Abstract

We report the fabrication of waveguide amplifiers produced by RF-sputtering, using a PbO-GeO2 glass (PGO glass) film codoped with Er3+/Yb3+. RIB waveguides were obtained from PGO thin films using optical lithography followed by reactive ion etching process. The optical losses in the waveguide were ≈1.0 dB/cm and the maximum internal gain at 1.53 µm, with excitation at 980 nm, was 3 dB/cm. Nanostructured gold films deposited on the waveguides enhanced the Er3+ ions photoluminescence (PL) by ≈400% in the red region and ≈30% in the infrared, under 980 nm pumping. The optical gain was enhanced and reached 6.5 dB/cm. The results demonstrate that the PGO waveguides, with or without gold nanoparticles, are promising for integrated photonics.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2013 (4)

C. B. de Araújo, D. S. da Silva, T. A. A. de Assumpção, L. R. P. Kassab, and D. M. da Silva, “Enhanced optical properties of germanate and tellurite glasses containing metal or semiconductor nanoparticles,” Sci. World J.2013, 385193 (2013).

C. B. de Araújo, T. R. Oliveira, E. L. Falcão-Filho, D. M. da Silva, and L. R. P. Kassab, “Nonlinear optical properties of PbO-GeO2 films containing gold nanoparticles,” J. Lumin.133, 180–183 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Amjad, M. R. Sahar, S. K. Ghoshal, M. R. Dousti, S. Riaz, A. R. Samavati, R. Arifin, and S. Naseem, “Annealing time dependent up-conversion luminescence enhancement in magnesium–tellurite glass,” J. Lumin.136, 145–149 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. Manzani, J. M. P. Almeida, M. Napoli, L. De Boni, M. Nalin, C. R. M. Afonso, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and C. R. Mendonça, “Nonlinear optical properties of tungsten lead-pyrophosphate glasses containing metallic copper nanoparticles,” Plasmonics8(4), 1667–1674 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (2)

A. Z. Subramanian, G. S. Murugan, M. N. Zervas, and J. S. Wilkinson, “High index contrast Er:Ta2O5 waveguide amplifier on oxidised silicon,” Opt. Commun.285(2), 124–127 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Pillonnet, A. Berthelot, A. Pereira, O. Benamara, S. Derom, G. Colas des Francs, and A.-M. Jurdyc, “Coupling distance between Eu3+ emitters and Ag nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(15), 153115 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (5)

T. A. A. de Assumpção, L. R. P. Kassab, A. S. L. Gomes, C. B. de Araújo, and N. U. Wetter, “Influence of the heat treatment on the nucleation of silver nanoparticles in Tm3+ doped PbO-GeO2 glasses,” Appl. Phys. B103(1), 165–169 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. R. P. Kassab, M. E. Camilo, C. T. Amâncio, D. M. Silva, and J. R. Martinelli, “Effects of gold nanoparticles in the green and red emissions of TeO2–PbO–GeO2 glasses doped with Er3+–Yb3+,” Opt. Mater.33(12), 1948–1951 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Christensen, C. Uhrenfeldt, B. Julsgaard, P. Balling, and A. N. Larsen, “Interaction between Au nanoparticles and Er3+ ions in a TiO2 matrix: Up-conversion of infrared light,” Energy Procedia10, 111–116 (2011).
[CrossRef]

V. D. Del Cacho, D. M. da Silva, L. R. P. Kassab, A. L. Siarkowski, and N. I. Morimoto, “PbO-GeO2 rib waveguides for photonic applications,” J. Alloy. Comp.509, S434–S437 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Miritello, P. Cardile, R. Lo Savio, and F. Priolo, “Energy transfer and enhanced 1.54 μm emission in Erbium-Ytterbium disilicate thin films,” Opt. Express19(21), 20761–20772 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (5)

K. Vu and S. Madden, “Tellurium dioxide Erbium doped planar rib waveguide amplifiers with net gain and 2.8 dB/cm internal gain,” Opt. Express18(18), 19192–19200 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. A. Bomfim, J. R. Martinelli, L. R. P. Kassab, T. A. A. Assumpção, and C. B. de Araújo, “Infrared-to-visible upconversion in Yb3+/Er3+ co-doped PbO–GeO2 glass with silver nanoparticles,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids356(44-49), 2598–2601 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Nagaraj and Krokhin, “Long-range surface plasmons in dielectric-metal-dielectric structure with highly anisotropic substrates,” Phys. Rev. B81(8), 085426 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. M. da Silva, L. R. P. Kassab, J. R. Martinelli, and C. B. de Araújo, “Production and characterization of RF-sputtered PbO-GeO2 amorphous thin films containing silver and gold nanoparticles,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids356(44-49), 2602–2605 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Pillai and M. A. Green, “Plasmonics for photovoltaic applications,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells94(9), 1481–1486 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

2008 (2)

T. Aisaka, M. Fujii, and S. Hayashi, “Enhancement of upconversion luminescence of Er doped Al2O3 films by Ag island films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(13), 132105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Gómez, F. E. P. dos Santos, A. S. L. Gomes, C. B. de Araujo, L. R. P. Kassab, and W. G. Hora, “Near-infrared third-order nonlinearity of PbO-GeO2 films containing Cu and Cu2O nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(14), 141916 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

D. M. da Silva, L. R. P. Kassab, S. R. Lüthi, C. B. de Araújo, A. S. L. Gomes, and M. J. V. Bell, “Frequency upconversion in Er3+ doped PbO–GeO2 glasses containing metallic nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(8), 081913 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Ghosh, P. Chakraborty, S. Mohapatra, P. A. Kurian, C. Vijayan, P. C. Deshmukh, and P. Mazzoldi, “Linear and nonlinear optical absorption in copper nanocluster-glass composites,” Mater. Lett.61(23–24), 4512–4515 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. R. P. Kassab, W. G. Hora, W. Lozano B, M. A. S. de Oliveira, and G. S. Maciel, “Optical properties of Er3+ doped GeO2-PbO glass: Effect of doping with Bi2O3,” Opt. Commun.269(2), 356–361 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

P. Anger, P. Bharadwaj, and L. Novotny, “Enhancement and quenching of single-molecule fluorescence,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(11), 113002 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Armelao, D. Barreca, G. Bottaro, A. Gasparotto, S. Gross, C. Maragno, and E. Tondello, “Recent trends on nanocomposites based on Cu, Ag and Au clusters: A closer look,” Coord. Chem. Rev.250(11–12), 1294–1314 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

K. E. Lipinska-Kalita, D. M. Krol, R. J. Hemley, G. Mariotto, P. E. Kalita, and Y. Ohki, “Synthesis and characterization of metal-dielectric composites with copper nanoparticles embedded in a glass matrix: A multitechnique approach,” J. Appl. Phys.98(5), 054301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Chiasera, M. Ferrari, M. Mattarelli, M. Montagna, S. Pelli, H. Portales, J. Zheng, and G. Righini, “Assessment of spectroscopic properties of erbium ions in a soda-lime silicate glass after silver–sodium exchange,” Opt. Mater.27(11), 1743–1747 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

