. Lee, H. Bark, I.-K. Oh, G. H. Ryu, Z. Lee, H. Kim, J. H. Cho, J.-H. Ahn, and C. Lee, “Synthesis of wafer-scale uniform molybdenum disulfide films with control over the layer number using a gas phase sulfur precursor,” Nanoscale 6(5), 2821–2826 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coleman, J. N.

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cui, Y.

Dai, X.

H. Zhang, C. X. Liu, X. L. Qi, X. Dai, Z. Fang, and S. C. Zhang, “Topological insulators in Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 with a single Dirac cone on the surface,” Nat. Phys. 5(6), 438–442 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Du, J.

Fan, J.

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fang, Z.

H. Zhang, C. X. Liu, X. L. Qi, X. Dai, Z. Fang, and S. C. Zhang, “Topological insulators in Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 with a single Dirac cone on the surface,” Nat. Phys. 5(6), 438–442 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Feng, Y.

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ferrari, A.

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, and A. Ferrari, “Sub 200 fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 203106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ferrari, A. C.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(12), 738–742 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fox, D.

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grein, M. E.

Grodecki, K.

Hasan, T.

D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, and A. Ferrari, “Sub 200 fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 203106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haus, H.

L. Nelson, D. Jones, K. Tamura, H. Haus, and E. Ippen, “Ultrashort-pulse fiber ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 65(2), 277–294 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Haus, H. A.

Heinz, T. F.

K. F. Mak, C. Lee, J. Hone, J. Shan, and T. F. Heinz, “Atomically thin MoS2: a new direct-gap semiconductor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(13), 136805 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hennrich, F.

F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(12), 738–742 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hone, J.

K. F. Mak, C. Lee, J. Hone, J. Shan, and T. F. Heinz, “Atomically thin MoS2: a new direct-gap semiconductor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(13), 136805 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Idrobo, J.-C.

S. Najmaei, Z. Liu, W. Zhou, X. Zou, G. Shi, S. Lei, B. I. Yakobson, J.-C. Idrobo, P. M. Ajayan, and J. Lou, “Vapour phase growth and grain boundary structure of molybdenum disulphide atomic layers,” Nat. Mater. 12(8), 754–759 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ippen, E.

L. Nelson, D. Jones, K. Tamura, H. Haus, and E. Ippen, “Ultrashort-pulse fiber ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 65(2), 277–294 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ippen, E. P.

Jiang, B.

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, L. A.

Jones, D.

L. Nelson, D. Jones, K. Tamura, H. Haus, and E. Ippen, “Ultrashort-pulse fiber ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 65(2), 277–294 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jung, M.

Keller, U.

U. Keller, “Recent developments in compact ultrafast lasers,” Nature 424(6950), 831–838 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, H.

Y. Lee, J. Lee, H. Bark, I.-K. Oh, G. H. Ryu, Z. Lee, H. Kim, J. H. Cho, J.-H. Ahn, and C. Lee, “Synthesis of wafer-scale uniform molybdenum disulfide films with control over the layer number using a gas phase sulfur precursor,” Nanoscale 6(5), 2821–2826 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koo, J.

Krajewska, A.

Lagatsky, A. A.

Lee, C.

Y. Lee, J. Lee, H. Bark, I.-K. Oh, G. H. Ryu, Z. Lee, H. Kim, J. H. Cho, J.-H. Ahn, and C. Lee, “Synthesis of wafer-scale uniform molybdenum disulfide films with control over the layer number using a gas phase sulfur precursor,” Nanoscale 6(5), 2821–2826 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. F. Mak, C. Lee, J. Hone, J. Shan, and T. F. Heinz, “Atomically thin MoS2: a new direct-gap semiconductor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(13), 136805 (2010).
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Lee, J.

