Abstract

Direct fabrication of light emitting devices on metal substrates is highly desirable due to their advantages of high thermal conductivity and light reflection. In this work, we demonstrated a feasibility of directly fabricating ZnO-based ultraviolet laser diodes on metal substrates. By introducing an anti-oxidation buffer layer, Au/MgO/ZnO metal-insulator-semiconductor heterojunction devices are successfully fabricated on the copper substrate. Electrically pumped ultraviolet random lasing was achieved from ZnO active layer. The use of copper substrate offers some merits, including lower thermal effect and higher stability of emission wavelength.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Fallert, R. J. B. Dietz, J. Sartor, D. Schneider, C. Klingshirn, and H. Kalt, “Co-existence of strongly and weakly localizedrandom laser modes,” Nat. Photon. 3(5), 279–282 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. Y. Yang, S. F. Yu, G. P. Li, and T. Wu, “Random lasing action of randomly assembled ZnO nanowires with MgO coating,” Opt. Express 18(13), 13647–13654 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. S. F. Yu, C. Yuen, S. P. Lau, and H. W. Lee, “Zinc oxide thin-film random lasers on silicon substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(17), 3244–3246 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. Zhu, C. X. Shan, J. Y. Zhang, Z. Z. Zhang, B. H. Li, D. X. Zhao, B. Yao, D. Z. Shen, X. W. Fan, Z. K. Tang, X. Hou, and K. L. Choy, “Low-threshold electrically pumped random lasers,” Adv. Mater. 22(16), 1877–1881 (2010).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  16. T. Doan, C. Tran, C. Chu, C. Chen, W. H. Liu, J. Chu, K. Yen, H. Chen, and F. Fan, “Vertical GaN based light emitting diodes on metal alloy substrate boosts high power LED performance,” Proc. SPIE 6669, 666903 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  22. C. Liu, H. Xu, J. Ma, and Y. Liu, “Origin of ultraviolet electroluminescence in n-ZnO/p-GaN and n-MgZnO/p-GaN heterojunction light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi A 210(12), 2751–2755 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  24. C. Y. Liu, Center for Advanced Optoelectronic Functional Materials Research, Key Laboratory for UV Light-Emitting Materials and Technology of Ministry of Education, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024, China, H. Y. Xu, J. G. Ma, and Y. C. Liu are preparing a manuscript to be called “Enhanced ultraviolet random lasing from p-Cu2O inserted ZnO-based metal-insulator-semiconductor heterostructure device.”
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2014

C. Y. Liu, H. Y. Xu, Y. Sun, C. Zhang, J. G. Ma, and Y. C. Liu, “Ultraviolet electroluminescence from Au/MgO/MgxZn1-xO heterojunction diodes and the observation of Zn-rich cluster emission,” J. Lumin. 148, 116–120 (2014).
[CrossRef]

2013

J. Huang, S. Chu, J. Kong, L. Zhang, C. M. Schwarz, G. Wang, L. Chernyak, Z. Chen, and J. Liu, “ZnO p–n homojunction random laser diode based on nitrogen-doped p-type nanowires,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(2), 179–185 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. Liu, H. Xu, J. Ma, and Y. Liu, “Origin of ultraviolet electroluminescence in n-ZnO/p-GaN and n-MgZnO/p-GaN heterojunction light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi A 210(12), 2751–2755 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

Y. F. Dong, Q. S. Li, L. C. Zhang, and L. K. Song, “Contact properties of Zno/Cu films with MSM structure,” Chin. J. Lumin. 33, 412–416 (2012).

Y. Li, X. Ma, L. Jin, and D. Yang, “A chemical strategy to reinforce electrically pumped ultraviolet random lasing from ZnO films,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(33), 16738–16741 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

H. Long, G. Fang, S. Li, X. Mo, H. Wang, H. Huang, Q. Jiang, J. Wang, and X. Zhao, “A ZnO/ZnMgO multiple-quantum-well ultraviolet random laser diode,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32(1), 54–56 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Liu, H. Y. Xu, J. G. Ma, X. H. Li, X. T. Zhang, Y. C. Liu, and R. Mu, “Electrically pumped near-ultraviolet lasing from ZnO/MgO core/shell nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(6), 063115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

H. Y. Yang, S. F. Yu, G. P. Li, and T. Wu, “Random lasing action of randomly assembled ZnO nanowires with MgO coating,” Opt. Express 18(13), 13647–13654 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Zhu, C. X. Shan, J. Y. Zhang, Z. Z. Zhang, B. H. Li, D. X. Zhao, B. Yao, D. Z. Shen, X. W. Fan, Z. K. Tang, X. Hou, and K. L. Choy, “Low-threshold electrically pumped random lasers,” Adv. Mater. 22(16), 1877–1881 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Chung, C. H. Lee, and G. C. Yi, “Transferable GaN layers grown on Zno-coated graphene layers for optoelectronic devices,” Science 330(6004), 655–657 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

J. Fallert, R. J. B. Dietz, J. Sartor, D. Schneider, C. Klingshirn, and H. Kalt, “Co-existence of strongly and weakly localizedrandom laser modes,” Nat. Photon. 3(5), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Liu, H. Y. Xu, L. Wang, X. H. Li, and Y. C. Liu, “Pulsed laser deposition of high Mg-content MgZnO films: Effects of substrate temperature and oxygen pressure,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(7), 073518 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Chen, S. J. Chang, S. P. Chang, M. J. Li, I. C. Chen, T. J. Hsueh, and C. L. Hsu, “Electroluminescence from n-ZnO nanowires/p-GaN heterostructure light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(22), 223101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

Y. Sun, T. Yu, Z. Chen, X. Kang, S. Qi, M. Li, G. Lian, S. Huang, R. Xie, and G. Zhang, “Properties of GaN-based light-emitting diode thin film chips fabricated by laser lift-off and transferred to Cu,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(12), 125022 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Wiersma, “The physics and applications of random lasers,” Nat. Phys. 4(5), 359–367 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

T. Doan, C. Tran, C. Chu, C. Chen, W. H. Liu, J. Chu, K. Yen, H. Chen, and F. Fan, “Vertical GaN based light emitting diodes on metal alloy substrate boosts high power LED performance,” Proc. SPIE 6669, 666903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