M. Thomas, J. J. Greffet, R. Carminati, and J. R. Arias-Gonzalez, “Single-molecule spontaneous emission close to absorbing nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(17), 3863–3865 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Baker, J. Heikenfeld, Z. Yu, and A. J. Steckl, “Optical amplification and electroluminescence at 1.54 µm in Er-doped zinc silicate germanate on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(9), 1462–1464 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

G. Fu, W. Cai, C. Kan, C. Li, and L. Zhang, “Controllable optical properties of Au/SiO2 nanocomposite induced by ultrasonic irradiation and thermal annealing,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(1), 36–38 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

X. Orignac, D. Barbier, X. M. Du, R. M. Almeida, O. McCarthy, and E. Yeatman, “Sol-gel silica/titania-on-silicon Er/Yb-doped waveguides for optical amplification at 1.5 µm,” Opt. Mater.12(1), 1–18 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Z. Czigány and G. Radnóczi, “Columnar growth structure and evolution of wavy interface morphology in amorphous multilayered thin films,” Thin Solid Films343–344, 5–8 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

P. G. Kik and A. Polman, “Erbium doped optical waveguide amplifiers on silicon,” MRS Bull.23, 48–54 (1998).

1983 (1)

1965 (1)

M. Inokuti and F. Hirayama, “Influence of energy transfer by the exchange mechanism on donor luminescence,” J. Chem. Phys.43(6), 1978–1989 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Afonso, C. R. M.

D. Manzani, J. M. P. Almeida, M. Napoli, L. De Boni, M. Nalin, C. R. M. Afonso, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and C. R. Mendonça, “Nonlinear optical properties of tungsten lead-pyrophosphate glasses containing metallic copper nanoparticles,” Plasmonics8(4), 1667–1674 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Aisaka, T.

T. Aisaka, M. Fujii, and S. Hayashi, “Enhancement of upconversion luminescence of Er doped Al2O3 films by Ag island films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(13), 132105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Almeida, J. M. P.

D. Manzani, J. M. P. Almeida, M. Napoli, L. De Boni, M. Nalin, C. R. M. Afonso, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and C. R. Mendonça, “Nonlinear optical properties of tungsten lead-pyrophosphate glasses containing metallic copper nanoparticles,” Plasmonics8(4), 1667–1674 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Almeida, R. M.

X. Orignac, D. Barbier, X. M. Du, R. M. Almeida, O. McCarthy, and E. Yeatman, “Sol-gel silica/titania-on-silicon Er/Yb-doped waveguides for optical amplification at 1.5 µm,” Opt. Mater.12(1), 1–18 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Amâncio, C. T.

L. R. P. Kassab, M. E. Camilo, C. T. Amâncio, D. M. Silva, and J. R. Martinelli, “Effects of gold nanoparticles in the green and red emissions of TeO2–PbO–GeO2 glasses doped with Er3+–Yb3+,” Opt. Mater.33(12), 1948–1951 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Amjad, R. J.

R. J. Amjad, M. R. Sahar, S. K. Ghoshal, M. R. Dousti, S. Riaz, A. R. Samavati, R. Arifin, and S. Naseem, “Annealing time dependent up-conversion luminescence enhancement in magnesium–tellurite glass,” J. Lumin.136, 145–149 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Anger, P.

P. Anger, P. Bharadwaj, and L. Novotny, “Enhancement and quenching of single-molecule fluorescence,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(11), 113002 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arias-Gonzalez, J. R.

M. Thomas, J. J. Greffet, R. Carminati, and J. R. Arias-Gonzalez, “Single-molecule spontaneous emission close to absorbing nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(17), 3863–3865 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Arifin, R.

R. J. Amjad, M. R. Sahar, S. K. Ghoshal, M. R. Dousti, S. Riaz, A. R. Samavati, R. Arifin, and S. Naseem, “Annealing time dependent up-conversion luminescence enhancement in magnesium–tellurite glass,” J. Lumin.136, 145–149 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Armelao, L.

L. Armelao, D. Barreca, G. Bottaro, A. Gasparotto, S. Gross, C. Maragno, and E. Tondello, “Recent trends on nanocomposites based on Cu, Ag and Au clusters: A closer look,” Coord. Chem. Rev.250(11–12), 1294–1314 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Assumpção, T. A. A.

F. A. Bomfim, J. R. Martinelli, L. R. P. Kassab, T. A. A. Assumpção, and C. B. de Araújo, “Infrared-to-visible upconversion in Yb3+/Er3+ co-doped PbO–GeO2 glass with silver nanoparticles,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids356(44-49), 2598–2601 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Baker, C. C.

C. C. Baker, J. Heikenfeld, Z. Yu, and A. J. Steckl, “Optical amplification and electroluminescence at 1.54 µm in Er-doped zinc silicate germanate on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(9), 1462–1464 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Balling, P.

A. E. Christensen, C. Uhrenfeldt, B. Julsgaard, P. Balling, and A. N. Larsen, “Interaction between Au nanoparticles and Er3+ ions in a TiO2 matrix: Up-conversion of infrared light,” Energy Procedia10, 111–116 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Barbier, D.

X. Orignac, D. Barbier, X. M. Du, R. M. Almeida, O. McCarthy, and E. Yeatman, “Sol-gel silica/titania-on-silicon Er/Yb-doped waveguides for optical amplification at 1.5 µm,” Opt. Mater.12(1), 1–18 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Barreca, D.

L. Armelao, D. Barreca, G. Bottaro, A. Gasparotto, S. Gross, C. Maragno, and E. Tondello, “Recent trends on nanocomposites based on Cu, Ag and Au clusters: A closer look,” Coord. Chem. Rev.250(11–12), 1294–1314 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bell, M. J. V.

D. M. da Silva, L. R. P. Kassab, S. R. Lüthi, C. B. de Araújo, A. S. L. Gomes, and M. J. V. Bell, “Frequency upconversion in Er3+ doped PbO–GeO2 glasses containing metallic nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(8), 081913 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Benamara, O.

A. Pillonnet, A. Berthelot, A. Pereira, O. Benamara, S. Derom, G. Colas des Francs, and A.-M. Jurdyc, “Coupling distance between Eu3+ emitters and Ag nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(15), 153115 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Berini, P.

Berthelot, A.

A. Pillonnet, A. Berthelot, A. Pereira, O. Benamara, S. Derom, G. Colas des Francs, and A.-M. Jurdyc, “Coupling distance between Eu3+ emitters and Ag nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(15), 153115 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bharadwaj, P.

P. Anger, P. Bharadwaj, and L. Novotny, “Enhancement and quenching of single-molecule fluorescence,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(11), 113002 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bomfim, F. A.

F. A. Bomfim, J. R. Martinelli, L. R. P. Kassab, T. A. A. Assumpção, and C. B. de Araújo, “Infrared-to-visible upconversion in Yb3+/Er3+ co-doped PbO–GeO2 glass with silver nanoparticles,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids356(44-49), 2598–2601 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bottaro, G.