M. Jung, J. Lee, J. Koo, J. Park, Y.-W. Song, K. Lee, S. Lee, and J. H. Lee, “A femtosecond pulse fiber laser at 1935 nm using a bulk-structured Bi2Te3 topological insulator,” Opt. Express 22(7), 7865–7874 (2014).
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Y. Lee, J. Lee, H. Bark, I.-K. Oh, G. H. Ryu, Z. Lee, H. Kim, J. H. Cho, J.-H. Ahn, and C. Lee, “Synthesis of wafer-scale uniform molybdenum disulfide films with control over the layer number using a gas phase sulfur precursor,” Nanoscale 6(5), 2821–2826 (2014).
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Y. Lee, J. Lee, H. Bark, I.-K. Oh, G. H. Ryu, Z. Lee, H. Kim, J. H. Cho, J.-H. Ahn, and C. Lee, “Synthesis of wafer-scale uniform molybdenum disulfide films with control over the layer number using a gas phase sulfur precursor,” Nanoscale 6(5), 2821–2826 (2014).
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S. Najmaei, Z. Liu, W. Zhou, X. Zou, G. Shi, S. Lei, B. I. Yakobson, J.-C. Idrobo, P. M. Ajayan, and J. Lou, “Vapour phase growth and grain boundary structure of molybdenum disulphide atomic layers,” Nat. Mater. 12(8), 754–759 (2013).
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Y. Yu, C. Li, Y. Liu, L. Su, Y. Zhang, and L. Cao, “Controlled scalable synthesis of uniform, high-quality monolayer and few-layer MoS2 films,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1866 (2013).
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D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, B. Zhao, and A. Q. Liu, “Mechanism of multisoliton formation and soliton energy quantization in passively mode-locked fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 72(4), 043816 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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H. Zhang, C. X. Liu, X. L. Qi, X. Dai, Z. Fang, and S. C. Zhang, “Topological insulators in Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 with a single Dirac cone on the surface,” Nat. Phys. 5(6), 438–442 (2009).
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Liu, M.

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Y. Yu, C. Li, Y. Liu, L. Su, Y. Zhang, and L. Cao, “Controlled scalable synthesis of uniform, high-quality monolayer and few-layer MoS2 films,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1866 (2013).
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S. Najmaei, Z. Liu, W. Zhou, X. Zou, G. Shi, S. Lei, B. I. Yakobson, J.-C. Idrobo, P. M. Ajayan, and J. Lou, “Vapour phase growth and grain boundary structure of molybdenum disulphide atomic layers,” Nat. Mater. 12(8), 754–759 (2013).
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K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
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S. Najmaei, Z. Liu, W. Zhou, X. Zou, G. Shi, S. Lei, B. I. Yakobson, J.-C. Idrobo, P. M. Ajayan, and J. Lou, “Vapour phase growth and grain boundary structure of molybdenum disulphide atomic layers,” Nat. Mater. 12(8), 754–759 (2013).
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K. F. Mak, C. Lee, J. Hone, J. Shan, and T. F. Heinz, “Atomically thin MoS2: a new direct-gap semiconductor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(13), 136805 (2010).
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Mei, L.

S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, A. Wang, M. Zhao, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26(21), 3538–3544 (2014).
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F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(12), 738–742 (2008).
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S. Najmaei, Z. Liu, W. Zhou, X. Zou, G. Shi, S. Lei, B. I. Yakobson, J.-C. Idrobo, P. M. Ajayan, and J. Lou, “Vapour phase growth and grain boundary structure of molybdenum disulphide atomic layers,” Nat. Mater. 12(8), 754–759 (2013).
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L. Nelson, D. Jones, K. Tamura, H. Haus, and E. Ippen, “Ultrashort-pulse fiber ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 65(2), 277–294 (1997).
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Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Y. L. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
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K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Y. Lee, J. Lee, H. Bark, I.-K. Oh, G. H. Ryu, Z. Lee, H. Kim, J. H. Cho, J.-H. Ahn, and C. Lee, “Synthesis of wafer-scale uniform molybdenum disulfide films with control over the layer number using a gas phase sulfur precursor,” Nanoscale 6(5), 2821–2826 (2014).
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D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, and A. Ferrari, “Sub 200 fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 203106 (2010).
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Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
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Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
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C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211106 (2012).
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X. L. Qi and S. C. Zhang, “Topological insulators and superconductors,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 83(4), 1057–1110 (2011).
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H. Zhang, C. X. Liu, X. L. Qi, X. Dai, Z. Fang, and S. C. Zhang, “Topological insulators in Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 with a single Dirac cone on the surface,” Nat. Phys. 5(6), 438–442 (2009).
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Y. Lee, J. Lee, H. Bark, I.-K. Oh, G. H. Ryu, Z. Lee, H. Kim, J. H. Cho, J.-H. Ahn, and C. Lee, “Synthesis of wafer-scale uniform molybdenum disulfide films with control over the layer number using a gas phase sulfur precursor,” Nanoscale 6(5), 2821–2826 (2014).
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F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(12), 738–742 (2008).
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K. F. Mak, C. Lee, J. Hone, J. Shan, and T. F. Heinz, “Atomically thin MoS2: a new direct-gap semiconductor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(13), 136805 (2010).
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Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Y. L. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
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S. Najmaei, Z. Liu, W. Zhou, X. Zou, G. Shi, S. Lei, B. I. Yakobson, J.-C. Idrobo, P. M. Ajayan, and J. Lou, “Vapour phase growth and grain boundary structure of molybdenum disulphide atomic layers,” Nat. Mater. 12(8), 754–759 (2013).
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Sobon, G.

