Abstract

We present a 1.75-GHz self-referenceable frequency comb from a vertical external-cavity surface-emitting laser (VECSEL) passively modelocked with a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SESAM). The VECSEL delivers 231-fs pulses with an average power of 100 mW and is optimized for stable and reliable operation. The optical spectrum was centered around 1038 nm and nearly transform-limited with a full width half maximum (FWHM) bandwidth of 5.5 nm. The pulses were first amplified to an average power of 5.5 W using a backward-pumped Yb-doped double-clad large mode area (LMA) fiber and then compressed to 85 fs with 2.2 W of average power with a passive LMA fiber and transmission gratings. Subsequently, we launched the pulses into a highly nonlinear photonic crystal fiber (PCF) and generated a coherent octave-spanning supercontinuum (SC). We then detected the carrier-envelope offset (CEO) frequency (fCEO) beat note using a standard f-to-2f-interferometer. The fCEO exhibits a signal-to-noise ratio of 17 dB in a 100-kHz resolution bandwidth and a FWHM of ≈10 MHz. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the detection of the fCEO from a semiconductor laser, opening the door to fully stabilized compact frequency combs based on modelocked semiconductor disk lasers.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  44. J. Kerttula, A. Chamorovskiy, O. G. Okhotnikov, and J. Rautiainen, “Supercontinuum generation with amplified 1.57 µm picosecond semiconductor disk laser,” Electron. Lett.48(16), 1010–1012 (2012).
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    [CrossRef]
  47. C. A. Zaugg, S. Gronenborn, H. Moench, M. Mangold, M. Miller, U. Weichmann, W. P. Pallmann, M. Golling, B. W. Tilma, and U. Keller, “Absorber and gain chip optimization to improve performance from a passively modelocked electrically pumped vertical external cavity surface emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.104(12), 121115 (2014).
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  48. A. Klenner, M. Golling, and U. Keller, “A gigahertz multimode-diode-pumped Yb:KGW enables a strong frequency comb offset beat signal,” Opt. Express21(8), 10351–10357 (2013).
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2014 (5)

J. V. Moloney, I. Kilen, A. Bäumner, M. Scheller, and S. W. Koch, “Nonequilibrium and thermal effects in mode-locked VECSELs,” Opt. Express22(6), 6422–6427 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mangold, C. A. Zaugg, S. M. Link, M. Golling, B. W. Tilma, and U. Keller, “Pulse repetition rate scaling from 5 to 100 GHz with a high-power semiconductor disk laser,” Opt. Express22(5), 6099–6107 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mangold, S. M. Link, A. Klenner, C. A. Zaugg, M. Golling, B. W. Tilma, and U. Keller, “Amplitude noise and timing jitter characterization of a high-power Mode-Locked Integrated External-Cavity Surface Emitting Laser,” IEEE Photon. J.6(1), 1–9 (2014).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Quarterman, L. E. Hooper, P. J. Mosley, and K. G. Wilcox, “Gigahertz pulse source by compression of mode-locked VECSEL pulses coherently broadened in the normal dispersion regime,” Opt. Express22(10), 12096–12101 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Zaugg, S. Gronenborn, H. Moench, M. Mangold, M. Miller, U. Weichmann, W. P. Pallmann, M. Golling, B. W. Tilma, and U. Keller, “Absorber and gain chip optimization to improve performance from a passively modelocked electrically pumped vertical external cavity surface emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.104(12), 121115 (2014).
[CrossRef]

2013 (8)

A. Klenner, M. Golling, and U. Keller, “A gigahertz multimode-diode-pumped Yb:KGW enables a strong frequency comb offset beat signal,” Opt. Express21(8), 10351–10357 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. Head, H. Y. Chan, J. S. Feehan, D. P. Shepherd, S.- Alam, A. C. Tropper, J. H. V. Price, and K. G. Wilcox, “Supercontinuum Generation With GHz Repetition Rate Femtosecond-Pulse Fiber-Amplified VECSELs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.25(5), 464–467 (2013).
[CrossRef]

V. J. Wittwer, R. van der Linden, B. W. Tilma, B. Resan, K. J. Weingarten, T. Sudmeyer, and U. Keller, “Sub-60-fs Timing Jitter of a SESAM Modelocked VECSEL,” IEEE Photon. J.5(1), 1400107 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. G. Wilcox, A. C. Tropper, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, B. Kunert, B. Heinen, and W. Stolz, “4.35 kW peak power femtosecond pulse mode-locked VECSEL for supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Express21(2), 1599–1605 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mangold, V. J. Wittwer, C. A. Zaugg, S. M. Link, M. Golling, B. W. Tilma, and U. Keller, “Femtosecond pulses from a modelocked integrated external-cavity surface emitting laser (MIXSEL),” Opt. Express21(21), 24904–24911 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ranta, A. Härkönen, T. Leinonen, L. Orsila, J. Lyytikäinen, G. Steinmeyer, and M. Guina, “Mode-locked VECSEL emitting 5 ps pulses at 675 nm,” Opt. Lett.38(13), 2289–2291 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Bek, H. Kahle, T. Schwarzbäck, M. Jetter, and P. Michler, “Mode-locked red-emitting semiconductor disk laser with sub-250 fs pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.103(24), 242101 (2013).
[CrossRef]

O. Sieber, M. Hoffmann, V. Wittwer, M. Mangold, M. Golling, B. Tilma, T. Sudmeyer, and U. Keller, “Experimentally verified pulse formation model for high-power femtosecond VECSELs,” Appl. Phys. B113(1), 133–145 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (2)

M. Scheller, T. L. Wang, B. Kunert, W. Stolz, S. W. Koch, and J. V. Moloney, “Passively modelocked VECSEL emitting 682 fs pulses with 5.1W of average output power,” Electron. Lett.48(10), 588–589 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Kerttula, A. Chamorovskiy, O. G. Okhotnikov, and J. Rautiainen, “Supercontinuum generation with amplified 1.57 µm picosecond semiconductor disk laser,” Electron. Lett.48(16), 1010–1012 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (6)

2009 (2)

A. H. Quarterman, K. G. Wilcox, V. Apostolopoulos, Z. Mihoubi, S. P. Elsmere, I. Farrer, D. A. Ritchie, and A. Tropper, “A passively mode-locked external-cavity semiconductor laser emitting 60-fs pulses,” Nat. Photonics3(12), 729–731 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Bartels, D. Heinecke, and S. A. Diddams, “10-GHz Self-Referenced Optical Frequency Comb,” Science326(5953), 681 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (5)

A. H. Quarterman, K. G. Wilcox, S. P. Elsmere, Z. Mihoubi, and A. C. Tropper, “Active stabilisation and timing jitter characterisation of sub-500 fs pulse passively modelocked VECSEL,” Electron. Lett.44(19), 1135–1137 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Rautiainen, V.-M. Korpijärvi, J. Puustinen, M. Guina, and O. G. Okhotnikov, “Passively mode-locked GaInNAs disk laser operating at 1220 nm,” Opt. Express16(20), 15964–15969 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Härkönen, J. Rautiainen, L. Orsila, M. Guina, K. Rößner, M. Hümmer, T. Lehnhardt, M. Müller, A. Forchel, M. Fischer, J. Koeth, and O. G. Okhotnikov, “2-µm Mode-Locked Semiconductor Disk Laser Synchronously Pumped Using an Amplified Diode Laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(15), 1332–1334 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser Frequency Combs for Astronomical Observations,” Science321(5894), 1335–1337 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, “Coherent Multiheterodyne Spectroscopy Using Stabilized Optical Frequency Combs,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100(1), 013902 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

D. J. H. C. Maas, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, M. Golling, H. J. Unold, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Vertical integration of ultrafast semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. B88(4), 493–497 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (4)

U. Keller and A. C. Tropper, “Passively modelocked surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Phys. Rep.429(2), 67–120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. G. Wilcox, H. D. Foreman, J. S. Roberts, and A. C. Tropper, “Timing jitter of 897 MHz optical pulse train from actively stabilised passively modelocked surface-emitting semiconductor laser,” Electron. Lett.42(3), 159–160 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Dupriez, C. Finot, A. Malinowski, J. K. Sahu, J. Nilsson, D. J. Richardson, K. G. Wilcox, H. D. Foreman, and A. C. Tropper, “High-power, high repetition rate picosecond and femtosecond sources based on Yb-doped fiber amplification of VECSELs,” Opt. Express14(21), 9611–9616 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys.78(4), 1135–1184 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

2003 (1)

U. Keller, “Recent developments in compact ultrafast lasers,” Nature424(6950), 831–838 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature416(6877), 233–237 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Häring, R. Paschotta, A. Aschwanden, E. Gini, F. Morier-Genoud, and U. Keller, “High–power passively mode–locked semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.38(9), 1268–1275 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. S. J. Russell, “Optical frequency synthesizer for precision spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett.85(11), 2264–2267 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett.84(22), 5102–5105 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

C. Hönninger, R. Paschotta, F. Morier-Genoud, M. Moser, and U. Keller, “Q-switching stability limits of continuous-wave passive mode locking,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B16(1), 46–56 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B69(4), 327–332 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

M. Kuznetsov, F. Hakimi, R. Sprague, and A. Mooradian, “High-power (>0.5-W CW) diode-pumped vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers with circular TEM00 beams,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.9(8), 1063–1065 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

Alam, S.-

C. R. Head, H. Y. Chan, J. S. Feehan, D. P. Shepherd, S.- Alam, A. C. Tropper, J. H. V. Price, and K. G. Wilcox, “Supercontinuum Generation With GHz Repetition Rate Femtosecond-Pulse Fiber-Amplified VECSELs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.25(5), 464–467 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Apostolopoulos, V.

