Abstract

A nano-focusing module based on two linear Fresnel zone plates is presented. The zone plates are designed to generate a kinoform phase profile in tilted geometry, thus overcoming the efficiency limitations of binary diffractive structures. Adjustment of the tilt angle enables tuning of the setup for optimal efficiency over a wide range of photon energies, ranging from 5 to 20 keV. Diffraction efficiency of more than 50% was measured for the full module at 8 keV photon energy. A diffraction limited spot size of 100 nm was verified by ptychographic reconstruction for a lens module with a large entrance aperture of 440 μm × 400 μm.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. C. G. Schroer, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, A. Schropp, A. Schwab, S. Stephan, G. Falkenberg, G. Wellenreuther, and N. Reimers, “Hard X-ray nanoprobe at beamline P06 at PETRA III,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 616(2-3), 93–97 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  23. M. Guizar-Sicairos and J. R. Fienup, “Measurement of coherent x-ray focused beams by phase retrieval with transverse translation diversity,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2670–2685 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. M. Guizar-Sicairos, S. Narayanan, A. Stein, M. Metzler, A. R. Sandy, J. R. Fienup, and K. Evans-Lutterodt, “Measurement of hard x-ray lens wavefront aberrations using phase retrieval,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(11), 111108 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  25. J. Vila-Comamala, A. Diaz, M. Guizar-Sicairos, A. Mantion, C. M. Kewish, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, and C. David, “Characterization of high-resolution diffractive X-ray optics by ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Opt. Express 19(22), 21333–21344 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2013

A. Schropp, R. Hoppe, V. Meier, J. Patommel, F. Seiboth, H. J. Lee, B. Nagler, E. C. Galtier, B. Arnold, U. Zastrau, J. B. Hastings, D. Nilsson, F. Uhlén, U. Vogt, H. M. Hertz, and C. G. Schroer, “Full spatial characterization of a nanofocused x-ray free-electron laser beam by ptychographic imaging,” Sci Rep 3, 1633 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

C. David, S. Gorelick, S. Rutishauser, J. Krzywinski, J. Vila-Comamala, V. A. Guzenko, O. Bunk, E. Färm, M. Ritala, M. Cammarata, D. M. Fritz, R. Barrett, L. Samoylova, J. Grünert, and H. Sinn, “Nanofocusing of hard X-ray free electron laser pulses using diamond based Fresnel zone plates,” Sci Rep 1, 57 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Guizar-Sicairos, S. Narayanan, A. Stein, M. Metzler, A. R. Sandy, J. R. Fienup, and K. Evans-Lutterodt, “Measurement of hard x-ray lens wavefront aberrations using phase retrieval,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(11), 111108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Vila-Comamala, A. Diaz, M. Guizar-Sicairos, A. Mantion, C. M. Kewish, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, and C. David, “Characterization of high-resolution diffractive X-ray optics by ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Opt. Express 19(22), 21333–21344 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

S. Gorelick, V. A. Guzenko, J. Vila-Comamala, and C. David, “Direct e-beam writing of dense and high aspect ratio nanostructures in thick layers of PMMA for electroplating,” Nanotechnology 21(29), 295303 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. G. Schroer, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, A. Schropp, A. Schwab, S. Stephan, G. Falkenberg, G. Wellenreuther, and N. Reimers, “Hard X-ray nanoprobe at beamline P06 at PETRA III,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 616(2-3), 93–97 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

M. Guizar-Sicairos and J. R. Fienup, “Measurement of coherent x-ray focused beams by phase retrieval with transverse translation diversity,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2670–2685 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Alianelli, K. J. S. Sawhney, M. K. Tiwari, I. P. Dolbnya, R. Stevens, D. W. K. Jenkins, I. M. Loader, M. C. Wilson, and A. Malik, “Characterization of germanium linear kinoform lenses at Diamond Light Source,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 16(3), 325–329 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Vila-Comamala, K. Jefimovs, J. Raabe, T. Pilvi, R. H. Fink, M. Senoner, A. Maassdorf, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Advanced thin film technology for ultrahigh resolution x-ray microscopy,” Ultramicroscopy 109(11), 1360–1364 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Isakovic, A. Stein, J. B. Warren, S. Narayanan, M. Sprung, A. R. Sandy, and K. Evans-Lutterodt, “Diamond kinoform hard X-ray refractive lenses: design, nanofabrication and testing,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 16(1), 8–13 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

K. Evans-Lutterodt, A. Stein, J. M. Ablett, N. Bozovic, A. Taylor, and D. M. Tennant, “Using Compound Kinoform Hard-X-Ray Lenses to Exceed the Critical Angle Limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(13), 134801 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

B. Nöhammer, C. David, M. Burghammer, and C. Riekel, “Coherence-matched micro focusing of hard x-rays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(16), 163804 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Schroer, O. Kurapova, J. Patommel, P. Boye, J. Feldkamp, B. Lengeler, M. Burghammer, C. Riekel, L. Vincze, A. van der Hart, and M. Küchler, “Hard x-ray nanoprobe based on refractive x-ray lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(12), 124103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Schroer and B. Lengeler, “Focusing Hard X Rays to Nanometer Dimensions by Adiabatically Focusing Lenses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(5), 054802 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

B. Nöhammer, J. Hoszowska, A. K. Freund, and C. David, “Diamond planar refractive lenses for third- and fourth-generation x-ray sources,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 10(2), 168–171 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

C. David, B. Nöhammer, and E. Ziegler, “A wavelength tunable diffractive transmission lens for hard x-rays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(8), 1088–1090 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

V. V. Aristov, M. Grigoriev, S. Kuznetsov, L. Shabelnikov, V. Yunkin, T. Weitkamp, C. Rau, I. Snigireva, A. Snigirev, M. Hoffmann, and E. Voges, “X-ray refractive planar lenses with minimized absorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(24), 4058 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

E. Di Fabrizio, F. Romanato, M. Gentili, S. Cabrini, B. Kaulich, J. Susini, and R. Barrett, “High-efficiency multilevel zone plates for keV X-rays,” Nature 401(6756), 895–898 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. Lengeler, C. G. Schroer, M. Richwin, J. Tümmler, M. Drakopoulos, A. Snigirev, and I. Snigireva, “A microscope for hard x rays based on parabolic compound refractive lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(26), 3924 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996

A. Snigirev, V. Kohn, I. Snigireva, and B. Lengeler, “A compound refractive lens for focusing high-energy x-rays,” Nature 384(6604), 49–51 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1974

1970

1969

G. Schmahl and D. Rudolph, “High power zone plates as image forming systems for soft x-rays,” Optik (Stuttg.) 29, 577 (1969).

1948

Ablett, J. M.

K. Evans-Lutterodt, A. Stein, J. M. Ablett, N. Bozovic, A. Taylor, and D. M. Tennant, “Using Compound Kinoform Hard-X-Ray Lenses to Exceed the Critical Angle Limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(13), 134801 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alianelli, L.

L. Alianelli, K. J. S. Sawhney, M. K. Tiwari, I. P. Dolbnya, R. Stevens, D. W. K. Jenkins, I. M. Loader, M. C. Wilson, and A. Malik, “Characterization of germanium linear kinoform lenses at Diamond Light Source,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 16(3), 325–329 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aristov, V. V.

V. V. Aristov, M. Grigoriev, S. Kuznetsov, L. Shabelnikov, V. Yunkin, T. Weitkamp, C. Rau, I. Snigireva, A. Snigirev, M. Hoffmann, and E. Voges, “X-ray refractive planar lenses with minimized absorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(24), 4058 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Arnold, B.

