Abstract

We propose for the first time the Mod-MUX-Ring architecture for microring based WDM transmitter. A prototype Mod-MUX-Ring transmitter with 4 channels and 400 GHz channel spacing is demonstrated and fully characterized at 40 Gb/s channel rate. Under 2.7 V driving voltage, error-free (BER < 10−12) operation is achieved on all channels, with 3 dB extinction ratio. Performance comparisons to Lithium Niobate modulators are made.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2013 (2)

T. Baba, S. Akiyama, M. Imai, N. Hirayama, H. Takahashi, Y. Noguchi, T. Horikawa, and T. Usuki, “50-Gb/s ring-resonator-based silicon modulator,” Opt. Express21(10), 11869–11876 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Li, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, I. Shubin, J. Yao, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, X. Zheng, K. Raj, and J. E. Cunningham, “Ring Resonator Modulators in Silicon for Interchip Photonic Links,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.19(6), 3401819 (2013).

2012 (4)

X. Zheng, Y. Luo, J. Lexau, F. Liu, G. Li, H. D. Thacker, I. Shubin, J. Yao, R. Ho, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “2-pJ/bit (On-Chip) 10-Gb/s digital CMOS silicon photonic link,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(14), 1260–1262 (2012).

D. A. B. Miller, “Energy consumption in optical modulators for interconnects,” Opt. Express20(S2Suppl 2), A293–A308 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Rosenberg, W. M. J. Green, S. Assefa, D. M. Gill, T. Barwicz, M. Yang, S. M. Shank, and Y. A. Vlasov, “A 25 Gbps silicon microring modulator based on an interleaved junction,” Opt. Express20(24), 26411–26423 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Xiao, X. Li, H. Xu, Y. Hu, K. Xiong, Z. Li, T. Chu, J. Yu, and Y. Yu, “44-Gb/s silicon microring modulators based on zigzag PN junctions,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(19), 1712–1714 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (3)

G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Yao, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “25Gb/s 1V-driving CMOS ring modulator with integrated thermal tuning,” Opt. Express19(21), 20435–20443 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Asghari and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Silicon photonics: Energy-efficient communication,” Nat. Photonics5(5), 268–270 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, W. Jan, X. Zheng, R. Ho, G. Li, R. Rozier, F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, H. Schwetman, D. Feng, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, and J. E. Cunningham, “Progress in low-power switched optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(2), 357–376 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[CrossRef]

I. A. Young, E. Mohammed, J. T. S. Liao, A. M. Kern, S. Palermo, B. A. Block, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. D. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits45(1), 235–248 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2000 (1)

D. A. B. Miller, “Optical interconnects to silicon,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.6(6), 1312–1317 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

A. J. McDonald, R. S. Fyath, and J. J. O’Reilly, “Influence of extinction ratio on performance of optical receivers incorporating laser preamplifiers,” Electron. Lett.25(4), 249–250 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Akiyama, S.

Asghari, M.

M. Asghari and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Silicon photonics: Energy-efficient communication,” Nat. Photonics5(5), 268–270 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, W. Jan, X. Zheng, R. Ho, G. Li, R. Rozier, F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, H. Schwetman, D. Feng, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, and J. E. Cunningham, “Progress in low-power switched optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(2), 357–376 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Assefa, S.

Baba, T.

Barwicz, T.

Bergman, K.

Y. Liu, R. Ding, Q. Li, X. Zhe, Y. Li, Y. Yang, A. E. Lim, P. G. Q. Lo, K. Bergman, T. B. Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Ultra-compact 320 Gb/s and 160 Gb/s WDM transmitters based on silicon microrings,” In Optical Fiber Communication Conference, pp. Th4G.
[CrossRef]

Block, B. A.

I. A. Young, E. Mohammed, J. T. S. Liao, A. M. Kern, S. Palermo, B. A. Block, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. D. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits45(1), 235–248 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chang, P. L. D.

I. A. Young, E. Mohammed, J. T. S. Liao, A. M. Kern, S. Palermo, B. A. Block, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. D. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits45(1), 235–248 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chu, T.

