Abstract

Distributed measurement and characterization of the intermodal beat length between LP01 and LP11 modes in an elliptical-core (e-core) two-mode fiber (TMF) are demonstrated by the analysis of Brillouin dynamic grating (BDG) spectra. The BDG is generated by the stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) of the LP01 mode and probed by the LP11 mode, with four different pairs of the spatial and polarization modes in the e-core TMF applied for the pump and the probe (LP01x-LP11y, LP01y-LP11y, LP01x-LP11x, and LP01y-LP11x). A mode selective coupler (MSC) is used for selective launch and retrieval of the LP01 and the LP11 modes in the BDG operation, and the local reflection spectra from the BDG are obtained by an optical time-domain analysis. A distribution map of the intermodal beat length is acquired for each pair of the pump-probe modes with a 1.5 m spatial resolution along a 75 m e-core TMF. Temperature- and strain-dependence of the BDG spectrum is also evaluated for each case.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2013

D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, and L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibres,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 354–362 (2013).
[CrossRef]

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabitscale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012

2011

2010

2008

2005

2002

K. Y. Song, I. K. Hwang, S. H. Yun, and B. Y. Kim, “High performance fused-type mode-selective coupler using elliptical core two-mode fiber at 1550 nm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(4), 501–503 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1997

1996

1992

1990

S. Y. Huang, J. N. Blake, and B. Y. Kim, “Perturbation effects on mode propagation in highly elliptical core two-mode fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 8(1), 23–33 (1990).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Murphy, M. S. Miller, A. M. Vengsarkar, and R. O. Claus, “Elliptical-core two-mode optical-fiber sensor implementation methods,” J. Lightwave Technol. 8(11), 1688–1696 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1987

1986

Antman, Y.

Arkwright, J. W.

N. Riesen, J. D. Love, and J. W. Arkwright, “Few-mode elliptical-core fiber data transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(5), 344–346 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bao, X.

Blake, J. N.

Bolle, C. A.

Bozinovic, N.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabitscale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Castillo-Guerra, E.

Chen, C. L.

Chen, L.

Chin, S.

Claus, R. O.

K. A. Murphy, M. S. Miller, A. M. Vengsarkar, and R. O. Claus, “Elliptical-core two-mode optical-fiber sensor implementation methods,” J. Lightwave Technol. 8(11), 1688–1696 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Colpitts, B. G.

Dong, Y.

Engan, H. E.

Essiambre, R. J.

Farahani, M. A.

Fini, J. M.

D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, and L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibres,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 354–362 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Gnauck, A. H.

He, Z.

W. Zou, Z. He, and K. Hotate, “Demonstration of Brillouin distributed discrimination of strain and temperature using a polarization-maintaining optical fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(8), 526–528 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Y. Song, W. Zou, Z. He, and K. Hotate, “All-optical dynamic grating generation based on Brillouin scattering in polarization-maintaining fiber,” Opt. Lett. 33(9), 926–928 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hotate, K.

W. Zou, Z. He, and K. Hotate, “Demonstration of Brillouin distributed discrimination of strain and temperature using a polarization-maintaining optical fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(8), 526–528 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Y. Song, W. Zou, Z. He, and K. Hotate, “All-optical dynamic grating generation based on Brillouin scattering in polarization-maintaining fiber,” Opt. Lett. 33(9), 926–928 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, H.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabitscale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, S. Y.

Hwang, I. K.

Jin, W.

Ju, J.

Kim, B. Y.

Kristensen, P.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabitscale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Langli, B.

Li, M. J.

Li, S.

Lingle, R.

Love, J. D.

N. Riesen, J. D. Love, and J. W. Arkwright, “Few-mode elliptical-core fiber data transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(5), 344–346 (2012).
[CrossRef]

McCormick, A. R.

McCurdy, A.

Miller, M. S.

K. A. Murphy, M. S. Miller, A. M. Vengsarkar, and R. O. Claus, “Elliptical-core two-mode optical-fiber sensor implementation methods,” J. Lightwave Technol. 8(11), 1688–1696 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Murphy, K. A.

K. A. Murphy, M. S. Miller, A. M. Vengsarkar, and R. O. Claus, “Elliptical-core two-mode optical-fiber sensor implementation methods,” J. Lightwave Technol. 8(11), 1688–1696 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, K. T.