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Y. Yu, C. Li, Y. Liu, L. Su, Y. Zhang, and L. Cao, “Controlled scalable synthesis of uniform, high-quality monolayer and few-layer MoS2 films,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1866 (2013).
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Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
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[CrossRef]

D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, and A. Ferrari, “Sub 200 fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 203106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(12), 738–742 (2008).
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L. Nelson, D. Jones, K. Tamura, H. Haus, and E. Ippen, “Ultrashort-pulse fiber ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 65(2), 277–294 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tang, D.

C. Zhao, Y. Zou, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Lu, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Wavelength-tunable picosecond soliton fiber laser with Topological Insulator: Bi2Se3 as a mode locker,” Opt. Express 20(25), 27888–27895 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211106 (2012).
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Tang, D. Y.

H. Zhang, S. B. Lu, J. Zheng, J. Du, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) as a broadband saturable absorber for ultra-fast photonics,” Opt. Express 22(6), 7249–7260 (2014).
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L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Tang, H. Zhang, X. Wu, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Dissipative soliton operation of an ytterbium-doped fiber laser mode locked with atomic multilayer graphene,” Opt. Lett. 35(21), 3622–3624 (2010).
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Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Y. L. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
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D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, B. Zhao, and A. Q. Liu, “Mechanism of multisoliton formation and soliton energy quantization in passively mode-locked fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 72(4), 043816 (2005).
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D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, and A. Ferrari, “Sub 200 fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 203106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
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S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, A. Wang, M. Zhao, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26(21), 3538–3544 (2014).
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H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Zhao, B. Wang, S. Wen, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Topological insulator as an optical modulator for pulsed solid-state lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7(6), L77–L83 (2013).
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Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, and A. Ferrari, “Sub 200 fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 203106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(12), 738–742 (2008).
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S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, A. Wang, M. Zhao, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26(21), 3538–3544 (2014).
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H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Zhao, B. Wang, S. Wen, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Topological insulator as an optical modulator for pulsed solid-state lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7(6), L77–L83 (2013).
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K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
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K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
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S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, A. Wang, M. Zhao, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26(21), 3538–3544 (2014).
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H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Zhao, B. Wang, S. Wen, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Topological insulator as an optical modulator for pulsed solid-state lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7(6), L77–L83 (2013).
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Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Y. L. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
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Wang, Z.

C. Zhao, Y. Zou, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Lu, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Wavelength-tunable picosecond soliton fiber laser with Topological Insulator: Bi2Se3 as a mode locker,” Opt. Express 20(25), 27888–27895 (2012).
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C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211106 (2012).
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Wen, S.

H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Zhao, B. Wang, S. Wen, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Topological insulator as an optical modulator for pulsed solid-state lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7(6), L77–L83 (2013).
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C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Zhao, Y. Zou, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Lu, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Wavelength-tunable picosecond soliton fiber laser with Topological Insulator: Bi2Se3 as a mode locker,” Opt. Express 20(25), 27888–27895 (2012).
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Wen, S. C.

White, I. H.

F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(12), 738–742 (2008).
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Yan, Y. L.