T. Doan, C. Chu, C. Chen, W. Liu, J. Chu, J. Yeh, H. Chen, F. Fan, and C. Tran, “Vertical GaN based light emitting diodes on metal alloy substrate for solid state lighting application,” Proc. SPIE 6134, 61340G (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Jiao, Z. Z. Zhang, Y. M. Lu, D. Z. Shen, B. Yao, J. Y. Zhang, B. H. Li, D. X. Zhao, X. W. Fan, and Z. K. Tang, “ZnO p-n junction light-emitting diodes fabricated on sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(3), 031911 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

C. F. Chu, F. I. Lai, J. T. Chu, C. C. Yu, C. F. Lin, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Study of GaN light-emitting diodes fabricated by laser lift-off technique,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(8), 3916–3922 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Tan, S. Yuan, and X. J. Kang, “Performance enhancement of InGaN light-emitting diodes by laser lift-off and transfer from sapphire to copper substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(15), 2757–2759 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. F. Yu, C. Yuen, S. P. Lau, and H. W. Lee, “Zinc oxide thin-film random lasers on silicon substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(17), 3244–3246 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. Gottardo, S. Cavalieri, O. Yaroshchuk, and D. S. Wiersma, “Quasi-two-dimensional diffusive random laser action,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(26), 263901 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

Ya. I. Alivov, E. V. Kalinina, A. E. Cherenkov, D. C. Look, B. M. Ataev, A. K. Omaev, M. V. Chukichev, and D. M. Bagnall, “Fabrication and characterization of n-ZnO/p-AlGaN heterojunction light-emitting diodes on 6H-SiC substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(23), 4719–4721 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1999

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Alivov, Ya. I.

Ya. I. Alivov, E. V. Kalinina, A. E. Cherenkov, D. C. Look, B. M. Ataev, A. K. Omaev, M. V. Chukichev, and D. M. Bagnall, “Fabrication and characterization of n-ZnO/p-AlGaN heterojunction light-emitting diodes on 6H-SiC substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(23), 4719–4721 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ataev, B. M.

Ya. I. Alivov, E. V. Kalinina, A. E. Cherenkov, D. C. Look, B. M. Ataev, A. K. Omaev, M. V. Chukichev, and D. M. Bagnall, “Fabrication and characterization of n-ZnO/p-AlGaN heterojunction light-emitting diodes on 6H-SiC substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(23), 4719–4721 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bagnall, D. M.

Ya. I. Alivov, E. V. Kalinina, A. E. Cherenkov, D. C. Look, B. M. Ataev, A. K. Omaev, M. V. Chukichev, and D. M. Bagnall, “Fabrication and characterization of n-ZnO/p-AlGaN heterojunction light-emitting diodes on 6H-SiC substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(23), 4719–4721 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cao, H.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cavalieri, S.

S. Gottardo, S. Cavalieri, O. Yaroshchuk, and D. S. Wiersma, “Quasi-two-dimensional diffusive random laser action,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(26), 263901 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, R. P. H.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chang, S. J.

C. H. Chen, S. J. Chang, S. P. Chang, M. J. Li, I. C. Chen, T. J. Hsueh, and C. L. Hsu, “Electroluminescence from n-ZnO nanowires/p-GaN heterostructure light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(22), 223101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chang, S. P.

C. H. Chen, S. J. Chang, S. P. Chang, M. J. Li, I. C. Chen, T. J. Hsueh, and C. L. Hsu, “Electroluminescence from n-ZnO nanowires/p-GaN heterostructure light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(22), 223101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C.

T. Doan, C. Tran, C. Chu, C. Chen, W. H. Liu, J. Chu, K. Yen, H. Chen, and F. Fan, “Vertical GaN based light emitting diodes on metal alloy substrate boosts high power LED performance,” Proc. SPIE 6669, 666903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Doan, C. Chu, C. Chen, W. Liu, J. Chu, J. Yeh, H. Chen, F. Fan, and C. Tran, “Vertical GaN based light emitting diodes on metal alloy substrate for solid state lighting application,” Proc. SPIE 6134, 61340G (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. H.

C. H. Chen, S. J. Chang, S. P. Chang, M. J. Li, I. C. Chen, T. J. Hsueh, and C. L. Hsu, “Electroluminescence from n-ZnO nanowires/p-GaN heterostructure light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(22), 223101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.

T. Doan, C. Tran, C. Chu, C. Chen, W. H. Liu, J. Chu, K. Yen, H. Chen, and F. Fan, “Vertical GaN based light emitting diodes on metal alloy substrate boosts high power LED performance,” Proc. SPIE 6669, 666903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Doan, C. Chu, C. Chen, W. Liu, J. Chu, J. Yeh, H. Chen, F. Fan, and C. Tran, “Vertical GaN based light emitting diodes on metal alloy substrate for solid state lighting application,” Proc. SPIE 6134, 61340G (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, I. C.

C. H. Chen, S. J. Chang, S. P. Chang, M. J. Li, I. C. Chen, T. J. Hsueh, and C. L. Hsu, “Electroluminescence from n-ZnO nanowires/p-GaN heterostructure light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(22), 223101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z.

J. Huang, S. Chu, J. Kong, L. Zhang, C. M. Schwarz, G. Wang, L. Chernyak, Z. Chen, and J. Liu, “ZnO p–n homojunction random laser diode based on nitrogen-doped p-type nanowires,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(2), 179–185 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sun, T. Yu, Z. Chen, X. Kang, S. Qi, M. Li, G. Lian, S. Huang, R. Xie, and G. Zhang, “Properties of GaN-based light-emitting diode thin film chips fabricated by laser lift-off and transferred to Cu,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(12), 125022 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cherenkov, A. E.

Ya. I. Alivov, E. V. Kalinina, A. E. Cherenkov, D. C. Look, B. M. Ataev, A. K. Omaev, M. V. Chukichev, and D. M. Bagnall, “Fabrication and characterization of n-ZnO/p-AlGaN heterojunction light-emitting diodes on 6H-SiC substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(23), 4719–4721 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chernyak, L.

J. Huang, S. Chu, J. Kong, L. Zhang, C. M. Schwarz, G. Wang, L. Chernyak, Z. Chen, and J. Liu, “ZnO p–n homojunction random laser diode based on nitrogen-doped p-type nanowires,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(2), 179–185 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Choy, K. L.

H. Zhu, C. X. Shan, J. Y. Zhang, Z. Z. Zhang, B. H. Li, D. X. Zhao, B. Yao, D. Z. Shen, X. W. Fan, Z. K. Tang, X. Hou, and K. L. Choy, “Low-threshold electrically pumped random lasers,” Adv. Mater. 22(16), 1877–1881 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chu, C.