A. H. Quarterman, K. G. Wilcox, V. Apostolopoulos, Z. Mihoubi, S. P. Elsmere, I. Farrer, D. A. Ritchie, and A. Tropper, “A passively mode-locked external-cavity semiconductor laser emitting 60-fs pulses,” Nat. Photonics3(12), 729–731 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Araujo-Hauck, C.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser Frequency Combs for Astronomical Observations,” Science321(5894), 1335–1337 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aschwanden, A.

R. Häring, R. Paschotta, A. Aschwanden, E. Gini, F. Morier-Genoud, and U. Keller, “High–power passively mode–locked semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.38(9), 1268–1275 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Aus der Au, J.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Baer, T.

Barbarin, Y.

M. Hoffmann, O. D. Sieber, V. J. Wittwer, I. L. Krestnikov, D. A. Livshits, Y. Barbarin, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Femtosecond high-power quantum dot vertical external cavity surface emitting laser,” Opt. Express19(9), 8108–8116 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. J. Wittwer, C. A. Zaugg, W. P. Pallmann, A. E. H. Oehler, B. Rudin, M. Hoffmann, M. Golling, Y. Barbarin, T. Sudmeyer, and U. Keller, “Timing Jitter Characterization of a Free-Running SESAM Mode-Locked VECSEL,” IEEE Photon. J.3(4), 658–664 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bartels, A.

Bäumner, A.

Beere, H. E.

Bek, R.

R. Bek, H. Kahle, T. Schwarzbäck, M. Jetter, and P. Michler, “Mode-locked red-emitting semiconductor disk laser with sub-250 fs pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.103(24), 242101 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Bellancourt, A.-R.

D. J. H. C. Maas, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, M. Golling, H. J. Unold, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Vertical integration of ultrafast semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. B88(4), 493–497 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bloom, D. M.

Braun, B.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chamorovskiy, A.

J. Kerttula, A. Chamorovskiy, O. G. Okhotnikov, and J. Rautiainen, “Supercontinuum generation with amplified 1.57 µm picosecond semiconductor disk laser,” Electron. Lett.48(16), 1010–1012 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chan, H. Y.

C. R. Head, H. Y. Chan, J. S. Feehan, D. P. Shepherd, S.- Alam, A. C. Tropper, J. H. V. Price, and K. G. Wilcox, “Supercontinuum Generation With GHz Repetition Rate Femtosecond-Pulse Fiber-Amplified VECSELs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.25(5), 464–467 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Coddington, I.

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, “Coherent Multiheterodyne Spectroscopy Using Stabilized Optical Frequency Combs,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100(1), 013902 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coen, S.

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys.78(4), 1135–1184 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cundiff, S. T.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett.84(22), 5102–5105 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D’Odorico, S.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser Frequency Combs for Astronomical Observations,” Science321(5894), 1335–1337 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diddams, S. A.

A. Bartels, D. Heinecke, and S. A. Diddams, “10-GHz Self-Referenced Optical Frequency Comb,” Science326(5953), 681 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Gerginov, C. E. Tanner, S. A. Diddams, A. Bartels, and L. Hollberg, “High-resolution spectroscopy with a femtosecond laser frequency comb,” Opt. Lett.30(13), 1734–1736 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett.84(22), 5102–5105 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dudley, J. M.

Dunlop, A. E.

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B69(4), 327–332 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dupriez, P.

Elsmere, S. P.

A. H. Quarterman, K. G. Wilcox, V. Apostolopoulos, Z. Mihoubi, S. P. Elsmere, I. Farrer, D. A. Ritchie, and A. Tropper, “A passively mode-locked external-cavity semiconductor laser emitting 60-fs pulses,” Nat. Photonics3(12), 729–731 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Quarterman, K. G. Wilcox, S. P. Elsmere, Z. Mihoubi, and A. C. Tropper, “Active stabilisation and timing jitter characterisation of sub-500 fs pulse passively modelocked VECSEL,” Electron. Lett.44(19), 1135–1137 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Farrer, I.

A. H. Quarterman, K. G. Wilcox, V. Apostolopoulos, Z. Mihoubi, S. P. Elsmere, I. Farrer, D. A. Ritchie, and A. Tropper, “A passively mode-locked external-cavity semiconductor laser emitting 60-fs pulses,” Nat. Photonics3(12), 729–731 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Feehan, J. S.

C. R. Head, H. Y. Chan, J. S. Feehan, D. P. Shepherd, S.- Alam, A. C. Tropper, J. H. V. Price, and K. G. Wilcox, “Supercontinuum Generation With GHz Repetition Rate Femtosecond-Pulse Fiber-Amplified VECSELs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.25(5), 464–467 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Finot, C.

Fischer, M.

A. Härkönen, J. Rautiainen, L. Orsila, M. Guina, K. Rößner, M. Hümmer, T. Lehnhardt, M. Müller, A. Forchel, M. Fischer, J. Koeth, and O. G. Okhotnikov, “2-µm Mode-Locked Semiconductor Disk Laser Synchronously Pumped Using an Amplified Diode Laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(15), 1332–1334 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fluck, R.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Forchel, A.

A. Härkönen, J. Rautiainen, L. Orsila, M. Guina, K. Rößner, M. Hümmer, T. Lehnhardt, M. Müller, A. Forchel, M. Fischer, J. Koeth, and O. G. Okhotnikov, “2-µm Mode-Locked Semiconductor Disk Laser Synchronously Pumped Using an Amplified Diode Laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(15), 1332–1334 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Foreman, H. D.

P. Dupriez, C. Finot, A. Malinowski, J. K. Sahu, J. Nilsson, D. J. Richardson, K. G. Wilcox, H. D. Foreman, and A. C. Tropper, “High-power, high repetition rate picosecond and femtosecond sources based on Yb-doped fiber amplification of VECSELs,” Opt. Express14(21), 9611–9616 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. G. Wilcox, H. D. Foreman, J. S. Roberts, and A. C. Tropper, “Timing jitter of 897 MHz optical pulse train from actively stabilised passively modelocked surface-emitting semiconductor laser,” Electron. Lett.42(3), 159–160 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Genty, G.

J. M. Dudley, G. Genty, and S. Coen, “Supercontinuum generation in photonic crystal fiber,” Rev. Mod. Phys.78(4), 1135–1184 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gerginov, V.

Gini, E.

R. Häring, R. Paschotta, A. Aschwanden, E. Gini, F. Morier-Genoud, and U. Keller, “High–power passively mode–locked semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.38(9), 1268–1275 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Golling, M.

