Abstract

We present a two-dimensional, active, millimeter-wave, electronic beam scanner, with Doppler capabilities for stand-off imaging. The two-dimensional scan is achieved by mapping the millimeter wave spectrum to space using a pair of crossed gratings. The active transceiver and heterodyne quadrature detection allow the measurement of the relative phase between two consecutive measurements and the synthesis of the scene’s Doppler signature. The frame rate of the imager is currently limited by the sweep rate of the vector network analyzer which is used to drive the millimeter wave extenders. All of the beam steering components are passive and can be designed to operate at any wavelength. The system design, characterization and measurements are presented and further uses and improvements are suggested.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2013 (3)

J. Hunt, T. Driscoll, A. Mrozack, G. Lipworth, M. Reynolds, D. Brady, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial Apertures for Computational Imaging,” Science 339(6117), 310–313 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Lipworth, A. Mrozack, J. Hunt, D. L. Marks, T. Driscoll, D. Brady, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial apertures for coherent computational imaging on the physical layer,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 30(8), 1603–1612 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Gallacher, D. Robertson, and G. Smith, “The Photo-Injected Fresnel Zone Plate Antenna: Optoelectronic Beam Steering at mm-Wave Frequencies,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propaga.,  61(4), 1688–1696 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

O. Furxhi, E. L. Jacobs, and C. Preza, “Image plane coded aperture for terahertz imaging,” Opt. Engr. 51(9), 091612 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

E. Heinz, T. May, D. Born, G. Zieger, G. Thorwirth, S. Anders, V. Zakosarenko, T. Krause, A. Krüger, M. Schulz, H.-G. Meyer, M. Schubert, and M. Starkloff, “Toward high-sensitivity and high-resolution submillimeter-wave video imaging,” Opt. Eng. 50(11), 113204 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. Cooper, R. Dengler, N. Llombart, B. Thomas, G. Chattopadhyay, and P. Siegel, “THz Imaging Radar for Standoff Personnel Screening,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Tech. 1(1), 169–182 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

K. Goda, K. K. Tsia, and B. Jalali, “Serial time-encoded amplified imaging for real-time observation of fast dynamic phenomena,” Nature 458(7242), 1145–1149 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

2007 (2)

R. Appleby and R. Anderton, “Millimeter-Wave and Submillimeter-Wave Imaging for Security and Surveillance,” Proc. IEEE 95(8), 1683–1690 (2007).
[Crossref]

R. Appleby and H. Wallace, “Standoff Detection of Weapons and Contraband in the 100 GHz to 1 THz Region,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 55(11), 2944–2956 (2007).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

I. Amidror, “Scattered data interpolation methods for electronic imaging systems: a survey,” J. Elec. Imag. 11(2), 157–176 (2002).
[Crossref]

1978 (1)

1967 (1)

1956 (1)

W. C. Michels, “Phase Shifts and the Doppler Effect,” Am. J. Phys. 24(2), 51–53 (1956).
[Crossref]

Aikio, M.

A. Luukanen, M. Aikio, M. Grönholm, M. M. Leivo, A. Mäyrä, A. Rautiainen, and H. Toivanen, “Design and performance of a passive video-rate THz system demonstrator,” in Passive Millimeter-Wave Imaging Technology XIV, D. A. Wikner and A. R. Luukanen, eds., vol. 8022, p. 802207 (SPIE, 2011).
[Crossref]

Ala-Laurinaho, J.

A. Luukanen, J. Ala-Laurinaho, D. G. Martins, J. Häkli, P. Koivisto, P. Pursula, P. Rantakari, J. Säily, A. Tamminen, R. Tuovinen, and M. Sipilä, “Rapid beamsteering reflectarrays for mm-wave and submm-wave imaging radars,” in Passive Millimeter-Wave Imaging Technology XIV, D. A. Wikner and A. R. Luukanen, eds., vol. 8022,p. 80220M (SPIE, 2011).
[Crossref]

A. Tamminen, J. Ala-Laurinaho, S. Mäkelä, D. Gomes-Martins, J. Häkli, P. Koivisto, P. Rantakari, J. Säily, R. Tuovinen, A. R. Luukanen, M. Sipilä, and A. V. Räisänen, “Near-field measurements of submillimeter-wave reflectarrays,” in Proc. SPIE, vol. 8715, pp. 871506 (2013).
[Crossref]

Amidror, I.

I. Amidror, “Scattered data interpolation methods for electronic imaging systems: a survey,” J. Elec. Imag. 11(2), 157–176 (2002).
[Crossref]

Anders, S.

