Abstract

Terahertz (THz) wave generation via difference frequency mixing (DFM) process in strain silicon membrane waveguides by introducing the straining layer is theoretically investigated. The Si3N4 straining layer induces anisotropic compressive strain in the silicon core and results in the appearance of the bulk second order nonlinear susceptibility χ(2) by breaking the crystal symmetry. We have proposed waveguide structures for THz wave generation under the DFM process by .using the modal birefringence in the waveguide core. Our simulations show that an output power of up to 0.95 mW can be achieved at 9.09 THz. The strained silicon optical device may open a widow in the field of the silicon-based active THz photonic device applications

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2013 (1)

2012 (1)

S. D. Jackson, “Towards high-power mid-infrared emission from a fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 423–431 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (2)

B. Chmielak, M. Waldow, C. Matheisen, C. Ripperda, J. Bolten, T. Wahlbrink, M. Nagel, F. Merget, and H. Kurz, “Pockels effect based fully integrated, strained silicon electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Express 19(18), 17212–17219 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Cazzanelli, F. Bianco, E. Borga, G. Pucker, M. Ghulinyan, E. Degoli, E. Luppi, V. Véniard, S. Ossicini, D. Modotto, S. Wabnitz, R. Pierobon, and L. Pavesi, “Second-harmonic generation in silicon waveguides strained by silicon nitride,” Nat. Mater. 11(2), 148–154 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (6)

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, and W. Freude, “Nonlinear silicon photonics,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 535–544 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Monat, B. Corcoran, D. Pudo, M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Grillet, M. D. Pelusi, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Slow light enhanced nonlinear optics in silicon photonic crystal waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 344–356 (2010).
[CrossRef]

X. Liu, R. M. Osgood, Y. A. Vlasov, and W. M. J. Green, “Mid-infrared optical parametric amplifier using silicon nanophotonic waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 557–560 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Wächter, C. Matheisen, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, M. Nagel, and H. Kurz, “Optical generation of terahertz and second-harmonic light in plasma-activated silicon nanophotonic structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(16), 161107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Berry and K. L. Schepler, “High-power, widely-tunable Cr2+:ZnSe master oscillator power amplifier systems,” Opt. Express 18(14), 15062–15072 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. H. Avetisyan, “Terahertz-wave surface-emitted difference-frequency generation without quasi-phase-matching technique,” Opt. Lett. 35(15), 2508–2510 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

2008 (4)

2007 (4)

J. E. Schaar, K. L. Vodopyanov, and M. M. Fejer, “Intracavity terahertz-wave generation in a synchronously pumped optical parametric oscillator using quasi-phase-matched GaAs,” Opt. Lett. 32(10), 1284–1286 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. L. Shirley and H. M. Lawler, “Phonon infrared spectra of Si and Ge: calculating and assigning features,” Phys. Rev. 76(5), 054116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Vodopyanov, J. E. Schaar, P. S. Kuo, M. M. Fejer, X. Yu, J. S. Harris, V. G. Kozlov, D. Bliss, and C. Lynch, “Terahertz wave generation in orientation-patterned GaAs using resonantly enhanced scheme,” Proc. SPIE 6455, 645509 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Tonouchi, “Cutting-edge terahertz technology,” Nat. Photonics 1(2), 97–105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature 441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Nishizawa, T. Tanabe, K. Suto, Y. Watanabe, T. Sasaki, and Y. Oyama, “Continuous-wave frequency-tunable terahertz-wave generation from GaP,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(19), 2008–2010 (2006).
[CrossRef]

I. Tomita, H. Suzuki, H. Ito, H. Takenouchi, K. Ajito, R. Rungsawang, and Y. Ueno, “Terahertz-wave generation from quasi-phase-matched GaP for 1.55 µm pumping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(7), 071118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

H. Yamada, M. Shirane, T. Chu, H. Yokoyama, S. Ishida, and Y. Arakawa, “Nonlinear-optic silicon-nanowire waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(9A), 6541–6545 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

2003 (1)

T. Tanabe, K. Suto, J. Nishizawa, T. Kimura, and K. Saito, “Frequency–tunable high-power terahertz wave generation from GaP,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(8), 4610–4615 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

K. Kawase, J. Shikata, and H. Ito, “Terahertz wave parametric source,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 35(3), R1–R14 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1996 (1)