M. Mangold, C. A. Zaugg, S. M. Link, M. Golling, B. W. Tilma, and U. Keller, “Pulse repetition rate scaling from 5 to 100 GHz with a high-power semiconductor disk laser,” Opt. Express22(5), 6099–6107 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mangold, S. M. Link, A. Klenner, C. A. Zaugg, M. Golling, B. W. Tilma, and U. Keller, “Amplitude noise and timing jitter characterization of a high-power Mode-Locked Integrated External-Cavity Surface Emitting Laser,” IEEE Photon. J.6(1), 1–9 (2014).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Zaugg, S. Gronenborn, H. Moench, M. Mangold, M. Miller, U. Weichmann, W. P. Pallmann, M. Golling, B. W. Tilma, and U. Keller, “Absorber and gain chip optimization to improve performance from a passively modelocked electrically pumped vertical external cavity surface emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.104(12), 121115 (2014).
[CrossRef]

O. Sieber, M. Hoffmann, V. Wittwer, M. Mangold, M. Golling, B. Tilma, T. Sudmeyer, and U. Keller, “Experimentally verified pulse formation model for high-power femtosecond VECSELs,” Appl. Phys. B113(1), 133–145 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Klenner, M. Golling, and U. Keller, “A gigahertz multimode-diode-pumped Yb:KGW enables a strong frequency comb offset beat signal,” Opt. Express21(8), 10351–10357 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mangold, V. J. Wittwer, C. A. Zaugg, S. M. Link, M. Golling, B. W. Tilma, and U. Keller, “Femtosecond pulses from a modelocked integrated external-cavity surface emitting laser (MIXSEL),” Opt. Express21(21), 24904–24911 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. D. Sieber, V. J. Wittwer, M. Mangold, M. Hoffmann, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Femtosecond VECSEL with tunable multi-gigahertz repetition rate,” Opt. Express19(23), 23538–23543 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. J. Wittwer, C. A. Zaugg, W. P. Pallmann, A. E. H. Oehler, B. Rudin, M. Hoffmann, M. Golling, Y. Barbarin, T. Sudmeyer, and U. Keller, “Timing Jitter Characterization of a Free-Running SESAM Mode-Locked VECSEL,” IEEE Photon. J.3(4), 658–664 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. J. H. C. Maas, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, M. Golling, H. J. Unold, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Vertical integration of ultrafast semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. B88(4), 493–497 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Spühler, K. J. Weingarten, R. Grange, L. Krainer, M. Haiml, V. Liverini, M. Golling, S. Schon, and U. Keller, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirror structures with low saturation fluence,” Appl. Phys. B81(1), 27–32 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gosteva, A.

Grange, R.

G. J. Spühler, K. J. Weingarten, R. Grange, L. Krainer, M. Haiml, V. Liverini, M. Golling, S. Schon, and U. Keller, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirror structures with low saturation fluence,” Appl. Phys. B81(1), 27–32 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Griebner, U.

P. Klopp, U. Griebner, M. Zorn, and M. Weyers, “Pulse repetition rate up to 92 GHz or pulse duration shorter than 110 fs from a mode-locked semiconductor disk laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(7), 071103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gronenborn, S.

C. A. Zaugg, S. Gronenborn, H. Moench, M. Mangold, M. Miller, U. Weichmann, W. P. Pallmann, M. Golling, B. W. Tilma, and U. Keller, “Absorber and gain chip optimization to improve performance from a passively modelocked electrically pumped vertical external cavity surface emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.104(12), 121115 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Guina, M.

S. Ranta, A. Härkönen, T. Leinonen, L. Orsila, J. Lyytikäinen, G. Steinmeyer, and M. Guina, “Mode-locked VECSEL emitting 5 ps pulses at 675 nm,” Opt. Lett.38(13), 2289–2291 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Härkönen, J. Rautiainen, L. Orsila, M. Guina, K. Rößner, M. Hümmer, T. Lehnhardt, M. Müller, A. Forchel, M. Fischer, J. Koeth, and O. G. Okhotnikov, “2-µm Mode-Locked Semiconductor Disk Laser Synchronously Pumped Using an Amplified Diode Laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(15), 1332–1334 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Rautiainen, V.-M. Korpijärvi, J. Puustinen, M. Guina, and O. G. Okhotnikov, “Passively mode-locked GaInNAs disk laser operating at 1220 nm,” Opt. Express16(20), 15964–15969 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haiml, M.

A. Gosteva, M. Haiml, R. Paschotta, and U. Keller, “Noise-related resolution limit of dispersion measurements with white-light interferometers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B22(9), 1868–1874 (2005).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Spühler, K. J. Weingarten, R. Grange, L. Krainer, M. Haiml, V. Liverini, M. Golling, S. Schon, and U. Keller, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirror structures with low saturation fluence,” Appl. Phys. B81(1), 27–32 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hakimi, F.

M. Kuznetsov, F. Hakimi, R. Sprague, and A. Mooradian, “High-power (>0.5-W CW) diode-pumped vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers with circular TEM00 beams,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.9(8), 1063–1065 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hall, J. L.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett.84(22), 5102–5105 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hänsch, T. W.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser Frequency Combs for Astronomical Observations,” Science321(5894), 1335–1337 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature416(6877), 233–237 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett.84(22), 5102–5105 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. S. J. Russell, “Optical frequency synthesizer for precision spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett.85(11), 2264–2267 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Häring, R.

R. Häring, R. Paschotta, A. Aschwanden, E. Gini, F. Morier-Genoud, and U. Keller, “High–power passively mode–locked semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.38(9), 1268–1275 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Härkönen, A.

S. Ranta, A. Härkönen, T. Leinonen, L. Orsila, J. Lyytikäinen, G. Steinmeyer, and M. Guina, “Mode-locked VECSEL emitting 5 ps pulses at 675 nm,” Opt. Lett.38(13), 2289–2291 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Härkönen, J. Rautiainen, L. Orsila, M. Guina, K. Rößner, M. Hümmer, T. Lehnhardt, M. Müller, A. Forchel, M. Fischer, J. Koeth, and O. G. Okhotnikov, “2-µm Mode-Locked Semiconductor Disk Laser Synchronously Pumped Using an Amplified Diode Laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(15), 1332–1334 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Head, C. R.

C. R. Head, H. Y. Chan, J. S. Feehan, D. P. Shepherd, S.- Alam, A. C. Tropper, J. H. V. Price, and K. G. Wilcox, “Supercontinuum Generation With GHz Repetition Rate Femtosecond-Pulse Fiber-Amplified VECSELs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.25(5), 464–467 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Heinecke, D.

A. Bartels, D. Heinecke, and S. A. Diddams, “10-GHz Self-Referenced Optical Frequency Comb,” Science326(5953), 681 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heinen, B.

Hoffmann, M.

O. Sieber, M. Hoffmann, V. Wittwer, M. Mangold, M. Golling, B. Tilma, T. Sudmeyer, and U. Keller, “Experimentally verified pulse formation model for high-power femtosecond VECSELs,” Appl. Phys. B113(1), 133–145 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Hoffmann, O. D. Sieber, V. J. Wittwer, I. L. Krestnikov, D. A. Livshits, Y. Barbarin, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Femtosecond high-power quantum dot vertical external cavity surface emitting laser,” Opt. Express19(9), 8108–8116 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. D. Sieber, V. J. Wittwer, M. Mangold, M. Hoffmann, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Femtosecond VECSEL with tunable multi-gigahertz repetition rate,” Opt. Express19(23), 23538–23543 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. J. Wittwer, C. A. Zaugg, W. P. Pallmann, A. E. H. Oehler, B. Rudin, M. Hoffmann, M. Golling, Y. Barbarin, T. Sudmeyer, and U. Keller, “Timing Jitter Characterization of a Free-Running SESAM Mode-Locked VECSEL,” IEEE Photon. J.3(4), 658–664 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hollberg, L.

Holzwarth, R.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser Frequency Combs for Astronomical Observations,” Science321(5894), 1335–1337 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature416(6877), 233–237 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. S. J. Russell, “Optical frequency synthesizer for precision spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett.85(11), 2264–2267 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett.84(22), 5102–5105 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hönninger, C.

C. Hönninger, R. Paschotta, F. Morier-Genoud, M. Moser, and U. Keller, “Q-switching stability limits of continuous-wave passive mode locking,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B16(1), 46–56 (1999).
[CrossRef]

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hooper, L. E.

Hümmer, M.

A. Härkönen, J. Rautiainen, L. Orsila, M. Guina, K. Rößner, M. Hümmer, T. Lehnhardt, M. Müller, A. Forchel, M. Fischer, J. Koeth, and O. G. Okhotnikov, “2-µm Mode-Locked Semiconductor Disk Laser Synchronously Pumped Using an Amplified Diode Laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(15), 1332–1334 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Jetter, M.

R. Bek, H. Kahle, T. Schwarzbäck, M. Jetter, and P. Michler, “Mode-locked red-emitting semiconductor disk laser with sub-250 fs pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.103(24), 242101 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Jones, D. J.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett.84(22), 5102–5105 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jung, I. D.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kahle, H.

R. Bek, H. Kahle, T. Schwarzbäck, M. Jetter, and P. Michler, “Mode-locked red-emitting semiconductor disk laser with sub-250 fs pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.103(24), 242101 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kärtner, F. X.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Keller, U.