E. Heinz, T. May, D. Born, G. Zieger, G. Thorwirth, S. Anders, V. Zakosarenko, T. Krause, A. Krüger, M. Schulz, H.-G. Meyer, M. Schubert, and M. Starkloff, “Toward high-sensitivity and high-resolution submillimeter-wave video imaging,” Opt. Eng. 50(11), 113204 (2011).
[Crossref]

E. Heinz, T. May, D. Born, G. Zieger, K. Peiselt, A. Brömel, S. Anders, V. Zakosarenko, T. Krause, A. Krüger, M. Schulz, and H.-G. Meyer, “Development of passive submillimeter-wave video imaging systems,” in Proc. SPIE, vol. 8715, pp. 87150E (2013).
[Crossref]

E. Heinz, T. May, D. Born, G. Zieger, A. Brömel, S. Anders, V. Zakosarenko, T. Krause, A. Krüger, M. Schulz, F. Bauer, and H.-G. Meyer, “Development of passive submillimeter-wave video imaging systems for security applications,” in Proc. SPIE, vol. 8544, pp. 854,402–1–854,402–8 (2012).

Anderton, R.

R. Appleby and R. Anderton, “Millimeter-Wave and Submillimeter-Wave Imaging for Security and Surveillance,” Proc. IEEE 95(8), 1683–1690 (2007).
[Crossref]

Appleby, R.

R. Appleby and H. Wallace, “Standoff Detection of Weapons and Contraband in the 100 GHz to 1 THz Region,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 55(11), 2944–2956 (2007).
[Crossref]

R. Appleby and R. Anderton, “Millimeter-Wave and Submillimeter-Wave Imaging for Security and Surveillance,” Proc. IEEE 95(8), 1683–1690 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bauer, F.

E. Heinz, T. May, D. Born, G. Zieger, A. Brömel, S. Anders, V. Zakosarenko, T. Krause, A. Krüger, M. Schulz, F. Bauer, and H.-G. Meyer, “Development of passive submillimeter-wave video imaging systems for security applications,” in Proc. SPIE, vol. 8544, pp. 854,402–1–854,402–8 (2012).

Bolton, D. R.

D. A. Robertson, P. N. Marsh, D. R. Bolton, R. J. C. Middleton, R. I. Hunter, P. J. Speirs, D. G. Macfarlane, S. L. Cassidy, and G. M. Smith, “340-GHz 3D radar imaging test bed with 10-Hz frame rate,” in Proc. SPIE, vol. 8362, pp. 836,206–836,206–11 (2012).
[Crossref]

Born, D.

E. Heinz, T. May, D. Born, G. Zieger, G. Thorwirth, S. Anders, V. Zakosarenko, T. Krause, A. Krüger, M. Schulz, H.-G. Meyer, M. Schubert, and M. Starkloff, “Toward high-sensitivity and high-resolution submillimeter-wave video imaging,” Opt. Eng. 50(11), 113204 (2011).
[Crossref]

E. Heinz, T. May, D. Born, G. Zieger, K. Peiselt, A. Brömel, S. Anders, V. Zakosarenko, T. Krause, A. Krüger, M. Schulz, and H.-G. Meyer, “Development of passive submillimeter-wave video imaging systems,” in Proc. SPIE, vol. 8715, pp. 87150E (2013).
[Crossref]

E. Heinz, T. May, D. Born, G. Zieger, A. Brömel, S. Anders, V. Zakosarenko, T. Krause, A. Krüger, M. Schulz, F. Bauer, and H.-G. Meyer, “Development of passive submillimeter-wave video imaging systems for security applications,” in Proc. SPIE, vol. 8544, pp. 854,402–1–854,402–8 (2012).

Brady, D.

G. Lipworth, A. Mrozack, J. Hunt, D. L. Marks, T. Driscoll, D. Brady, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial apertures for coherent computational imaging on the physical layer,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 30(8), 1603–1612 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Hunt, T. Driscoll, A. Mrozack, G. Lipworth, M. Reynolds, D. Brady, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial Apertures for Computational Imaging,” Science 339(6117), 310–313 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brömel, A.

E. Heinz, T. May, D. Born, G. Zieger, A. Brömel, S. Anders, V. Zakosarenko, T. Krause, A. Krüger, M. Schulz, F. Bauer, and H.-G. Meyer, “Development of passive submillimeter-wave video imaging systems for security applications,” in Proc. SPIE, vol. 8544, pp. 854,402–1–854,402–8 (2012).