A. Schropp, R. Hoppe, V. Meier, J. Patommel, F. Seiboth, H. J. Lee, B. Nagler, E. C. Galtier, B. Arnold, U. Zastrau, J. B. Hastings, D. Nilsson, F. Uhlén, U. Vogt, H. M. Hertz, and C. G. Schroer, “Full spatial characterization of a nanofocused x-ray free-electron laser beam by ptychographic imaging,” Sci Rep 3, 1633 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baez, A. V.

Barrett, R.

C. David, S. Gorelick, S. Rutishauser, J. Krzywinski, J. Vila-Comamala, V. A. Guzenko, O. Bunk, E. Färm, M. Ritala, M. Cammarata, D. M. Fritz, R. Barrett, L. Samoylova, J. Grünert, and H. Sinn, “Nanofocusing of hard X-ray free electron laser pulses using diamond based Fresnel zone plates,” Sci Rep 1, 57 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Di Fabrizio, F. Romanato, M. Gentili, S. Cabrini, B. Kaulich, J. Susini, and R. Barrett, “High-efficiency multilevel zone plates for keV X-rays,” Nature 401(6756), 895–898 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Boye, P.

C. G. Schroer, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, A. Schropp, A. Schwab, S. Stephan, G. Falkenberg, G. Wellenreuther, and N. Reimers, “Hard X-ray nanoprobe at beamline P06 at PETRA III,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 616(2-3), 93–97 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Schroer, O. Kurapova, J. Patommel, P. Boye, J. Feldkamp, B. Lengeler, M. Burghammer, C. Riekel, L. Vincze, A. van der Hart, and M. Küchler, “Hard x-ray nanoprobe based on refractive x-ray lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(12), 124103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bozovic, N.

K. Evans-Lutterodt, A. Stein, J. M. Ablett, N. Bozovic, A. Taylor, and D. M. Tennant, “Using Compound Kinoform Hard-X-Ray Lenses to Exceed the Critical Angle Limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(13), 134801 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bunk, O.

C. David, S. Gorelick, S. Rutishauser, J. Krzywinski, J. Vila-Comamala, V. A. Guzenko, O. Bunk, E. Färm, M. Ritala, M. Cammarata, D. M. Fritz, R. Barrett, L. Samoylova, J. Grünert, and H. Sinn, “Nanofocusing of hard X-ray free electron laser pulses using diamond based Fresnel zone plates,” Sci Rep 1, 57 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Vila-Comamala, A. Diaz, M. Guizar-Sicairos, A. Mantion, C. M. Kewish, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, and C. David, “Characterization of high-resolution diffractive X-ray optics by ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Opt. Express 19(22), 21333–21344 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burghammer, M.

B. Nöhammer, C. David, M. Burghammer, and C. Riekel, “Coherence-matched micro focusing of hard x-rays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(16), 163804 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Schroer, O. Kurapova, J. Patommel, P. Boye, J. Feldkamp, B. Lengeler, M. Burghammer, C. Riekel, L. Vincze, A. van der Hart, and M. Küchler, “Hard x-ray nanoprobe based on refractive x-ray lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(12), 124103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cabrini, S.

E. Di Fabrizio, F. Romanato, M. Gentili, S. Cabrini, B. Kaulich, J. Susini, and R. Barrett, “High-efficiency multilevel zone plates for keV X-rays,” Nature 401(6756), 895–898 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cammarata, M.

C. David, S. Gorelick, S. Rutishauser, J. Krzywinski, J. Vila-Comamala, V. A. Guzenko, O. Bunk, E. Färm, M. Ritala, M. Cammarata, D. M. Fritz, R. Barrett, L. Samoylova, J. Grünert, and H. Sinn, “Nanofocusing of hard X-ray free electron laser pulses using diamond based Fresnel zone plates,” Sci Rep 1, 57 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

David, C.

C. David, S. Gorelick, S. Rutishauser, J. Krzywinski, J. Vila-Comamala, V. A. Guzenko, O. Bunk, E. Färm, M. Ritala, M. Cammarata, D. M. Fritz, R. Barrett, L. Samoylova, J. Grünert, and H. Sinn, “Nanofocusing of hard X-ray free electron laser pulses using diamond based Fresnel zone plates,” Sci Rep 1, 57 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Vila-Comamala, A. Diaz, M. Guizar-Sicairos, A. Mantion, C. M. Kewish, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, and C. David, “Characterization of high-resolution diffractive X-ray optics by ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Opt. Express 19(22), 21333–21344 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Gorelick, V. A. Guzenko, J. Vila-Comamala, and C. David, “Direct e-beam writing of dense and high aspect ratio nanostructures in thick layers of PMMA for electroplating,” Nanotechnology 21(29), 295303 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Vila-Comamala, K. Jefimovs, J. Raabe, T. Pilvi, R. H. Fink, M. Senoner, A. Maassdorf, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Advanced thin film technology for ultrahigh resolution x-ray microscopy,” Ultramicroscopy 109(11), 1360–1364 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Nöhammer, C. David, M. Burghammer, and C. Riekel, “Coherence-matched micro focusing of hard x-rays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(16), 163804 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Nöhammer, J. Hoszowska, A. K. Freund, and C. David, “Diamond planar refractive lenses for third- and fourth-generation x-ray sources,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 10(2), 168–171 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. David, B. Nöhammer, and E. Ziegler, “A wavelength tunable diffractive transmission lens for hard x-rays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(8), 1088–1090 (2001).
[CrossRef]

I. Mohacsi, P. Karvinen, I. Vartiainen, V. A. Guzenko, A. Somogyi, C. Kewish, P. Mercere, and C. David, “High efficiency X-ray nanofocusing by multilevel zone plates,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. (to be published).

Di Fabrizio, E.

E. Di Fabrizio, F. Romanato, M. Gentili, S. Cabrini, B. Kaulich, J. Susini, and R. Barrett, “High-efficiency multilevel zone plates for keV X-rays,” Nature 401(6756), 895–898 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Diaz, A.

Dolbnya, I. P.

L. Alianelli, K. J. S. Sawhney, M. K. Tiwari, I. P. Dolbnya, R. Stevens, D. W. K. Jenkins, I. M. Loader, M. C. Wilson, and A. Malik, “Characterization of germanium linear kinoform lenses at Diamond Light Source,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 16(3), 325–329 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drakopoulos, M.

B. Lengeler, C. G. Schroer, M. Richwin, J. Tümmler, M. Drakopoulos, A. Snigirev, and I. Snigireva, “A microscope for hard x rays based on parabolic compound refractive lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(26), 3924 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Evans-Lutterodt, K.

M. Guizar-Sicairos, S. Narayanan, A. Stein, M. Metzler, A. R. Sandy, J. R. Fienup, and K. Evans-Lutterodt, “Measurement of hard x-ray lens wavefront aberrations using phase retrieval,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(11), 111108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Isakovic, A. Stein, J. B. Warren, S. Narayanan, M. Sprung, A. R. Sandy, and K. Evans-Lutterodt, “Diamond kinoform hard X-ray refractive lenses: design, nanofabrication and testing,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 16(1), 8–13 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Evans-Lutterodt, A. Stein, J. M. Ablett, N. Bozovic, A. Taylor, and D. M. Tennant, “Using Compound Kinoform Hard-X-Ray Lenses to Exceed the Critical Angle Limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(13), 134801 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Falkenberg, G.