X. Xiao, X. Li, H. Xu, Y. Hu, K. Xiong, Z. Li, T. Chu, J. Yu, and Y. Yu, “44-Gb/s silicon microring modulators based on zigzag PN junctions,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(19), 1712–1714 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cunningham, J. E.

G. Li, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, I. Shubin, J. Yao, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, X. Zheng, K. Raj, and J. E. Cunningham, “Ring Resonator Modulators in Silicon for Interchip Photonic Links,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.19(6), 3401819 (2013).

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, W. Jan, X. Zheng, R. Ho, G. Li, R. Rozier, F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, H. Schwetman, D. Feng, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, and J. E. Cunningham, “Progress in low-power switched optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(2), 357–376 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Yao, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “25Gb/s 1V-driving CMOS ring modulator with integrated thermal tuning,” Opt. Express19(21), 20435–20443 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ding, R.

Y. Liu, R. Ding, Q. Li, X. Zhe, Y. Li, Y. Yang, A. E. Lim, P. G. Q. Lo, K. Bergman, T. B. Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Ultra-compact 320 Gb/s and 160 Gb/s WDM transmitters based on silicon microrings,” In Optical Fiber Communication Conference, pp. Th4G.
[CrossRef]

Feng, D.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, W. Jan, X. Zheng, R. Ho, G. Li, R. Rozier, F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, H. Schwetman, D. Feng, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, and J. E. Cunningham, “Progress in low-power switched optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(2), 357–376 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fyath, R. S.

A. J. McDonald, R. S. Fyath, and J. J. O’Reilly, “Influence of extinction ratio on performance of optical receivers incorporating laser preamplifiers,” Electron. Lett.25(4), 249–250 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Gardes, F. Y.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gill, D. M.

Goossen, K. W.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, W. Jan, X. Zheng, R. Ho, G. Li, R. Rozier, F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, H. Schwetman, D. Feng, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, and J. E. Cunningham, “Progress in low-power switched optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(2), 357–376 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Green, W. M. J.

Hirayama, N.

Ho, R.

X. Zheng, Y. Luo, J. Lexau, F. Liu, G. Li, H. D. Thacker, I. Shubin, J. Yao, R. Ho, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “2-pJ/bit (On-Chip) 10-Gb/s digital CMOS silicon photonic link,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(14), 1260–1262 (2012).

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, W. Jan, X. Zheng, R. Ho, G. Li, R. Rozier, F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, H. Schwetman, D. Feng, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, and J. E. Cunningham, “Progress in low-power switched optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(2), 357–376 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hochberg, M.

Y. Liu, R. Ding, Q. Li, X. Zhe, Y. Li, Y. Yang, A. E. Lim, P. G. Q. Lo, K. Bergman, T. B. Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Ultra-compact 320 Gb/s and 160 Gb/s WDM transmitters based on silicon microrings,” In Optical Fiber Communication Conference, pp. Th4G.
[CrossRef]

Horikawa, T.

Hu, Y.

X. Xiao, X. Li, H. Xu, Y. Hu, K. Xiong, Z. Li, T. Chu, J. Yu, and Y. Yu, “44-Gb/s silicon microring modulators based on zigzag PN junctions,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(19), 1712–1714 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Imai, M.

Jan, W.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, W. Jan, X. Zheng, R. Ho, G. Li, R. Rozier, F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, H. Schwetman, D. Feng, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, and J. E. Cunningham, “Progress in low-power switched optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(2), 357–376 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jones, T. B.

Y. Liu, R. Ding, Q. Li, X. Zhe, Y. Li, Y. Yang, A. E. Lim, P. G. Q. Lo, K. Bergman, T. B. Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Ultra-compact 320 Gb/s and 160 Gb/s WDM transmitters based on silicon microrings,” In Optical Fiber Communication Conference, pp. Th4G.
[CrossRef]

Kern, A. M.