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Y. L. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
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S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, A. Wang, M. Zhao, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26(21), 3538–3544 (2014).
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H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Zhao, B. Wang, S. Wen, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Topological insulator as an optical modulator for pulsed solid-state lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7(6), L77–L83 (2013).
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Y. Yu, C. Li, Y. Liu, L. Su, Y. Zhang, and L. Cao, “Controlled scalable synthesis of uniform, high-quality monolayer and few-layer MoS2 films,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1866 (2013).
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S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, A. Wang, M. Zhao, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26(21), 3538–3544 (2014).
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H. Zhang, S. B. Lu, J. Zheng, J. Du, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) as a broadband saturable absorber for ultra-fast photonics,” Opt. Express 22(6), 7249–7260 (2014).
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H. Liu, X. W. Zheng, M. Liu, N. Zhao, A. P. Luo, Z. C. Luo, W. C. Xu, H. Zhang, C. J. Zhao, and S. C. Wen, “Femtosecond pulse generation from a topological insulator mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Express 22(6), 6868–6873 (2014).
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H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Zhao, B. Wang, S. Wen, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Topological insulator as an optical modulator for pulsed solid-state lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7(6), L77–L83 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Zhao, B. Wang, S. Wen, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Topological insulator as an optical modulator for pulsed solid-state lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7(6), L77–L83 (2013).
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Z. C. Luo, M. Liu, H. Liu, X. W. Zheng, A. P. Luo, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, and W. C. Xu, “2 GHz passively harmonic mode-locked fiber laser by a microfiber-based topological insulator saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 38(24), 5212–5215 (2013).
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K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Zhao, Y. Zou, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Lu, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Wavelength-tunable picosecond soliton fiber laser with Topological Insulator: Bi2Se3 as a mode locker,” Opt. Express 20(25), 27888–27895 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Tang, H. Zhang, X. Wu, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Dissipative soliton operation of an ytterbium-doped fiber laser mode locked with atomic multilayer graphene,” Opt. Lett. 35(21), 3622–3624 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Y. L. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, C. X. Liu, X. L. Qi, X. Dai, Z. Fang, and S. C. Zhang, “Topological insulators in Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 with a single Dirac cone on the surface,” Nat. Phys. 5(6), 438–442 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, S. C.

X. L. Qi and S. C. Zhang, “Topological insulators and superconductors,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 83(4), 1057–1110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, C. X. Liu, X. L. Qi, X. Dai, Z. Fang, and S. C. Zhang, “Topological insulators in Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 with a single Dirac cone on the surface,” Nat. Phys. 5(6), 438–442 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y.

Y. Yu, C. Li, Y. Liu, L. Su, Y. Zhang, and L. Cao, “Controlled scalable synthesis of uniform, high-quality monolayer and few-layer MoS2 films,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1866 (2013).
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Zhao, B.

D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, B. Zhao, and A. Q. Liu, “Mechanism of multisoliton formation and soliton energy quantization in passively mode-locked fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 72(4), 043816 (2005).
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Zhao, C.

H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Zhao, B. Wang, S. Wen, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Topological insulator as an optical modulator for pulsed solid-state lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7(6), L77–L83 (2013).
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C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Zhao, Y. Zou, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Lu, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Wavelength-tunable picosecond soliton fiber laser with Topological Insulator: Bi2Se3 as a mode locker,” Opt. Express 20(25), 27888–27895 (2012).
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Zhao, C. J.

Zhao, L. M.

L. M. Zhao, D. Y. Tang, H. Zhang, X. Wu, Q. L. Bao, and K. P. Loh, “Dissipative soliton operation of an ytterbium-doped fiber laser mode locked with atomic multilayer graphene,” Opt. Lett. 35(21), 3622–3624 (2010).
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D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, B. Zhao, and A. Q. Liu, “Mechanism of multisoliton formation and soliton energy quantization in passively mode-locked fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 72(4), 043816 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, M.

S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, A. Wang, M. Zhao, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26(21), 3538–3544 (2014).
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Zhao, N.

Zhao, Q.

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
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Zheng, J.

Zheng, X. W.

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S. Najmaei, Z. Liu, W. Zhou, X. Zou, G. Shi, S. Lei, B. I. Yakobson, J.-C. Idrobo, P. M. Ajayan, and J. Lou, “Vapour phase growth and grain boundary structure of molybdenum disulphide atomic layers,” Nat. Mater. 12(8), 754–759 (2013).
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S. Najmaei, Z. Liu, W. Zhou, X. Zou, G. Shi, S. Lei, B. I. Yakobson, J.-C. Idrobo, P. M. Ajayan, and J. Lou, “Vapour phase growth and grain boundary structure of molybdenum disulphide atomic layers,” Nat. Mater. 12(8), 754–759 (2013).
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Zou, Y.

ACS Nano

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
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K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
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Adv. Funct. Mater.

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Y. L. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
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Adv. Mater.

S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, A. Wang, M. Zhao, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26(21), 3538–3544 (2014).
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Appl. Phys. B

L. Nelson, D. Jones, K. Tamura, H. Haus, and E. Ippen, “Ultrashort-pulse fiber ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 65(2), 277–294 (1997).
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Appl. Phys. Lett.

D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, and A. Ferrari, “Sub 200 fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 203106 (2010).
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C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211106 (2012).
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J. Lightwave Technol.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Laser Photon. Rev.