C. G. Schroer, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, A. Schropp, A. Schwab, S. Stephan, G. Falkenberg, G. Wellenreuther, and N. Reimers, “Hard X-ray nanoprobe at beamline P06 at PETRA III,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 616(2-3), 93–97 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Färm, E.

C. David, S. Gorelick, S. Rutishauser, J. Krzywinski, J. Vila-Comamala, V. A. Guzenko, O. Bunk, E. Färm, M. Ritala, M. Cammarata, D. M. Fritz, R. Barrett, L. Samoylova, J. Grünert, and H. Sinn, “Nanofocusing of hard X-ray free electron laser pulses using diamond based Fresnel zone plates,” Sci Rep 1, 57 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feldkamp, J.

C. G. Schroer, O. Kurapova, J. Patommel, P. Boye, J. Feldkamp, B. Lengeler, M. Burghammer, C. Riekel, L. Vincze, A. van der Hart, and M. Küchler, “Hard x-ray nanoprobe based on refractive x-ray lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(12), 124103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Feldkamp, J. M.

C. G. Schroer, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, A. Schropp, A. Schwab, S. Stephan, G. Falkenberg, G. Wellenreuther, and N. Reimers, “Hard X-ray nanoprobe at beamline P06 at PETRA III,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 616(2-3), 93–97 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fienup, J. R.

M. Guizar-Sicairos, S. Narayanan, A. Stein, M. Metzler, A. R. Sandy, J. R. Fienup, and K. Evans-Lutterodt, “Measurement of hard x-ray lens wavefront aberrations using phase retrieval,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(11), 111108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Guizar-Sicairos and J. R. Fienup, “Measurement of coherent x-ray focused beams by phase retrieval with transverse translation diversity,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2670–2685 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fink, R. H.

J. Vila-Comamala, K. Jefimovs, J. Raabe, T. Pilvi, R. H. Fink, M. Senoner, A. Maassdorf, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Advanced thin film technology for ultrahigh resolution x-ray microscopy,” Ultramicroscopy 109(11), 1360–1364 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Freund, A. K.

B. Nöhammer, J. Hoszowska, A. K. Freund, and C. David, “Diamond planar refractive lenses for third- and fourth-generation x-ray sources,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 10(2), 168–171 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fritz, D. M.

C. David, S. Gorelick, S. Rutishauser, J. Krzywinski, J. Vila-Comamala, V. A. Guzenko, O. Bunk, E. Färm, M. Ritala, M. Cammarata, D. M. Fritz, R. Barrett, L. Samoylova, J. Grünert, and H. Sinn, “Nanofocusing of hard X-ray free electron laser pulses using diamond based Fresnel zone plates,” Sci Rep 1, 57 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Galtier, E. C.

A. Schropp, R. Hoppe, V. Meier, J. Patommel, F. Seiboth, H. J. Lee, B. Nagler, E. C. Galtier, B. Arnold, U. Zastrau, J. B. Hastings, D. Nilsson, F. Uhlén, U. Vogt, H. M. Hertz, and C. G. Schroer, “Full spatial characterization of a nanofocused x-ray free-electron laser beam by ptychographic imaging,” Sci Rep 3, 1633 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gentili, M.

E. Di Fabrizio, F. Romanato, M. Gentili, S. Cabrini, B. Kaulich, J. Susini, and R. Barrett, “High-efficiency multilevel zone plates for keV X-rays,” Nature 401(6756), 895–898 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gorelick, S.

C. David, S. Gorelick, S. Rutishauser, J. Krzywinski, J. Vila-Comamala, V. A. Guzenko, O. Bunk, E. Färm, M. Ritala, M. Cammarata, D. M. Fritz, R. Barrett, L. Samoylova, J. Grünert, and H. Sinn, “Nanofocusing of hard X-ray free electron laser pulses using diamond based Fresnel zone plates,” Sci Rep 1, 57 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Gorelick, V. A. Guzenko, J. Vila-Comamala, and C. David, “Direct e-beam writing of dense and high aspect ratio nanostructures in thick layers of PMMA for electroplating,” Nanotechnology 21(29), 295303 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grigoriev, M.

V. V. Aristov, M. Grigoriev, S. Kuznetsov, L. Shabelnikov, V. Yunkin, T. Weitkamp, C. Rau, I. Snigireva, A. Snigirev, M. Hoffmann, and E. Voges, “X-ray refractive planar lenses with minimized absorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(24), 4058 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Grünert, J.

C. David, S. Gorelick, S. Rutishauser, J. Krzywinski, J. Vila-Comamala, V. A. Guzenko, O. Bunk, E. Färm, M. Ritala, M. Cammarata, D. M. Fritz, R. Barrett, L. Samoylova, J. Grünert, and H. Sinn, “Nanofocusing of hard X-ray free electron laser pulses using diamond based Fresnel zone plates,” Sci Rep 1, 57 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guizar-Sicairos, M.

Guzenko, V. A.

C. David, S. Gorelick, S. Rutishauser, J. Krzywinski, J. Vila-Comamala, V. A. Guzenko, O. Bunk, E. Färm, M. Ritala, M. Cammarata, D. M. Fritz, R. Barrett, L. Samoylova, J. Grünert, and H. Sinn, “Nanofocusing of hard X-ray free electron laser pulses using diamond based Fresnel zone plates,” Sci Rep 1, 57 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Gorelick, V. A. Guzenko, J. Vila-Comamala, and C. David, “Direct e-beam writing of dense and high aspect ratio nanostructures in thick layers of PMMA for electroplating,” Nanotechnology 21(29), 295303 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Mohacsi, P. Karvinen, I. Vartiainen, V. A. Guzenko, A. Somogyi, C. Kewish, P. Mercere, and C. David, “High efficiency X-ray nanofocusing by multilevel zone plates,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. (to be published).

Hastings, J. B.

A. Schropp, R. Hoppe, V. Meier, J. Patommel, F. Seiboth, H. J. Lee, B. Nagler, E. C. Galtier, B. Arnold, U. Zastrau, J. B. Hastings, D. Nilsson, F. Uhlén, U. Vogt, H. M. Hertz, and C. G. Schroer, “Full spatial characterization of a nanofocused x-ray free-electron laser beam by ptychographic imaging,” Sci Rep 3, 1633 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hertz, H. M.

A. Schropp, R. Hoppe, V. Meier, J. Patommel, F. Seiboth, H. J. Lee, B. Nagler, E. C. Galtier, B. Arnold, U. Zastrau, J. B. Hastings, D. Nilsson, F. Uhlén, U. Vogt, H. M. Hertz, and C. G. Schroer, “Full spatial characterization of a nanofocused x-ray free-electron laser beam by ptychographic imaging,” Sci Rep 3, 1633 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hirsch, P. M.

Hoffmann, M.

V. V. Aristov, M. Grigoriev, S. Kuznetsov, L. Shabelnikov, V. Yunkin, T. Weitkamp, C. Rau, I. Snigireva, A. Snigirev, M. Hoffmann, and E. Voges, “X-ray refractive planar lenses with minimized absorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(24), 4058 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hoppe, R.

A. Schropp, R. Hoppe, V. Meier, J. Patommel, F. Seiboth, H. J. Lee, B. Nagler, E. C. Galtier, B. Arnold, U. Zastrau, J. B. Hastings, D. Nilsson, F. Uhlén, U. Vogt, H. M. Hertz, and C. G. Schroer, “Full spatial characterization of a nanofocused x-ray free-electron laser beam by ptychographic imaging,” Sci Rep 3, 1633 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoszowska, J.