Nelson, L. E.

D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, and L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibres,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 354–362 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Östling, D.

Peckham, D. W.

Poole, C. D.

Primerov, N.

Ramachandran, S.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabitscale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Randel, S.

Ren, Y.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabitscale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richardson, D. J.

D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, and L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibres,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 354–362 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Riesen, N.

N. Riesen, J. D. Love, and J. W. Arkwright, “Few-mode elliptical-core fiber data transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(5), 344–346 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ryf, R.

Sales, S.

Sancho, J.

Shaw, H. J.

Sierra, A.

Snyder, A. W.

Song, K. Y.

Sorin, W. V.

Thevenaz, L.

Thévenaz, L.

Tur, M.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabitscale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vaziri, M.

Vengsarkar, A. M.

K. A. Murphy, M. S. Miller, A. M. Vengsarkar, and R. O. Claus, “Elliptical-core two-mode optical-fiber sensor implementation methods,” J. Lightwave Technol. 8(11), 1688–1696 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Vodhanel, R. S.

Wang, Z.

Wiesenfeld, J. M.

Willner, A. E.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabitscale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Winzer, P. J.

Yoon, H. J.

Yue, Y.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabitscale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yun, S. H.

Zadok, A.

Zheng, X. H.

Zou, W.

W. Zou, Z. He, and K. Hotate, “Demonstration of Brillouin distributed discrimination of strain and temperature using a polarization-maintaining optical fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(8), 526–528 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Y. Song, W. Zou, Z. He, and K. Hotate, “All-optical dynamic grating generation based on Brillouin scattering in polarization-maintaining fiber,” Opt. Lett. 33(9), 926–928 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

N. Riesen, J. D. Love, and J. W. Arkwright, “Few-mode elliptical-core fiber data transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(5), 344–346 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. Zou, Z. He, and K. Hotate, “Demonstration of Brillouin distributed discrimination of strain and temperature using a polarization-maintaining optical fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(8), 526–528 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Y. Song, I. K. Hwang, S. H. Yun, and B. Y. Kim, “High performance fused-type mode-selective coupler using elliptical core two-mode fiber at 1550 nm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 14(4), 501–503 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

S. Y. Huang, J. N. Blake, and B. Y. Kim, “Perturbation effects on mode propagation in highly elliptical core two-mode fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 8(1), 23–33 (1990).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Murphy, M. S. Miller, A. M. Vengsarkar, and R. O. Claus, “Elliptical-core two-mode optical-fiber sensor implementation methods,” J. Lightwave Technol. 8(11), 1688–1696 (1990).
[CrossRef]

K. Y. Song, S. Chin, N. Primerov, and L. Thevenaz, “Time-domain distributed fiber sensor with 1 cm spatial resolution based on Brillouin dynamic grating,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28(14), 2062–2067 (2010).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Nat. Photonics

D. J. Richardson, J. M. Fini, and L. E. Nelson, “Space-division multiplexing in optical fibres,” Nat. Photonics 7(5), 354–362 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

