Abstract

We report the efficient poling of an electro-optic (EO) polymer in a hybrid TiO2/electro-optic polymer multilayer waveguide modulator on mesoporous sol-gel silica cladding. The mesoporous sol-gel silica has nanometer-sized pores and a low refractive index of 1.24, which improves mode confinement in the 400-nm-thick EO polymer film in the modulators and prevents optical absorption from the lower Au electrode, thereby resulting in a lower half-wave voltage of the modulators. The half-wave voltage (Vπ) of the hybrid modulator fabricated on the mesoporous sol-gel silica cladding is 6.0 V for an electrode length (Le) of 5 mm at a wavelength of 1550 nm (VπLe product of 3.0 V·cm) using a low-index guest-host EO polymer (in-device EO coefficient of 75 pm/V).

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, W. Wang, and Y. Shi, “Demonstration of 110 GHz electro-optic polymer modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.70(25), 3335–3337 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Y. Enami, C. T. DeRose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid electro-optic polymer/sol-gel waveguide directional coupler switches,” Nat. Photon.1, 180–185 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Y. Enami, D. Mathine, C. T. DeRose, R. A. Norwood, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid crosslinkable polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with 0.65V half-wave voltage at 1550nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(9), 093505 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. N.-N. Feng, S. Liao, D. Feng, P. Dong, D. Zheng, H. Liang, R. Shafiiha, G. Li, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High speed carrier-depletion modulators with 1.4 V-cm VπL integrated on 0.25µm silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Express18(8), 7994–7999 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. B. A. Block, T. R. Younkin, P. S. Davids, M. R. Reshotko, P. Chang, B. M. Polishak, S. Huang, J. Luo, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Electro-optic polymer cladding ring resonator modulators,” Opt. Express16(22), 18326–18333 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, W.-J. Kim, A. Spott, M. Fournier, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Huang, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, L. Dalton, and M. Hochberg, “Sub-volt silicon-organic electro-optic modulator with 500 MHz bandwidth,” J. Lightwave Technol.29(8), 1112–1117 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Gould, T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, S. Huang, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, J.-M. Fedeli, M. Fournier, and M. Hochberg, “Silicon-polymer hybrid slot waveguide ring-resonator modulator,” Opt. Express19(5), 3952–3961 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. X. Wang, C.-Y. Lin, S. Chakravarty, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. T. Chen, “Effective in-device r33 of 735 pm/V on electro-optic polymer infiltrated silicon photonic crystal slot waveguides,” Opt. Lett.36(6), 882–884 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. Y. Enami, B. Yuan, M. Tanaka, J. Luo, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Hybrid electro-optic polyer/TiO2 multilayer waveguide modulators on mesoporous sol-gel silica cladding,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101, 123509 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  12. M. Nogami and Y. Abe, “Evidence of water-cooperative proton conduction in silica glasses,” Phys. Rev. B55(18), 12108–12112 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Y. Enami, J. Luo, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Short hybrid sol-gel silica/polymer waveguide directional coupler switches with high in-device electro-optic coefficient based on photostable chromophore,” AIP Adv.1, 042137 (2011).
    [CrossRef]

2012

Y. Enami, B. Yuan, M. Tanaka, J. Luo, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Hybrid electro-optic polyer/TiO2 multilayer waveguide modulators on mesoporous sol-gel silica cladding,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101, 123509 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Ziebell, D. Marris-Morini, G. Rasigade, J.-M. Fédéli, P. Crozat, E. Cassan, D. Bouville, and L. Vivien, “40 Gbit/s low-loss silicon optical modulator based on a pipin diode,” Opt. Express20(10), 10591–10596 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

2010

2008

2007

Y. Enami, C. T. DeRose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid electro-optic polymer/sol-gel waveguide directional coupler switches,” Nat. Photon.1, 180–185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Enami, D. Mathine, C. T. DeRose, R. A. Norwood, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid crosslinkable polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with 0.65V half-wave voltage at 1550nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(9), 093505 (2007).
[CrossRef]