B. Nöhammer, J. Hoszowska, A. K. Freund, and C. David, “Diamond planar refractive lenses for third- and fourth-generation x-ray sources,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 10(2), 168–171 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Isakovic, A. F.

A. F. Isakovic, A. Stein, J. B. Warren, S. Narayanan, M. Sprung, A. R. Sandy, and K. Evans-Lutterodt, “Diamond kinoform hard X-ray refractive lenses: design, nanofabrication and testing,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 16(1), 8–13 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jefimovs, K.

J. Vila-Comamala, K. Jefimovs, J. Raabe, T. Pilvi, R. H. Fink, M. Senoner, A. Maassdorf, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Advanced thin film technology for ultrahigh resolution x-ray microscopy,” Ultramicroscopy 109(11), 1360–1364 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jenkins, D. W. K.

L. Alianelli, K. J. S. Sawhney, M. K. Tiwari, I. P. Dolbnya, R. Stevens, D. W. K. Jenkins, I. M. Loader, M. C. Wilson, and A. Malik, “Characterization of germanium linear kinoform lenses at Diamond Light Source,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 16(3), 325–329 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jordan, J. A.

Karvinen, P.

I. Mohacsi, P. Karvinen, I. Vartiainen, V. A. Guzenko, A. Somogyi, C. Kewish, P. Mercere, and C. David, “High efficiency X-ray nanofocusing by multilevel zone plates,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. (to be published).

Kaulich, B.

E. Di Fabrizio, F. Romanato, M. Gentili, S. Cabrini, B. Kaulich, J. Susini, and R. Barrett, “High-efficiency multilevel zone plates for keV X-rays,” Nature 401(6756), 895–898 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kewish, C.

I. Mohacsi, P. Karvinen, I. Vartiainen, V. A. Guzenko, A. Somogyi, C. Kewish, P. Mercere, and C. David, “High efficiency X-ray nanofocusing by multilevel zone plates,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. (to be published).

Kewish, C. M.

Kirkpatrick, P.

Kirz, J.

Kohn, V.

A. Snigirev, V. Kohn, I. Snigireva, and B. Lengeler, “A compound refractive lens for focusing high-energy x-rays,” Nature 384(6604), 49–51 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Krzywinski, J.

C. David, S. Gorelick, S. Rutishauser, J. Krzywinski, J. Vila-Comamala, V. A. Guzenko, O. Bunk, E. Färm, M. Ritala, M. Cammarata, D. M. Fritz, R. Barrett, L. Samoylova, J. Grünert, and H. Sinn, “Nanofocusing of hard X-ray free electron laser pulses using diamond based Fresnel zone plates,” Sci Rep 1, 57 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Küchler, M.

C. G. Schroer, O. Kurapova, J. Patommel, P. Boye, J. Feldkamp, B. Lengeler, M. Burghammer, C. Riekel, L. Vincze, A. van der Hart, and M. Küchler, “Hard x-ray nanoprobe based on refractive x-ray lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(12), 124103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kurapova, O.

C. G. Schroer, O. Kurapova, J. Patommel, P. Boye, J. Feldkamp, B. Lengeler, M. Burghammer, C. Riekel, L. Vincze, A. van der Hart, and M. Küchler, “Hard x-ray nanoprobe based on refractive x-ray lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(12), 124103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kuznetsov, S.

V. V. Aristov, M. Grigoriev, S. Kuznetsov, L. Shabelnikov, V. Yunkin, T. Weitkamp, C. Rau, I. Snigireva, A. Snigirev, M. Hoffmann, and E. Voges, “X-ray refractive planar lenses with minimized absorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(24), 4058 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H. J.

A. Schropp, R. Hoppe, V. Meier, J. Patommel, F. Seiboth, H. J. Lee, B. Nagler, E. C. Galtier, B. Arnold, U. Zastrau, J. B. Hastings, D. Nilsson, F. Uhlén, U. Vogt, H. M. Hertz, and C. G. Schroer, “Full spatial characterization of a nanofocused x-ray free-electron laser beam by ptychographic imaging,” Sci Rep 3, 1633 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lengeler, B.

C. G. Schroer, O. Kurapova, J. Patommel, P. Boye, J. Feldkamp, B. Lengeler, M. Burghammer, C. Riekel, L. Vincze, A. van der Hart, and M. Küchler, “Hard x-ray nanoprobe based on refractive x-ray lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(12), 124103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Schroer and B. Lengeler, “Focusing Hard X Rays to Nanometer Dimensions by Adiabatically Focusing Lenses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(5), 054802 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Lengeler, C. G. Schroer, M. Richwin, J. Tümmler, M. Drakopoulos, A. Snigirev, and I. Snigireva, “A microscope for hard x rays based on parabolic compound refractive lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(26), 3924 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Snigirev, V. Kohn, I. Snigireva, and B. Lengeler, “A compound refractive lens for focusing high-energy x-rays,” Nature 384(6604), 49–51 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lesem, L. B.

Loader, I. M.

L. Alianelli, K. J. S. Sawhney, M. K. Tiwari, I. P. Dolbnya, R. Stevens, D. W. K. Jenkins, I. M. Loader, M. C. Wilson, and A. Malik, “Characterization of germanium linear kinoform lenses at Diamond Light Source,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 16(3), 325–329 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maassdorf, A.

J. Vila-Comamala, K. Jefimovs, J. Raabe, T. Pilvi, R. H. Fink, M. Senoner, A. Maassdorf, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Advanced thin film technology for ultrahigh resolution x-ray microscopy,” Ultramicroscopy 109(11), 1360–1364 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Malik, A.

L. Alianelli, K. J. S. Sawhney, M. K. Tiwari, I. P. Dolbnya, R. Stevens, D. W. K. Jenkins, I. M. Loader, M. C. Wilson, and A. Malik, “Characterization of germanium linear kinoform lenses at Diamond Light Source,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 16(3), 325–329 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mantion, A.

Meier, V.

A. Schropp, R. Hoppe, V. Meier, J. Patommel, F. Seiboth, H. J. Lee, B. Nagler, E. C. Galtier, B. Arnold, U. Zastrau, J. B. Hastings, D. Nilsson, F. Uhlén, U. Vogt, H. M. Hertz, and C. G. Schroer, “Full spatial characterization of a nanofocused x-ray free-electron laser beam by ptychographic imaging,” Sci Rep 3, 1633 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Menzel, A.

Mercere, P.

I. Mohacsi, P. Karvinen, I. Vartiainen, V. A. Guzenko, A. Somogyi, C. Kewish, P. Mercere, and C. David, “High efficiency X-ray nanofocusing by multilevel zone plates,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. (to be published).

Metzler, M.

M. Guizar-Sicairos, S. Narayanan, A. Stein, M. Metzler, A. R. Sandy, J. R. Fienup, and K. Evans-Lutterodt, “Measurement of hard x-ray lens wavefront aberrations using phase retrieval,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(11), 111108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mohacsi, I.

I. Mohacsi, P. Karvinen, I. Vartiainen, V. A. Guzenko, A. Somogyi, C. Kewish, P. Mercere, and C. David, “High efficiency X-ray nanofocusing by multilevel zone plates,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. (to be published).

Nagler, B.