L. Armelao, D. Barreca, G. Bottaro, A. Gasparotto, S. Gross, C. Maragno, and E. Tondello, “Recent trends on nanocomposites based on Cu, Ag and Au clusters: A closer look,” Coord. Chem. Rev.250(11–12), 1294–1314 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cai, W.

G. Fu, W. Cai, C. Kan, C. Li, and L. Zhang, “Controllable optical properties of Au/SiO2 nanocomposite induced by ultrasonic irradiation and thermal annealing,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(1), 36–38 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Camilo, M. E.

L. R. P. Kassab, M. E. Camilo, C. T. Amâncio, D. M. Silva, and J. R. Martinelli, “Effects of gold nanoparticles in the green and red emissions of TeO2–PbO–GeO2 glasses doped with Er3+–Yb3+,” Opt. Mater.33(12), 1948–1951 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cardile, P.

Carminati, R.

M. Thomas, J. J. Greffet, R. Carminati, and J. R. Arias-Gonzalez, “Single-molecule spontaneous emission close to absorbing nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(17), 3863–3865 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chakraborty, P.

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A. Chiasera, M. Ferrari, M. Mattarelli, M. Montagna, S. Pelli, H. Portales, J. Zheng, and G. Righini, “Assessment of spectroscopic properties of erbium ions in a soda-lime silicate glass after silver–sodium exchange,” Opt. Mater.27(11), 1743–1747 (2005).
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A. E. Christensen, C. Uhrenfeldt, B. Julsgaard, P. Balling, and A. N. Larsen, “Interaction between Au nanoparticles and Er3+ ions in a TiO2 matrix: Up-conversion of infrared light,” Energy Procedia10, 111–116 (2011).
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A. Pillonnet, A. Berthelot, A. Pereira, O. Benamara, S. Derom, G. Colas des Francs, and A.-M. Jurdyc, “Coupling distance between Eu3+ emitters and Ag nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(15), 153115 (2012).
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C. B. de Araújo, T. R. Oliveira, E. L. Falcão-Filho, D. M. da Silva, and L. R. P. Kassab, “Nonlinear optical properties of PbO-GeO2 films containing gold nanoparticles,” J. Lumin.133, 180–183 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. B. de Araújo, D. S. da Silva, T. A. A. de Assumpção, L. R. P. Kassab, and D. M. da Silva, “Enhanced optical properties of germanate and tellurite glasses containing metal or semiconductor nanoparticles,” Sci. World J.2013, 385193 (2013).

V. D. Del Cacho, D. M. da Silva, L. R. P. Kassab, A. L. Siarkowski, and N. I. Morimoto, “PbO-GeO2 rib waveguides for photonic applications,” J. Alloy. Comp.509, S434–S437 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. M. da Silva, L. R. P. Kassab, J. R. Martinelli, and C. B. de Araújo, “Production and characterization of RF-sputtered PbO-GeO2 amorphous thin films containing silver and gold nanoparticles,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids356(44-49), 2602–2605 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. M. da Silva, L. R. P. Kassab, S. R. Lüthi, C. B. de Araújo, A. S. L. Gomes, and M. J. V. Bell, “Frequency upconversion in Er3+ doped PbO–GeO2 glasses containing metallic nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(8), 081913 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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C. B. de Araújo, D. S. da Silva, T. A. A. de Assumpção, L. R. P. Kassab, and D. M. da Silva, “Enhanced optical properties of germanate and tellurite glasses containing metal or semiconductor nanoparticles,” Sci. World J.2013, 385193 (2013).

L. R. P. Kassab, D. S. da Silva, R. de Almeida, and C. B. de Araújo, “Photoluminescence enhancement by gold nanoparticles in Eu3+ doped GeO2-Bi2O3 glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(10), 101912 (2009).
[CrossRef]

de Almeida, R.

L. R. P. Kassab, D. S. da Silva, R. de Almeida, and C. B. de Araújo, “Photoluminescence enhancement by gold nanoparticles in Eu3+ doped GeO2-Bi2O3 glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(10), 101912 (2009).
[CrossRef]

de Araujo, C. B.

L. A. Gómez, F. E. P. dos Santos, A. S. L. Gomes, C. B. de Araujo, L. R. P. Kassab, and W. G. Hora, “Near-infrared third-order nonlinearity of PbO-GeO2 films containing Cu and Cu2O nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(14), 141916 (2008).
[CrossRef]

de Araújo, C. B.

C. B. de Araújo, D. S. da Silva, T. A. A. de Assumpção, L. R. P. Kassab, and D. M. da Silva, “Enhanced optical properties of germanate and tellurite glasses containing metal or semiconductor nanoparticles,” Sci. World J.2013, 385193 (2013).

C. B. de Araújo, T. R. Oliveira, E. L. Falcão-Filho, D. M. da Silva, and L. R. P. Kassab, “Nonlinear optical properties of PbO-GeO2 films containing gold nanoparticles,” J. Lumin.133, 180–183 (2013).
[CrossRef]

T. A. A. de Assumpção, L. R. P. Kassab, A. S. L. Gomes, C. B. de Araújo, and N. U. Wetter, “Influence of the heat treatment on the nucleation of silver nanoparticles in Tm3+ doped PbO-GeO2 glasses,” Appl. Phys. B103(1), 165–169 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. A. Bomfim, J. R. Martinelli, L. R. P. Kassab, T. A. A. Assumpção, and C. B. de Araújo, “Infrared-to-visible upconversion in Yb3+/Er3+ co-doped PbO–GeO2 glass with silver nanoparticles,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids356(44-49), 2598–2601 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. M. da Silva, L. R. P. Kassab, J. R. Martinelli, and C. B. de Araújo, “Production and characterization of RF-sputtered PbO-GeO2 amorphous thin films containing silver and gold nanoparticles,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids356(44-49), 2602–2605 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. R. P. Kassab, D. S. da Silva, R. de Almeida, and C. B. de Araújo, “Photoluminescence enhancement by gold nanoparticles in Eu3+ doped GeO2-Bi2O3 glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(10), 101912 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. M. da Silva, L. R. P. Kassab, S. R. Lüthi, C. B. de Araújo, A. S. L. Gomes, and M. J. V. Bell, “Frequency upconversion in Er3+ doped PbO–GeO2 glasses containing metallic nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(8), 081913 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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C. B. de Araújo, D. S. da Silva, T. A. A. de Assumpção, L. R. P. Kassab, and D. M. da Silva, “Enhanced optical properties of germanate and tellurite glasses containing metal or semiconductor nanoparticles,” Sci. World J.2013, 385193 (2013).