1999

C. J. Brinker, Y. Lu, A. Sellinger, and H. Fan, “Evaporation-induced self-assembly: nanostructures made easy,” Adv. Mater.11(7), 579–585 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

M. Nogami and Y. Abe, “Evidence of water-cooperative proton conduction in silica glasses,” Phys. Rev. B55(18), 12108–12112 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, W. Wang, and Y. Shi, “Demonstration of 110 GHz electro-optic polymer modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.70(25), 3335–3337 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Abe, Y.

M. Nogami and Y. Abe, “Evidence of water-cooperative proton conduction in silica glasses,” Phys. Rev. B55(18), 12108–12112 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Asghari, M.

Baehr-Jones, T.

Block, B. A.

Bouville, D.

Brinker, C. J.

C. J. Brinker, Y. Lu, A. Sellinger, and H. Fan, “Evaporation-induced self-assembly: nanostructures made easy,” Adv. Mater.11(7), 579–585 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cassan, E.

Chakravarty, S.

Chang, P.

Chen, A.

D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, W. Wang, and Y. Shi, “Demonstration of 110 GHz electro-optic polymer modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.70(25), 3335–3337 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chen, D.

D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, W. Wang, and Y. Shi, “Demonstration of 110 GHz electro-optic polymer modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.70(25), 3335–3337 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chen, R. T.

Crozat, P.

Cunningham, J. E.

Dalton, L.

Dalton, L. R.

D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, W. Wang, and Y. Shi, “Demonstration of 110 GHz electro-optic polymer modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.70(25), 3335–3337 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Davids, P. S.

DeRose, C. T.

Y. Enami, C. T. DeRose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid electro-optic polymer/sol-gel waveguide directional coupler switches,” Nat. Photon.1, 180–185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Enami, D. Mathine, C. T. DeRose, R. A. Norwood, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid crosslinkable polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with 0.65V half-wave voltage at 1550nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(9), 093505 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ding, R.

Dong, P.

Enami, Y.

Y. Enami, B. Yuan, M. Tanaka, J. Luo, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Hybrid electro-optic polyer/TiO2 multilayer waveguide modulators on mesoporous sol-gel silica cladding,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101, 123509 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Enami, J. Luo, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Short hybrid sol-gel silica/polymer waveguide directional coupler switches with high in-device electro-optic coefficient based on photostable chromophore,” AIP Adv.1, 042137 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Enami, C. T. DeRose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid electro-optic polymer/sol-gel waveguide directional coupler switches,” Nat. Photon.1, 180–185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Enami, D. Mathine, C. T. DeRose, R. A. Norwood, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid crosslinkable polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with 0.65V half-wave voltage at 1550nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(9), 093505 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fan, H.

C. J. Brinker, Y. Lu, A. Sellinger, and H. Fan, “Evaporation-induced self-assembly: nanostructures made easy,” Adv. Mater.11(7), 579–585 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fedeli, J.-M.

Fédéli, J.-M.

Feng, D.

Feng, N.-N.

Fetterman, H. R.

D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, W. Wang, and Y. Shi, “Demonstration of 110 GHz electro-optic polymer modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.70(25), 3335–3337 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fournier, M.

Gould, M.

Greenlee, C.

Y. Enami, C. T. DeRose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid electro-optic polymer/sol-gel waveguide directional coupler switches,” Nat. Photon.1, 180–185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hochberg, M.

Huang, S.

Jen, A. K.-Y.