A. Schropp, R. Hoppe, V. Meier, J. Patommel, F. Seiboth, H. J. Lee, B. Nagler, E. C. Galtier, B. Arnold, U. Zastrau, J. B. Hastings, D. Nilsson, F. Uhlén, U. Vogt, H. M. Hertz, and C. G. Schroer, “Full spatial characterization of a nanofocused x-ray free-electron laser beam by ptychographic imaging,” Sci Rep 3, 1633 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Narayanan, S.

M. Guizar-Sicairos, S. Narayanan, A. Stein, M. Metzler, A. R. Sandy, J. R. Fienup, and K. Evans-Lutterodt, “Measurement of hard x-ray lens wavefront aberrations using phase retrieval,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(11), 111108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Isakovic, A. Stein, J. B. Warren, S. Narayanan, M. Sprung, A. R. Sandy, and K. Evans-Lutterodt, “Diamond kinoform hard X-ray refractive lenses: design, nanofabrication and testing,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 16(1), 8–13 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nilsson, D.

A. Schropp, R. Hoppe, V. Meier, J. Patommel, F. Seiboth, H. J. Lee, B. Nagler, E. C. Galtier, B. Arnold, U. Zastrau, J. B. Hastings, D. Nilsson, F. Uhlén, U. Vogt, H. M. Hertz, and C. G. Schroer, “Full spatial characterization of a nanofocused x-ray free-electron laser beam by ptychographic imaging,” Sci Rep 3, 1633 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nöhammer, B.

B. Nöhammer, C. David, M. Burghammer, and C. Riekel, “Coherence-matched micro focusing of hard x-rays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(16), 163804 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Nöhammer, J. Hoszowska, A. K. Freund, and C. David, “Diamond planar refractive lenses for third- and fourth-generation x-ray sources,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 10(2), 168–171 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. David, B. Nöhammer, and E. Ziegler, “A wavelength tunable diffractive transmission lens for hard x-rays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(8), 1088–1090 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Patommel, J.

A. Schropp, R. Hoppe, V. Meier, J. Patommel, F. Seiboth, H. J. Lee, B. Nagler, E. C. Galtier, B. Arnold, U. Zastrau, J. B. Hastings, D. Nilsson, F. Uhlén, U. Vogt, H. M. Hertz, and C. G. Schroer, “Full spatial characterization of a nanofocused x-ray free-electron laser beam by ptychographic imaging,” Sci Rep 3, 1633 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. G. Schroer, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, A. Schropp, A. Schwab, S. Stephan, G. Falkenberg, G. Wellenreuther, and N. Reimers, “Hard X-ray nanoprobe at beamline P06 at PETRA III,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 616(2-3), 93–97 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Schroer, O. Kurapova, J. Patommel, P. Boye, J. Feldkamp, B. Lengeler, M. Burghammer, C. Riekel, L. Vincze, A. van der Hart, and M. Küchler, “Hard x-ray nanoprobe based on refractive x-ray lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(12), 124103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pilvi, T.

J. Vila-Comamala, K. Jefimovs, J. Raabe, T. Pilvi, R. H. Fink, M. Senoner, A. Maassdorf, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Advanced thin film technology for ultrahigh resolution x-ray microscopy,” Ultramicroscopy 109(11), 1360–1364 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raabe, J.

J. Vila-Comamala, K. Jefimovs, J. Raabe, T. Pilvi, R. H. Fink, M. Senoner, A. Maassdorf, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Advanced thin film technology for ultrahigh resolution x-ray microscopy,” Ultramicroscopy 109(11), 1360–1364 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rau, C.

V. V. Aristov, M. Grigoriev, S. Kuznetsov, L. Shabelnikov, V. Yunkin, T. Weitkamp, C. Rau, I. Snigireva, A. Snigirev, M. Hoffmann, and E. Voges, “X-ray refractive planar lenses with minimized absorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(24), 4058 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Reimers, N.

C. G. Schroer, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, A. Schropp, A. Schwab, S. Stephan, G. Falkenberg, G. Wellenreuther, and N. Reimers, “Hard X-ray nanoprobe at beamline P06 at PETRA III,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 616(2-3), 93–97 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Richwin, M.

B. Lengeler, C. G. Schroer, M. Richwin, J. Tümmler, M. Drakopoulos, A. Snigirev, and I. Snigireva, “A microscope for hard x rays based on parabolic compound refractive lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(26), 3924 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Riekel, C.

C. G. Schroer, O. Kurapova, J. Patommel, P. Boye, J. Feldkamp, B. Lengeler, M. Burghammer, C. Riekel, L. Vincze, A. van der Hart, and M. Küchler, “Hard x-ray nanoprobe based on refractive x-ray lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(12), 124103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Nöhammer, C. David, M. Burghammer, and C. Riekel, “Coherence-matched micro focusing of hard x-rays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(16), 163804 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ritala, M.

C. David, S. Gorelick, S. Rutishauser, J. Krzywinski, J. Vila-Comamala, V. A. Guzenko, O. Bunk, E. Färm, M. Ritala, M. Cammarata, D. M. Fritz, R. Barrett, L. Samoylova, J. Grünert, and H. Sinn, “Nanofocusing of hard X-ray free electron laser pulses using diamond based Fresnel zone plates,” Sci Rep 1, 57 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Vila-Comamala, K. Jefimovs, J. Raabe, T. Pilvi, R. H. Fink, M. Senoner, A. Maassdorf, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Advanced thin film technology for ultrahigh resolution x-ray microscopy,” Ultramicroscopy 109(11), 1360–1364 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Romanato, F.

E. Di Fabrizio, F. Romanato, M. Gentili, S. Cabrini, B. Kaulich, J. Susini, and R. Barrett, “High-efficiency multilevel zone plates for keV X-rays,” Nature 401(6756), 895–898 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rudolph, D.

G. Schmahl and D. Rudolph, “High power zone plates as image forming systems for soft x-rays,” Optik (Stuttg.) 29, 577 (1969).

Rutishauser, S.

C. David, S. Gorelick, S. Rutishauser, J. Krzywinski, J. Vila-Comamala, V. A. Guzenko, O. Bunk, E. Färm, M. Ritala, M. Cammarata, D. M. Fritz, R. Barrett, L. Samoylova, J. Grünert, and H. Sinn, “Nanofocusing of hard X-ray free electron laser pulses using diamond based Fresnel zone plates,” Sci Rep 1, 57 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Samberg, D.

C. G. Schroer, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, A. Schropp, A. Schwab, S. Stephan, G. Falkenberg, G. Wellenreuther, and N. Reimers, “Hard X-ray nanoprobe at beamline P06 at PETRA III,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 616(2-3), 93–97 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Samoylova, L.

C. David, S. Gorelick, S. Rutishauser, J. Krzywinski, J. Vila-Comamala, V. A. Guzenko, O. Bunk, E. Färm, M. Ritala, M. Cammarata, D. M. Fritz, R. Barrett, L. Samoylova, J. Grünert, and H. Sinn, “Nanofocusing of hard X-ray free electron laser pulses using diamond based Fresnel zone plates,” Sci Rep 1, 57 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sandy, A. R.

M. Guizar-Sicairos, S. Narayanan, A. Stein, M. Metzler, A. R. Sandy, J. R. Fienup, and K. Evans-Lutterodt, “Measurement of hard x-ray lens wavefront aberrations using phase retrieval,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(11), 111108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Isakovic, A. Stein, J. B. Warren, S. Narayanan, M. Sprung, A. R. Sandy, and K. Evans-Lutterodt, “Diamond kinoform hard X-ray refractive lenses: design, nanofabrication and testing,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 16(1), 8–13 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sawhney, K. J. S.