C. A. Zaugg, S. Gronenborn, H. Moench, M. Mangold, M. Miller, U. Weichmann, W. P. Pallmann, M. Golling, B. W. Tilma, and U. Keller, “Absorber and gain chip optimization to improve performance from a passively modelocked electrically pumped vertical external cavity surface emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.104(12), 121115 (2014).
[CrossRef]

M. Mangold, S. M. Link, A. Klenner, C. A. Zaugg, M. Golling, B. W. Tilma, and U. Keller, “Amplitude noise and timing jitter characterization of a high-power Mode-Locked Integrated External-Cavity Surface Emitting Laser,” IEEE Photon. J.6(1), 1–9 (2014).
[CrossRef]

M. Mangold, C. A. Zaugg, S. M. Link, M. Golling, B. W. Tilma, and U. Keller, “Pulse repetition rate scaling from 5 to 100 GHz with a high-power semiconductor disk laser,” Opt. Express22(5), 6099–6107 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mangold, V. J. Wittwer, C. A. Zaugg, S. M. Link, M. Golling, B. W. Tilma, and U. Keller, “Femtosecond pulses from a modelocked integrated external-cavity surface emitting laser (MIXSEL),” Opt. Express21(21), 24904–24911 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Klenner, M. Golling, and U. Keller, “A gigahertz multimode-diode-pumped Yb:KGW enables a strong frequency comb offset beat signal,” Opt. Express21(8), 10351–10357 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. J. Wittwer, R. van der Linden, B. W. Tilma, B. Resan, K. J. Weingarten, T. Sudmeyer, and U. Keller, “Sub-60-fs Timing Jitter of a SESAM Modelocked VECSEL,” IEEE Photon. J.5(1), 1400107 (2013).
[CrossRef]

O. Sieber, M. Hoffmann, V. Wittwer, M. Mangold, M. Golling, B. Tilma, T. Sudmeyer, and U. Keller, “Experimentally verified pulse formation model for high-power femtosecond VECSELs,” Appl. Phys. B113(1), 133–145 (2013).
[CrossRef]

O. D. Sieber, V. J. Wittwer, M. Mangold, M. Hoffmann, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Femtosecond VECSEL with tunable multi-gigahertz repetition rate,” Opt. Express19(23), 23538–23543 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Pekarek, T. Südmeyer, S. Lecomte, S. Kundermann, J. M. Dudley, and U. Keller, “Self-referenceable frequency comb from a gigahertz diode-pumped solid-state laser,” Opt. Express19(17), 16491–16497 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Hoffmann, O. D. Sieber, V. J. Wittwer, I. L. Krestnikov, D. A. Livshits, Y. Barbarin, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Femtosecond high-power quantum dot vertical external cavity surface emitting laser,” Opt. Express19(9), 8108–8116 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. J. Wittwer, C. A. Zaugg, W. P. Pallmann, A. E. H. Oehler, B. Rudin, M. Hoffmann, M. Golling, Y. Barbarin, T. Sudmeyer, and U. Keller, “Timing Jitter Characterization of a Free-Running SESAM Mode-Locked VECSEL,” IEEE Photon. J.3(4), 658–664 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. J. H. C. Maas, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, M. Golling, H. J. Unold, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Vertical integration of ultrafast semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. B88(4), 493–497 (2007).
[CrossRef]

U. Keller and A. C. Tropper, “Passively modelocked surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Phys. Rep.429(2), 67–120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Spühler, K. J. Weingarten, R. Grange, L. Krainer, M. Haiml, V. Liverini, M. Golling, S. Schon, and U. Keller, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirror structures with low saturation fluence,” Appl. Phys. B81(1), 27–32 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Gosteva, M. Haiml, R. Paschotta, and U. Keller, “Noise-related resolution limit of dispersion measurements with white-light interferometers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B22(9), 1868–1874 (2005).
[CrossRef]

U. Keller, “Recent developments in compact ultrafast lasers,” Nature424(6950), 831–838 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Häring, R. Paschotta, A. Aschwanden, E. Gini, F. Morier-Genoud, and U. Keller, “High–power passively mode–locked semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.38(9), 1268–1275 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B69(4), 327–332 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Hönninger, R. Paschotta, F. Morier-Genoud, M. Moser, and U. Keller, “Q-switching stability limits of continuous-wave passive mode locking,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B16(1), 46–56 (1999).
[CrossRef]

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kentischer, T.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser Frequency Combs for Astronomical Observations,” Science321(5894), 1335–1337 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kerttula, J.

J. Kerttula, A. Chamorovskiy, O. G. Okhotnikov, and J. Rautiainen, “Supercontinuum generation with amplified 1.57 µm picosecond semiconductor disk laser,” Electron. Lett.48(16), 1010–1012 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kilen, I.

Klenner, A.

M. Mangold, S. M. Link, A. Klenner, C. A. Zaugg, M. Golling, B. W. Tilma, and U. Keller, “Amplitude noise and timing jitter characterization of a high-power Mode-Locked Integrated External-Cavity Surface Emitting Laser,” IEEE Photon. J.6(1), 1–9 (2014).
[CrossRef]

A. Klenner, M. Golling, and U. Keller, “A gigahertz multimode-diode-pumped Yb:KGW enables a strong frequency comb offset beat signal,” Opt. Express21(8), 10351–10357 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klopp, P.

P. Klopp, U. Griebner, M. Zorn, and M. Weyers, “Pulse repetition rate up to 92 GHz or pulse duration shorter than 110 fs from a mode-locked semiconductor disk laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(7), 071103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Knight, J. C.

R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. S. J. Russell, “Optical frequency synthesizer for precision spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett.85(11), 2264–2267 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koch, S. W.

J. V. Moloney, I. Kilen, A. Bäumner, M. Scheller, and S. W. Koch, “Nonequilibrium and thermal effects in mode-locked VECSELs,” Opt. Express22(6), 6422–6427 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Scheller, T. L. Wang, B. Kunert, W. Stolz, S. W. Koch, and J. V. Moloney, “Passively modelocked VECSEL emitting 682 fs pulses with 5.1W of average output power,” Electron. Lett.48(10), 588–589 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Koeth, J.

A. Härkönen, J. Rautiainen, L. Orsila, M. Guina, K. Rößner, M. Hümmer, T. Lehnhardt, M. Müller, A. Forchel, M. Fischer, J. Koeth, and O. G. Okhotnikov, “2-µm Mode-Locked Semiconductor Disk Laser Synchronously Pumped Using an Amplified Diode Laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(15), 1332–1334 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kolner, B. H.

Kopf, D.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Korpijärvi, V.-M.

Krainer, L.

G. J. Spühler, K. J. Weingarten, R. Grange, L. Krainer, M. Haiml, V. Liverini, M. Golling, S. Schon, and U. Keller, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirror structures with low saturation fluence,” Appl. Phys. B81(1), 27–32 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Krestnikov, I. L.

Kundermann, S.

Kunert, B.

K. G. Wilcox, A. C. Tropper, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, B. Kunert, B. Heinen, and W. Stolz, “4.35 kW peak power femtosecond pulse mode-locked VECSEL for supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Express21(2), 1599–1605 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Scheller, T. L. Wang, B. Kunert, W. Stolz, S. W. Koch, and J. V. Moloney, “Passively modelocked VECSEL emitting 682 fs pulses with 5.1W of average output power,” Electron. Lett.48(10), 588–589 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kuznetsov, M.

M. Kuznetsov, F. Hakimi, R. Sprague, and A. Mooradian, “High-power (>0.5-W CW) diode-pumped vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers with circular TEM00 beams,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.9(8), 1063–1065 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lecomte, S.

Lehnhardt, T.

A. Härkönen, J. Rautiainen, L. Orsila, M. Guina, K. Rößner, M. Hümmer, T. Lehnhardt, M. Müller, A. Forchel, M. Fischer, J. Koeth, and O. G. Okhotnikov, “2-µm Mode-Locked Semiconductor Disk Laser Synchronously Pumped Using an Amplified Diode Laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(15), 1332–1334 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Leinonen, T.

Link, S. M.

Liverini, V.

G. J. Spühler, K. J. Weingarten, R. Grange, L. Krainer, M. Haiml, V. Liverini, M. Golling, S. Schon, and U. Keller, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirror structures with low saturation fluence,” Appl. Phys. B81(1), 27–32 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Livshits, D. A.

Lyytikäinen, J.

Maas, D. J. H. C.

D. J. H. C. Maas, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, M. Golling, H. J. Unold, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Vertical integration of ultrafast semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. B88(4), 493–497 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Malinowski, A.