E. Heinz, T. May, D. Born, G. Zieger, K. Peiselt, A. Brömel, S. Anders, V. Zakosarenko, T. Krause, A. Krüger, M. Schulz, and H.-G. Meyer, “Development of passive submillimeter-wave video imaging systems,” in Proc. SPIE, vol. 8715, pp. 87150E (2013).
[Crossref]

Cassidy, S. L.

D. A. Robertson, P. N. Marsh, D. R. Bolton, R. J. C. Middleton, R. I. Hunter, P. J. Speirs, D. G. Macfarlane, S. L. Cassidy, and G. M. Smith, “340-GHz 3D radar imaging test bed with 10-Hz frame rate,” in Proc. SPIE, vol. 8362, pp. 836,206–836,206–11 (2012).
[Crossref]

Casto, C.

Chattopadhyay, G.

K. Cooper, R. Dengler, N. Llombart, B. Thomas, G. Chattopadhyay, and P. Siegel, “THz Imaging Radar for Standoff Personnel Screening,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Tech. 1(1), 169–182 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cooper, K.

K. Cooper, R. Dengler, N. Llombart, B. Thomas, G. Chattopadhyay, and P. Siegel, “THz Imaging Radar for Standoff Personnel Screening,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Tech. 1(1), 169–182 (2011).
[Crossref]

Dengler, R.

K. Cooper, R. Dengler, N. Llombart, B. Thomas, G. Chattopadhyay, and P. Siegel, “THz Imaging Radar for Standoff Personnel Screening,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Tech. 1(1), 169–182 (2011).
[Crossref]

Driscoll, T.

J. Hunt, T. Driscoll, A. Mrozack, G. Lipworth, M. Reynolds, D. Brady, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial Apertures for Computational Imaging,” Science 339(6117), 310–313 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Lipworth, A. Mrozack, J. Hunt, D. L. Marks, T. Driscoll, D. Brady, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial apertures for coherent computational imaging on the physical layer,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 30(8), 1603–1612 (2013).
[Crossref]

Espinola, R. L.

Franck, C. C.

Fried, D. L.

Furxhi, O.

O. Furxhi, E. L. Jacobs, and C. Preza, “Image plane coded aperture for terahertz imaging,” Opt. Engr. 51(9), 091612 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gallacher, T.

T. Gallacher, D. Robertson, and G. Smith, “The Photo-Injected Fresnel Zone Plate Antenna: Optoelectronic Beam Steering at mm-Wave Frequencies,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propaga.,  61(4), 1688–1696 (2013).
[Crossref]

Goda, K.

K. Goda, K. K. Tsia, and B. Jalali, “Serial time-encoded amplified imaging for real-time observation of fast dynamic phenomena,” Nature 458(7242), 1145–1149 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gomes-Martins, D.

A. Tamminen, J. Ala-Laurinaho, S. Mäkelä, D. Gomes-Martins, J. Häkli, P. Koivisto, P. Rantakari, J. Säily, R. Tuovinen, A. R. Luukanen, M. Sipilä, and A. V. Räisänen, “Near-field measurements of submillimeter-wave reflectarrays,” in Proc. SPIE, vol. 8715, pp. 871506 (2013).
[Crossref]

Griffin, S. T.

Grönholm, M.

A. Luukanen, M. Aikio, M. Grönholm, M. M. Leivo, A. Mäyrä, A. Rautiainen, and H. Toivanen, “Design and performance of a passive video-rate THz system demonstrator,” in Passive Millimeter-Wave Imaging Technology XIV, D. A. Wikner and A. R. Luukanen, eds., vol. 8022, p. 802207 (SPIE, 2011).
[Crossref]

Häkli, J.

A. Luukanen, J. Ala-Laurinaho, D. G. Martins, J. Häkli, P. Koivisto, P. Pursula, P. Rantakari, J. Säily, A. Tamminen, R. Tuovinen, and M. Sipilä, “Rapid beamsteering reflectarrays for mm-wave and submm-wave imaging radars,” in Passive Millimeter-Wave Imaging Technology XIV, D. A. Wikner and A. R. Luukanen, eds., vol. 8022,p. 80220M (SPIE, 2011).
[Crossref]

A. Tamminen, J. Ala-Laurinaho, S. Mäkelä, D. Gomes-Martins, J. Häkli, P. Koivisto, P. Rantakari, J. Säily, R. Tuovinen, A. R. Luukanen, M. Sipilä, and A. V. Räisänen, “Near-field measurements of submillimeter-wave reflectarrays,” in Proc. SPIE, vol. 8715, pp. 871506 (2013).
[Crossref]

Halford, C. E.

Hall, T.

Heinz, E.