L. Alianelli, K. J. S. Sawhney, M. K. Tiwari, I. P. Dolbnya, R. Stevens, D. W. K. Jenkins, I. M. Loader, M. C. Wilson, and A. Malik, “Characterization of germanium linear kinoform lenses at Diamond Light Source,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 16(3), 325–329 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmahl, G.

G. Schmahl and D. Rudolph, “High power zone plates as image forming systems for soft x-rays,” Optik (Stuttg.) 29, 577 (1969).

Schroer, C. G.

A. Schropp, R. Hoppe, V. Meier, J. Patommel, F. Seiboth, H. J. Lee, B. Nagler, E. C. Galtier, B. Arnold, U. Zastrau, J. B. Hastings, D. Nilsson, F. Uhlén, U. Vogt, H. M. Hertz, and C. G. Schroer, “Full spatial characterization of a nanofocused x-ray free-electron laser beam by ptychographic imaging,” Sci Rep 3, 1633 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. G. Schroer, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, A. Schropp, A. Schwab, S. Stephan, G. Falkenberg, G. Wellenreuther, and N. Reimers, “Hard X-ray nanoprobe at beamline P06 at PETRA III,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 616(2-3), 93–97 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Schroer and B. Lengeler, “Focusing Hard X Rays to Nanometer Dimensions by Adiabatically Focusing Lenses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(5), 054802 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. G. Schroer, O. Kurapova, J. Patommel, P. Boye, J. Feldkamp, B. Lengeler, M. Burghammer, C. Riekel, L. Vincze, A. van der Hart, and M. Küchler, “Hard x-ray nanoprobe based on refractive x-ray lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(12), 124103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

B. Lengeler, C. G. Schroer, M. Richwin, J. Tümmler, M. Drakopoulos, A. Snigirev, and I. Snigireva, “A microscope for hard x rays based on parabolic compound refractive lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(26), 3924 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schropp, A.

A. Schropp, R. Hoppe, V. Meier, J. Patommel, F. Seiboth, H. J. Lee, B. Nagler, E. C. Galtier, B. Arnold, U. Zastrau, J. B. Hastings, D. Nilsson, F. Uhlén, U. Vogt, H. M. Hertz, and C. G. Schroer, “Full spatial characterization of a nanofocused x-ray free-electron laser beam by ptychographic imaging,” Sci Rep 3, 1633 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. G. Schroer, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, A. Schropp, A. Schwab, S. Stephan, G. Falkenberg, G. Wellenreuther, and N. Reimers, “Hard X-ray nanoprobe at beamline P06 at PETRA III,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 616(2-3), 93–97 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schwab, A.

C. G. Schroer, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, A. Schropp, A. Schwab, S. Stephan, G. Falkenberg, G. Wellenreuther, and N. Reimers, “Hard X-ray nanoprobe at beamline P06 at PETRA III,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 616(2-3), 93–97 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Seiboth, F.

A. Schropp, R. Hoppe, V. Meier, J. Patommel, F. Seiboth, H. J. Lee, B. Nagler, E. C. Galtier, B. Arnold, U. Zastrau, J. B. Hastings, D. Nilsson, F. Uhlén, U. Vogt, H. M. Hertz, and C. G. Schroer, “Full spatial characterization of a nanofocused x-ray free-electron laser beam by ptychographic imaging,” Sci Rep 3, 1633 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Senoner, M.

J. Vila-Comamala, K. Jefimovs, J. Raabe, T. Pilvi, R. H. Fink, M. Senoner, A. Maassdorf, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Advanced thin film technology for ultrahigh resolution x-ray microscopy,” Ultramicroscopy 109(11), 1360–1364 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shabelnikov, L.

V. V. Aristov, M. Grigoriev, S. Kuznetsov, L. Shabelnikov, V. Yunkin, T. Weitkamp, C. Rau, I. Snigireva, A. Snigirev, M. Hoffmann, and E. Voges, “X-ray refractive planar lenses with minimized absorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(24), 4058 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sinn, H.

C. David, S. Gorelick, S. Rutishauser, J. Krzywinski, J. Vila-Comamala, V. A. Guzenko, O. Bunk, E. Färm, M. Ritala, M. Cammarata, D. M. Fritz, R. Barrett, L. Samoylova, J. Grünert, and H. Sinn, “Nanofocusing of hard X-ray free electron laser pulses using diamond based Fresnel zone plates,” Sci Rep 1, 57 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Snigirev, A.

V. V. Aristov, M. Grigoriev, S. Kuznetsov, L. Shabelnikov, V. Yunkin, T. Weitkamp, C. Rau, I. Snigireva, A. Snigirev, M. Hoffmann, and E. Voges, “X-ray refractive planar lenses with minimized absorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(24), 4058 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. Lengeler, C. G. Schroer, M. Richwin, J. Tümmler, M. Drakopoulos, A. Snigirev, and I. Snigireva, “A microscope for hard x rays based on parabolic compound refractive lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(26), 3924 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Snigirev, V. Kohn, I. Snigireva, and B. Lengeler, “A compound refractive lens for focusing high-energy x-rays,” Nature 384(6604), 49–51 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Snigireva, I.

V. V. Aristov, M. Grigoriev, S. Kuznetsov, L. Shabelnikov, V. Yunkin, T. Weitkamp, C. Rau, I. Snigireva, A. Snigirev, M. Hoffmann, and E. Voges, “X-ray refractive planar lenses with minimized absorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(24), 4058 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. Lengeler, C. G. Schroer, M. Richwin, J. Tümmler, M. Drakopoulos, A. Snigirev, and I. Snigireva, “A microscope for hard x rays based on parabolic compound refractive lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(26), 3924 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Snigirev, V. Kohn, I. Snigireva, and B. Lengeler, “A compound refractive lens for focusing high-energy x-rays,” Nature 384(6604), 49–51 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Somogyi, A.

I. Mohacsi, P. Karvinen, I. Vartiainen, V. A. Guzenko, A. Somogyi, C. Kewish, P. Mercere, and C. David, “High efficiency X-ray nanofocusing by multilevel zone plates,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. (to be published).

Sprung, M.

A. F. Isakovic, A. Stein, J. B. Warren, S. Narayanan, M. Sprung, A. R. Sandy, and K. Evans-Lutterodt, “Diamond kinoform hard X-ray refractive lenses: design, nanofabrication and testing,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 16(1), 8–13 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stein, A.

M. Guizar-Sicairos, S. Narayanan, A. Stein, M. Metzler, A. R. Sandy, J. R. Fienup, and K. Evans-Lutterodt, “Measurement of hard x-ray lens wavefront aberrations using phase retrieval,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(11), 111108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Isakovic, A. Stein, J. B. Warren, S. Narayanan, M. Sprung, A. R. Sandy, and K. Evans-Lutterodt, “Diamond kinoform hard X-ray refractive lenses: design, nanofabrication and testing,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 16(1), 8–13 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Evans-Lutterodt, A. Stein, J. M. Ablett, N. Bozovic, A. Taylor, and D. M. Tennant, “Using Compound Kinoform Hard-X-Ray Lenses to Exceed the Critical Angle Limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(13), 134801 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stephan, S.

C. G. Schroer, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, A. Schropp, A. Schwab, S. Stephan, G. Falkenberg, G. Wellenreuther, and N. Reimers, “Hard X-ray nanoprobe at beamline P06 at PETRA III,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 616(2-3), 93–97 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Stevens, R.