I. A. Young, E. Mohammed, J. T. S. Liao, A. M. Kern, S. Palermo, B. A. Block, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. D. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits45(1), 235–248 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

G. Li, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, I. Shubin, J. Yao, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, X. Zheng, K. Raj, and J. E. Cunningham, “Ring Resonator Modulators in Silicon for Interchip Photonic Links,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.19(6), 3401819 (2013).

X. Zheng, Y. Luo, J. Lexau, F. Liu, G. Li, H. D. Thacker, I. Shubin, J. Yao, R. Ho, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “2-pJ/bit (On-Chip) 10-Gb/s digital CMOS silicon photonic link,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(14), 1260–1262 (2012).

M. Asghari and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Silicon photonics: Energy-efficient communication,” Nat. Photonics5(5), 268–270 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, W. Jan, X. Zheng, R. Ho, G. Li, R. Rozier, F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, H. Schwetman, D. Feng, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, and J. E. Cunningham, “Progress in low-power switched optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(2), 357–376 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Yao, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “25Gb/s 1V-driving CMOS ring modulator with integrated thermal tuning,” Opt. Express19(21), 20435–20443 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lexau, J.

X. Zheng, Y. Luo, J. Lexau, F. Liu, G. Li, H. D. Thacker, I. Shubin, J. Yao, R. Ho, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “2-pJ/bit (On-Chip) 10-Gb/s digital CMOS silicon photonic link,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(14), 1260–1262 (2012).

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, W. Jan, X. Zheng, R. Ho, G. Li, R. Rozier, F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, H. Schwetman, D. Feng, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, and J. E. Cunningham, “Progress in low-power switched optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(2), 357–376 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, G.

G. Li, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, I. Shubin, J. Yao, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, X. Zheng, K. Raj, and J. E. Cunningham, “Ring Resonator Modulators in Silicon for Interchip Photonic Links,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.19(6), 3401819 (2013).

X. Zheng, Y. Luo, J. Lexau, F. Liu, G. Li, H. D. Thacker, I. Shubin, J. Yao, R. Ho, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “2-pJ/bit (On-Chip) 10-Gb/s digital CMOS silicon photonic link,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(14), 1260–1262 (2012).

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, W. Jan, X. Zheng, R. Ho, G. Li, R. Rozier, F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, H. Schwetman, D. Feng, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, and J. E. Cunningham, “Progress in low-power switched optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(2), 357–376 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Yao, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “25Gb/s 1V-driving CMOS ring modulator with integrated thermal tuning,” Opt. Express19(21), 20435–20443 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, Q.

Y. Liu, R. Ding, Q. Li, X. Zhe, Y. Li, Y. Yang, A. E. Lim, P. G. Q. Lo, K. Bergman, T. B. Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Ultra-compact 320 Gb/s and 160 Gb/s WDM transmitters based on silicon microrings,” In Optical Fiber Communication Conference, pp. Th4G.
[CrossRef]

Li, X.

X. Xiao, X. Li, H. Xu, Y. Hu, K. Xiong, Z. Li, T. Chu, J. Yu, and Y. Yu, “44-Gb/s silicon microring modulators based on zigzag PN junctions,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(19), 1712–1714 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

Y. Liu, R. Ding, Q. Li, X. Zhe, Y. Li, Y. Yang, A. E. Lim, P. G. Q. Lo, K. Bergman, T. B. Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Ultra-compact 320 Gb/s and 160 Gb/s WDM transmitters based on silicon microrings,” In Optical Fiber Communication Conference, pp. Th4G.
[CrossRef]

Li, Z.

X. Xiao, X. Li, H. Xu, Y. Hu, K. Xiong, Z. Li, T. Chu, J. Yu, and Y. Yu, “44-Gb/s silicon microring modulators based on zigzag PN junctions,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(19), 1712–1714 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Liao, J. T. S.

I. A. Young, E. Mohammed, J. T. S. Liao, A. M. Kern, S. Palermo, B. A. Block, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. D. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits45(1), 235–248 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lim, A. E.

Y. Liu, R. Ding, Q. Li, X. Zhe, Y. Li, Y. Yang, A. E. Lim, P. G. Q. Lo, K. Bergman, T. B. Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Ultra-compact 320 Gb/s and 160 Gb/s WDM transmitters based on silicon microrings,” In Optical Fiber Communication Conference, pp. Th4G.
[CrossRef]

Lipson, M.