S. Li, M. J. Li, and R. S. Vodhanel, “All-optical Brillouin dynamic grating generation in few-mode optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 37(22), 4660–4662 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Farahani, E. Castillo-Guerra, and B. G. Colpitts, “Accurate estimation of Brillouin frequency shift in Brillouin optical time domain analysis sensors using cross correlation,” Opt. Lett. 36(21), 4275–4277 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Y. Song, W. Zou, Z. He, and K. Hotate, “All-optical dynamic grating generation based on Brillouin scattering in polarization-maintaining fiber,” Opt. Lett. 33(9), 926–928 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Dong, L. Chen, and X. Bao, “Truly distributed birefringence measurement of polarization-maintaining fibers based on transient Brillouin grating,” Opt. Lett. 35(2), 193–195 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Y. Song and H. J. Yoon, “Observation of narrowband intrinsic spectra of Brillouin dynamic gratings,” Opt. Lett. 35(17), 2958–2960 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, I. K. Hwang, and B. Y. Kim, “All-fiber tunable filter and laser based on two-mode fiber,” Opt. Lett. 21(1), 27–29 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Yun, I. K. Hwang, and B. Y. Kim, “All-fiber tunable filter and laser based on two-mode fiber,” Opt. Lett. 21(1), 27–29 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Östling, B. Langli, and H. E. Engan, “Intermodal beat lengths in birefringent two-mode fibers,” Opt. Lett. 21(19), 1553–1555 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. V. Sorin, B. Y. Kim, and H. J. Shaw, “Phase velocity measurements using prism output coupling for single- and few-mode optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 11(2), 106–108 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. V. Sorin, B. Y. Kim, and H. J. Shaw, “Highly selective evanescent modal filter for two-mode optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 11(9), 581–583 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Y. Kim, J. N. Blake, S. Y. Huang, and H. J. Shaw, “Use of highly elliptical core fibers for two-mode fiber devices,” Opt. Lett. 12(9), 729–731 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. N. Blake, S. Y. Huang, B. Y. Kim, and H. J. Shaw, “Strain effects on highly elliptical core two-mode fibers,” Opt. Lett. 12(9), 732–734 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. D. Poole, J. M. Wiesenfeld, A. R. McCormick, and K. T. Nelson, “Broadband dispersion compensation by using the higher-order spatial mode in a two-mode fiber,” Opt. Lett. 17(14), 985–987 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabitscale orbital angular momentum mode division multiplexing in fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the operation of the BDG based on an e-core TMF. Inset ‘A’ shows the spectral configuration of optical waves: MSC, Mode selective coupler; νB, Brillouin frequency; νD, BDG frequency.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The ERI structure of the guided modes in an e-core TMF and the possible BDG operation according to the polarizations of the LP01 and the LP11 modes.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental setup. Inset ‘A’ shows the time traces of the pump1 and the probe pulses, and inset ‘B’ is the BDG spectrum observed by an optical spectrum analyzer in front of the FBG: EDFA, Er-doped fiber amplifier; EOM, electro-optic modulator; SSBM, single-sideband modulator; FBG, fiber Bragg grating; PC, polarization controller; DAQ, data acquisition.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Distributions of the BDG spectra in the e-core TMF for the pump-probe pair of (a) LP01x-LP11y, (b) LP01y-LP11y, (c) LP01x-LP11x, and (d) LP01y-LP11x. The insets are the examples of local BDG spectra in the case of LP01y-LP11x at different positions.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Distribution maps of νD and LB for different pump-probe pairs. Note that LB is calculated with ng11 = 1.45. (b) Frequency difference (ΔνD) between the νD’s of different pump-probe pairs along the position.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Birefringence distribution of each spatial mode calculated from the results of Fig. 5(b).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Temperature dependence of νD for the pump-probe pair of (a) LP01x-LP11y, (b) LP01y-LP11y, (c) LP01x-LP11x, and (d) LP01y-LP11x.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Strain dependence of νD for the pump-probe pair of (a) LP01x-LP11y, (b) LP01y-LP11y, (c) LP01x-LP11x, and (d) LP01y-LP11x.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

S B S : 2 π Λ = 2 π c ( n 01 ( ν 0 ) ν 0 + n 01 ( ν 0 ν B ) ( ν 0 ν B ) )
B D G : 2 π Λ = 2 π c ( n 11 ( ν 0 + ν D ) ( ν 0 + ν D ) + n 11 ( ν 0 + ν D ν B ) ( ν 0 + ν D ν B ) )
2 n 01 ( ν 0 ) ν 0 n 01 ( ν 0 ) ν B ν 0 ν B d n 01 d ν | ν 0 + ν B 2 d n 01 d ν | ν 0 = 2 n 11 ( ν 0 ) ν 0 + 2 n 11 ( ν 0 ) ν D n 11 ( ν 0 ) ν B + 2 ν 0 ν D d n 11 d ν | ν 0 ν 0 ν B d n 11 d ν | ν 0 + 2 ν D 2 d n 11 d ν | ν 0 2 ν B ν D d n 11 d ν | ν 0 + ν B 2 d n 11 d ν | ν 0
2 ( n 01 ( ν 0 ) n 11 ( ν 0 ) ) ν 0 ( n g 01 n g 11 ) ν B = 2 n g 11 ν D
ν D = n 01 ( ν 0 ) n 11 ( ν 0 ) n g 11 ν 0 Δ n n g 11 ν 0 = c L B n g 11
ν D x x ν D y x = ( n 01 x n 11 x ) ( n 01 y n 11 x ) n g 11 ν 0 = Δ n 01 x y n g 11 ν 0

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