T. Doan, C. Tran, C. Chu, C. Chen, W. H. Liu, J. Chu, K. Yen, H. Chen, and F. Fan, “Vertical GaN based light emitting diodes on metal alloy substrate boosts high power LED performance,” Proc. SPIE 6669, 666903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Doan, C. Chu, C. Chen, W. Liu, J. Chu, J. Yeh, H. Chen, F. Fan, and C. Tran, “Vertical GaN based light emitting diodes on metal alloy substrate for solid state lighting application,” Proc. SPIE 6134, 61340G (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chu, C. F.

C. F. Chu, F. I. Lai, J. T. Chu, C. C. Yu, C. F. Lin, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Study of GaN light-emitting diodes fabricated by laser lift-off technique,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(8), 3916–3922 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chu, J.

T. Doan, C. Tran, C. Chu, C. Chen, W. H. Liu, J. Chu, K. Yen, H. Chen, and F. Fan, “Vertical GaN based light emitting diodes on metal alloy substrate boosts high power LED performance,” Proc. SPIE 6669, 666903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Doan, C. Chu, C. Chen, W. Liu, J. Chu, J. Yeh, H. Chen, F. Fan, and C. Tran, “Vertical GaN based light emitting diodes on metal alloy substrate for solid state lighting application,” Proc. SPIE 6134, 61340G (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chu, J. T.

C. F. Chu, F. I. Lai, J. T. Chu, C. C. Yu, C. F. Lin, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Study of GaN light-emitting diodes fabricated by laser lift-off technique,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(8), 3916–3922 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chu, S.

J. Huang, S. Chu, J. Kong, L. Zhang, C. M. Schwarz, G. Wang, L. Chernyak, Z. Chen, and J. Liu, “ZnO p–n homojunction random laser diode based on nitrogen-doped p-type nanowires,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(2), 179–185 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Chukichev, M. V.

Ya. I. Alivov, E. V. Kalinina, A. E. Cherenkov, D. C. Look, B. M. Ataev, A. K. Omaev, M. V. Chukichev, and D. M. Bagnall, “Fabrication and characterization of n-ZnO/p-AlGaN heterojunction light-emitting diodes on 6H-SiC substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(23), 4719–4721 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chung, K.

K. Chung, C. H. Lee, and G. C. Yi, “Transferable GaN layers grown on Zno-coated graphene layers for optoelectronic devices,” Science 330(6004), 655–657 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dietz, R. J. B.

J. Fallert, R. J. B. Dietz, J. Sartor, D. Schneider, C. Klingshirn, and H. Kalt, “Co-existence of strongly and weakly localizedrandom laser modes,” Nat. Photon. 3(5), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Doan, T.

T. Doan, C. Tran, C. Chu, C. Chen, W. H. Liu, J. Chu, K. Yen, H. Chen, and F. Fan, “Vertical GaN based light emitting diodes on metal alloy substrate boosts high power LED performance,” Proc. SPIE 6669, 666903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Doan, C. Chu, C. Chen, W. Liu, J. Chu, J. Yeh, H. Chen, F. Fan, and C. Tran, “Vertical GaN based light emitting diodes on metal alloy substrate for solid state lighting application,” Proc. SPIE 6134, 61340G (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dong, Y. F.

Y. F. Dong, Q. S. Li, L. C. Zhang, and L. K. Song, “Contact properties of Zno/Cu films with MSM structure,” Chin. J. Lumin. 33, 412–416 (2012).

Fallert, J.

J. Fallert, R. J. B. Dietz, J. Sartor, D. Schneider, C. Klingshirn, and H. Kalt, “Co-existence of strongly and weakly localizedrandom laser modes,” Nat. Photon. 3(5), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fan, F.

T. Doan, C. Tran, C. Chu, C. Chen, W. H. Liu, J. Chu, K. Yen, H. Chen, and F. Fan, “Vertical GaN based light emitting diodes on metal alloy substrate boosts high power LED performance,” Proc. SPIE 6669, 666903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Doan, C. Chu, C. Chen, W. Liu, J. Chu, J. Yeh, H. Chen, F. Fan, and C. Tran, “Vertical GaN based light emitting diodes on metal alloy substrate for solid state lighting application,” Proc. SPIE 6134, 61340G (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fan, X. W.

H. Zhu, C. X. Shan, J. Y. Zhang, Z. Z. Zhang, B. H. Li, D. X. Zhao, B. Yao, D. Z. Shen, X. W. Fan, Z. K. Tang, X. Hou, and K. L. Choy, “Low-threshold electrically pumped random lasers,” Adv. Mater. 22(16), 1877–1881 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Jiao, Z. Z. Zhang, Y. M. Lu, D. Z. Shen, B. Yao, J. Y. Zhang, B. H. Li, D. X. Zhao, X. W. Fan, and Z. K. Tang, “ZnO p-n junction light-emitting diodes fabricated on sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(3), 031911 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fang, G.

H. Long, G. Fang, S. Li, X. Mo, H. Wang, H. Huang, Q. Jiang, J. Wang, and X. Zhao, “A ZnO/ZnMgO multiple-quantum-well ultraviolet random laser diode,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32(1), 54–56 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gottardo, S.

S. Gottardo, S. Cavalieri, O. Yaroshchuk, and D. S. Wiersma, “Quasi-two-dimensional diffusive random laser action,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(26), 263901 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ho, S. T.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hou, X.

H. Zhu, C. X. Shan, J. Y. Zhang, Z. Z. Zhang, B. H. Li, D. X. Zhao, B. Yao, D. Z. Shen, X. W. Fan, Z. K. Tang, X. Hou, and K. L. Choy, “Low-threshold electrically pumped random lasers,” Adv. Mater. 22(16), 1877–1881 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsu, C. L.

C. H. Chen, S. J. Chang, S. P. Chang, M. J. Li, I. C. Chen, T. J. Hsueh, and C. L. Hsu, “Electroluminescence from n-ZnO nanowires/p-GaN heterostructure light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(22), 223101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hsueh, T. J.

C. H. Chen, S. J. Chang, S. P. Chang, M. J. Li, I. C. Chen, T. J. Hsueh, and C. L. Hsu, “Electroluminescence from n-ZnO nanowires/p-GaN heterostructure light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(22), 223101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Huang, H.

H. Long, G. Fang, S. Li, X. Mo, H. Wang, H. Huang, Q. Jiang, J. Wang, and X. Zhao, “A ZnO/ZnMgO multiple-quantum-well ultraviolet random laser diode,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32(1), 54–56 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Huang, J.