E. Heinz, T. May, D. Born, G. Zieger, G. Thorwirth, S. Anders, V. Zakosarenko, T. Krause, A. Krüger, M. Schulz, H.-G. Meyer, M. Schubert, and M. Starkloff, “Toward high-sensitivity and high-resolution submillimeter-wave video imaging,” Opt. Eng. 50(11), 113204 (2011).
[Crossref]

E. Heinz, T. May, D. Born, G. Zieger, A. Brömel, S. Anders, V. Zakosarenko, T. Krause, A. Krüger, M. Schulz, F. Bauer, and H.-G. Meyer, “Development of passive submillimeter-wave video imaging systems for security applications,” in Proc. SPIE, vol. 8544, pp. 854,402–1–854,402–8 (2012).

E. Heinz, T. May, D. Born, G. Zieger, K. Peiselt, A. Brömel, S. Anders, V. Zakosarenko, T. Krause, A. Krüger, M. Schulz, and H.-G. Meyer, “Development of passive submillimeter-wave video imaging systems,” in Proc. SPIE, vol. 8715, pp. 87150E (2013).
[Crossref]

Hunt, J.

J. Hunt, T. Driscoll, A. Mrozack, G. Lipworth, M. Reynolds, D. Brady, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial Apertures for Computational Imaging,” Science 339(6117), 310–313 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Lipworth, A. Mrozack, J. Hunt, D. L. Marks, T. Driscoll, D. Brady, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial apertures for coherent computational imaging on the physical layer,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 30(8), 1603–1612 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hunter, R. I.

D. A. Robertson, P. N. Marsh, D. R. Bolton, R. J. C. Middleton, R. I. Hunter, P. J. Speirs, D. G. Macfarlane, S. L. Cassidy, and G. M. Smith, “340-GHz 3D radar imaging test bed with 10-Hz frame rate,” in Proc. SPIE, vol. 8362, pp. 836,206–836,206–11 (2012).
[Crossref]

Jacobs, E. L.

Jalali, B.

K. Goda, K. K. Tsia, and B. Jalali, “Serial time-encoded amplified imaging for real-time observation of fast dynamic phenomena,” Nature 458(7242), 1145–1149 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kemp, M.

M. Kemp, “Millimetre wave and terahertz technology for detection of concealed threats - a review,” in 32nd International Conference on Infrared and Millimeter Waves, pp. 647–648 (2007).

Koivisto, P.

A. Luukanen, J. Ala-Laurinaho, D. G. Martins, J. Häkli, P. Koivisto, P. Pursula, P. Rantakari, J. Säily, A. Tamminen, R. Tuovinen, and M. Sipilä, “Rapid beamsteering reflectarrays for mm-wave and submm-wave imaging radars,” in Passive Millimeter-Wave Imaging Technology XIV, D. A. Wikner and A. R. Luukanen, eds., vol. 8022,p. 80220M (SPIE, 2011).
[Crossref]

A. Tamminen, J. Ala-Laurinaho, S. Mäkelä, D. Gomes-Martins, J. Häkli, P. Koivisto, P. Rantakari, J. Säily, R. Tuovinen, A. R. Luukanen, M. Sipilä, and A. V. Räisänen, “Near-field measurements of submillimeter-wave reflectarrays,” in Proc. SPIE, vol. 8715, pp. 871506 (2013).
[Crossref]

Krause, T.

E. Heinz, T. May, D. Born, G. Zieger, G. Thorwirth, S. Anders, V. Zakosarenko, T. Krause, A. Krüger, M. Schulz, H.-G. Meyer, M. Schubert, and M. Starkloff, “Toward high-sensitivity and high-resolution submillimeter-wave video imaging,” Opt. Eng. 50(11), 113204 (2011).
[Crossref]

E. Heinz, T. May, D. Born, G. Zieger, K. Peiselt, A. Brömel, S. Anders, V. Zakosarenko, T. Krause, A. Krüger, M. Schulz, and H.-G. Meyer, “Development of passive submillimeter-wave video imaging systems,” in Proc. SPIE, vol. 8715, pp. 87150E (2013).
[Crossref]

E. Heinz, T. May, D. Born, G. Zieger, A. Brömel, S. Anders, V. Zakosarenko, T. Krause, A. Krüger, M. Schulz, F. Bauer, and H.-G. Meyer, “Development of passive submillimeter-wave video imaging systems for security applications,” in Proc. SPIE, vol. 8544, pp. 854,402–1–854,402–8 (2012).

Krüger, A.