Liu, F.

X. Zheng, Y. Luo, J. Lexau, F. Liu, G. Li, H. D. Thacker, I. Shubin, J. Yao, R. Ho, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “2-pJ/bit (On-Chip) 10-Gb/s digital CMOS silicon photonic link,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(14), 1260–1262 (2012).

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, W. Jan, X. Zheng, R. Ho, G. Li, R. Rozier, F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, H. Schwetman, D. Feng, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, and J. E. Cunningham, “Progress in low-power switched optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(2), 357–376 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

Y. Liu, R. Ding, Q. Li, X. Zhe, Y. Li, Y. Yang, A. E. Lim, P. G. Q. Lo, K. Bergman, T. B. Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Ultra-compact 320 Gb/s and 160 Gb/s WDM transmitters based on silicon microrings,” In Optical Fiber Communication Conference, pp. Th4G.
[CrossRef]

Lo, P. G. Q.

Y. Liu, R. Ding, Q. Li, X. Zhe, Y. Li, Y. Yang, A. E. Lim, P. G. Q. Lo, K. Bergman, T. B. Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Ultra-compact 320 Gb/s and 160 Gb/s WDM transmitters based on silicon microrings,” In Optical Fiber Communication Conference, pp. Th4G.
[CrossRef]

Luo, Y.

G. Li, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, I. Shubin, J. Yao, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, X. Zheng, K. Raj, and J. E. Cunningham, “Ring Resonator Modulators in Silicon for Interchip Photonic Links,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.19(6), 3401819 (2013).

X. Zheng, Y. Luo, J. Lexau, F. Liu, G. Li, H. D. Thacker, I. Shubin, J. Yao, R. Ho, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “2-pJ/bit (On-Chip) 10-Gb/s digital CMOS silicon photonic link,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(14), 1260–1262 (2012).

G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Yao, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “25Gb/s 1V-driving CMOS ring modulator with integrated thermal tuning,” Opt. Express19(21), 20435–20443 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mashanovich, G.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[CrossRef]

McDonald, A. J.

A. J. McDonald, R. S. Fyath, and J. J. O’Reilly, “Influence of extinction ratio on performance of optical receivers incorporating laser preamplifiers,” Electron. Lett.25(4), 249–250 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D. A. B.

D. A. B. Miller, “Energy consumption in optical modulators for interconnects,” Opt. Express20(S2Suppl 2), A293–A308 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. B. Miller, “Optical interconnects to silicon,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.6(6), 1312–1317 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mohammed, E.

I. A. Young, E. Mohammed, J. T. S. Liao, A. M. Kern, S. Palermo, B. A. Block, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. D. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits45(1), 235–248 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Noguchi, Y.

O’Reilly, J. J.

A. J. McDonald, R. S. Fyath, and J. J. O’Reilly, “Influence of extinction ratio on performance of optical receivers incorporating laser preamplifiers,” Electron. Lett.25(4), 249–250 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Palermo, S.

I. A. Young, E. Mohammed, J. T. S. Liao, A. M. Kern, S. Palermo, B. A. Block, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. D. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits45(1), 235–248 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Patil, D.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, W. Jan, X. Zheng, R. Ho, G. Li, R. Rozier, F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, H. Schwetman, D. Feng, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, and J. E. Cunningham, “Progress in low-power switched optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(2), 357–376 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pinguet, T.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, W. Jan, X. Zheng, R. Ho, G. Li, R. Rozier, F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, H. Schwetman, D. Feng, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, and J. E. Cunningham, “Progress in low-power switched optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(2), 357–376 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Raj, K.

G. Li, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, I. Shubin, J. Yao, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, X. Zheng, K. Raj, and J. E. Cunningham, “Ring Resonator Modulators in Silicon for Interchip Photonic Links,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.19(6), 3401819 (2013).