J. Huang, S. Chu, J. Kong, L. Zhang, C. M. Schwarz, G. Wang, L. Chernyak, Z. Chen, and J. Liu, “ZnO p–n homojunction random laser diode based on nitrogen-doped p-type nanowires,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(2), 179–185 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Huang, S.

Y. Sun, T. Yu, Z. Chen, X. Kang, S. Qi, M. Li, G. Lian, S. Huang, R. Xie, and G. Zhang, “Properties of GaN-based light-emitting diode thin film chips fabricated by laser lift-off and transferred to Cu,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(12), 125022 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Q.

H. Long, G. Fang, S. Li, X. Mo, H. Wang, H. Huang, Q. Jiang, J. Wang, and X. Zhao, “A ZnO/ZnMgO multiple-quantum-well ultraviolet random laser diode,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32(1), 54–56 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jiao, S. J.

S. J. Jiao, Z. Z. Zhang, Y. M. Lu, D. Z. Shen, B. Yao, J. Y. Zhang, B. H. Li, D. X. Zhao, X. W. Fan, and Z. K. Tang, “ZnO p-n junction light-emitting diodes fabricated on sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(3), 031911 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jin, L.

Y. Li, X. Ma, L. Jin, and D. Yang, “A chemical strategy to reinforce electrically pumped ultraviolet random lasing from ZnO films,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(33), 16738–16741 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kalinina, E. V.

Ya. I. Alivov, E. V. Kalinina, A. E. Cherenkov, D. C. Look, B. M. Ataev, A. K. Omaev, M. V. Chukichev, and D. M. Bagnall, “Fabrication and characterization of n-ZnO/p-AlGaN heterojunction light-emitting diodes on 6H-SiC substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(23), 4719–4721 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kalt, H.

J. Fallert, R. J. B. Dietz, J. Sartor, D. Schneider, C. Klingshirn, and H. Kalt, “Co-existence of strongly and weakly localizedrandom laser modes,” Nat. Photon. 3(5), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kang, X.

Y. Sun, T. Yu, Z. Chen, X. Kang, S. Qi, M. Li, G. Lian, S. Huang, R. Xie, and G. Zhang, “Properties of GaN-based light-emitting diode thin film chips fabricated by laser lift-off and transferred to Cu,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(12), 125022 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kang, X. J.

B. S. Tan, S. Yuan, and X. J. Kang, “Performance enhancement of InGaN light-emitting diodes by laser lift-off and transfer from sapphire to copper substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(15), 2757–2759 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Klingshirn, C.

J. Fallert, R. J. B. Dietz, J. Sartor, D. Schneider, C. Klingshirn, and H. Kalt, “Co-existence of strongly and weakly localizedrandom laser modes,” Nat. Photon. 3(5), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kong, J.

J. Huang, S. Chu, J. Kong, L. Zhang, C. M. Schwarz, G. Wang, L. Chernyak, Z. Chen, and J. Liu, “ZnO p–n homojunction random laser diode based on nitrogen-doped p-type nanowires,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(2), 179–185 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, H. C.

C. F. Chu, F. I. Lai, J. T. Chu, C. C. Yu, C. F. Lin, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Study of GaN light-emitting diodes fabricated by laser lift-off technique,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(8), 3916–3922 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lai, F. I.

C. F. Chu, F. I. Lai, J. T. Chu, C. C. Yu, C. F. Lin, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Study of GaN light-emitting diodes fabricated by laser lift-off technique,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(8), 3916–3922 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lau, S. P.

S. F. Yu, C. Yuen, S. P. Lau, and H. W. Lee, “Zinc oxide thin-film random lasers on silicon substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(17), 3244–3246 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. H.

K. Chung, C. H. Lee, and G. C. Yi, “Transferable GaN layers grown on Zno-coated graphene layers for optoelectronic devices,” Science 330(6004), 655–657 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, H. W.

S. F. Yu, C. Yuen, S. P. Lau, and H. W. Lee, “Zinc oxide thin-film random lasers on silicon substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(17), 3244–3246 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Li, B. H.

H. Zhu, C. X. Shan, J. Y. Zhang, Z. Z. Zhang, B. H. Li, D. X. Zhao, B. Yao, D. Z. Shen, X. W. Fan, Z. K. Tang, X. Hou, and K. L. Choy, “Low-threshold electrically pumped random lasers,” Adv. Mater. 22(16), 1877–1881 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Jiao, Z. Z. Zhang, Y. M. Lu, D. Z. Shen, B. Yao, J. Y. Zhang, B. H. Li, D. X. Zhao, X. W. Fan, and Z. K. Tang, “ZnO p-n junction light-emitting diodes fabricated on sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(3), 031911 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, G. P.

Li, M.

Y. Sun, T. Yu, Z. Chen, X. Kang, S. Qi, M. Li, G. Lian, S. Huang, R. Xie, and G. Zhang, “Properties of GaN-based light-emitting diode thin film chips fabricated by laser lift-off and transferred to Cu,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(12), 125022 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, M. J.

C. H. Chen, S. J. Chang, S. P. Chang, M. J. Li, I. C. Chen, T. J. Hsueh, and C. L. Hsu, “Electroluminescence from n-ZnO nanowires/p-GaN heterostructure light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(22), 223101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, Q. S.

Y. F. Dong, Q. S. Li, L. C. Zhang, and L. K. Song, “Contact properties of Zno/Cu films with MSM structure,” Chin. J. Lumin. 33, 412–416 (2012).

Li, S.

H. Long, G. Fang, S. Li, X. Mo, H. Wang, H. Huang, Q. Jiang, J. Wang, and X. Zhao, “A ZnO/ZnMgO multiple-quantum-well ultraviolet random laser diode,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32(1), 54–56 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, X. H.

C. Y. Liu, H. Y. Xu, J. G. Ma, X. H. Li, X. T. Zhang, Y. C. Liu, and R. Mu, “Electrically pumped near-ultraviolet lasing from ZnO/MgO core/shell nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(6), 063115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Liu, H. Y. Xu, L. Wang, X. H. Li, and Y. C. Liu, “Pulsed laser deposition of high Mg-content MgZnO films: Effects of substrate temperature and oxygen pressure,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(7), 073518 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

Y. Li, X. Ma, L. Jin, and D. Yang, “A chemical strategy to reinforce electrically pumped ultraviolet random lasing from ZnO films,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(33), 16738–16741 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lian, G.

Y. Sun, T. Yu, Z. Chen, X. Kang, S. Qi, M. Li, G. Lian, S. Huang, R. Xie, and G. Zhang, “Properties of GaN-based light-emitting diode thin film chips fabricated by laser lift-off and transferred to Cu,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(12), 125022 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. F.