Y. Enami, B. Yuan, M. Tanaka, J. Luo, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Hybrid electro-optic polyer/TiO2 multilayer waveguide modulators on mesoporous sol-gel silica cladding,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101, 123509 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, W.-J. Kim, A. Spott, M. Fournier, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Huang, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, L. Dalton, and M. Hochberg, “Sub-volt silicon-organic electro-optic modulator with 500 MHz bandwidth,” J. Lightwave Technol.29(8), 1112–1117 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Gould, T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, S. Huang, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, J.-M. Fedeli, M. Fournier, and M. Hochberg, “Silicon-polymer hybrid slot waveguide ring-resonator modulator,” Opt. Express19(5), 3952–3961 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Enami, J. Luo, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Short hybrid sol-gel silica/polymer waveguide directional coupler switches with high in-device electro-optic coefficient based on photostable chromophore,” AIP Adv.1, 042137 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, C.-Y. Lin, S. Chakravarty, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. T. Chen, “Effective in-device r33 of 735 pm/V on electro-optic polymer infiltrated silicon photonic crystal slot waveguides,” Opt. Lett.36(6), 882–884 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. A. Block, T. R. Younkin, P. S. Davids, M. R. Reshotko, P. Chang, B. M. Polishak, S. Huang, J. Luo, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Electro-optic polymer cladding ring resonator modulators,” Opt. Express16(22), 18326–18333 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Enami, C. T. DeRose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid electro-optic polymer/sol-gel waveguide directional coupler switches,” Nat. Photon.1, 180–185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Enami, D. Mathine, C. T. DeRose, R. A. Norwood, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid crosslinkable polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with 0.65V half-wave voltage at 1550nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(9), 093505 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, T. D.

Y. Enami, C. T. DeRose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid electro-optic polymer/sol-gel waveguide directional coupler switches,” Nat. Photon.1, 180–185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, W.-J.

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

Li, G.

Liang, H.

Liao, S.

Lin, C.-Y.

Loychik, C.

Y. Enami, C. T. DeRose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid electro-optic polymer/sol-gel waveguide directional coupler switches,” Nat. Photon.1, 180–185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y.

C. J. Brinker, Y. Lu, A. Sellinger, and H. Fan, “Evaporation-induced self-assembly: nanostructures made easy,” Adv. Mater.11(7), 579–585 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Luo, J.

Y. Enami, B. Yuan, M. Tanaka, J. Luo, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Hybrid electro-optic polyer/TiO2 multilayer waveguide modulators on mesoporous sol-gel silica cladding,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101, 123509 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Ding, T. Baehr-Jones, W.-J. Kim, A. Spott, M. Fournier, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Huang, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, L. Dalton, and M. Hochberg, “Sub-volt silicon-organic electro-optic modulator with 500 MHz bandwidth,” J. Lightwave Technol.29(8), 1112–1117 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Gould, T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, S. Huang, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, J.-M. Fedeli, M. Fournier, and M. Hochberg, “Silicon-polymer hybrid slot waveguide ring-resonator modulator,” Opt. Express19(5), 3952–3961 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Enami, J. Luo, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Short hybrid sol-gel silica/polymer waveguide directional coupler switches with high in-device electro-optic coefficient based on photostable chromophore,” AIP Adv.1, 042137 (2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, C.-Y. Lin, S. Chakravarty, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. T. Chen, “Effective in-device r33 of 735 pm/V on electro-optic polymer infiltrated silicon photonic crystal slot waveguides,” Opt. Lett.36(6), 882–884 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. A. Block, T. R. Younkin, P. S. Davids, M. R. Reshotko, P. Chang, B. M. Polishak, S. Huang, J. Luo, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Electro-optic polymer cladding ring resonator modulators,” Opt. Express16(22), 18326–18333 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Enami, C. T. DeRose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid electro-optic polymer/sol-gel waveguide directional coupler switches,” Nat. Photon.1, 180–185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Enami, D. Mathine, C. T. DeRose, R. A. Norwood, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid crosslinkable polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with 0.65V half-wave voltage at 1550nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(9), 093505 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Marris-Morini, D.

Mathine, D.

