Abstract

Self-organizing rippled microstructures are induced on silicon surface by linearly polarized femtosecond laser pulses. At a near threshold fluence, it is observed that ripple orientation is co-determined by the laser polarization direction and laser scanning parameters (scanning direction and scanning speed) in surface patterning process. Under fixed laser polarization, the ripple orientation can be controlled to rotate by about 40° through changing laser scanning parameters. In addition, it is also observed that the ripple morphology is sensitive to the laser scanning direction, and it is an optimal choice to obtain ordered ripple structures when the angle between laser scanning and laser polarization is less than 45°.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
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2013 (2)

2012 (2)

2011 (3)

2010 (1)

2009 (3)

S. Sakabe, M. Hashida, S. Tokita, S. Namba, and K. Okamuro, “Mechanism for self-formation of periodic grating structures on a metal surface by a femtosecond laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. B 79(3), 033409 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Huang, F. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. Xu, and Z. Xu, “Origin of laser-induced near-subwavelength ripples: interference between surface plasmons and incident laser,” ACS Nano 3(12), 4062–4070 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Bonse, A. Rosenfeld, and J. Krüger, “On the role of surface plasmon polaritons in the formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures upon irradiation of silicon by femtosecond-laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(10), 104910 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, “Colorizing metals with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 041914 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Shen, J. E. Carey, C. H. Crouch, M. Kandyla, H. A. Stone, and E. Mazur, “High-density regular arrays of nanometer-scale rods formed on silicon surfaces via femtosecond laser irradiation in water,” Nano Lett. 8(7), 2087–2091 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

J. Gottmann, D. Wortmann, and R. Wagner, “Manufacturing of periodical nanostructures by fs-laser direct writing,” Proc. SPIE 7022, 702202 (2007).
[Crossref]

O. Varlamova, F. Costache, M. Ratzke, and J. Reif, “Control parameters in pattern formation upon femtosecond laser ablation,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253(19), 7932–7936 (2007).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

J. G. Rivas, M. Kuttge, P. H. Bolivar, H. Kurz, and J. A. Sánchez-Gil, “Propagation of Surface Plasmon Polaritons on Semiconductor Gratings,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(25), 256804 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Costache, S. Kouteva-Arguirova, and J. Reif, “Sub–damage–threshold femtosecond laser ablation from crystalline Si: surface nanostructures and phase transformation,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 79(4–6), 1429–1432 (2004).

2003 (2)

A. Borowiec and H. K. Haugen, “Subwavelength ripple formation on the surfaces of compound semiconductors irradiated with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(25), 4462–4464 (2003).
[Crossref]

A. Borowiec and H. K. Haugen, “Subwavelength ripple formation on the surfaces of compound semiconductors irradiated with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(25), 4462–4464 (2003).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

D. B. Chrisey, “Materials processing: the power of direct writing,” Science 289(5481), 879–881 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1983 (1)

J. E. Sipe, J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, and H. M. Van Driel, “Laser-induced periodic surface structure. I. Theory,” Phys. Rev. B 27(2), 1141–1154 (1983).
[Crossref]

1965 (1)

M. Birnbaum, “Semiconductor surface damage produced by ruby lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 36(11), 3688–3689 (1965).
[Crossref]

Audouard, E.

Birnbaum, M.

M. Birnbaum, “Semiconductor surface damage produced by ruby lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 36(11), 3688–3689 (1965).
[Crossref]

Bolivar, P. H.

J. G. Rivas, M. Kuttge, P. H. Bolivar, H. Kurz, and J. A. Sánchez-Gil, “Propagation of Surface Plasmon Polaritons on Semiconductor Gratings,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(25), 256804 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bonse, J.

J. Bonse, J. Krüger, S. Höhm, and A. Rosenfeld, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures,” J. Laser Appl. 24(4), 042006 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Bonse, A. Rosenfeld, and J. Krüger, “On the role of surface plasmon polaritons in the formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures upon irradiation of silicon by femtosecond-laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(10), 104910 (2009).
[Crossref]

Borowiec, A.

A. Borowiec and H. K. Haugen, “Subwavelength ripple formation on the surfaces of compound semiconductors irradiated with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(25), 4462–4464 (2003).
[Crossref]

A. Borowiec and H. K. Haugen, “Subwavelength ripple formation on the surfaces of compound semiconductors irradiated with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(25), 4462–4464 (2003).
[Crossref]

Bounhalli, M.

Carey, J. E.

M. Shen, J. E. Carey, C. H. Crouch, M. Kandyla, H. A. Stone, and E. Mazur, “High-density regular arrays of nanometer-scale rods formed on silicon surfaces via femtosecond laser irradiation in water,” Nano Lett. 8(7), 2087–2091 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, Y.