H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Zhao, B. Wang, S. Wen, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Topological insulator as an optical modulator for pulsed solid-state lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7(6), L77–L83 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Nanoscale

Y. Lee, J. Lee, H. Bark, I.-K. Oh, G. H. Ryu, Z. Lee, H. Kim, J. H. Cho, J.-H. Ahn, and C. Lee, “Synthesis of wafer-scale uniform molybdenum disulfide films with control over the layer number using a gas phase sulfur precursor,” Nanoscale 6(5), 2821–2826 (2014).
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Nat. Mater.

S. Najmaei, Z. Liu, W. Zhou, X. Zou, G. Shi, S. Lei, B. I. Yakobson, J.-C. Idrobo, P. M. Ajayan, and J. Lou, “Vapour phase growth and grain boundary structure of molybdenum disulphide atomic layers,” Nat. Mater. 12(8), 754–759 (2013).
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Nat. Nanotechnol.

F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3(12), 738–742 (2008).
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Nat. Photonics

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Nat. Phys.

H. Zhang, C. X. Liu, X. L. Qi, X. Dai, Z. Fang, and S. C. Zhang, “Topological insulators in Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 with a single Dirac cone on the surface,” Nat. Phys. 5(6), 438–442 (2009).
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Opt. Express

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H. Liu, X. W. Zheng, M. Liu, N. Zhao, A. P. Luo, Z. C. Luo, W. C. Xu, H. Zhang, C. J. Zhao, and S. C. Wen, “Femtosecond pulse generation from a topological insulator mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Express 22(6), 6868–6873 (2014).
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H. Zhang, S. B. Lu, J. Zheng, J. Du, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) as a broadband saturable absorber for ultra-fast photonics,” Opt. Express 22(6), 7249–7260 (2014).
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C. Zhao, Y. Zou, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Lu, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Wavelength-tunable picosecond soliton fiber laser with Topological Insulator: Bi2Se3 as a mode locker,” Opt. Express 20(25), 27888–27895 (2012).
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G. Sobon, J. Sotor, I. Pasternak, A. Krajewska, W. Strupinski, and K. M. Abramski, “Thulium-doped all-fiber laser mode-locked by CVD-graphene/PMMA saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 21(10), 12797–12802 (2013).
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Opt. Lett.

Opt. Mater. Express

Phys. Rev. A

D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, B. Zhao, and A. Q. Liu, “Mechanism of multisoliton formation and soliton energy quantization in passively mode-locked fiber lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 72(4), 043816 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

K. F. Mak, C. Lee, J. Hone, J. Shan, and T. F. Heinz, “Atomically thin MoS2: a new direct-gap semiconductor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(13), 136805 (2010).
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Rev. Mod. Phys.

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Sci. Rep.

Y. Yu, C. Li, Y. Liu, L. Su, Y. Zhang, and L. Cao, “Controlled scalable synthesis of uniform, high-quality monolayer and few-layer MoS2 films,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1866 (2013).
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Other

F. Bernard, H. Zhang, S. P. Gorza, and P. Emplit, “Towards mode-locked fiber laser using topological insulators,” in Nonlinear Photonics, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper NTh1A.5.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Optical microscopy image of a typical multilayer MoS2 film on SiO2 substrate. Scratch was intentionally introduced to show the color contrast between the thin film and the substrate (no MoS2 exists in the scratched region.). (b) Corresponding Raman spectrum, (c) AFM image, and (d) AFM height profile of across the dash line in (c).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Linear absorption of the multilayer MoS2-based SA. (b) Experimental setup for the power-dependent nonlinear absorption measurement. (c) Nonlinear absorption of the multilayer MoS2-based SA. (d) Optical absorption versus pump peak intensity when the MoS2-coated FC was replaced with a common clean FC.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) A schematic diagram of the fiber ring laser. 980 nm LD: 980 nm diode laser pump source, OIC: optical integrated component, EDF: erbium-doped fiber, PC: polarization controller, MoS2-based SA: MoS2-based saturable absorber. (b) Photograph of a FC coated with multilayer MoS2. (c) The schematic structure of the OIC. PI-ISO: polarization-insensitive isolator

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Mode-locking performance of the fiber laser mode-locked by a multilayer MoS2-based SA. (a) Optical spectrum. (b) Autocorrelation trace. (c) Pulse train. (d) RF spectrum with a 2 MHz span and 3 kHz resolution bandwidth. Inset: RF spectrum in 100 MHz span.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Output pulse train of the 3rd HML. (b) The corresponding RF spectrum

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