L. Alianelli, K. J. S. Sawhney, M. K. Tiwari, I. P. Dolbnya, R. Stevens, D. W. K. Jenkins, I. M. Loader, M. C. Wilson, and A. Malik, “Characterization of germanium linear kinoform lenses at Diamond Light Source,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 16(3), 325–329 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Susini, J.

E. Di Fabrizio, F. Romanato, M. Gentili, S. Cabrini, B. Kaulich, J. Susini, and R. Barrett, “High-efficiency multilevel zone plates for keV X-rays,” Nature 401(6756), 895–898 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, A.

K. Evans-Lutterodt, A. Stein, J. M. Ablett, N. Bozovic, A. Taylor, and D. M. Tennant, “Using Compound Kinoform Hard-X-Ray Lenses to Exceed the Critical Angle Limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(13), 134801 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tennant, D. M.

K. Evans-Lutterodt, A. Stein, J. M. Ablett, N. Bozovic, A. Taylor, and D. M. Tennant, “Using Compound Kinoform Hard-X-Ray Lenses to Exceed the Critical Angle Limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(13), 134801 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tiwari, M. K.

L. Alianelli, K. J. S. Sawhney, M. K. Tiwari, I. P. Dolbnya, R. Stevens, D. W. K. Jenkins, I. M. Loader, M. C. Wilson, and A. Malik, “Characterization of germanium linear kinoform lenses at Diamond Light Source,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 16(3), 325–329 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tümmler, J.

B. Lengeler, C. G. Schroer, M. Richwin, J. Tümmler, M. Drakopoulos, A. Snigirev, and I. Snigireva, “A microscope for hard x rays based on parabolic compound refractive lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(26), 3924 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Uhlén, F.

A. Schropp, R. Hoppe, V. Meier, J. Patommel, F. Seiboth, H. J. Lee, B. Nagler, E. C. Galtier, B. Arnold, U. Zastrau, J. B. Hastings, D. Nilsson, F. Uhlén, U. Vogt, H. M. Hertz, and C. G. Schroer, “Full spatial characterization of a nanofocused x-ray free-electron laser beam by ptychographic imaging,” Sci Rep 3, 1633 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van der Hart, A.

C. G. Schroer, O. Kurapova, J. Patommel, P. Boye, J. Feldkamp, B. Lengeler, M. Burghammer, C. Riekel, L. Vincze, A. van der Hart, and M. Küchler, “Hard x-ray nanoprobe based on refractive x-ray lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(12), 124103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Van Rooy, D. L.

Vartiainen, I.

I. Mohacsi, P. Karvinen, I. Vartiainen, V. A. Guzenko, A. Somogyi, C. Kewish, P. Mercere, and C. David, “High efficiency X-ray nanofocusing by multilevel zone plates,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. (to be published).

Vila-Comamala, J.

C. David, S. Gorelick, S. Rutishauser, J. Krzywinski, J. Vila-Comamala, V. A. Guzenko, O. Bunk, E. Färm, M. Ritala, M. Cammarata, D. M. Fritz, R. Barrett, L. Samoylova, J. Grünert, and H. Sinn, “Nanofocusing of hard X-ray free electron laser pulses using diamond based Fresnel zone plates,” Sci Rep 1, 57 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Vila-Comamala, A. Diaz, M. Guizar-Sicairos, A. Mantion, C. M. Kewish, A. Menzel, O. Bunk, and C. David, “Characterization of high-resolution diffractive X-ray optics by ptychographic coherent diffractive imaging,” Opt. Express 19(22), 21333–21344 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Gorelick, V. A. Guzenko, J. Vila-Comamala, and C. David, “Direct e-beam writing of dense and high aspect ratio nanostructures in thick layers of PMMA for electroplating,” Nanotechnology 21(29), 295303 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Vila-Comamala, K. Jefimovs, J. Raabe, T. Pilvi, R. H. Fink, M. Senoner, A. Maassdorf, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Advanced thin film technology for ultrahigh resolution x-ray microscopy,” Ultramicroscopy 109(11), 1360–1364 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vincze, L.

C. G. Schroer, O. Kurapova, J. Patommel, P. Boye, J. Feldkamp, B. Lengeler, M. Burghammer, C. Riekel, L. Vincze, A. van der Hart, and M. Küchler, “Hard x-ray nanoprobe based on refractive x-ray lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(12), 124103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Voges, E.

V. V. Aristov, M. Grigoriev, S. Kuznetsov, L. Shabelnikov, V. Yunkin, T. Weitkamp, C. Rau, I. Snigireva, A. Snigirev, M. Hoffmann, and E. Voges, “X-ray refractive planar lenses with minimized absorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(24), 4058 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Vogt, U.

A. Schropp, R. Hoppe, V. Meier, J. Patommel, F. Seiboth, H. J. Lee, B. Nagler, E. C. Galtier, B. Arnold, U. Zastrau, J. B. Hastings, D. Nilsson, F. Uhlén, U. Vogt, H. M. Hertz, and C. G. Schroer, “Full spatial characterization of a nanofocused x-ray free-electron laser beam by ptychographic imaging,” Sci Rep 3, 1633 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Warren, J. B.

A. F. Isakovic, A. Stein, J. B. Warren, S. Narayanan, M. Sprung, A. R. Sandy, and K. Evans-Lutterodt, “Diamond kinoform hard X-ray refractive lenses: design, nanofabrication and testing,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 16(1), 8–13 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weitkamp, T.

V. V. Aristov, M. Grigoriev, S. Kuznetsov, L. Shabelnikov, V. Yunkin, T. Weitkamp, C. Rau, I. Snigireva, A. Snigirev, M. Hoffmann, and E. Voges, “X-ray refractive planar lenses with minimized absorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(24), 4058 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wellenreuther, G.

C. G. Schroer, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, A. Schropp, A. Schwab, S. Stephan, G. Falkenberg, G. Wellenreuther, and N. Reimers, “Hard X-ray nanoprobe at beamline P06 at PETRA III,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 616(2-3), 93–97 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, M. C.

L. Alianelli, K. J. S. Sawhney, M. K. Tiwari, I. P. Dolbnya, R. Stevens, D. W. K. Jenkins, I. M. Loader, M. C. Wilson, and A. Malik, “Characterization of germanium linear kinoform lenses at Diamond Light Source,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 16(3), 325–329 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yunkin, V.

V. V. Aristov, M. Grigoriev, S. Kuznetsov, L. Shabelnikov, V. Yunkin, T. Weitkamp, C. Rau, I. Snigireva, A. Snigirev, M. Hoffmann, and E. Voges, “X-ray refractive planar lenses with minimized absorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(24), 4058 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zastrau, U.

A. Schropp, R. Hoppe, V. Meier, J. Patommel, F. Seiboth, H. J. Lee, B. Nagler, E. C. Galtier, B. Arnold, U. Zastrau, J. B. Hastings, D. Nilsson, F. Uhlén, U. Vogt, H. M. Hertz, and C. G. Schroer, “Full spatial characterization of a nanofocused x-ray free-electron laser beam by ptychographic imaging,” Sci Rep 3, 1633 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ziegler, E.