A. Nahata, A. S. Weling, and T. F. Heinz, “A wideband coherent terahertz spectroscopy system using optical rectification and electro-optic sampling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(16), 2321–2323 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264(5158), 553–556 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984 (1)

D. A. Auston, K. P. Cheung, and P. R. Smith, “Picosecond photoconducting Hertzian dipoles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 45(3), 284–286 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

W. Bludau, A. Onton, and W. Heinke, “Temperature dependence of the band gap of silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 45(4), 1846–1848 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

F. De Martini, “Infrared generation by coherent excitation of polaritons,” Phys. Rev. B 4(12), 4556–4578 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Ajito, K.

I. Tomita, H. Suzuki, H. Ito, H. Takenouchi, K. Ajito, R. Rungsawang, and Y. Ueno, “Terahertz-wave generation from quasi-phase-matched GaP for 1.55 µm pumping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(7), 071118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Akiba, T.

Andersen, K. N.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature 441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anderson, J. G.

Arakawa, Y.

H. Yamada, M. Shirane, T. Chu, H. Yokoyama, S. Ishida, and Y. Arakawa, “Nonlinear-optic silicon-nanowire waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(9A), 6541–6545 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Auston, D. A.

D. A. Auston, K. P. Cheung, and P. R. Smith, “Picosecond photoconducting Hertzian dipoles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 45(3), 284–286 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Avetisyan, Y. H.

Bagheri, M.

Berry, P. A.

Bianco, F.

M. Cazzanelli, F. Bianco, E. Borga, G. Pucker, M. Ghulinyan, E. Degoli, E. Luppi, V. Véniard, S. Ossicini, D. Modotto, S. Wabnitz, R. Pierobon, and L. Pavesi, “Second-harmonic generation in silicon waveguides strained by silicon nitride,” Nat. Mater. 11(2), 148–154 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bjarklev, A.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature 441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bliss, D.

K. L. Vodopyanov, J. E. Schaar, P. S. Kuo, M. M. Fejer, X. Yu, J. S. Harris, V. G. Kozlov, D. Bliss, and C. Lynch, “Terahertz wave generation in orientation-patterned GaAs using resonantly enhanced scheme,” Proc. SPIE 6455, 645509 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bludau, W.

W. Bludau, A. Onton, and W. Heinke, “Temperature dependence of the band gap of silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 45(4), 1846–1848 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Bolten, J.

B. Chmielak, M. Waldow, C. Matheisen, C. Ripperda, J. Bolten, T. Wahlbrink, M. Nagel, F. Merget, and H. Kurz, “Pockels effect based fully integrated, strained silicon electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Express 19(18), 17212–17219 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wächter, C. Matheisen, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, M. Nagel, and H. Kurz, “Optical generation of terahertz and second-harmonic light in plasma-activated silicon nanophotonic structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(16), 161107 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Borel, P. I.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature 441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Borga, E.

M. Cazzanelli, F. Bianco, E. Borga, G. Pucker, M. Ghulinyan, E. Degoli, E. Luppi, V. Véniard, S. Ossicini, D. Modotto, S. Wabnitz, R. Pierobon, and L. Pavesi, “Second-harmonic generation in silicon waveguides strained by silicon nitride,” Nat. Mater. 11(2), 148–154 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Borgentun, C. E.

Briggs, R. M.

Capasso, F.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264(5158), 553–556 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cazzanelli, M.

M. Cazzanelli, F. Bianco, E. Borga, G. Pucker, M. Ghulinyan, E. Degoli, E. Luppi, V. Véniard, S. Ossicini, D. Modotto, S. Wabnitz, R. Pierobon, and L. Pavesi, “Second-harmonic generation in silicon waveguides strained by silicon nitride,” Nat. Mater. 11(2), 148–154 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, S.

J. Xia, J. Yu, Y. Li, and S. Chen, “Single-mode condition for silicon rib waveguides with large cross sections,” Opt. Eng. 43(9), 1953–1954 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cheung, K. P.

D. A. Auston, K. P. Cheung, and P. R. Smith, “Picosecond photoconducting Hertzian dipoles,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 45(3), 284–286 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Chmielak, B.

Cho, A. Y.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264(5158), 553–556 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chu, T.