G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Yao, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “25Gb/s 1V-driving CMOS ring modulator with integrated thermal tuning,” Opt. Express19(21), 20435–20443 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reed, G. T.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Reshotko, M. R.

I. A. Young, E. Mohammed, J. T. S. Liao, A. M. Kern, S. Palermo, B. A. Block, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. D. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits45(1), 235–248 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rosenberg, J. C.

Rozier, R.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, W. Jan, X. Zheng, R. Ho, G. Li, R. Rozier, F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, H. Schwetman, D. Feng, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, and J. E. Cunningham, “Progress in low-power switched optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(2), 357–376 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, B.

Schwetman, H.

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, W. Jan, X. Zheng, R. Ho, G. Li, R. Rozier, F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, H. Schwetman, D. Feng, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, and J. E. Cunningham, “Progress in low-power switched optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(2), 357–376 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shakya, J.

Shank, S. M.

Shubin, I.

G. Li, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, I. Shubin, J. Yao, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, X. Zheng, K. Raj, and J. E. Cunningham, “Ring Resonator Modulators in Silicon for Interchip Photonic Links,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.19(6), 3401819 (2013).

X. Zheng, Y. Luo, J. Lexau, F. Liu, G. Li, H. D. Thacker, I. Shubin, J. Yao, R. Ho, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “2-pJ/bit (On-Chip) 10-Gb/s digital CMOS silicon photonic link,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(14), 1260–1262 (2012).

G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Yao, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “25Gb/s 1V-driving CMOS ring modulator with integrated thermal tuning,” Opt. Express19(21), 20435–20443 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takahashi, H.

Thacker, H.

G. Li, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, I. Shubin, J. Yao, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, X. Zheng, K. Raj, and J. E. Cunningham, “Ring Resonator Modulators in Silicon for Interchip Photonic Links,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.19(6), 3401819 (2013).

G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Yao, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “25Gb/s 1V-driving CMOS ring modulator with integrated thermal tuning,” Opt. Express19(21), 20435–20443 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thacker, H. D.

X. Zheng, Y. Luo, J. Lexau, F. Liu, G. Li, H. D. Thacker, I. Shubin, J. Yao, R. Ho, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “2-pJ/bit (On-Chip) 10-Gb/s digital CMOS silicon photonic link,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(14), 1260–1262 (2012).

Thomson, D. J.

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Usuki, T.

Vlasov, Y. A.

Xiao, X.

X. Xiao, X. Li, H. Xu, Y. Hu, K. Xiong, Z. Li, T. Chu, J. Yu, and Y. Yu, “44-Gb/s silicon microring modulators based on zigzag PN junctions,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(19), 1712–1714 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Xiong, K.

X. Xiao, X. Li, H. Xu, Y. Hu, K. Xiong, Z. Li, T. Chu, J. Yu, and Y. Yu, “44-Gb/s silicon microring modulators based on zigzag PN junctions,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(19), 1712–1714 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Xu, H.

X. Xiao, X. Li, H. Xu, Y. Hu, K. Xiong, Z. Li, T. Chu, J. Yu, and Y. Yu, “44-Gb/s silicon microring modulators based on zigzag PN junctions,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(19), 1712–1714 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Q.

Yang, M.

Yang, Y.

Y. Liu, R. Ding, Q. Li, X. Zhe, Y. Li, Y. Yang, A. E. Lim, P. G. Q. Lo, K. Bergman, T. B. Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Ultra-compact 320 Gb/s and 160 Gb/s WDM transmitters based on silicon microrings,” In Optical Fiber Communication Conference, pp. Th4G.
[CrossRef]

Yao, J.

G. Li, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, I. Shubin, J. Yao, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, X. Zheng, K. Raj, and J. E. Cunningham, “Ring Resonator Modulators in Silicon for Interchip Photonic Links,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.19(6), 3401819 (2013).

X. Zheng, Y. Luo, J. Lexau, F. Liu, G. Li, H. D. Thacker, I. Shubin, J. Yao, R. Ho, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “2-pJ/bit (On-Chip) 10-Gb/s digital CMOS silicon photonic link,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(14), 1260–1262 (2012).