C. David, B. Nöhammer, and E. Ziegler, “A wavelength tunable diffractive transmission lens for hard x-rays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(8), 1088–1090 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

B. Nöhammer, C. David, M. Burghammer, and C. Riekel, “Coherence-matched micro focusing of hard x-rays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(16), 163804 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. David, B. Nöhammer, and E. Ziegler, “A wavelength tunable diffractive transmission lens for hard x-rays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(8), 1088–1090 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. Lengeler, C. G. Schroer, M. Richwin, J. Tümmler, M. Drakopoulos, A. Snigirev, and I. Snigireva, “A microscope for hard x rays based on parabolic compound refractive lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(26), 3924 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Aristov, M. Grigoriev, S. Kuznetsov, L. Shabelnikov, V. Yunkin, T. Weitkamp, C. Rau, I. Snigireva, A. Snigirev, M. Hoffmann, and E. Voges, “X-ray refractive planar lenses with minimized absorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(24), 4058 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. G. Schroer, O. Kurapova, J. Patommel, P. Boye, J. Feldkamp, B. Lengeler, M. Burghammer, C. Riekel, L. Vincze, A. van der Hart, and M. Küchler, “Hard x-ray nanoprobe based on refractive x-ray lenses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(12), 124103 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Guizar-Sicairos, S. Narayanan, A. Stein, M. Metzler, A. R. Sandy, J. R. Fienup, and K. Evans-Lutterodt, “Measurement of hard x-ray lens wavefront aberrations using phase retrieval,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(11), 111108 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Synchrotron Radiat.

L. Alianelli, K. J. S. Sawhney, M. K. Tiwari, I. P. Dolbnya, R. Stevens, D. W. K. Jenkins, I. M. Loader, M. C. Wilson, and A. Malik, “Characterization of germanium linear kinoform lenses at Diamond Light Source,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 16(3), 325–329 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Nöhammer, J. Hoszowska, A. K. Freund, and C. David, “Diamond planar refractive lenses for third- and fourth-generation x-ray sources,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 10(2), 168–171 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Isakovic, A. Stein, J. B. Warren, S. Narayanan, M. Sprung, A. R. Sandy, and K. Evans-Lutterodt, “Diamond kinoform hard X-ray refractive lenses: design, nanofabrication and testing,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 16(1), 8–13 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nanotechnology

S. Gorelick, V. A. Guzenko, J. Vila-Comamala, and C. David, “Direct e-beam writing of dense and high aspect ratio nanostructures in thick layers of PMMA for electroplating,” Nanotechnology 21(29), 295303 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature

E. Di Fabrizio, F. Romanato, M. Gentili, S. Cabrini, B. Kaulich, J. Susini, and R. Barrett, “High-efficiency multilevel zone plates for keV X-rays,” Nature 401(6756), 895–898 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Snigirev, V. Kohn, I. Snigireva, and B. Lengeler, “A compound refractive lens for focusing high-energy x-rays,” Nature 384(6604), 49–51 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A

C. G. Schroer, P. Boye, J. M. Feldkamp, J. Patommel, D. Samberg, A. Schropp, A. Schwab, S. Stephan, G. Falkenberg, G. Wellenreuther, and N. Reimers, “Hard X-ray nanoprobe at beamline P06 at PETRA III,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A 616(2-3), 93–97 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Optik (Stuttg.)

G. Schmahl and D. Rudolph, “High power zone plates as image forming systems for soft x-rays,” Optik (Stuttg.) 29, 577 (1969).

Phys. Rev. Lett.

K. Evans-Lutterodt, A. Stein, J. M. Ablett, N. Bozovic, A. Taylor, and D. M. Tennant, “Using Compound Kinoform Hard-X-Ray Lenses to Exceed the Critical Angle Limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(13), 134801 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. G. Schroer and B. Lengeler, “Focusing Hard X Rays to Nanometer Dimensions by Adiabatically Focusing Lenses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(5), 054802 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sci Rep

C. David, S. Gorelick, S. Rutishauser, J. Krzywinski, J. Vila-Comamala, V. A. Guzenko, O. Bunk, E. Färm, M. Ritala, M. Cammarata, D. M. Fritz, R. Barrett, L. Samoylova, J. Grünert, and H. Sinn, “Nanofocusing of hard X-ray free electron laser pulses using diamond based Fresnel zone plates,” Sci Rep 1, 57 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Schropp, R. Hoppe, V. Meier, J. Patommel, F. Seiboth, H. J. Lee, B. Nagler, E. C. Galtier, B. Arnold, U. Zastrau, J. B. Hastings, D. Nilsson, F. Uhlén, U. Vogt, H. M. Hertz, and C. G. Schroer, “Full spatial characterization of a nanofocused x-ray free-electron laser beam by ptychographic imaging,” Sci Rep 3, 1633 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ultramicroscopy

J. Vila-Comamala, K. Jefimovs, J. Raabe, T. Pilvi, R. H. Fink, M. Senoner, A. Maassdorf, M. Ritala, and C. David, “Advanced thin film technology for ultrahigh resolution x-ray microscopy,” Ultramicroscopy 109(11), 1360–1364 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

I. Mohacsi, P. Karvinen, I. Vartiainen, V. A. Guzenko, A. Somogyi, C. Kewish, P. Mercere, and C. David, “High efficiency X-ray nanofocusing by multilevel zone plates,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. (to be published).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic comparison of the normal linear diffractive lens and one with kinoform wavefront producing structures. a and d: top views of the patterns, b and e: schematics of the usage in tilted geometry, c and f: resulting effective phase profile of the normal and kinoform lenses, respectively. The schematic view of the entire two lens setup is shown in g.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

SEM images of the fabricated structures. a-c: top view of nickel, gold and diamond structures, respectively. d-f: images in 50 degrees tilt angle of the same structures in the same order. g: overview of one end of a 50 μm wide untapered nickel lens in the same orientation as d-f.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Left: Theoretical and measured efficiencies of a 2D focusing system composed of two kinoform linear diffractive lenses as a function of the photon energy. Red denotes gold lenses, blue nickel and green diamond; solid lines are theoretical and traingles, circles and squares represent measured values. The theoretical curves are calculated for lenses with an ideal kinoform phase profile. Right: Measured total efficiency of a nickel lens system at 8 keV photon energy and a fixed aperture of 50 μm × 200 μm as a function of the incident angles on the individual lenses.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Ptychographic reconstruction of the probe measured at the cSAXS beamline at SLS. a and b: horizontal (x) and vertical (y) cross sections of the intensity profile of the reconstructed beam. c: profile of the reconstructed beam at the focal plane exhibiting FWHM of 95 nm in x and 105 nm in y direction. d: scanning transmission x-ray microscopy image of a test pattern. Measurement was done at 7.2 keV photon energy using Ni lenses with effective outermost zone width of 100 nm and 100 μm × 400 μm entrance aperture.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Ptychographic reconstruction of the probe measured at the beamline P06 at PetraIII. a: cross section of the intensity profile of the reconstructed beam at the focal plane. b and c: vertical (y) and horizontal (x) cross sections, respectively, of the probe in focal plane with gaussian fits exhibiting FWHM of 103 nm in x and 94 nm in y. d and e: horizontal and vertical cross sections of the propagating beam, respectively. Measurement was done at 8 keV photon energy using Ni lenses with effective outermost zone width of 100 nm and 400 μm × 440 μm entrance aperture.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Evaluation of the effect of the effect of order sorting aperture (OSA). a: SEM image of a gold Siemens star test pattern. b and c: STXM images of the same structure taken at 7.2 keV photon energy using Ni lenses with effective outermost zone width of 100 nm and 100 μm × 400 μm entrance aperture. Units are voltage readings of a photodiode with the same gain setting, so comparable with each other.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

α=arcsin( hδ λ ),
S( z )= S 0 +( hδλ ) 2z d r .

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