H. Yamada, M. Shirane, T. Chu, H. Yokoyama, S. Ishida, and Y. Arakawa, “Nonlinear-optic silicon-nanowire waveguides,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44(9A), 6541–6545 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Corcoran, B.

C. Monat, B. Corcoran, D. Pudo, M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Grillet, M. D. Pelusi, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Slow light enhanced nonlinear optics in silicon photonic crystal waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 344–356 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dai, J.

De Martini, F.

F. De Martini, “Infrared generation by coherent excitation of polaritons,” Phys. Rev. B 4(12), 4556–4578 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Degoli, E.

M. Cazzanelli, F. Bianco, E. Borga, G. Pucker, M. Ghulinyan, E. Degoli, E. Luppi, V. Véniard, S. Ossicini, D. Modotto, S. Wabnitz, R. Pierobon, and L. Pavesi, “Second-harmonic generation in silicon waveguides strained by silicon nitride,” Nat. Mater. 11(2), 148–154 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ebnali-Heidari, M.

C. Monat, B. Corcoran, D. Pudo, M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Grillet, M. D. Pelusi, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Slow light enhanced nonlinear optics in silicon photonic crystal waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 344–356 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Eggleton, B. J.

C. Monat, B. Corcoran, D. Pudo, M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Grillet, M. D. Pelusi, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Slow light enhanced nonlinear optics in silicon photonic crystal waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 344–356 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fage-Pedersen, J.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature 441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Faist, J.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264(5158), 553–556 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fallahkhair, A. B.

Fejer, M. M.

J. E. Schaar, K. L. Vodopyanov, and M. M. Fejer, “Intracavity terahertz-wave generation in a synchronously pumped optical parametric oscillator using quasi-phase-matched GaAs,” Opt. Lett. 32(10), 1284–1286 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. L. Vodopyanov, J. E. Schaar, P. S. Kuo, M. M. Fejer, X. Yu, J. S. Harris, V. G. Kozlov, D. Bliss, and C. Lynch, “Terahertz wave generation in orientation-patterned GaAs using resonantly enhanced scheme,” Proc. SPIE 6455, 645509 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Forouhar, S.

Frandsen, L. H.

R. S. Jacobsen, K. N. Andersen, P. I. Borel, J. Fage-Pedersen, L. H. Frandsen, O. Hansen, M. Kristensen, A. V. Lavrinenko, G. Moulin, H. Ou, C. Peucheret, B. Zsigri, and A. Bjarklev, “Strained silicon as a new electro-optic material,” Nature 441(7090), 199–202 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Freude, W.

J. Leuthold, C. Koos, and W. Freude, “Nonlinear silicon photonics,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 535–544 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Frez, C.

Ghulinyan, M.

M. Cazzanelli, F. Bianco, E. Borga, G. Pucker, M. Ghulinyan, E. Degoli, E. Luppi, V. Véniard, S. Ossicini, D. Modotto, S. Wabnitz, R. Pierobon, and L. Pavesi, “Second-harmonic generation in silicon waveguides strained by silicon nitride,” Nat. Mater. 11(2), 148–154 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Green, W. M. J.

X. Liu, R. M. Osgood, Y. A. Vlasov, and W. M. J. Green, “Mid-infrared optical parametric amplifier using silicon nanophotonic waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 557–560 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Grillet, C.

C. Monat, B. Corcoran, D. Pudo, M. Ebnali-Heidari, C. Grillet, M. D. Pelusi, D. J. Moss, B. J. Eggleton, T. P. White, L. O’Faolain, and T. F. Krauss, “Slow light enhanced nonlinear optics in silicon photonic crystal waveguides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 344–356 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Grischkowsky, D.

Gupta, J. A.

Hansen, O.