T. A. A. de Assumpção, L. R. P. Kassab, A. S. L. Gomes, C. B. de Araújo, and N. U. Wetter, “Influence of the heat treatment on the nucleation of silver nanoparticles in Tm3+ doped PbO-GeO2 glasses,” Appl. Phys. B103(1), 165–169 (2011).
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D. Manzani, J. M. P. Almeida, M. Napoli, L. De Boni, M. Nalin, C. R. M. Afonso, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and C. R. Mendonça, “Nonlinear optical properties of tungsten lead-pyrophosphate glasses containing metallic copper nanoparticles,” Plasmonics8(4), 1667–1674 (2013).
[CrossRef]

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L. R. P. Kassab, W. G. Hora, W. Lozano B, M. A. S. de Oliveira, and G. S. Maciel, “Optical properties of Er3+ doped GeO2-PbO glass: Effect of doping with Bi2O3,” Opt. Commun.269(2), 356–361 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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V. D. Del Cacho, D. M. da Silva, L. R. P. Kassab, A. L. Siarkowski, and N. I. Morimoto, “PbO-GeO2 rib waveguides for photonic applications,” J. Alloy. Comp.509, S434–S437 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Derom, S.

A. Pillonnet, A. Berthelot, A. Pereira, O. Benamara, S. Derom, G. Colas des Francs, and A.-M. Jurdyc, “Coupling distance between Eu3+ emitters and Ag nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(15), 153115 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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B. Ghosh, P. Chakraborty, S. Mohapatra, P. A. Kurian, C. Vijayan, P. C. Deshmukh, and P. Mazzoldi, “Linear and nonlinear optical absorption in copper nanocluster-glass composites,” Mater. Lett.61(23–24), 4512–4515 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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L. A. Gómez, F. E. P. dos Santos, A. S. L. Gomes, C. B. de Araujo, L. R. P. Kassab, and W. G. Hora, “Near-infrared third-order nonlinearity of PbO-GeO2 films containing Cu and Cu2O nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(14), 141916 (2008).
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R. J. Amjad, M. R. Sahar, S. K. Ghoshal, M. R. Dousti, S. Riaz, A. R. Samavati, R. Arifin, and S. Naseem, “Annealing time dependent up-conversion luminescence enhancement in magnesium–tellurite glass,” J. Lumin.136, 145–149 (2013).
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X. Orignac, D. Barbier, X. M. Du, R. M. Almeida, O. McCarthy, and E. Yeatman, “Sol-gel silica/titania-on-silicon Er/Yb-doped waveguides for optical amplification at 1.5 µm,” Opt. Mater.12(1), 1–18 (1999).
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C. B. de Araújo, T. R. Oliveira, E. L. Falcão-Filho, D. M. da Silva, and L. R. P. Kassab, “Nonlinear optical properties of PbO-GeO2 films containing gold nanoparticles,” J. Lumin.133, 180–183 (2013).
[CrossRef]

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A. Chiasera, M. Ferrari, M. Mattarelli, M. Montagna, S. Pelli, H. Portales, J. Zheng, and G. Righini, “Assessment of spectroscopic properties of erbium ions in a soda-lime silicate glass after silver–sodium exchange,” Opt. Mater.27(11), 1743–1747 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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G. Fu, W. Cai, C. Kan, C. Li, and L. Zhang, “Controllable optical properties of Au/SiO2 nanocomposite induced by ultrasonic irradiation and thermal annealing,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(1), 36–38 (2003).
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T. Aisaka, M. Fujii, and S. Hayashi, “Enhancement of upconversion luminescence of Er doped Al2O3 films by Ag island films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(13), 132105 (2008).
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L. Armelao, D. Barreca, G. Bottaro, A. Gasparotto, S. Gross, C. Maragno, and E. Tondello, “Recent trends on nanocomposites based on Cu, Ag and Au clusters: A closer look,” Coord. Chem. Rev.250(11–12), 1294–1314 (2006).
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R. J. Amjad, M. R. Sahar, S. K. Ghoshal, M. R. Dousti, S. Riaz, A. R. Samavati, R. Arifin, and S. Naseem, “Annealing time dependent up-conversion luminescence enhancement in magnesium–tellurite glass,” J. Lumin.136, 145–149 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Gomes, A. S. L.

T. A. A. de Assumpção, L. R. P. Kassab, A. S. L. Gomes, C. B. de Araújo, and N. U. Wetter, “Influence of the heat treatment on the nucleation of silver nanoparticles in Tm3+ doped PbO-GeO2 glasses,” Appl. Phys. B103(1), 165–169 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Gómez, F. E. P. dos Santos, A. S. L. Gomes, C. B. de Araujo, L. R. P. Kassab, and W. G. Hora, “Near-infrared third-order nonlinearity of PbO-GeO2 films containing Cu and Cu2O nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(14), 141916 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. M. da Silva, L. R. P. Kassab, S. R. Lüthi, C. B. de Araújo, A. S. L. Gomes, and M. J. V. Bell, “Frequency upconversion in Er3+ doped PbO–GeO2 glasses containing metallic nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(8), 081913 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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L. A. Gómez, F. E. P. dos Santos, A. S. L. Gomes, C. B. de Araujo, L. R. P. Kassab, and W. G. Hora, “Near-infrared third-order nonlinearity of PbO-GeO2 films containing Cu and Cu2O nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(14), 141916 (2008).
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L. A. Gómez, F. E. P. dos Santos, A. S. L. Gomes, C. B. de Araujo, L. R. P. Kassab, and W. G. Hora, “Near-infrared third-order nonlinearity of PbO-GeO2 films containing Cu and Cu2O nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(14), 141916 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. R. P. Kassab, W. G. Hora, W. Lozano B, M. A. S. de Oliveira, and G. S. Maciel, “Optical properties of Er3+ doped GeO2-PbO glass: Effect of doping with Bi2O3,” Opt. Commun.269(2), 356–361 (2007).
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A. E. Christensen, C. Uhrenfeldt, B. Julsgaard, P. Balling, and A. N. Larsen, “Interaction between Au nanoparticles and Er3+ ions in a TiO2 matrix: Up-conversion of infrared light,” Energy Procedia10, 111–116 (2011).
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A. Pillonnet, A. Berthelot, A. Pereira, O. Benamara, S. Derom, G. Colas des Francs, and A.-M. Jurdyc, “Coupling distance between Eu3+ emitters and Ag nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(15), 153115 (2012).
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K. E. Lipinska-Kalita, D. M. Krol, R. J. Hemley, G. Mariotto, P. E. Kalita, and Y. Ohki, “Synthesis and characterization of metal-dielectric composites with copper nanoparticles embedded in a glass matrix: A multitechnique approach,” J. Appl. Phys.98(5), 054301 (2005).
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G. Fu, W. Cai, C. Kan, C. Li, and L. Zhang, “Controllable optical properties of Au/SiO2 nanocomposite induced by ultrasonic irradiation and thermal annealing,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(1), 36–38 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Karmakar, B.

Kassab, L. R. P.

C. B. de Araújo, D. S. da Silva, T. A. A. de Assumpção, L. R. P. Kassab, and D. M. da Silva, “Enhanced optical properties of germanate and tellurite glasses containing metal or semiconductor nanoparticles,” Sci. World J.2013, 385193 (2013).