C. F. Chu, F. I. Lai, J. T. Chu, C. C. Yu, C. F. Lin, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Study of GaN light-emitting diodes fabricated by laser lift-off technique,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(8), 3916–3922 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liu, C.

C. Liu, H. Xu, J. Ma, and Y. Liu, “Origin of ultraviolet electroluminescence in n-ZnO/p-GaN and n-MgZnO/p-GaN heterojunction light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi A 210(12), 2751–2755 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Liu, C. Y.

C. Y. Liu, H. Y. Xu, Y. Sun, C. Zhang, J. G. Ma, and Y. C. Liu, “Ultraviolet electroluminescence from Au/MgO/MgxZn1-xO heterojunction diodes and the observation of Zn-rich cluster emission,” J. Lumin. 148, 116–120 (2014).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Liu, H. Y. Xu, J. G. Ma, X. H. Li, X. T. Zhang, Y. C. Liu, and R. Mu, “Electrically pumped near-ultraviolet lasing from ZnO/MgO core/shell nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(6), 063115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Liu, H. Y. Xu, L. Wang, X. H. Li, and Y. C. Liu, “Pulsed laser deposition of high Mg-content MgZnO films: Effects of substrate temperature and oxygen pressure,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(7), 073518 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

J. Huang, S. Chu, J. Kong, L. Zhang, C. M. Schwarz, G. Wang, L. Chernyak, Z. Chen, and J. Liu, “ZnO p–n homojunction random laser diode based on nitrogen-doped p-type nanowires,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(2), 179–185 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Liu, W.

T. Doan, C. Chu, C. Chen, W. Liu, J. Chu, J. Yeh, H. Chen, F. Fan, and C. Tran, “Vertical GaN based light emitting diodes on metal alloy substrate for solid state lighting application,” Proc. SPIE 6134, 61340G (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liu, W. H.

T. Doan, C. Tran, C. Chu, C. Chen, W. H. Liu, J. Chu, K. Yen, H. Chen, and F. Fan, “Vertical GaN based light emitting diodes on metal alloy substrate boosts high power LED performance,” Proc. SPIE 6669, 666903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

C. Liu, H. Xu, J. Ma, and Y. Liu, “Origin of ultraviolet electroluminescence in n-ZnO/p-GaN and n-MgZnO/p-GaN heterojunction light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi A 210(12), 2751–2755 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y. C.

C. Y. Liu, H. Y. Xu, Y. Sun, C. Zhang, J. G. Ma, and Y. C. Liu, “Ultraviolet electroluminescence from Au/MgO/MgxZn1-xO heterojunction diodes and the observation of Zn-rich cluster emission,” J. Lumin. 148, 116–120 (2014).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Liu, H. Y. Xu, J. G. Ma, X. H. Li, X. T. Zhang, Y. C. Liu, and R. Mu, “Electrically pumped near-ultraviolet lasing from ZnO/MgO core/shell nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(6), 063115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Liu, H. Y. Xu, L. Wang, X. H. Li, and Y. C. Liu, “Pulsed laser deposition of high Mg-content MgZnO films: Effects of substrate temperature and oxygen pressure,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(7), 073518 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Long, H.

H. Long, G. Fang, S. Li, X. Mo, H. Wang, H. Huang, Q. Jiang, J. Wang, and X. Zhao, “A ZnO/ZnMgO multiple-quantum-well ultraviolet random laser diode,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32(1), 54–56 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Look, D. C.

Ya. I. Alivov, E. V. Kalinina, A. E. Cherenkov, D. C. Look, B. M. Ataev, A. K. Omaev, M. V. Chukichev, and D. M. Bagnall, “Fabrication and characterization of n-ZnO/p-AlGaN heterojunction light-emitting diodes on 6H-SiC substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(23), 4719–4721 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y. M.

S. J. Jiao, Z. Z. Zhang, Y. M. Lu, D. Z. Shen, B. Yao, J. Y. Zhang, B. H. Li, D. X. Zhao, X. W. Fan, and Z. K. Tang, “ZnO p-n junction light-emitting diodes fabricated on sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(3), 031911 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ma, J.

C. Liu, H. Xu, J. Ma, and Y. Liu, “Origin of ultraviolet electroluminescence in n-ZnO/p-GaN and n-MgZnO/p-GaN heterojunction light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi A 210(12), 2751–2755 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Ma, J. G.

C. Y. Liu, H. Y. Xu, Y. Sun, C. Zhang, J. G. Ma, and Y. C. Liu, “Ultraviolet electroluminescence from Au/MgO/MgxZn1-xO heterojunction diodes and the observation of Zn-rich cluster emission,” J. Lumin. 148, 116–120 (2014).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Liu, H. Y. Xu, J. G. Ma, X. H. Li, X. T. Zhang, Y. C. Liu, and R. Mu, “Electrically pumped near-ultraviolet lasing from ZnO/MgO core/shell nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(6), 063115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ma, X.

Y. Li, X. Ma, L. Jin, and D. Yang, “A chemical strategy to reinforce electrically pumped ultraviolet random lasing from ZnO films,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(33), 16738–16741 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Mo, X.

H. Long, G. Fang, S. Li, X. Mo, H. Wang, H. Huang, Q. Jiang, J. Wang, and X. Zhao, “A ZnO/ZnMgO multiple-quantum-well ultraviolet random laser diode,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32(1), 54–56 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mu, R.

C. Y. Liu, H. Y. Xu, J. G. Ma, X. H. Li, X. T. Zhang, Y. C. Liu, and R. Mu, “Electrically pumped near-ultraviolet lasing from ZnO/MgO core/shell nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(6), 063115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Omaev, A. K.

Ya. I. Alivov, E. V. Kalinina, A. E. Cherenkov, D. C. Look, B. M. Ataev, A. K. Omaev, M. V. Chukichev, and D. M. Bagnall, “Fabrication and characterization of n-ZnO/p-AlGaN heterojunction light-emitting diodes on 6H-SiC substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(23), 4719–4721 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Qi, S.

Y. Sun, T. Yu, Z. Chen, X. Kang, S. Qi, M. Li, G. Lian, S. Huang, R. Xie, and G. Zhang, “Properties of GaN-based light-emitting diode thin film chips fabricated by laser lift-off and transferred to Cu,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(12), 125022 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sartor, J.