Manescau, A.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser Frequency Combs for Astronomical Observations,” Science321(5894), 1335–1337 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mangold, M.

M. Mangold, C. A. Zaugg, S. M. Link, M. Golling, B. W. Tilma, and U. Keller, “Pulse repetition rate scaling from 5 to 100 GHz with a high-power semiconductor disk laser,” Opt. Express22(5), 6099–6107 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. A. Zaugg, S. Gronenborn, H. Moench, M. Mangold, M. Miller, U. Weichmann, W. P. Pallmann, M. Golling, B. W. Tilma, and U. Keller, “Absorber and gain chip optimization to improve performance from a passively modelocked electrically pumped vertical external cavity surface emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.104(12), 121115 (2014).
[CrossRef]

M. Mangold, S. M. Link, A. Klenner, C. A. Zaugg, M. Golling, B. W. Tilma, and U. Keller, “Amplitude noise and timing jitter characterization of a high-power Mode-Locked Integrated External-Cavity Surface Emitting Laser,” IEEE Photon. J.6(1), 1–9 (2014).
[CrossRef]

M. Mangold, V. J. Wittwer, C. A. Zaugg, S. M. Link, M. Golling, B. W. Tilma, and U. Keller, “Femtosecond pulses from a modelocked integrated external-cavity surface emitting laser (MIXSEL),” Opt. Express21(21), 24904–24911 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Sieber, M. Hoffmann, V. Wittwer, M. Mangold, M. Golling, B. Tilma, T. Sudmeyer, and U. Keller, “Experimentally verified pulse formation model for high-power femtosecond VECSELs,” Appl. Phys. B113(1), 133–145 (2013).
[CrossRef]

O. D. Sieber, V. J. Wittwer, M. Mangold, M. Hoffmann, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Femtosecond VECSEL with tunable multi-gigahertz repetition rate,” Opt. Express19(23), 23538–23543 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matuschek, N.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Michler, P.

R. Bek, H. Kahle, T. Schwarzbäck, M. Jetter, and P. Michler, “Mode-locked red-emitting semiconductor disk laser with sub-250 fs pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.103(24), 242101 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Mihoubi, Z.

A. H. Quarterman, K. G. Wilcox, V. Apostolopoulos, Z. Mihoubi, S. P. Elsmere, I. Farrer, D. A. Ritchie, and A. Tropper, “A passively mode-locked external-cavity semiconductor laser emitting 60-fs pulses,” Nat. Photonics3(12), 729–731 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Quarterman, K. G. Wilcox, S. P. Elsmere, Z. Mihoubi, and A. C. Tropper, “Active stabilisation and timing jitter characterisation of sub-500 fs pulse passively modelocked VECSEL,” Electron. Lett.44(19), 1135–1137 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Miller, M.

C. A. Zaugg, S. Gronenborn, H. Moench, M. Mangold, M. Miller, U. Weichmann, W. P. Pallmann, M. Golling, B. W. Tilma, and U. Keller, “Absorber and gain chip optimization to improve performance from a passively modelocked electrically pumped vertical external cavity surface emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.104(12), 121115 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Moench, H.

C. A. Zaugg, S. Gronenborn, H. Moench, M. Mangold, M. Miller, U. Weichmann, W. P. Pallmann, M. Golling, B. W. Tilma, and U. Keller, “Absorber and gain chip optimization to improve performance from a passively modelocked electrically pumped vertical external cavity surface emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.104(12), 121115 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Moloney, J. V.

J. V. Moloney, I. Kilen, A. Bäumner, M. Scheller, and S. W. Koch, “Nonequilibrium and thermal effects in mode-locked VECSELs,” Opt. Express22(6), 6422–6427 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Scheller, T. L. Wang, B. Kunert, W. Stolz, S. W. Koch, and J. V. Moloney, “Passively modelocked VECSEL emitting 682 fs pulses with 5.1W of average output power,” Electron. Lett.48(10), 588–589 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Mooradian, A.

M. Kuznetsov, F. Hakimi, R. Sprague, and A. Mooradian, “High-power (>0.5-W CW) diode-pumped vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers with circular TEM00 beams,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.9(8), 1063–1065 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Morier-Genoud, F.

R. Häring, R. Paschotta, A. Aschwanden, E. Gini, F. Morier-Genoud, and U. Keller, “High–power passively mode–locked semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.38(9), 1268–1275 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Hönninger, R. Paschotta, F. Morier-Genoud, M. Moser, and U. Keller, “Q-switching stability limits of continuous-wave passive mode locking,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B16(1), 46–56 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Moser, M.

Mosley, P. J.

Müller, M.

A. Härkönen, J. Rautiainen, L. Orsila, M. Guina, K. Rößner, M. Hümmer, T. Lehnhardt, M. Müller, A. Forchel, M. Fischer, J. Koeth, and O. G. Okhotnikov, “2-µm Mode-Locked Semiconductor Disk Laser Synchronously Pumped Using an Amplified Diode Laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(15), 1332–1334 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Murphy, M. T.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser Frequency Combs for Astronomical Observations,” Science321(5894), 1335–1337 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Newbury, N. R.

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, “Coherent Multiheterodyne Spectroscopy Using Stabilized Optical Frequency Combs,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100(1), 013902 (2008).
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Nilsson, J.

Oehler, A. E. H.

V. J. Wittwer, C. A. Zaugg, W. P. Pallmann, A. E. H. Oehler, B. Rudin, M. Hoffmann, M. Golling, Y. Barbarin, T. Sudmeyer, and U. Keller, “Timing Jitter Characterization of a Free-Running SESAM Mode-Locked VECSEL,” IEEE Photon. J.3(4), 658–664 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Okhotnikov, O. G.

J. Kerttula, A. Chamorovskiy, O. G. Okhotnikov, and J. Rautiainen, “Supercontinuum generation with amplified 1.57 µm picosecond semiconductor disk laser,” Electron. Lett.48(16), 1010–1012 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Härkönen, J. Rautiainen, L. Orsila, M. Guina, K. Rößner, M. Hümmer, T. Lehnhardt, M. Müller, A. Forchel, M. Fischer, J. Koeth, and O. G. Okhotnikov, “2-µm Mode-Locked Semiconductor Disk Laser Synchronously Pumped Using an Amplified Diode Laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(15), 1332–1334 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Rautiainen, V.-M. Korpijärvi, J. Puustinen, M. Guina, and O. G. Okhotnikov, “Passively mode-locked GaInNAs disk laser operating at 1220 nm,” Opt. Express16(20), 15964–15969 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Orsila, L.

S. Ranta, A. Härkönen, T. Leinonen, L. Orsila, J. Lyytikäinen, G. Steinmeyer, and M. Guina, “Mode-locked VECSEL emitting 5 ps pulses at 675 nm,” Opt. Lett.38(13), 2289–2291 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Härkönen, J. Rautiainen, L. Orsila, M. Guina, K. Rößner, M. Hümmer, T. Lehnhardt, M. Müller, A. Forchel, M. Fischer, J. Koeth, and O. G. Okhotnikov, “2-µm Mode-Locked Semiconductor Disk Laser Synchronously Pumped Using an Amplified Diode Laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(15), 1332–1334 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pallmann, W. P.

C. A. Zaugg, S. Gronenborn, H. Moench, M. Mangold, M. Miller, U. Weichmann, W. P. Pallmann, M. Golling, B. W. Tilma, and U. Keller, “Absorber and gain chip optimization to improve performance from a passively modelocked electrically pumped vertical external cavity surface emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.104(12), 121115 (2014).
[CrossRef]

V. J. Wittwer, C. A. Zaugg, W. P. Pallmann, A. E. H. Oehler, B. Rudin, M. Hoffmann, M. Golling, Y. Barbarin, T. Sudmeyer, and U. Keller, “Timing Jitter Characterization of a Free-Running SESAM Mode-Locked VECSEL,” IEEE Photon. J.3(4), 658–664 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Paschotta, R.

Pasquini, L.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser Frequency Combs for Astronomical Observations,” Science321(5894), 1335–1337 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pekarek, S.

Price, J. H. V.

C. R. Head, H. Y. Chan, J. S. Feehan, D. P. Shepherd, S.- Alam, A. C. Tropper, J. H. V. Price, and K. G. Wilcox, “Supercontinuum Generation With GHz Repetition Rate Femtosecond-Pulse Fiber-Amplified VECSELs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.25(5), 464–467 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Puustinen, J.

Quarterman, A. H.