C. B. de Araújo, T. R. Oliveira, E. L. Falcão-Filho, D. M. da Silva, and L. R. P. Kassab, “Nonlinear optical properties of PbO-GeO2 films containing gold nanoparticles,” J. Lumin.133, 180–183 (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. R. P. Kassab, M. E. Camilo, C. T. Amâncio, D. M. Silva, and J. R. Martinelli, “Effects of gold nanoparticles in the green and red emissions of TeO2–PbO–GeO2 glasses doped with Er3+–Yb3+,” Opt. Mater.33(12), 1948–1951 (2011).
[CrossRef]

V. D. Del Cacho, D. M. da Silva, L. R. P. Kassab, A. L. Siarkowski, and N. I. Morimoto, “PbO-GeO2 rib waveguides for photonic applications,” J. Alloy. Comp.509, S434–S437 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. A. A. de Assumpção, L. R. P. Kassab, A. S. L. Gomes, C. B. de Araújo, and N. U. Wetter, “Influence of the heat treatment on the nucleation of silver nanoparticles in Tm3+ doped PbO-GeO2 glasses,” Appl. Phys. B103(1), 165–169 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. A. Bomfim, J. R. Martinelli, L. R. P. Kassab, T. A. A. Assumpção, and C. B. de Araújo, “Infrared-to-visible upconversion in Yb3+/Er3+ co-doped PbO–GeO2 glass with silver nanoparticles,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids356(44-49), 2598–2601 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. M. da Silva, L. R. P. Kassab, J. R. Martinelli, and C. B. de Araújo, “Production and characterization of RF-sputtered PbO-GeO2 amorphous thin films containing silver and gold nanoparticles,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids356(44-49), 2602–2605 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. R. P. Kassab, D. S. da Silva, R. de Almeida, and C. B. de Araújo, “Photoluminescence enhancement by gold nanoparticles in Eu3+ doped GeO2-Bi2O3 glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(10), 101912 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Gómez, F. E. P. dos Santos, A. S. L. Gomes, C. B. de Araujo, L. R. P. Kassab, and W. G. Hora, “Near-infrared third-order nonlinearity of PbO-GeO2 films containing Cu and Cu2O nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(14), 141916 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. R. P. Kassab, W. G. Hora, W. Lozano B, M. A. S. de Oliveira, and G. S. Maciel, “Optical properties of Er3+ doped GeO2-PbO glass: Effect of doping with Bi2O3,” Opt. Commun.269(2), 356–361 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. M. da Silva, L. R. P. Kassab, S. R. Lüthi, C. B. de Araújo, A. S. L. Gomes, and M. J. V. Bell, “Frequency upconversion in Er3+ doped PbO–GeO2 glasses containing metallic nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(8), 081913 (2007).
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K. E. Lipinska-Kalita, D. M. Krol, R. J. Hemley, G. Mariotto, P. E. Kalita, and Y. Ohki, “Synthesis and characterization of metal-dielectric composites with copper nanoparticles embedded in a glass matrix: A multitechnique approach,” J. Appl. Phys.98(5), 054301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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B. Ghosh, P. Chakraborty, S. Mohapatra, P. A. Kurian, C. Vijayan, P. C. Deshmukh, and P. Mazzoldi, “Linear and nonlinear optical absorption in copper nanocluster-glass composites,” Mater. Lett.61(23–24), 4512–4515 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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A. E. Christensen, C. Uhrenfeldt, B. Julsgaard, P. Balling, and A. N. Larsen, “Interaction between Au nanoparticles and Er3+ ions in a TiO2 matrix: Up-conversion of infrared light,” Energy Procedia10, 111–116 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, C.

G. Fu, W. Cai, C. Kan, C. Li, and L. Zhang, “Controllable optical properties of Au/SiO2 nanocomposite induced by ultrasonic irradiation and thermal annealing,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(1), 36–38 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lipinska-Kalita, K. E.

K. E. Lipinska-Kalita, D. M. Krol, R. J. Hemley, G. Mariotto, P. E. Kalita, and Y. Ohki, “Synthesis and characterization of metal-dielectric composites with copper nanoparticles embedded in a glass matrix: A multitechnique approach,” J. Appl. Phys.98(5), 054301 (2005).
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Lozano B, W.

L. R. P. Kassab, W. G. Hora, W. Lozano B, M. A. S. de Oliveira, and G. S. Maciel, “Optical properties of Er3+ doped GeO2-PbO glass: Effect of doping with Bi2O3,” Opt. Commun.269(2), 356–361 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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D. M. da Silva, L. R. P. Kassab, S. R. Lüthi, C. B. de Araújo, A. S. L. Gomes, and M. J. V. Bell, “Frequency upconversion in Er3+ doped PbO–GeO2 glasses containing metallic nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(8), 081913 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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L. R. P. Kassab, W. G. Hora, W. Lozano B, M. A. S. de Oliveira, and G. S. Maciel, “Optical properties of Er3+ doped GeO2-PbO glass: Effect of doping with Bi2O3,” Opt. Commun.269(2), 356–361 (2007).
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D. Manzani, J. M. P. Almeida, M. Napoli, L. De Boni, M. Nalin, C. R. M. Afonso, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and C. R. Mendonça, “Nonlinear optical properties of tungsten lead-pyrophosphate glasses containing metallic copper nanoparticles,” Plasmonics8(4), 1667–1674 (2013).
[CrossRef]

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L. Armelao, D. Barreca, G. Bottaro, A. Gasparotto, S. Gross, C. Maragno, and E. Tondello, “Recent trends on nanocomposites based on Cu, Ag and Au clusters: A closer look,” Coord. Chem. Rev.250(11–12), 1294–1314 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mariotto, G.

K. E. Lipinska-Kalita, D. M. Krol, R. J. Hemley, G. Mariotto, P. E. Kalita, and Y. Ohki, “Synthesis and characterization of metal-dielectric composites with copper nanoparticles embedded in a glass matrix: A multitechnique approach,” J. Appl. Phys.98(5), 054301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Martinelli, J. R.

L. R. P. Kassab, M. E. Camilo, C. T. Amâncio, D. M. Silva, and J. R. Martinelli, “Effects of gold nanoparticles in the green and red emissions of TeO2–PbO–GeO2 glasses doped with Er3+–Yb3+,” Opt. Mater.33(12), 1948–1951 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. A. Bomfim, J. R. Martinelli, L. R. P. Kassab, T. A. A. Assumpção, and C. B. de Araújo, “Infrared-to-visible upconversion in Yb3+/Er3+ co-doped PbO–GeO2 glass with silver nanoparticles,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids356(44-49), 2598–2601 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. M. da Silva, L. R. P. Kassab, J. R. Martinelli, and C. B. de Araújo, “Production and characterization of RF-sputtered PbO-GeO2 amorphous thin films containing silver and gold nanoparticles,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids356(44-49), 2602–2605 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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A. Chiasera, M. Ferrari, M. Mattarelli, M. Montagna, S. Pelli, H. Portales, J. Zheng, and G. Righini, “Assessment of spectroscopic properties of erbium ions in a soda-lime silicate glass after silver–sodium exchange,” Opt. Mater.27(11), 1743–1747 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mazzoldi, P.