J. Fallert, R. J. B. Dietz, J. Sartor, D. Schneider, C. Klingshirn, and H. Kalt, “Co-existence of strongly and weakly localizedrandom laser modes,” Nat. Photon. 3(5), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, D.

J. Fallert, R. J. B. Dietz, J. Sartor, D. Schneider, C. Klingshirn, and H. Kalt, “Co-existence of strongly and weakly localizedrandom laser modes,” Nat. Photon. 3(5), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schwarz, C. M.

J. Huang, S. Chu, J. Kong, L. Zhang, C. M. Schwarz, G. Wang, L. Chernyak, Z. Chen, and J. Liu, “ZnO p–n homojunction random laser diode based on nitrogen-doped p-type nanowires,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(2), 179–185 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Seelig, E. W.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shan, C. X.

H. Zhu, C. X. Shan, J. Y. Zhang, Z. Z. Zhang, B. H. Li, D. X. Zhao, B. Yao, D. Z. Shen, X. W. Fan, Z. K. Tang, X. Hou, and K. L. Choy, “Low-threshold electrically pumped random lasers,” Adv. Mater. 22(16), 1877–1881 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shen, D. Z.

H. Zhu, C. X. Shan, J. Y. Zhang, Z. Z. Zhang, B. H. Li, D. X. Zhao, B. Yao, D. Z. Shen, X. W. Fan, Z. K. Tang, X. Hou, and K. L. Choy, “Low-threshold electrically pumped random lasers,” Adv. Mater. 22(16), 1877–1881 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Jiao, Z. Z. Zhang, Y. M. Lu, D. Z. Shen, B. Yao, J. Y. Zhang, B. H. Li, D. X. Zhao, X. W. Fan, and Z. K. Tang, “ZnO p-n junction light-emitting diodes fabricated on sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(3), 031911 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Song, L. K.

Y. F. Dong, Q. S. Li, L. C. Zhang, and L. K. Song, “Contact properties of Zno/Cu films with MSM structure,” Chin. J. Lumin. 33, 412–416 (2012).

Sun, Y.

C. Y. Liu, H. Y. Xu, Y. Sun, C. Zhang, J. G. Ma, and Y. C. Liu, “Ultraviolet electroluminescence from Au/MgO/MgxZn1-xO heterojunction diodes and the observation of Zn-rich cluster emission,” J. Lumin. 148, 116–120 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sun, T. Yu, Z. Chen, X. Kang, S. Qi, M. Li, G. Lian, S. Huang, R. Xie, and G. Zhang, “Properties of GaN-based light-emitting diode thin film chips fabricated by laser lift-off and transferred to Cu,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(12), 125022 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tan, B. S.

B. S. Tan, S. Yuan, and X. J. Kang, “Performance enhancement of InGaN light-emitting diodes by laser lift-off and transfer from sapphire to copper substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(15), 2757–2759 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tang, Z. K.

H. Zhu, C. X. Shan, J. Y. Zhang, Z. Z. Zhang, B. H. Li, D. X. Zhao, B. Yao, D. Z. Shen, X. W. Fan, Z. K. Tang, X. Hou, and K. L. Choy, “Low-threshold electrically pumped random lasers,” Adv. Mater. 22(16), 1877–1881 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Jiao, Z. Z. Zhang, Y. M. Lu, D. Z. Shen, B. Yao, J. Y. Zhang, B. H. Li, D. X. Zhao, X. W. Fan, and Z. K. Tang, “ZnO p-n junction light-emitting diodes fabricated on sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(3), 031911 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tran, C.

T. Doan, C. Tran, C. Chu, C. Chen, W. H. Liu, J. Chu, K. Yen, H. Chen, and F. Fan, “Vertical GaN based light emitting diodes on metal alloy substrate boosts high power LED performance,” Proc. SPIE 6669, 666903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Doan, C. Chu, C. Chen, W. Liu, J. Chu, J. Yeh, H. Chen, F. Fan, and C. Tran, “Vertical GaN based light emitting diodes on metal alloy substrate for solid state lighting application,” Proc. SPIE 6134, 61340G (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, G.

J. Huang, S. Chu, J. Kong, L. Zhang, C. M. Schwarz, G. Wang, L. Chernyak, Z. Chen, and J. Liu, “ZnO p–n homojunction random laser diode based on nitrogen-doped p-type nanowires,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(2), 179–185 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H.

H. Long, G. Fang, S. Li, X. Mo, H. Wang, H. Huang, Q. Jiang, J. Wang, and X. Zhao, “A ZnO/ZnMgO multiple-quantum-well ultraviolet random laser diode,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32(1), 54–56 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

H. Long, G. Fang, S. Li, X. Mo, H. Wang, H. Huang, Q. Jiang, J. Wang, and X. Zhao, “A ZnO/ZnMgO multiple-quantum-well ultraviolet random laser diode,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32(1), 54–56 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

C. Y. Liu, H. Y. Xu, L. Wang, X. H. Li, and Y. C. Liu, “Pulsed laser deposition of high Mg-content MgZnO films: Effects of substrate temperature and oxygen pressure,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(7), 073518 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Q. H.

H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S. C.

C. F. Chu, F. I. Lai, J. T. Chu, C. C. Yu, C. F. Lin, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Study of GaN light-emitting diodes fabricated by laser lift-off technique,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(8), 3916–3922 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wiersma, D. S.

D. S. Wiersma, “The physics and applications of random lasers,” Nat. Phys. 4(5), 359–367 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Gottardo, S. Cavalieri, O. Yaroshchuk, and D. S. Wiersma, “Quasi-two-dimensional diffusive random laser action,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(26), 263901 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, T.

Xie, R.

Y. Sun, T. Yu, Z. Chen, X. Kang, S. Qi, M. Li, G. Lian, S. Huang, R. Xie, and G. Zhang, “Properties of GaN-based light-emitting diode thin film chips fabricated by laser lift-off and transferred to Cu,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(12), 125022 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xu, H.

C. Liu, H. Xu, J. Ma, and Y. Liu, “Origin of ultraviolet electroluminescence in n-ZnO/p-GaN and n-MgZnO/p-GaN heterojunction light-emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi A 210(12), 2751–2755 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Xu, H. Y.