A. H. Quarterman, L. E. Hooper, P. J. Mosley, and K. G. Wilcox, “Gigahertz pulse source by compression of mode-locked VECSEL pulses coherently broadened in the normal dispersion regime,” Opt. Express22(10), 12096–12101 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. G. Wilcox, A. H. Quarterman, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and A. C. Tropper, “Repetition-frequency-tunable mode-locked surface emitting semiconductor laser between 2.78 and 7.87 GHz,” Opt. Express19(23), 23453–23459 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. H. Quarterman, K. G. Wilcox, V. Apostolopoulos, Z. Mihoubi, S. P. Elsmere, I. Farrer, D. A. Ritchie, and A. Tropper, “A passively mode-locked external-cavity semiconductor laser emitting 60-fs pulses,” Nat. Photonics3(12), 729–731 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Quarterman, K. G. Wilcox, S. P. Elsmere, Z. Mihoubi, and A. C. Tropper, “Active stabilisation and timing jitter characterisation of sub-500 fs pulse passively modelocked VECSEL,” Electron. Lett.44(19), 1135–1137 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ranka, J. K.

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett.84(22), 5102–5105 (2000).
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D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ranta, S.

Rautiainen, J.

J. Kerttula, A. Chamorovskiy, O. G. Okhotnikov, and J. Rautiainen, “Supercontinuum generation with amplified 1.57 µm picosecond semiconductor disk laser,” Electron. Lett.48(16), 1010–1012 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Rautiainen, V.-M. Korpijärvi, J. Puustinen, M. Guina, and O. G. Okhotnikov, “Passively mode-locked GaInNAs disk laser operating at 1220 nm,” Opt. Express16(20), 15964–15969 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Härkönen, J. Rautiainen, L. Orsila, M. Guina, K. Rößner, M. Hümmer, T. Lehnhardt, M. Müller, A. Forchel, M. Fischer, J. Koeth, and O. G. Okhotnikov, “2-µm Mode-Locked Semiconductor Disk Laser Synchronously Pumped Using an Amplified Diode Laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(15), 1332–1334 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Resan, B.

V. J. Wittwer, R. van der Linden, B. W. Tilma, B. Resan, K. J. Weingarten, T. Sudmeyer, and U. Keller, “Sub-60-fs Timing Jitter of a SESAM Modelocked VECSEL,” IEEE Photon. J.5(1), 1400107 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, D. J.

Ritchie, D. A.

Roberts, J. S.

K. G. Wilcox, H. D. Foreman, J. S. Roberts, and A. C. Tropper, “Timing jitter of 897 MHz optical pulse train from actively stabilised passively modelocked surface-emitting semiconductor laser,” Electron. Lett.42(3), 159–160 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rodwell, M. J. W.

Rößner, K.

A. Härkönen, J. Rautiainen, L. Orsila, M. Guina, K. Rößner, M. Hümmer, T. Lehnhardt, M. Müller, A. Forchel, M. Fischer, J. Koeth, and O. G. Okhotnikov, “2-µm Mode-Locked Semiconductor Disk Laser Synchronously Pumped Using an Amplified Diode Laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(15), 1332–1334 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rudin, B.

V. J. Wittwer, C. A. Zaugg, W. P. Pallmann, A. E. H. Oehler, B. Rudin, M. Hoffmann, M. Golling, Y. Barbarin, T. Sudmeyer, and U. Keller, “Timing Jitter Characterization of a Free-Running SESAM Mode-Locked VECSEL,” IEEE Photon. J.3(4), 658–664 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. J. H. C. Maas, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, M. Golling, H. J. Unold, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Vertical integration of ultrafast semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. B88(4), 493–497 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. S. J.

R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. S. J. Russell, “Optical frequency synthesizer for precision spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett.85(11), 2264–2267 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sahu, J. K.

Scheller, M.

J. V. Moloney, I. Kilen, A. Bäumner, M. Scheller, and S. W. Koch, “Nonequilibrium and thermal effects in mode-locked VECSELs,” Opt. Express22(6), 6422–6427 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Scheller, T. L. Wang, B. Kunert, W. Stolz, S. W. Koch, and J. V. Moloney, “Passively modelocked VECSEL emitting 682 fs pulses with 5.1W of average output power,” Electron. Lett.48(10), 588–589 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, W.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser Frequency Combs for Astronomical Observations,” Science321(5894), 1335–1337 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schon, S.

G. J. Spühler, K. J. Weingarten, R. Grange, L. Krainer, M. Haiml, V. Liverini, M. Golling, S. Schon, and U. Keller, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirror structures with low saturation fluence,” Appl. Phys. B81(1), 27–32 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schwarzbäck, T.

R. Bek, H. Kahle, T. Schwarzbäck, M. Jetter, and P. Michler, “Mode-locked red-emitting semiconductor disk laser with sub-250 fs pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.103(24), 242101 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Shepherd, D. P.

C. R. Head, H. Y. Chan, J. S. Feehan, D. P. Shepherd, S.- Alam, A. C. Tropper, J. H. V. Price, and K. G. Wilcox, “Supercontinuum Generation With GHz Repetition Rate Femtosecond-Pulse Fiber-Amplified VECSELs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.25(5), 464–467 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Sieber, O.

O. Sieber, M. Hoffmann, V. Wittwer, M. Mangold, M. Golling, B. Tilma, T. Sudmeyer, and U. Keller, “Experimentally verified pulse formation model for high-power femtosecond VECSELs,” Appl. Phys. B113(1), 133–145 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Sieber, O. D.

Sprague, R.

M. Kuznetsov, F. Hakimi, R. Sprague, and A. Mooradian, “High-power (>0.5-W CW) diode-pumped vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting semiconductor lasers with circular TEM00 beams,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.9(8), 1063–1065 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Spühler, G. J.

G. J. Spühler, K. J. Weingarten, R. Grange, L. Krainer, M. Haiml, V. Liverini, M. Golling, S. Schon, and U. Keller, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirror structures with low saturation fluence,” Appl. Phys. B81(1), 27–32 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Steinmetz, T.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser Frequency Combs for Astronomical Observations,” Science321(5894), 1335–1337 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steinmeyer, G.

S. Ranta, A. Härkönen, T. Leinonen, L. Orsila, J. Lyytikäinen, G. Steinmeyer, and M. Guina, “Mode-locked VECSEL emitting 5 ps pulses at 675 nm,” Opt. Lett.38(13), 2289–2291 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B69(4), 327–332 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stenger, J.

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B69(4), 327–332 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Stentz, A.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stolz, W.

K. G. Wilcox, A. C. Tropper, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, B. Kunert, B. Heinen, and W. Stolz, “4.35 kW peak power femtosecond pulse mode-locked VECSEL for supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Express21(2), 1599–1605 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Scheller, T. L. Wang, B. Kunert, W. Stolz, S. W. Koch, and J. V. Moloney, “Passively modelocked VECSEL emitting 682 fs pulses with 5.1W of average output power,” Electron. Lett.48(10), 588–589 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sudmeyer, T.

V. J. Wittwer, R. van der Linden, B. W. Tilma, B. Resan, K. J. Weingarten, T. Sudmeyer, and U. Keller, “Sub-60-fs Timing Jitter of a SESAM Modelocked VECSEL,” IEEE Photon. J.5(1), 1400107 (2013).
[CrossRef]

O. Sieber, M. Hoffmann, V. Wittwer, M. Mangold, M. Golling, B. Tilma, T. Sudmeyer, and U. Keller, “Experimentally verified pulse formation model for high-power femtosecond VECSELs,” Appl. Phys. B113(1), 133–145 (2013).
[CrossRef]

V. J. Wittwer, C. A. Zaugg, W. P. Pallmann, A. E. H. Oehler, B. Rudin, M. Hoffmann, M. Golling, Y. Barbarin, T. Sudmeyer, and U. Keller, “Timing Jitter Characterization of a Free-Running SESAM Mode-Locked VECSEL,” IEEE Photon. J.3(4), 658–664 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Südmeyer, T.

Sutter, D. H.

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B69(4), 327–332 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Swann, W. C.

I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, “Coherent Multiheterodyne Spectroscopy Using Stabilized Optical Frequency Combs,” Phys. Rev. Lett.100(1), 013902 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tanner, C. E.

Telle, H. R.

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B69(4), 327–332 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tilma, B.

O. Sieber, M. Hoffmann, V. Wittwer, M. Mangold, M. Golling, B. Tilma, T. Sudmeyer, and U. Keller, “Experimentally verified pulse formation model for high-power femtosecond VECSELs,” Appl. Phys. B113(1), 133–145 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Tilma, B. W.