B. Ghosh, P. Chakraborty, S. Mohapatra, P. A. Kurian, C. Vijayan, P. C. Deshmukh, and P. Mazzoldi, “Linear and nonlinear optical absorption in copper nanocluster-glass composites,” Mater. Lett.61(23–24), 4512–4515 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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X. Orignac, D. Barbier, X. M. Du, R. M. Almeida, O. McCarthy, and E. Yeatman, “Sol-gel silica/titania-on-silicon Er/Yb-doped waveguides for optical amplification at 1.5 µm,” Opt. Mater.12(1), 1–18 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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D. Manzani, J. M. P. Almeida, M. Napoli, L. De Boni, M. Nalin, C. R. M. Afonso, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and C. R. Mendonça, “Nonlinear optical properties of tungsten lead-pyrophosphate glasses containing metallic copper nanoparticles,” Plasmonics8(4), 1667–1674 (2013).
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Miritello, M.

Mohapatra, S.

B. Ghosh, P. Chakraborty, S. Mohapatra, P. A. Kurian, C. Vijayan, P. C. Deshmukh, and P. Mazzoldi, “Linear and nonlinear optical absorption in copper nanocluster-glass composites,” Mater. Lett.61(23–24), 4512–4515 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Montagna, M.

A. Chiasera, M. Ferrari, M. Mattarelli, M. Montagna, S. Pelli, H. Portales, J. Zheng, and G. Righini, “Assessment of spectroscopic properties of erbium ions in a soda-lime silicate glass after silver–sodium exchange,” Opt. Mater.27(11), 1743–1747 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Morimoto, N. I.

V. D. Del Cacho, D. M. da Silva, L. R. P. Kassab, A. L. Siarkowski, and N. I. Morimoto, “PbO-GeO2 rib waveguides for photonic applications,” J. Alloy. Comp.509, S434–S437 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Murugan, G. S.

A. Z. Subramanian, G. S. Murugan, M. N. Zervas, and J. S. Wilkinson, “High index contrast Er:Ta2O5 waveguide amplifier on oxidised silicon,” Opt. Commun.285(2), 124–127 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nagaraj, A. A.

A. A. Nagaraj and Krokhin, “Long-range surface plasmons in dielectric-metal-dielectric structure with highly anisotropic substrates,” Phys. Rev. B81(8), 085426 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nalin, M.

D. Manzani, J. M. P. Almeida, M. Napoli, L. De Boni, M. Nalin, C. R. M. Afonso, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and C. R. Mendonça, “Nonlinear optical properties of tungsten lead-pyrophosphate glasses containing metallic copper nanoparticles,” Plasmonics8(4), 1667–1674 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Napoli, M.

D. Manzani, J. M. P. Almeida, M. Napoli, L. De Boni, M. Nalin, C. R. M. Afonso, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and C. R. Mendonça, “Nonlinear optical properties of tungsten lead-pyrophosphate glasses containing metallic copper nanoparticles,” Plasmonics8(4), 1667–1674 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Naseem, S.

R. J. Amjad, M. R. Sahar, S. K. Ghoshal, M. R. Dousti, S. Riaz, A. R. Samavati, R. Arifin, and S. Naseem, “Annealing time dependent up-conversion luminescence enhancement in magnesium–tellurite glass,” J. Lumin.136, 145–149 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Novotny, L.

P. Anger, P. Bharadwaj, and L. Novotny, “Enhancement and quenching of single-molecule fluorescence,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(11), 113002 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ohki, Y.

K. E. Lipinska-Kalita, D. M. Krol, R. J. Hemley, G. Mariotto, P. E. Kalita, and Y. Ohki, “Synthesis and characterization of metal-dielectric composites with copper nanoparticles embedded in a glass matrix: A multitechnique approach,” J. Appl. Phys.98(5), 054301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Okamura, Y.

Oliveira, T. R.

C. B. de Araújo, T. R. Oliveira, E. L. Falcão-Filho, D. M. da Silva, and L. R. P. Kassab, “Nonlinear optical properties of PbO-GeO2 films containing gold nanoparticles,” J. Lumin.133, 180–183 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Orignac, X.

X. Orignac, D. Barbier, X. M. Du, R. M. Almeida, O. McCarthy, and E. Yeatman, “Sol-gel silica/titania-on-silicon Er/Yb-doped waveguides for optical amplification at 1.5 µm,” Opt. Mater.12(1), 1–18 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pelli, S.

A. Chiasera, M. Ferrari, M. Mattarelli, M. Montagna, S. Pelli, H. Portales, J. Zheng, and G. Righini, “Assessment of spectroscopic properties of erbium ions in a soda-lime silicate glass after silver–sodium exchange,” Opt. Mater.27(11), 1743–1747 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pereira, A.

A. Pillonnet, A. Berthelot, A. Pereira, O. Benamara, S. Derom, G. Colas des Francs, and A.-M. Jurdyc, “Coupling distance between Eu3+ emitters and Ag nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(15), 153115 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Pillai, S.

S. Pillai and M. A. Green, “Plasmonics for photovoltaic applications,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells94(9), 1481–1486 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pillonnet, A.

A. Pillonnet, A. Berthelot, A. Pereira, O. Benamara, S. Derom, G. Colas des Francs, and A.-M. Jurdyc, “Coupling distance between Eu3+ emitters and Ag nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(15), 153115 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Polman, A.

P. G. Kik and A. Polman, “Erbium doped optical waveguide amplifiers on silicon,” MRS Bull.23, 48–54 (1998).

Portales, H.

A. Chiasera, M. Ferrari, M. Mattarelli, M. Montagna, S. Pelli, H. Portales, J. Zheng, and G. Righini, “Assessment of spectroscopic properties of erbium ions in a soda-lime silicate glass after silver–sodium exchange,” Opt. Mater.27(11), 1743–1747 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Priolo, F.

Radnóczi, G.

Z. Czigány and G. Radnóczi, “Columnar growth structure and evolution of wavy interface morphology in amorphous multilayered thin films,” Thin Solid Films343–344, 5–8 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Riaz, S.

R. J. Amjad, M. R. Sahar, S. K. Ghoshal, M. R. Dousti, S. Riaz, A. R. Samavati, R. Arifin, and S. Naseem, “Annealing time dependent up-conversion luminescence enhancement in magnesium–tellurite glass,” J. Lumin.136, 145–149 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Ribeiro, S. J. L.

D. Manzani, J. M. P. Almeida, M. Napoli, L. De Boni, M. Nalin, C. R. M. Afonso, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and C. R. Mendonça, “Nonlinear optical properties of tungsten lead-pyrophosphate glasses containing metallic copper nanoparticles,” Plasmonics8(4), 1667–1674 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Righini, G.