C. Y. Liu, H. Y. Xu, Y. Sun, C. Zhang, J. G. Ma, and Y. C. Liu, “Ultraviolet electroluminescence from Au/MgO/MgxZn1-xO heterojunction diodes and the observation of Zn-rich cluster emission,” J. Lumin. 148, 116–120 (2014).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Liu, H. Y. Xu, J. G. Ma, X. H. Li, X. T. Zhang, Y. C. Liu, and R. Mu, “Electrically pumped near-ultraviolet lasing from ZnO/MgO core/shell nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(6), 063115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Liu, H. Y. Xu, L. Wang, X. H. Li, and Y. C. Liu, “Pulsed laser deposition of high Mg-content MgZnO films: Effects of substrate temperature and oxygen pressure,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(7), 073518 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yang, D.

Y. Li, X. Ma, L. Jin, and D. Yang, “A chemical strategy to reinforce electrically pumped ultraviolet random lasing from ZnO films,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(33), 16738–16741 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yang, H. Y.

Yao, B.

H. Zhu, C. X. Shan, J. Y. Zhang, Z. Z. Zhang, B. H. Li, D. X. Zhao, B. Yao, D. Z. Shen, X. W. Fan, Z. K. Tang, X. Hou, and K. L. Choy, “Low-threshold electrically pumped random lasers,” Adv. Mater. 22(16), 1877–1881 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Jiao, Z. Z. Zhang, Y. M. Lu, D. Z. Shen, B. Yao, J. Y. Zhang, B. H. Li, D. X. Zhao, X. W. Fan, and Z. K. Tang, “ZnO p-n junction light-emitting diodes fabricated on sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(3), 031911 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yaroshchuk, O.

S. Gottardo, S. Cavalieri, O. Yaroshchuk, and D. S. Wiersma, “Quasi-two-dimensional diffusive random laser action,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(26), 263901 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yeh, J.

T. Doan, C. Chu, C. Chen, W. Liu, J. Chu, J. Yeh, H. Chen, F. Fan, and C. Tran, “Vertical GaN based light emitting diodes on metal alloy substrate for solid state lighting application,” Proc. SPIE 6134, 61340G (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yen, K.

T. Doan, C. Tran, C. Chu, C. Chen, W. H. Liu, J. Chu, K. Yen, H. Chen, and F. Fan, “Vertical GaN based light emitting diodes on metal alloy substrate boosts high power LED performance,” Proc. SPIE 6669, 666903 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yi, G. C.

K. Chung, C. H. Lee, and G. C. Yi, “Transferable GaN layers grown on Zno-coated graphene layers for optoelectronic devices,” Science 330(6004), 655–657 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, C. C.

C. F. Chu, F. I. Lai, J. T. Chu, C. C. Yu, C. F. Lin, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Study of GaN light-emitting diodes fabricated by laser lift-off technique,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(8), 3916–3922 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yu, S. F.

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[CrossRef]

Yu, T.

Y. Sun, T. Yu, Z. Chen, X. Kang, S. Qi, M. Li, G. Lian, S. Huang, R. Xie, and G. Zhang, “Properties of GaN-based light-emitting diode thin film chips fabricated by laser lift-off and transferred to Cu,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(12), 125022 (2008).
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Yuan, S.

B. S. Tan, S. Yuan, and X. J. Kang, “Performance enhancement of InGaN light-emitting diodes by laser lift-off and transfer from sapphire to copper substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(15), 2757–2759 (2004).
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S. F. Yu, C. Yuen, S. P. Lau, and H. W. Lee, “Zinc oxide thin-film random lasers on silicon substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(17), 3244–3246 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, C.

C. Y. Liu, H. Y. Xu, Y. Sun, C. Zhang, J. G. Ma, and Y. C. Liu, “Ultraviolet electroluminescence from Au/MgO/MgxZn1-xO heterojunction diodes and the observation of Zn-rich cluster emission,” J. Lumin. 148, 116–120 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, G.

Y. Sun, T. Yu, Z. Chen, X. Kang, S. Qi, M. Li, G. Lian, S. Huang, R. Xie, and G. Zhang, “Properties of GaN-based light-emitting diode thin film chips fabricated by laser lift-off and transferred to Cu,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(12), 125022 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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H. Zhu, C. X. Shan, J. Y. Zhang, Z. Z. Zhang, B. H. Li, D. X. Zhao, B. Yao, D. Z. Shen, X. W. Fan, Z. K. Tang, X. Hou, and K. L. Choy, “Low-threshold electrically pumped random lasers,” Adv. Mater. 22(16), 1877–1881 (2010).
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S. J. Jiao, Z. Z. Zhang, Y. M. Lu, D. Z. Shen, B. Yao, J. Y. Zhang, B. H. Li, D. X. Zhao, X. W. Fan, and Z. K. Tang, “ZnO p-n junction light-emitting diodes fabricated on sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(3), 031911 (2006).
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J. Huang, S. Chu, J. Kong, L. Zhang, C. M. Schwarz, G. Wang, L. Chernyak, Z. Chen, and J. Liu, “ZnO p–n homojunction random laser diode based on nitrogen-doped p-type nanowires,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(2), 179–185 (2013).
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Y. F. Dong, Q. S. Li, L. C. Zhang, and L. K. Song, “Contact properties of Zno/Cu films with MSM structure,” Chin. J. Lumin. 33, 412–416 (2012).

Zhang, X. T.

C. Y. Liu, H. Y. Xu, J. G. Ma, X. H. Li, X. T. Zhang, Y. C. Liu, and R. Mu, “Electrically pumped near-ultraviolet lasing from ZnO/MgO core/shell nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(6), 063115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Z. Z.

H. Zhu, C. X. Shan, J. Y. Zhang, Z. Z. Zhang, B. H. Li, D. X. Zhao, B. Yao, D. Z. Shen, X. W. Fan, Z. K. Tang, X. Hou, and K. L. Choy, “Low-threshold electrically pumped random lasers,” Adv. Mater. 22(16), 1877–1881 (2010).
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S. J. Jiao, Z. Z. Zhang, Y. M. Lu, D. Z. Shen, B. Yao, J. Y. Zhang, B. H. Li, D. X. Zhao, X. W. Fan, and Z. K. Tang, “ZnO p-n junction light-emitting diodes fabricated on sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(3), 031911 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, D. X.