G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Yao, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “25Gb/s 1V-driving CMOS ring modulator with integrated thermal tuning,” Opt. Express19(21), 20435–20443 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Young, I. A.

I. A. Young, E. Mohammed, J. T. S. Liao, A. M. Kern, S. Palermo, B. A. Block, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. D. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits45(1), 235–248 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yu, J.

X. Xiao, X. Li, H. Xu, Y. Hu, K. Xiong, Z. Li, T. Chu, J. Yu, and Y. Yu, “44-Gb/s silicon microring modulators based on zigzag PN junctions,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(19), 1712–1714 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yu, Y.

X. Xiao, X. Li, H. Xu, Y. Hu, K. Xiong, Z. Li, T. Chu, J. Yu, and Y. Yu, “44-Gb/s silicon microring modulators based on zigzag PN junctions,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(19), 1712–1714 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhe, X.

Y. Liu, R. Ding, Q. Li, X. Zhe, Y. Li, Y. Yang, A. E. Lim, P. G. Q. Lo, K. Bergman, T. B. Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Ultra-compact 320 Gb/s and 160 Gb/s WDM transmitters based on silicon microrings,” In Optical Fiber Communication Conference, pp. Th4G.
[CrossRef]

Zheng, X.

G. Li, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, I. Shubin, J. Yao, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, X. Zheng, K. Raj, and J. E. Cunningham, “Ring Resonator Modulators in Silicon for Interchip Photonic Links,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.19(6), 3401819 (2013).

X. Zheng, Y. Luo, J. Lexau, F. Liu, G. Li, H. D. Thacker, I. Shubin, J. Yao, R. Ho, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “2-pJ/bit (On-Chip) 10-Gb/s digital CMOS silicon photonic link,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(14), 1260–1262 (2012).

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, W. Jan, X. Zheng, R. Ho, G. Li, R. Rozier, F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, H. Schwetman, D. Feng, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, and J. E. Cunningham, “Progress in low-power switched optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(2), 357–376 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Yao, H. Thacker, I. Shubin, Y. Luo, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “25Gb/s 1V-driving CMOS ring modulator with integrated thermal tuning,” Opt. Express19(21), 20435–20443 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Electron. Lett. (1)

A. J. McDonald, R. S. Fyath, and J. J. O’Reilly, “Influence of extinction ratio on performance of optical receivers incorporating laser preamplifiers,” Electron. Lett.25(4), 249–250 (1989).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (3)

D. A. B. Miller, “Optical interconnects to silicon,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.6(6), 1312–1317 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Li, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, I. Shubin, J. Yao, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, X. Zheng, K. Raj, and J. E. Cunningham, “Ring Resonator Modulators in Silicon for Interchip Photonic Links,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.19(6), 3401819 (2013).

A. V. Krishnamoorthy, K. W. Goossen, W. Jan, X. Zheng, R. Ho, G. Li, R. Rozier, F. Liu, D. Patil, J. Lexau, H. Schwetman, D. Feng, M. Asghari, T. Pinguet, and J. E. Cunningham, “Progress in low-power switched optical interconnects,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(2), 357–376 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits (1)

I. A. Young, E. Mohammed, J. T. S. Liao, A. M. Kern, S. Palermo, B. A. Block, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. D. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits45(1), 235–248 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

X. Xiao, X. Li, H. Xu, Y. Hu, K. Xiong, Z. Li, T. Chu, J. Yu, and Y. Yu, “44-Gb/s silicon microring modulators based on zigzag PN junctions,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(19), 1712–1714 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Zheng, Y. Luo, J. Lexau, F. Liu, G. Li, H. D. Thacker, I. Shubin, J. Yao, R. Ho, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “2-pJ/bit (On-Chip) 10-Gb/s digital CMOS silicon photonic link,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(14), 1260–1262 (2012).