A. Chiasera, M. Ferrari, M. Mattarelli, M. Montagna, S. Pelli, H. Portales, J. Zheng, and G. Righini, “Assessment of spectroscopic properties of erbium ions in a soda-lime silicate glass after silver–sodium exchange,” Opt. Mater.27(11), 1743–1747 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sahar, M. R.

R. J. Amjad, M. R. Sahar, S. K. Ghoshal, M. R. Dousti, S. Riaz, A. R. Samavati, R. Arifin, and S. Naseem, “Annealing time dependent up-conversion luminescence enhancement in magnesium–tellurite glass,” J. Lumin.136, 145–149 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Samavati, A. R.

R. J. Amjad, M. R. Sahar, S. K. Ghoshal, M. R. Dousti, S. Riaz, A. R. Samavati, R. Arifin, and S. Naseem, “Annealing time dependent up-conversion luminescence enhancement in magnesium–tellurite glass,” J. Lumin.136, 145–149 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Siarkowski, A. L.

V. D. Del Cacho, D. M. da Silva, L. R. P. Kassab, A. L. Siarkowski, and N. I. Morimoto, “PbO-GeO2 rib waveguides for photonic applications,” J. Alloy. Comp.509, S434–S437 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Silva, D. M.

L. R. P. Kassab, M. E. Camilo, C. T. Amâncio, D. M. Silva, and J. R. Martinelli, “Effects of gold nanoparticles in the green and red emissions of TeO2–PbO–GeO2 glasses doped with Er3+–Yb3+,” Opt. Mater.33(12), 1948–1951 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Som, T.

Steckl, A. J.

C. C. Baker, J. Heikenfeld, Z. Yu, and A. J. Steckl, “Optical amplification and electroluminescence at 1.54 µm in Er-doped zinc silicate germanate on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(9), 1462–1464 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Subramanian, A. Z.

A. Z. Subramanian, G. S. Murugan, M. N. Zervas, and J. S. Wilkinson, “High index contrast Er:Ta2O5 waveguide amplifier on oxidised silicon,” Opt. Commun.285(2), 124–127 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, M.

M. Thomas, J. J. Greffet, R. Carminati, and J. R. Arias-Gonzalez, “Single-molecule spontaneous emission close to absorbing nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(17), 3863–3865 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tondello, E.

L. Armelao, D. Barreca, G. Bottaro, A. Gasparotto, S. Gross, C. Maragno, and E. Tondello, “Recent trends on nanocomposites based on Cu, Ag and Au clusters: A closer look,” Coord. Chem. Rev.250(11–12), 1294–1314 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Uhrenfeldt, C.

A. E. Christensen, C. Uhrenfeldt, B. Julsgaard, P. Balling, and A. N. Larsen, “Interaction between Au nanoparticles and Er3+ ions in a TiO2 matrix: Up-conversion of infrared light,” Energy Procedia10, 111–116 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Vijayan, C.

B. Ghosh, P. Chakraborty, S. Mohapatra, P. A. Kurian, C. Vijayan, P. C. Deshmukh, and P. Mazzoldi, “Linear and nonlinear optical absorption in copper nanocluster-glass composites,” Mater. Lett.61(23–24), 4512–4515 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vu, K.

Wetter, N. U.

T. A. A. de Assumpção, L. R. P. Kassab, A. S. L. Gomes, C. B. de Araújo, and N. U. Wetter, “Influence of the heat treatment on the nucleation of silver nanoparticles in Tm3+ doped PbO-GeO2 glasses,” Appl. Phys. B103(1), 165–169 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Wilkinson, J. S.

A. Z. Subramanian, G. S. Murugan, M. N. Zervas, and J. S. Wilkinson, “High index contrast Er:Ta2O5 waveguide amplifier on oxidised silicon,” Opt. Commun.285(2), 124–127 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, S.

Yeatman, E.

X. Orignac, D. Barbier, X. M. Du, R. M. Almeida, O. McCarthy, and E. Yeatman, “Sol-gel silica/titania-on-silicon Er/Yb-doped waveguides for optical amplification at 1.5 µm,” Opt. Mater.12(1), 1–18 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yoshinaka, S.

Yu, Z.

C. C. Baker, J. Heikenfeld, Z. Yu, and A. J. Steckl, “Optical amplification and electroluminescence at 1.54 µm in Er-doped zinc silicate germanate on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(9), 1462–1464 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zervas, M. N.

A. Z. Subramanian, G. S. Murugan, M. N. Zervas, and J. S. Wilkinson, “High index contrast Er:Ta2O5 waveguide amplifier on oxidised silicon,” Opt. Commun.285(2), 124–127 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

G. Fu, W. Cai, C. Kan, C. Li, and L. Zhang, “Controllable optical properties of Au/SiO2 nanocomposite induced by ultrasonic irradiation and thermal annealing,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(1), 36–38 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, J.

A. Chiasera, M. Ferrari, M. Mattarelli, M. Montagna, S. Pelli, H. Portales, J. Zheng, and G. Righini, “Assessment of spectroscopic properties of erbium ions in a soda-lime silicate glass after silver–sodium exchange,” Opt. Mater.27(11), 1743–1747 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Opt. Photon. (1)

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

T. A. A. de Assumpção, L. R. P. Kassab, A. S. L. Gomes, C. B. de Araújo, and N. U. Wetter, “Influence of the heat treatment on the nucleation of silver nanoparticles in Tm3+ doped PbO-GeO2 glasses,” Appl. Phys. B103(1), 165–169 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (8)

D. M. da Silva, L. R. P. Kassab, S. R. Lüthi, C. B. de Araújo, A. S. L. Gomes, and M. J. V. Bell, “Frequency upconversion in Er3+ doped PbO–GeO2 glasses containing metallic nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(8), 081913 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Pillonnet, A. Berthelot, A. Pereira, O. Benamara, S. Derom, G. Colas des Francs, and A.-M. Jurdyc, “Coupling distance between Eu3+ emitters and Ag nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(15), 153115 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Thomas, J. J. Greffet, R. Carminati, and J. R. Arias-Gonzalez, “Single-molecule spontaneous emission close to absorbing nanostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(17), 3863–3865 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. Fu, W. Cai, C. Kan, C. Li, and L. Zhang, “Controllable optical properties of Au/SiO2 nanocomposite induced by ultrasonic irradiation and thermal annealing,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(1), 36–38 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. R. P. Kassab, D. S. da Silva, R. de Almeida, and C. B. de Araújo, “Photoluminescence enhancement by gold nanoparticles in Eu3+ doped GeO2-Bi2O3 glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(10), 101912 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Gómez, F. E. P. dos Santos, A. S. L. Gomes, C. B. de Araujo, L. R. P. Kassab, and W. G. Hora, “Near-infrared third-order nonlinearity of PbO-GeO2 films containing Cu and Cu2O nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(14), 141916 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Baker, J. Heikenfeld, Z. Yu, and A. J. Steckl, “Optical amplification and electroluminescence at 1.54 µm in Er-doped zinc silicate germanate on silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(9), 1462–1464 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Aisaka, M. Fujii, and S. Hayashi, “Enhancement of upconversion luminescence of Er doped Al2O3 films by Ag island films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(13), 132105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Coord. Chem. Rev. (1)