H. Zhu, C. X. Shan, J. Y. Zhang, Z. Z. Zhang, B. H. Li, D. X. Zhao, B. Yao, D. Z. Shen, X. W. Fan, Z. K. Tang, X. Hou, and K. L. Choy, “Low-threshold electrically pumped random lasers,” Adv. Mater. 22(16), 1877–1881 (2010).
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S. J. Jiao, Z. Z. Zhang, Y. M. Lu, D. Z. Shen, B. Yao, J. Y. Zhang, B. H. Li, D. X. Zhao, X. W. Fan, and Z. K. Tang, “ZnO p-n junction light-emitting diodes fabricated on sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(3), 031911 (2006).
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H. Long, G. Fang, S. Li, X. Mo, H. Wang, H. Huang, Q. Jiang, J. Wang, and X. Zhao, “A ZnO/ZnMgO multiple-quantum-well ultraviolet random laser diode,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32(1), 54–56 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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H. Zhu, C. X. Shan, J. Y. Zhang, Z. Z. Zhang, B. H. Li, D. X. Zhao, B. Yao, D. Z. Shen, X. W. Fan, Z. K. Tang, X. Hou, and K. L. Choy, “Low-threshold electrically pumped random lasers,” Adv. Mater. 22(16), 1877–1881 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater.

H. Zhu, C. X. Shan, J. Y. Zhang, Z. Z. Zhang, B. H. Li, D. X. Zhao, B. Yao, D. Z. Shen, X. W. Fan, Z. K. Tang, X. Hou, and K. L. Choy, “Low-threshold electrically pumped random lasers,” Adv. Mater. 22(16), 1877–1881 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Opt. Mater.

J. Huang, S. Chu, J. Kong, L. Zhang, C. M. Schwarz, G. Wang, L. Chernyak, Z. Chen, and J. Liu, “ZnO p–n homojunction random laser diode based on nitrogen-doped p-type nanowires,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(2), 179–185 (2013).
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Appl. Phys. Lett.

S. F. Yu, C. Yuen, S. P. Lau, and H. W. Lee, “Zinc oxide thin-film random lasers on silicon substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(17), 3244–3246 (2004).
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C. Y. Liu, H. Y. Xu, J. G. Ma, X. H. Li, X. T. Zhang, Y. C. Liu, and R. Mu, “Electrically pumped near-ultraviolet lasing from ZnO/MgO core/shell nanowires,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(6), 063115 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Jiao, Z. Z. Zhang, Y. M. Lu, D. Z. Shen, B. Yao, J. Y. Zhang, B. H. Li, D. X. Zhao, X. W. Fan, and Z. K. Tang, “ZnO p-n junction light-emitting diodes fabricated on sapphire substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(3), 031911 (2006).
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Ya. I. Alivov, E. V. Kalinina, A. E. Cherenkov, D. C. Look, B. M. Ataev, A. K. Omaev, M. V. Chukichev, and D. M. Bagnall, “Fabrication and characterization of n-ZnO/p-AlGaN heterojunction light-emitting diodes on 6H-SiC substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(23), 4719–4721 (2003).
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B. S. Tan, S. Yuan, and X. J. Kang, “Performance enhancement of InGaN light-emitting diodes by laser lift-off and transfer from sapphire to copper substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(15), 2757–2759 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Chen, S. J. Chang, S. P. Chang, M. J. Li, I. C. Chen, T. J. Hsueh, and C. L. Hsu, “Electroluminescence from n-ZnO nanowires/p-GaN heterostructure light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(22), 223101 (2009).
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Y. F. Dong, Q. S. Li, L. C. Zhang, and L. K. Song, “Contact properties of Zno/Cu films with MSM structure,” Chin. J. Lumin. 33, 412–416 (2012).

IEEE Electron Device Lett.

H. Long, G. Fang, S. Li, X. Mo, H. Wang, H. Huang, Q. Jiang, J. Wang, and X. Zhao, “A ZnO/ZnMgO multiple-quantum-well ultraviolet random laser diode,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 32(1), 54–56 (2011).
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C. F. Chu, F. I. Lai, J. T. Chu, C. C. Yu, C. F. Lin, H. C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Study of GaN light-emitting diodes fabricated by laser lift-off technique,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(8), 3916–3922 (2004).
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C. Y. Liu, H. Y. Xu, Y. Sun, C. Zhang, J. G. Ma, and Y. C. Liu, “Ultraviolet electroluminescence from Au/MgO/MgxZn1-xO heterojunction diodes and the observation of Zn-rich cluster emission,” J. Lumin. 148, 116–120 (2014).
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H. Cao, Y. G. Zhao, S. T. Ho, E. W. Seelig, Q. H. Wang, and R. P. H. Chang, “Random laser action in semiconductor powder,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82(11), 2278–2281 (1999).
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T. Doan, C. Chu, C. Chen, W. Liu, J. Chu, J. Yeh, H. Chen, F. Fan, and C. Tran, “Vertical GaN based light emitting diodes on metal alloy substrate for solid state lighting application,” Proc. SPIE 6134, 61340G (2006).
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Y. Sun, T. Yu, Z. Chen, X. Kang, S. Qi, M. Li, G. Lian, S. Huang, R. Xie, and G. Zhang, “Properties of GaN-based light-emitting diode thin film chips fabricated by laser lift-off and transferred to Cu,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 23(12), 125022 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Other

C. Y. Liu, Center for Advanced Optoelectronic Functional Materials Research, Key Laboratory for UV Light-Emitting Materials and Technology of Ministry of Education, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024, China, H. Y. Xu, J. G. Ma, and Y. C. Liu are preparing a manuscript to be called “Enhanced ultraviolet random lasing from p-Cu2O inserted ZnO-based metal-insulator-semiconductor heterostructure device.”

E. F. Schubert, Light-Emitting Diodes (Cambridge University, 2003).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) A structure diagram of Au/MgO/ZnO MIS-heterojunction LDs on the Cu substrate. (b), (c) and (d) XRD patterns, I-V characteristics and PL spectra of ZnO films or LDs on the Cu substrate with and without anti-oxidation layer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) EL spectra of ZnO LDs on the Cu substrate with an anti-oxidation layer under different injection currents, and its inset shows the energy-band alignment of Au/MgO/ZnO heterostructure under forward bias, which is plotted according to Anderson model. (b) Superlinear dependence of integrated EL intensity on the injection current density, the inset illustrates the process of population inversion and stimulated emission. (c) EL spectrum of ZnO MIS LDs on the Si substrate [Ref. 11, Copyright 2014, with permission from Elsevier].

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) A comparison between PL and EL spectra of ZnO LDs on the Cu substrate. (b) and (c) I-V characteristics of ZnO LDs with the same MIS heterostructures on Cu and n+-Si substrates.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) A schematic diagram of the angle-dependent EL measurement configuration. (b) The lasing spectra of ZnO LDs on the Cu substrate taken from different angles. (c) Cross-sectional TEM image of the ZnO film grown on the Cu substrate. (d) Schematic illustration of the formation process of random laser.

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