M. Huang, F. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. Xu, and Z. Xu, “Origin of laser-induced near-subwavelength ripples: interference between surface plasmons and incident laser,” ACS Nano 3(12), 4062–4070 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chrisey, D. B.

D. B. Chrisey, “Materials processing: the power of direct writing,” Science 289(5481), 879–881 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Colombier, J. P.

Costache, F.

O. Varlamova, F. Costache, M. Ratzke, and J. Reif, “Control parameters in pattern formation upon femtosecond laser ablation,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253(19), 7932–7936 (2007).
[Crossref]

F. Costache, S. Kouteva-Arguirova, and J. Reif, “Sub–damage–threshold femtosecond laser ablation from crystalline Si: surface nanostructures and phase transformation,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 79(4–6), 1429–1432 (2004).

Crouch, C. H.

M. Shen, J. E. Carey, C. H. Crouch, M. Kandyla, H. A. Stone, and E. Mazur, “High-density regular arrays of nanometer-scale rods formed on silicon surfaces via femtosecond laser irradiation in water,” Nano Lett. 8(7), 2087–2091 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dörr, D.

R. Le Harzic, D. Dörr, D. Sauer, M. Neumeier, M. Epple, H. Zimmermann, and F. Stracke, “Large-area, uniform, high-spatial-frequency ripples generated on silicon using a nanojoule-femtosecond laser at high repetition rate,” Opt. Lett. 36(2), 229–231 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. L. Harzic, D. Dörr, D. Sauer, F. Stracke, and H. Zimmermann, “Generation of high spatial frequency ripples on silicon under ultrashort laser pulses irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(21), 211905 (2011).
[Crossref]

Dusser, B.

Epple, M.

Faure, N.

Garrelie, F.

Gottmann, J.

J. Gottmann, D. Wortmann, and R. Wagner, “Manufacturing of periodical nanostructures by fs-laser direct writing,” Proc. SPIE 7022, 702202 (2007).
[Crossref]

Guo, C.

A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, “Colorizing metals with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 041914 (2008).
[Crossref]

Han, W. N.

Harzic, R. L.

R. L. Harzic, D. Dörr, D. Sauer, F. Stracke, and H. Zimmermann, “Generation of high spatial frequency ripples on silicon under ultrashort laser pulses irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(21), 211905 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hashida, M.

S. Sakabe, M. Hashida, S. Tokita, S. Namba, and K. Okamuro, “Mechanism for self-formation of periodic grating structures on a metal surface by a femtosecond laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. B 79(3), 033409 (2009).
[Crossref]

Haugen, H. K.

A. Borowiec and H. K. Haugen, “Subwavelength ripple formation on the surfaces of compound semiconductors irradiated with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(25), 4462–4464 (2003).
[Crossref]

A. Borowiec and H. K. Haugen, “Subwavelength ripple formation on the surfaces of compound semiconductors irradiated with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(25), 4462–4464 (2003).
[Crossref]

Höhm, S.

J. Bonse, J. Krüger, S. Höhm, and A. Rosenfeld, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures,” J. Laser Appl. 24(4), 042006 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hu, J.

Huang, M.

M. Huang, F. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. Xu, and Z. Xu, “Origin of laser-induced near-subwavelength ripples: interference between surface plasmons and incident laser,” ACS Nano 3(12), 4062–4070 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiang, L.

Jourlin, M.

Kandyla, M.

M. Shen, J. E. Carey, C. H. Crouch, M. Kandyla, H. A. Stone, and E. Mazur, “High-density regular arrays of nanometer-scale rods formed on silicon surfaces via femtosecond laser irradiation in water,” Nano Lett. 8(7), 2087–2091 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kouteva-Arguirova, S.

F. Costache, S. Kouteva-Arguirova, and J. Reif, “Sub–damage–threshold femtosecond laser ablation from crystalline Si: surface nanostructures and phase transformation,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 79(4–6), 1429–1432 (2004).

Krüger, J.

J. Bonse, J. Krüger, S. Höhm, and A. Rosenfeld, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures,” J. Laser Appl. 24(4), 042006 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Bonse, A. Rosenfeld, and J. Krüger, “On the role of surface plasmon polaritons in the formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures upon irradiation of silicon by femtosecond-laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(10), 104910 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kurz, H.

J. G. Rivas, M. Kuttge, P. H. Bolivar, H. Kurz, and J. A. Sánchez-Gil, “Propagation of Surface Plasmon Polaritons on Semiconductor Gratings,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(25), 256804 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kuttge, M.

J. G. Rivas, M. Kuttge, P. H. Bolivar, H. Kurz, and J. A. Sánchez-Gil, “Propagation of Surface Plasmon Polaritons on Semiconductor Gratings,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(25), 256804 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Le Harzic, R.