M. Mangold, C. A. Zaugg, S. M. Link, M. Golling, B. W. Tilma, and U. Keller, “Pulse repetition rate scaling from 5 to 100 GHz with a high-power semiconductor disk laser,” Opt. Express22(5), 6099–6107 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mangold, S. M. Link, A. Klenner, C. A. Zaugg, M. Golling, B. W. Tilma, and U. Keller, “Amplitude noise and timing jitter characterization of a high-power Mode-Locked Integrated External-Cavity Surface Emitting Laser,” IEEE Photon. J.6(1), 1–9 (2014).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Zaugg, S. Gronenborn, H. Moench, M. Mangold, M. Miller, U. Weichmann, W. P. Pallmann, M. Golling, B. W. Tilma, and U. Keller, “Absorber and gain chip optimization to improve performance from a passively modelocked electrically pumped vertical external cavity surface emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.104(12), 121115 (2014).
[CrossRef]

V. J. Wittwer, R. van der Linden, B. W. Tilma, B. Resan, K. J. Weingarten, T. Sudmeyer, and U. Keller, “Sub-60-fs Timing Jitter of a SESAM Modelocked VECSEL,” IEEE Photon. J.5(1), 1400107 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Mangold, V. J. Wittwer, C. A. Zaugg, S. M. Link, M. Golling, B. W. Tilma, and U. Keller, “Femtosecond pulses from a modelocked integrated external-cavity surface emitting laser (MIXSEL),” Opt. Express21(21), 24904–24911 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tropper, A.

A. H. Quarterman, K. G. Wilcox, V. Apostolopoulos, Z. Mihoubi, S. P. Elsmere, I. Farrer, D. A. Ritchie, and A. Tropper, “A passively mode-locked external-cavity semiconductor laser emitting 60-fs pulses,” Nat. Photonics3(12), 729–731 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tropper, A. C.

K. G. Wilcox, A. C. Tropper, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, B. Kunert, B. Heinen, and W. Stolz, “4.35 kW peak power femtosecond pulse mode-locked VECSEL for supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Express21(2), 1599–1605 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. Head, H. Y. Chan, J. S. Feehan, D. P. Shepherd, S.- Alam, A. C. Tropper, J. H. V. Price, and K. G. Wilcox, “Supercontinuum Generation With GHz Repetition Rate Femtosecond-Pulse Fiber-Amplified VECSELs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.25(5), 464–467 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. G. Wilcox, A. H. Quarterman, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and A. C. Tropper, “Repetition-frequency-tunable mode-locked surface emitting semiconductor laser between 2.78 and 7.87 GHz,” Opt. Express19(23), 23453–23459 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. H. Quarterman, K. G. Wilcox, S. P. Elsmere, Z. Mihoubi, and A. C. Tropper, “Active stabilisation and timing jitter characterisation of sub-500 fs pulse passively modelocked VECSEL,” Electron. Lett.44(19), 1135–1137 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. G. Wilcox, H. D. Foreman, J. S. Roberts, and A. C. Tropper, “Timing jitter of 897 MHz optical pulse train from actively stabilised passively modelocked surface-emitting semiconductor laser,” Electron. Lett.42(3), 159–160 (2006).
[CrossRef]

U. Keller and A. C. Tropper, “Passively modelocked surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Phys. Rep.429(2), 67–120 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Dupriez, C. Finot, A. Malinowski, J. K. Sahu, J. Nilsson, D. J. Richardson, K. G. Wilcox, H. D. Foreman, and A. C. Tropper, “High-power, high repetition rate picosecond and femtosecond sources based on Yb-doped fiber amplification of VECSELs,” Opt. Express14(21), 9611–9616 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Udem, T.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser Frequency Combs for Astronomical Observations,” Science321(5894), 1335–1337 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, and T. W. Hänsch, “Optical frequency metrology,” Nature416(6877), 233–237 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. S. J. Russell, “Optical frequency synthesizer for precision spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett.85(11), 2264–2267 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett.84(22), 5102–5105 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Unold, H. J.

D. J. H. C. Maas, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, M. Golling, H. J. Unold, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Vertical integration of ultrafast semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. B88(4), 493–497 (2007).
[CrossRef]

van der Linden, R.

V. J. Wittwer, R. van der Linden, B. W. Tilma, B. Resan, K. J. Weingarten, T. Sudmeyer, and U. Keller, “Sub-60-fs Timing Jitter of a SESAM Modelocked VECSEL,” IEEE Photon. J.5(1), 1400107 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Wadsworth, W. J.

R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, T. W. Hänsch, J. C. Knight, W. J. Wadsworth, and P. S. J. Russell, “Optical frequency synthesizer for precision spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett.85(11), 2264–2267 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, T. L.

M. Scheller, T. L. Wang, B. Kunert, W. Stolz, S. W. Koch, and J. V. Moloney, “Passively modelocked VECSEL emitting 682 fs pulses with 5.1W of average output power,” Electron. Lett.48(10), 588–589 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Weichmann, U.

C. A. Zaugg, S. Gronenborn, H. Moench, M. Mangold, M. Miller, U. Weichmann, W. P. Pallmann, M. Golling, B. W. Tilma, and U. Keller, “Absorber and gain chip optimization to improve performance from a passively modelocked electrically pumped vertical external cavity surface emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.104(12), 121115 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Weingarten, K. J.

V. J. Wittwer, R. van der Linden, B. W. Tilma, B. Resan, K. J. Weingarten, T. Sudmeyer, and U. Keller, “Sub-60-fs Timing Jitter of a SESAM Modelocked VECSEL,” IEEE Photon. J.5(1), 1400107 (2013).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Spühler, K. J. Weingarten, R. Grange, L. Krainer, M. Haiml, V. Liverini, M. Golling, S. Schon, and U. Keller, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirror structures with low saturation fluence,” Appl. Phys. B81(1), 27–32 (2005).
[CrossRef]

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. J. W. Rodwell, K. J. Weingarten, D. M. Bloom, T. Baer, and B. H. Kolner, “Reduction of timing fluctuations in a modelocked Nd:YAG laser by electronic feedback,” Opt. Lett.11(10), 638–640 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weyers, M.

P. Klopp, U. Griebner, M. Zorn, and M. Weyers, “Pulse repetition rate up to 92 GHz or pulse duration shorter than 110 fs from a mode-locked semiconductor disk laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(7), 071103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wilcox, K. G.

A. H. Quarterman, L. E. Hooper, P. J. Mosley, and K. G. Wilcox, “Gigahertz pulse source by compression of mode-locked VECSEL pulses coherently broadened in the normal dispersion regime,” Opt. Express22(10), 12096–12101 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. Head, H. Y. Chan, J. S. Feehan, D. P. Shepherd, S.- Alam, A. C. Tropper, J. H. V. Price, and K. G. Wilcox, “Supercontinuum Generation With GHz Repetition Rate Femtosecond-Pulse Fiber-Amplified VECSELs,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.25(5), 464–467 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. G. Wilcox, A. C. Tropper, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, B. Kunert, B. Heinen, and W. Stolz, “4.35 kW peak power femtosecond pulse mode-locked VECSEL for supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Express21(2), 1599–1605 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. G. Wilcox, A. H. Quarterman, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and A. C. Tropper, “Repetition-frequency-tunable mode-locked surface emitting semiconductor laser between 2.78 and 7.87 GHz,” Opt. Express19(23), 23453–23459 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. H. Quarterman, K. G. Wilcox, V. Apostolopoulos, Z. Mihoubi, S. P. Elsmere, I. Farrer, D. A. Ritchie, and A. Tropper, “A passively mode-locked external-cavity semiconductor laser emitting 60-fs pulses,” Nat. Photonics3(12), 729–731 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Quarterman, K. G. Wilcox, S. P. Elsmere, Z. Mihoubi, and A. C. Tropper, “Active stabilisation and timing jitter characterisation of sub-500 fs pulse passively modelocked VECSEL,” Electron. Lett.44(19), 1135–1137 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. G. Wilcox, H. D. Foreman, J. S. Roberts, and A. C. Tropper, “Timing jitter of 897 MHz optical pulse train from actively stabilised passively modelocked surface-emitting semiconductor laser,” Electron. Lett.42(3), 159–160 (2006).
[CrossRef]

P. Dupriez, C. Finot, A. Malinowski, J. K. Sahu, J. Nilsson, D. J. Richardson, K. G. Wilcox, H. D. Foreman, and A. C. Tropper, “High-power, high repetition rate picosecond and femtosecond sources based on Yb-doped fiber amplification of VECSELs,” Opt. Express14(21), 9611–9616 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wilken, T.