Nat. Photonics (2)

M. Asghari and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Silicon photonics: Energy-efficient communication,” Nat. Photonics5(5), 268–270 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. T. Reed, G. Mashanovich, F. Y. Gardes, and D. J. Thomson, “Silicon optical modulators,” Nat. Photonics4(8), 518–526 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (5)

Other (7)

Y. Liu, R. Ding, Q. Li, X. Zhe, Y. Li, Y. Yang, A. E. Lim, P. G. Q. Lo, K. Bergman, T. B. Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Ultra-compact 320 Gb/s and 160 Gb/s WDM transmitters based on silicon microrings,” In Optical Fiber Communication Conference, pp. Th4G.
[CrossRef]

P. Amberg, E. Chang, F. Liu, J. Lexau, X. Zheng, G. Li, I. Shubin, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and R. Ho, “A sub-400 fJ/bit thermal tuner for optical resonant ring modulators in 40 nm CMOS,” In Solid State Circuits Conference (A-SSCC), 2012 IEEE Asian, pp. 29–32. IEEE, 2012.

Y. Liu, R. Ding, M. Gould, T. B. Jones, Y. Yang, Y. Ma, Y. Zhang, A. E. J. Lim, T. Y. Liow, S. H. G. Teo, G. Q. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “30 GHz Silicon Platform for Photonics System,” In Optical Interconnects Conference, 2013 IEEE, pp. 27–28. IEEE, 2013.

P. Dong, Y. Chen, T. Gu, L. L. Buhl, D. T. Neilson, and J. H. Sinsky, “Reconfigurable 100 Gb/s Silicon Photonic Network-on-Chip,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, paper Th4G.2.
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W. D. Sacher, W. M. J. Green, S. Assefa, T. Barwicz, H. Pan, S. M. Shank, Y. A. Vlasov, and J. K. S. Poon, “28 Gb/s silicon microring modulation beyond the linewidth limit by coupling modulation,” In Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition (OFC/NFOEC), 2012 and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, pp. 1–3. IEEE, 2012.
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X. Xiao, H. Xu, X. Li, Z. Li, T. Chu, J. Yu, and Y. Yu, “60 Gbit/s silicon modulators with enhanced electro-optical efficiency,” In Optical Fiber Communication Conference, pp. OW4J. Optical Society of America, 2013.
[CrossRef]

G. Li, X. Zheng, H. Thacker, J. Yao, Y. Luo, I. Shubin, K. Raj, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “40 Gb/s thermally tun- able CMOS ring modulator,” in Proc. IEEE 9th Int. Conf. Group IV Photon. San Diego, CA, USA, 2012, pp. 1–3, Paper PDP3.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Sketch of Mod-MUX-Ring architecture. Individual single wavelength lasers are first modulated by ring modulators and then multiplexed on to a bus waveguide via ring add/drop filters. (b) Photograph of fabricated 4-channel Mod-MUX-Ring transmitter.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Photograph of fabricated ring modulator. (b) Transmission spectra of the ring modulator at different bias voltages applied to the pn junction. (c) Resonance wavelength shift as a function of bias voltage on the pn junction. (d) Measured ring modulator EO frequency response at 0 V bias. (e) Resonance peak shift as a function of thermal tuning power.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Photograph of ring add/drop filter used in the Mod-MUX-Ring transmitter. (b) Through port and drop port spectra of the add/drop filter. (c) Thermal tuning efficiency of the add/drop filter.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Spectra of the Mod-MUX-Ring transmitter before (dashed line) and after (solid line) thermal tuning.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Test setup for high-speed modulation performance. ASE: amplified spontaneous emission source. VOA: variable optical attenuator. TDL: tunable delay line. BPF: bandpass filter. OSA: optical spectrum analyzer. DSA: digital serial analyzer. (b) BER vs OSNR performance at 40 Gb/s for all channels in the Mod-MUX-Ring transmitter and a reference LiNbO3 modulator. (c) Eye diagram for each channel under error free operation at 40-Gb/s. ER: extinction ratio. BL: bias loss.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) BER performance of Mod-MUX-Ring transmitter in forward and reverse light propagation at 40 Gb/s. (b) Eye diagram for forward propagation. (c). Eye diagram for reverse propagation.

Equations (1)

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Penalty=10log( er+1 er1 )

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