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E. L. Shirley and H. M. Lawler, “Phonon infrared spectra of Si and Ge: calculating and assigning features,” Phys. Rev. 76(5), 054116 (2007).
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K. Saito, T. Tanabe, Y. Oyama, K. Suto, T. Kimura, and J. Nishizawa, “Terahertz wave absorption in GaP crystals with different carrier densities,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 69(2-3), 597–600 (2008).
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X. Liu, R. M. Osgood, Y. A. Vlasov, and W. M. J. Green, “Mid-infrared optical parametric amplifier using silicon nanophotonic waveguides,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 557–560 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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J. E. Schaar, K. L. Vodopyanov, and M. M. Fejer, “Intracavity terahertz-wave generation in a synchronously pumped optical parametric oscillator using quasi-phase-matched GaAs,” Opt. Lett. 32(10), 1284–1286 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. L. Vodopyanov, J. E. Schaar, P. S. Kuo, M. M. Fejer, X. Yu, J. S. Harris, V. G. Kozlov, D. Bliss, and C. Lynch, “Terahertz wave generation in orientation-patterned GaAs using resonantly enhanced scheme,” Proc. SPIE 6455, 645509 (2007).
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M. Cazzanelli, F. Bianco, E. Borga, G. Pucker, M. Ghulinyan, E. Degoli, E. Luppi, V. Véniard, S. Ossicini, D. Modotto, S. Wabnitz, R. Pierobon, and L. Pavesi, “Second-harmonic generation in silicon waveguides strained by silicon nitride,” Nat. Mater. 11(2), 148–154 (2011).
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M. Wächter, C. Matheisen, M. Waldow, T. Wahlbrink, J. Bolten, M. Nagel, and H. Kurz, “Optical generation of terahertz and second-harmonic light in plasma-activated silicon nanophotonic structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(16), 161107 (2010).
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Wahlbrink, T.

B. Chmielak, M. Waldow, C. Matheisen, C. Ripperda, J. Bolten, T. Wahlbrink, M. Nagel, F. Merget, and H. Kurz, “Pockels effect based fully integrated, strained silicon electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Express 19(18), 17212–17219 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Geometry of the strained silicon (s-Si) based hybrid waveguide structure. The s-Si ridge waveguide to confine infrared lights consist of amorphous Si3N4, high resistivity Si single crystal, and amorphous SiO2, layers with dimensions of tSi3N4, tSi-h, tSi-s, tSiO2, and wsSi, respectively. The quasi-channel waveguide for THz wave confinement is composed of high resistivity Si layers with dimensions, TSi-U, TSi-L, and WSi, respectively.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) The mode profile of TM mode pump at λp = 2.3 μm and (b) TE mode signal λs = 2.4723 μm of the s-Si waveguide. The waveguide dimensions are tSi3N4 = 0.5 μm, tSi-h = 0.15 μm, tSi-s = 0.75 μm, tSiO2 = 1 μm, and w = 2.6 μm, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Dispersion relation for the guided TM- and TE-like mode in the s-Si ridge waveguide in the wavelength range from 2.3 μm to 2.4723 μm, (b) that for the TE-like guided THz wave in the quasi-channel Si waveguide around 9 THz. The modal index required for phase matching npm represented in Fig. 3(b). The phase matching frequency position for TE-like THz wave is highlighted with open circle.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The electric field distribution of the generated TE-like mode THz wave at 9.09 THz in the Si based quasi ridge waveguide

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Waveguide length dependence of the generated THz power and bandwidth. The input power of the pump and signal wave are each 1W. (b) THz output power as a function of THz frequency for TE-like mode with waveguide lengths of 10, 20, and 50 mm, respectively.

Equations (11)

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w t < 0.3 + r 1 r 2 , r = s t , r > 0.5 ,
ω p ω s ω THz =0,
k p k s k THz =0,
P (2) ( ω THz = ω p ω s )=2 χ (2) E p ( ω p ) E s ( ω s ),
d A p dy = 1 2 α p A p +i ω p κ A s A THz exp(iΔky), d A s dy = 1 2 α s A s +i ω s κ A p A THz * exp(iΔky), d A THz dy = 1 2 α THz A THz +i ω THz κ A p A s * exp(iΔky),
d A THz dy = 1 2 α THz A THz +i ω THz κ A p A s * .
κ= χ (2) μ 0 2c n p n s n THz S eff ,
S eff = S p S s S THz S NL 2 ,
A p (y) A p (0)exp(i α p y/2), A s (y) A s (0)exp(i α s y/2), | A p (y) |,| A s (y) || A THz (y) |.
A THz ( y ) i ω THz κ A p A s exp ( i α THz y / 2 ) exp ( α THz α p α s 2 ) y 1 α THz α p α s 2
P THz ( L ) 4 ω THz 2 κ 2 P p P s exp [ α THz L / 2 ] × sin h 2 [ α THz L / 4 ] α THz 2 ,

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