T. Steinmetz, T. Wilken, C. Araujo-Hauck, R. Holzwarth, T. W. Hänsch, L. Pasquini, A. Manescau, S. D’Odorico, M. T. Murphy, T. Kentischer, W. Schmidt, and T. Udem, “Laser Frequency Combs for Astronomical Observations,” Science321(5894), 1335–1337 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Windeler, R. S.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett.84(22), 5102–5105 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wittwer, V.

O. Sieber, M. Hoffmann, V. Wittwer, M. Mangold, M. Golling, B. Tilma, T. Sudmeyer, and U. Keller, “Experimentally verified pulse formation model for high-power femtosecond VECSELs,” Appl. Phys. B113(1), 133–145 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Wittwer, V. J.

Ye, J.

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett.84(22), 5102–5105 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zaugg, C. A.

M. Mangold, S. M. Link, A. Klenner, C. A. Zaugg, M. Golling, B. W. Tilma, and U. Keller, “Amplitude noise and timing jitter characterization of a high-power Mode-Locked Integrated External-Cavity Surface Emitting Laser,” IEEE Photon. J.6(1), 1–9 (2014).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Zaugg, S. Gronenborn, H. Moench, M. Mangold, M. Miller, U. Weichmann, W. P. Pallmann, M. Golling, B. W. Tilma, and U. Keller, “Absorber and gain chip optimization to improve performance from a passively modelocked electrically pumped vertical external cavity surface emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.104(12), 121115 (2014).
[CrossRef]

M. Mangold, C. A. Zaugg, S. M. Link, M. Golling, B. W. Tilma, and U. Keller, “Pulse repetition rate scaling from 5 to 100 GHz with a high-power semiconductor disk laser,” Opt. Express22(5), 6099–6107 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Mangold, V. J. Wittwer, C. A. Zaugg, S. M. Link, M. Golling, B. W. Tilma, and U. Keller, “Femtosecond pulses from a modelocked integrated external-cavity surface emitting laser (MIXSEL),” Opt. Express21(21), 24904–24911 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. J. Wittwer, C. A. Zaugg, W. P. Pallmann, A. E. H. Oehler, B. Rudin, M. Hoffmann, M. Golling, Y. Barbarin, T. Sudmeyer, and U. Keller, “Timing Jitter Characterization of a Free-Running SESAM Mode-Locked VECSEL,” IEEE Photon. J.3(4), 658–664 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zorn, M.

P. Klopp, U. Griebner, M. Zorn, and M. Weyers, “Pulse repetition rate up to 92 GHz or pulse duration shorter than 110 fs from a mode-locked semiconductor disk laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(7), 071103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (4)

G. J. Spühler, K. J. Weingarten, R. Grange, L. Krainer, M. Haiml, V. Liverini, M. Golling, S. Schon, and U. Keller, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirror structures with low saturation fluence,” Appl. Phys. B81(1), 27–32 (2005).
[CrossRef]

O. Sieber, M. Hoffmann, V. Wittwer, M. Mangold, M. Golling, B. Tilma, T. Sudmeyer, and U. Keller, “Experimentally verified pulse formation model for high-power femtosecond VECSELs,” Appl. Phys. B113(1), 133–145 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. J. H. C. Maas, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, M. Golling, H. J. Unold, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Vertical integration of ultrafast semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. B88(4), 493–497 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B69(4), 327–332 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

R. Bek, H. Kahle, T. Schwarzbäck, M. Jetter, and P. Michler, “Mode-locked red-emitting semiconductor disk laser with sub-250 fs pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.103(24), 242101 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. Klopp, U. Griebner, M. Zorn, and M. Weyers, “Pulse repetition rate up to 92 GHz or pulse duration shorter than 110 fs from a mode-locked semiconductor disk laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(7), 071103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Zaugg, S. Gronenborn, H. Moench, M. Mangold, M. Miller, U. Weichmann, W. P. Pallmann, M. Golling, B. W. Tilma, and U. Keller, “Absorber and gain chip optimization to improve performance from a passively modelocked electrically pumped vertical external cavity surface emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett.104(12), 121115 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (4)

J. Kerttula, A. Chamorovskiy, O. G. Okhotnikov, and J. Rautiainen, “Supercontinuum generation with amplified 1.57 µm picosecond semiconductor disk laser,” Electron. Lett.48(16), 1010–1012 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Scheller, T. L. Wang, B. Kunert, W. Stolz, S. W. Koch, and J. V. Moloney, “Passively modelocked VECSEL emitting 682 fs pulses with 5.1W of average output power,” Electron. Lett.48(10), 588–589 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Quarterman, K. G. Wilcox, S. P. Elsmere, Z. Mihoubi, and A. C. Tropper, “Active stabilisation and timing jitter characterisation of sub-500 fs pulse passively modelocked VECSEL,” Electron. Lett.44(19), 1135–1137 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. G. Wilcox, H. D. Foreman, J. S. Roberts, and A. C. Tropper, “Timing jitter of 897 MHz optical pulse train from actively stabilised passively modelocked surface-emitting semiconductor laser,” Electron. Lett.42(3), 159–160 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. Häring, R. Paschotta, A. Aschwanden, E. Gini, F. Morier-Genoud, and U. Keller, “High–power passively mode–locked semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.38(9), 1268–1275 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.2(3), 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. J. (3)

M. Mangold, S. M. Link, A. Klenner, C. A. Zaugg, M. Golling, B. W. Tilma, and U. Keller, “Amplitude noise and timing jitter characterization of a high-power Mode-Locked Integrated External-Cavity Surface Emitting Laser,” IEEE Photon. J.6(1), 1–9 (2014).
[CrossRef]

V. J. Wittwer, R. van der Linden, B. W. Tilma, B. Resan, K. J. Weingarten, T. Sudmeyer, and U. Keller, “Sub-60-fs Timing Jitter of a SESAM Modelocked VECSEL,” IEEE Photon. J.5(1), 1400107 (2013).
[CrossRef]

V. J. Wittwer, C. A. Zaugg, W. P. Pallmann, A. E. H. Oehler, B. Rudin, M. Hoffmann, M. Golling, Y. Barbarin, T. Sudmeyer, and U. Keller, “Timing Jitter Characterization of a Free-Running SESAM Mode-Locked VECSEL,” IEEE Photon. J.3(4), 658–664 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the experimental setup. (a) SESAM modelocked VECSEL; OC: output coupler; total cavity length: 86 mm; for details see section 2.1. (b) Backward-pumped fiber amplifier system, attenuation and grating compressor; DC: double-clad; LMA: large mode area; PBS: polarizing beam splitter; details in section 2.2. (c) Passive compression stage with LMA for spectral broadening and grating compressor; PBS and λ/2 plate for attenuation; see section 2.3 for details. (d) Supercontinuum (SC) generation and f-to-2f-interferometer to detect carrier envelope offset frequency; PCF: photonic crystal fiber; PPLN: periodically poled lithium niobate; details in section 2.4.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Characterization of the SESAM modelocked VECSEL with 100 mW average output power. (a) Optical spectrum on a linear and (b) logarithmic scale. (c) Autocorrelation trace and sech2-fit corresponding to a pulse duration of 231 fs; TBP: time-bandwidth product. (d) wide span microwave spectrum of the pulse train and zoom into the repetition rate peak (inset); RBW: resolution bandwidth. (e) Group delay dispersion (GDD) of the unpumped VECSEL gain chip measured at room temperature (blue dots) and laser spectrum (dashed line)

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Optical to optical efficiency (green triangles, left axis) and amplified signal power (blue circles, right axis) as a function of the delivered pump power using a seed average power of 100 mW.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Spectral and temporal pulse characterization at different stages of the experimental setup shown in (a). SESAM modelocked VECSEL seed at 100 mW: autocorrelation (b) and spectrum (c). Pulses at the output of the amplifier, after transmission through gratings at 4 W: autocorrelation (d) and optical spectrum (e). Passively compressed pulses, subsequently used for SC generation, at 2.2 W: autocorrelation (f) and spectrum (g).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Coherent octave-spanning supercontinuum (blue) using the highly nonlinear PCF and spectrum analyzer background (grey). The 1360 nm and 680 nm spectral components are used for fCEO detection in the f-to-2f-interferometer. (b) Carrier envelope offset frequency (fCEO) detection from the SESAM modelocked VECSEL. fCEO 1 and fCEO 2: beat notes at 733 MHz and 1017 MHz in a large span and zoom into fCEO 1 (inset). The decrease of both signal and noise at ≈800 MHz is due to the limited bandwidth (f3dB ≈800 MHz) of the photodiode. RBW: resolution bandwidth.

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