Y. Enami, C. T. DeRose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid electro-optic polymer/sol-gel waveguide directional coupler switches,” Nat. Photon.1, 180–185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Enami, D. Mathine, C. T. DeRose, R. A. Norwood, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid crosslinkable polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with 0.65V half-wave voltage at 1550nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(9), 093505 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nogami, M.

M. Nogami and Y. Abe, “Evidence of water-cooperative proton conduction in silica glasses,” Phys. Rev. B55(18), 12108–12112 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Norwood, R. A.

Y. Enami, C. T. DeRose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid electro-optic polymer/sol-gel waveguide directional coupler switches,” Nat. Photon.1, 180–185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Enami, D. Mathine, C. T. DeRose, R. A. Norwood, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid crosslinkable polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with 0.65V half-wave voltage at 1550nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(9), 093505 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Peyghambarian, N.

Y. Enami, D. Mathine, C. T. DeRose, R. A. Norwood, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid crosslinkable polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with 0.65V half-wave voltage at 1550nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(9), 093505 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Enami, C. T. DeRose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid electro-optic polymer/sol-gel waveguide directional coupler switches,” Nat. Photon.1, 180–185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Polishak, B. M.

Rasigade, G.

Reshotko, M. R.

Sellinger, A.

C. J. Brinker, Y. Lu, A. Sellinger, and H. Fan, “Evaporation-induced self-assembly: nanostructures made easy,” Adv. Mater.11(7), 579–585 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Shafiiha, R.

Shi, Y.

D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, W. Wang, and Y. Shi, “Demonstration of 110 GHz electro-optic polymer modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.70(25), 3335–3337 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Spott, A.

Steier, W. H.

D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, W. Wang, and Y. Shi, “Demonstration of 110 GHz electro-optic polymer modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.70(25), 3335–3337 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, M.

Y. Enami, B. Yuan, M. Tanaka, J. Luo, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Hybrid electro-optic polyer/TiO2 multilayer waveguide modulators on mesoporous sol-gel silica cladding,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101, 123509 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tian, Y.

Y. Enami, C. T. DeRose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid electro-optic polymer/sol-gel waveguide directional coupler switches,” Nat. Photon.1, 180–185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vivien, L.

Wang, W.

D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, W. Wang, and Y. Shi, “Demonstration of 110 GHz electro-optic polymer modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.70(25), 3335–3337 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

Younkin, T. R.

Yuan, B.

Y. Enami, B. Yuan, M. Tanaka, J. Luo, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Hybrid electro-optic polyer/TiO2 multilayer waveguide modulators on mesoporous sol-gel silica cladding,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101, 123509 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, D.

Ziebell, M.

Adv. Mater.

C. J. Brinker, Y. Lu, A. Sellinger, and H. Fan, “Evaporation-induced self-assembly: nanostructures made easy,” Adv. Mater.11(7), 579–585 (1999).
[CrossRef]

AIP Adv.

Y. Enami, J. Luo, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Short hybrid sol-gel silica/polymer waveguide directional coupler switches with high in-device electro-optic coefficient based on photostable chromophore,” AIP Adv.1, 042137 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, W. Wang, and Y. Shi, “Demonstration of 110 GHz electro-optic polymer modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.70(25), 3335–3337 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Enami, D. Mathine, C. T. DeRose, R. A. Norwood, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid crosslinkable polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with 0.65V half-wave voltage at 1550nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(9), 093505 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Enami, B. Yuan, M. Tanaka, J. Luo, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Hybrid electro-optic polyer/TiO2 multilayer waveguide modulators on mesoporous sol-gel silica cladding,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101, 123509 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Nat. Photon.

Y. Enami, C. T. DeRose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid electro-optic polymer/sol-gel waveguide directional coupler switches,” Nat. Photon.1, 180–185 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. B

M. Nogami and Y. Abe, “Evidence of water-cooperative proton conduction in silica glasses,” Phys. Rev. B55(18), 12108–12112 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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