Li, X.

Li, X. W.

Liu, P. J.

Lu, Y.

Lu, Y. F.

Mazur, E.

M. Shen, J. E. Carey, C. H. Crouch, M. Kandyla, H. A. Stone, and E. Mazur, “High-density regular arrays of nanometer-scale rods formed on silicon surfaces via femtosecond laser irradiation in water,” Nano Lett. 8(7), 2087–2091 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Namba, S.

S. Sakabe, M. Hashida, S. Tokita, S. Namba, and K. Okamuro, “Mechanism for self-formation of periodic grating structures on a metal surface by a femtosecond laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. B 79(3), 033409 (2009).
[Crossref]

Neumeier, M.

Okamuro, K.

S. Sakabe, M. Hashida, S. Tokita, S. Namba, and K. Okamuro, “Mechanism for self-formation of periodic grating structures on a metal surface by a femtosecond laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. B 79(3), 033409 (2009).
[Crossref]

Parriaux, O.

Pigeon, F.

Preston, J. S.

J. E. Sipe, J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, and H. M. Van Driel, “Laser-induced periodic surface structure. I. Theory,” Phys. Rev. B 27(2), 1141–1154 (1983).
[Crossref]

Ratzke, M.

O. Varlamova, F. Costache, M. Ratzke, and J. Reif, “Control parameters in pattern formation upon femtosecond laser ablation,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253(19), 7932–7936 (2007).
[Crossref]

Reif, J.

O. Varlamova, F. Costache, M. Ratzke, and J. Reif, “Control parameters in pattern formation upon femtosecond laser ablation,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253(19), 7932–7936 (2007).
[Crossref]

F. Costache, S. Kouteva-Arguirova, and J. Reif, “Sub–damage–threshold femtosecond laser ablation from crystalline Si: surface nanostructures and phase transformation,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 79(4–6), 1429–1432 (2004).

Reynaud, S.

Rivas, J. G.

J. G. Rivas, M. Kuttge, P. H. Bolivar, H. Kurz, and J. A. Sánchez-Gil, “Propagation of Surface Plasmon Polaritons on Semiconductor Gratings,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(25), 256804 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rosenfeld, A.

J. Bonse, J. Krüger, S. Höhm, and A. Rosenfeld, “Femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures,” J. Laser Appl. 24(4), 042006 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Bonse, A. Rosenfeld, and J. Krüger, “On the role of surface plasmon polaritons in the formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures upon irradiation of silicon by femtosecond-laser pulses,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(10), 104910 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sagan, Z.

Sakabe, S.

S. Sakabe, M. Hashida, S. Tokita, S. Namba, and K. Okamuro, “Mechanism for self-formation of periodic grating structures on a metal surface by a femtosecond laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. B 79(3), 033409 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sánchez-Gil, J. A.

J. G. Rivas, M. Kuttge, P. H. Bolivar, H. Kurz, and J. A. Sánchez-Gil, “Propagation of Surface Plasmon Polaritons on Semiconductor Gratings,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(25), 256804 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sauer, D.

R. L. Harzic, D. Dörr, D. Sauer, F. Stracke, and H. Zimmermann, “Generation of high spatial frequency ripples on silicon under ultrashort laser pulses irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(21), 211905 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. Le Harzic, D. Dörr, D. Sauer, M. Neumeier, M. Epple, H. Zimmermann, and F. Stracke, “Large-area, uniform, high-spatial-frequency ripples generated on silicon using a nanojoule-femtosecond laser at high repetition rate,” Opt. Lett. 36(2), 229–231 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shen, M.

M. Shen, J. E. Carey, C. H. Crouch, M. Kandyla, H. A. Stone, and E. Mazur, “High-density regular arrays of nanometer-scale rods formed on silicon surfaces via femtosecond laser irradiation in water,” Nano Lett. 8(7), 2087–2091 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shi, X.

Sipe, J. E.

J. E. Sipe, J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, and H. M. Van Driel, “Laser-induced periodic surface structure. I. Theory,” Phys. Rev. B 27(2), 1141–1154 (1983).
[Crossref]

Soder, H.

Stone, H. A.

M. Shen, J. E. Carey, C. H. Crouch, M. Kandyla, H. A. Stone, and E. Mazur, “High-density regular arrays of nanometer-scale rods formed on silicon surfaces via femtosecond laser irradiation in water,” Nano Lett. 8(7), 2087–2091 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stracke, F.