L. Armelao, D. Barreca, G. Bottaro, A. Gasparotto, S. Gross, C. Maragno, and E. Tondello, “Recent trends on nanocomposites based on Cu, Ag and Au clusters: A closer look,” Coord. Chem. Rev.250(11–12), 1294–1314 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Energy Procedia (1)

A. E. Christensen, C. Uhrenfeldt, B. Julsgaard, P. Balling, and A. N. Larsen, “Interaction between Au nanoparticles and Er3+ ions in a TiO2 matrix: Up-conversion of infrared light,” Energy Procedia10, 111–116 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Alloy. Comp. (1)

V. D. Del Cacho, D. M. da Silva, L. R. P. Kassab, A. L. Siarkowski, and N. I. Morimoto, “PbO-GeO2 rib waveguides for photonic applications,” J. Alloy. Comp.509, S434–S437 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

K. E. Lipinska-Kalita, D. M. Krol, R. J. Hemley, G. Mariotto, P. E. Kalita, and Y. Ohki, “Synthesis and characterization of metal-dielectric composites with copper nanoparticles embedded in a glass matrix: A multitechnique approach,” J. Appl. Phys.98(5), 054301 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

M. Inokuti and F. Hirayama, “Influence of energy transfer by the exchange mechanism on donor luminescence,” J. Chem. Phys.43(6), 1978–1989 (1965).
[CrossRef]

J. Lumin. (2)

C. B. de Araújo, T. R. Oliveira, E. L. Falcão-Filho, D. M. da Silva, and L. R. P. Kassab, “Nonlinear optical properties of PbO-GeO2 films containing gold nanoparticles,” J. Lumin.133, 180–183 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Amjad, M. R. Sahar, S. K. Ghoshal, M. R. Dousti, S. Riaz, A. R. Samavati, R. Arifin, and S. Naseem, “Annealing time dependent up-conversion luminescence enhancement in magnesium–tellurite glass,” J. Lumin.136, 145–149 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (2)

D. M. da Silva, L. R. P. Kassab, J. R. Martinelli, and C. B. de Araújo, “Production and characterization of RF-sputtered PbO-GeO2 amorphous thin films containing silver and gold nanoparticles,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids356(44-49), 2602–2605 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. A. Bomfim, J. R. Martinelli, L. R. P. Kassab, T. A. A. Assumpção, and C. B. de Araújo, “Infrared-to-visible upconversion in Yb3+/Er3+ co-doped PbO–GeO2 glass with silver nanoparticles,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids356(44-49), 2598–2601 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Mater. Lett. (1)

B. Ghosh, P. Chakraborty, S. Mohapatra, P. A. Kurian, C. Vijayan, P. C. Deshmukh, and P. Mazzoldi, “Linear and nonlinear optical absorption in copper nanocluster-glass composites,” Mater. Lett.61(23–24), 4512–4515 (2007).
[CrossRef]

MRS Bull. (1)

P. G. Kik and A. Polman, “Erbium doped optical waveguide amplifiers on silicon,” MRS Bull.23, 48–54 (1998).

Opt. Commun. (2)

L. R. P. Kassab, W. G. Hora, W. Lozano B, M. A. S. de Oliveira, and G. S. Maciel, “Optical properties of Er3+ doped GeO2-PbO glass: Effect of doping with Bi2O3,” Opt. Commun.269(2), 356–361 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Z. Subramanian, G. S. Murugan, M. N. Zervas, and J. S. Wilkinson, “High index contrast Er:Ta2O5 waveguide amplifier on oxidised silicon,” Opt. Commun.285(2), 124–127 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Mater. (3)

X. Orignac, D. Barbier, X. M. Du, R. M. Almeida, O. McCarthy, and E. Yeatman, “Sol-gel silica/titania-on-silicon Er/Yb-doped waveguides for optical amplification at 1.5 µm,” Opt. Mater.12(1), 1–18 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Chiasera, M. Ferrari, M. Mattarelli, M. Montagna, S. Pelli, H. Portales, J. Zheng, and G. Righini, “Assessment of spectroscopic properties of erbium ions in a soda-lime silicate glass after silver–sodium exchange,” Opt. Mater.27(11), 1743–1747 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. R. P. Kassab, M. E. Camilo, C. T. Amâncio, D. M. Silva, and J. R. Martinelli, “Effects of gold nanoparticles in the green and red emissions of TeO2–PbO–GeO2 glasses doped with Er3+–Yb3+,” Opt. Mater.33(12), 1948–1951 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

A. A. Nagaraj and Krokhin, “Long-range surface plasmons in dielectric-metal-dielectric structure with highly anisotropic substrates,” Phys. Rev. B81(8), 085426 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

P. Anger, P. Bharadwaj, and L. Novotny, “Enhancement and quenching of single-molecule fluorescence,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96(11), 113002 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Plasmonics (1)

D. Manzani, J. M. P. Almeida, M. Napoli, L. De Boni, M. Nalin, C. R. M. Afonso, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and C. R. Mendonça, “Nonlinear optical properties of tungsten lead-pyrophosphate glasses containing metallic copper nanoparticles,” Plasmonics8(4), 1667–1674 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Sci. World J. (1)

C. B. de Araújo, D. S. da Silva, T. A. A. de Assumpção, L. R. P. Kassab, and D. M. da Silva, “Enhanced optical properties of germanate and tellurite glasses containing metal or semiconductor nanoparticles,” Sci. World J.2013, 385193 (2013).

Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (1)

S. Pillai and M. A. Green, “Plasmonics for photovoltaic applications,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells94(9), 1481–1486 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (1)

Z. Czigány and G. Radnóczi, “Columnar growth structure and evolution of wavy interface morphology in amorphous multilayered thin films,” Thin Solid Films343–344, 5–8 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

L. Novotny and B. Hecht, Principles of Nano-Optics (Cambridge University, 2006).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Emission spectra of Er3+/Yb3+ PGO thin films under excitation at 980nm in (a) visible and (b) near infrared regions.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

PL decay curves for emission centered at 670 nm, under excitation at 980nm. Power applied to Er2O3/Yb2O3 target: (a) 30 W and (b) 15 W.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Propagation losses for Er3+/Yb3+ codoped PGO waveguides as a function of waveguides width. Insets show the near-field profiles for four waveguides. (b) Optical gain as a function of pump power. The pump and signal wavelengths were 980 and 1530 nm, respectively. The inset shows the near field profile at 1050 nm, at the end of the waveguide with the gold nano layer.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Schematics showing the details of the waveguide with the gold nanostructured thin film. (b) SEM micrograph of the waveguide with the gold nanolayer. (c) AFM analysis of the waveguide, showing the details of the nanostructured gold layer deposited on the waveguide core.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Lifetimes measured for the RE doped films (4F9/24I15/2 transition). The theoretical radiative lifetime obtained using the Judd Ofelt theory is also shown.

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