R. Le Harzic, D. Dörr, D. Sauer, M. Neumeier, M. Epple, H. Zimmermann, and F. Stracke, “Large-area, uniform, high-spatial-frequency ripples generated on silicon using a nanojoule-femtosecond laser at high repetition rate,” Opt. Lett. 36(2), 229–231 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. L. Harzic, D. Dörr, D. Sauer, F. Stracke, and H. Zimmermann, “Generation of high spatial frequency ripples on silicon under ultrashort laser pulses irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(21), 211905 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tokita, S.

S. Sakabe, M. Hashida, S. Tokita, S. Namba, and K. Okamuro, “Mechanism for self-formation of periodic grating structures on a metal surface by a femtosecond laser pulse,” Phys. Rev. B 79(3), 033409 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tonchev, S.

Van Driel, H. M.

J. E. Sipe, J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, and H. M. Van Driel, “Laser-induced periodic surface structure. I. Theory,” Phys. Rev. B 27(2), 1141–1154 (1983).
[Crossref]

Varlamova, O.

O. Varlamova, F. Costache, M. Ratzke, and J. Reif, “Control parameters in pattern formation upon femtosecond laser ablation,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 253(19), 7932–7936 (2007).
[Crossref]

Vorobyev, A. Y.

A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, “Colorizing metals with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 041914 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wagner, R.

J. Gottmann, D. Wortmann, and R. Wagner, “Manufacturing of periodical nanostructures by fs-laser direct writing,” Proc. SPIE 7022, 702202 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wang, C.

Wortmann, D.

J. Gottmann, D. Wortmann, and R. Wagner, “Manufacturing of periodical nanostructures by fs-laser direct writing,” Proc. SPIE 7022, 702202 (2007).
[Crossref]

Xu, L.

Xu, N.

M. Huang, F. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. Xu, and Z. Xu, “Origin of laser-induced near-subwavelength ripples: interference between surface plasmons and incident laser,” ACS Nano 3(12), 4062–4070 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, Z.

M. Huang, F. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. Xu, and Z. Xu, “Origin of laser-induced near-subwavelength ripples: interference between surface plasmons and incident laser,” ACS Nano 3(12), 4062–4070 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Young, J. F.

J. E. Sipe, J. F. Young, J. S. Preston, and H. M. Van Driel, “Laser-induced periodic surface structure. I. Theory,” Phys. Rev. B 27(2), 1141–1154 (1983).
[Crossref]

Yuan, Y.

Zhao, F.

M. Huang, F. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. Xu, and Z. Xu, “Origin of laser-induced near-subwavelength ripples: interference between surface plasmons and incident laser,” ACS Nano 3(12), 4062–4070 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zimmermann, H.

R. Le Harzic, D. Dörr, D. Sauer, M. Neumeier, M. Epple, H. Zimmermann, and F. Stracke, “Large-area, uniform, high-spatial-frequency ripples generated on silicon using a nanojoule-femtosecond laser at high repetition rate,” Opt. Lett. 36(2), 229–231 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. L. Harzic, D. Dörr, D. Sauer, F. Stracke, and H. Zimmermann, “Generation of high spatial frequency ripples on silicon under ultrashort laser pulses irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(21), 211905 (2011).
[Crossref]

ACS Nano (1)

M. Huang, F. Zhao, Y. Cheng, N. Xu, and Z. Xu, “Origin of laser-induced near-subwavelength ripples: interference between surface plasmons and incident laser,” ACS Nano 3(12), 4062–4070 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

A. Borowiec and H. K. Haugen, “Subwavelength ripple formation on the surfaces of compound semiconductors irradiated with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(25), 4462–4464 (2003).
[Crossref]

A. Y. Vorobyev and C. Guo, “Colorizing metals with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 041914 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Borowiec and H. K. Haugen, “Subwavelength ripple formation on the surfaces of compound semiconductors irradiated with femtosecond laser pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(25), 4462–4464 (2003).
[Crossref]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the experimental setup. The laser polarization direction is along X axis. S: laser scanning direction, P: polarizer, HWP: half wave plate.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) SEM images of ripples on silicon surface at v = 100 μm/s. (b) and (c) are partially enlarged view of lines in (a) at θ = 0° and θ = 90°. It is worth noting that (c) is rotated vertically.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

SEM images of the lines written at (a) θ = 0°, (b) θ = 30°, (c) θ = 45°. v = 100 μm/s. The dashed arrow indicates the laser scanning direction. (d), (e) and (f) are SEM images of the lines written at different laser scanning speeds, θ = 45°. The scale bar is 5 μm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The relation between ripple orientation (α) and laser scanning direction (θ) at v = 60 μm/s and v = 100 μm/s.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The dependence of the measured α on the laser scanning speed at θ = 45°.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Schematic diagram of the two-step experimental process. (b), (c) and (d) are SEM images of the ripple structures induced by the two-step method. The scale bars are 1 μm.

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