E. Heinz, T. May, D. Born, G. Zieger, G. Thorwirth, S. Anders, V. Zakosarenko, T. Krause, A. Krüger, M. Schulz, H.-G. Meyer, M. Schubert, and M. Starkloff, “Toward high-sensitivity and high-resolution submillimeter-wave video imaging,” Opt. Eng. 50(11), 113204 (2011).
[Crossref]

E. Heinz, T. May, D. Born, G. Zieger, K. Peiselt, A. Brömel, S. Anders, V. Zakosarenko, T. Krause, A. Krüger, M. Schulz, and H.-G. Meyer, “Development of passive submillimeter-wave video imaging systems,” in Proc. SPIE, vol. 8715, pp. 87150E (2013).
[Crossref]

E. Heinz, T. May, D. Born, G. Zieger, A. Brömel, S. Anders, V. Zakosarenko, T. Krause, A. Krüger, M. Schulz, F. Bauer, and H.-G. Meyer, “Development of passive submillimeter-wave video imaging systems for security applications,” in Proc. SPIE, vol. 8544, pp. 854,402–1–854,402–8 (2012).

Kruse, P. W.

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J. Hunt, T. Driscoll, A. Mrozack, G. Lipworth, M. Reynolds, D. Brady, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial Apertures for Computational Imaging,” Science 339(6117), 310–313 (2013).
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Llombart, N.

K. Cooper, R. Dengler, N. Llombart, B. Thomas, G. Chattopadhyay, and P. Siegel, “THz Imaging Radar for Standoff Personnel Screening,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Tech. 1(1), 169–182 (2011).
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Lucia, F. C. D.

Luukanen, A.

A. Luukanen, J. Ala-Laurinaho, D. G. Martins, J. Häkli, P. Koivisto, P. Pursula, P. Rantakari, J. Säily, A. Tamminen, R. Tuovinen, and M. Sipilä, “Rapid beamsteering reflectarrays for mm-wave and submm-wave imaging radars,” in Passive Millimeter-Wave Imaging Technology XIV, D. A. Wikner and A. R. Luukanen, eds., vol. 8022,p. 80220M (SPIE, 2011).
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A. Luukanen, M. Aikio, M. Grönholm, M. M. Leivo, A. Mäyrä, A. Rautiainen, and H. Toivanen, “Design and performance of a passive video-rate THz system demonstrator,” in Passive Millimeter-Wave Imaging Technology XIV, D. A. Wikner and A. R. Luukanen, eds., vol. 8022, p. 802207 (SPIE, 2011).
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A. Tamminen, J. Ala-Laurinaho, S. Mäkelä, D. Gomes-Martins, J. Häkli, P. Koivisto, P. Rantakari, J. Säily, R. Tuovinen, A. R. Luukanen, M. Sipilä, and A. V. Räisänen, “Near-field measurements of submillimeter-wave reflectarrays,” in Proc. SPIE, vol. 8715, pp. 871506 (2013).
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D. A. Robertson, P. N. Marsh, D. R. Bolton, R. J. C. Middleton, R. I. Hunter, P. J. Speirs, D. G. Macfarlane, S. L. Cassidy, and G. M. Smith, “340-GHz 3D radar imaging test bed with 10-Hz frame rate,” in Proc. SPIE, vol. 8362, pp. 836,206–836,206–11 (2012).
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A. Tamminen, J. Ala-Laurinaho, S. Mäkelä, D. Gomes-Martins, J. Häkli, P. Koivisto, P. Rantakari, J. Säily, R. Tuovinen, A. R. Luukanen, M. Sipilä, and A. V. Räisänen, “Near-field measurements of submillimeter-wave reflectarrays,” in Proc. SPIE, vol. 8715, pp. 871506 (2013).
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Marsh, P. N.

D. A. Robertson, P. N. Marsh, D. R. Bolton, R. J. C. Middleton, R. I. Hunter, P. J. Speirs, D. G. Macfarlane, S. L. Cassidy, and G. M. Smith, “340-GHz 3D radar imaging test bed with 10-Hz frame rate,” in Proc. SPIE, vol. 8362, pp. 836,206–836,206–11 (2012).
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A. Luukanen, J. Ala-Laurinaho, D. G. Martins, J. Häkli, P. Koivisto, P. Pursula, P. Rantakari, J. Säily, A. Tamminen, R. Tuovinen, and M. Sipilä, “Rapid beamsteering reflectarrays for mm-wave and submm-wave imaging radars,” in Passive Millimeter-Wave Imaging Technology XIV, D. A. Wikner and A. R. Luukanen, eds., vol. 8022,p. 80220M (SPIE, 2011).
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E. Heinz, T. May, D. Born, G. Zieger, G. Thorwirth, S. Anders, V. Zakosarenko, T. Krause, A. Krüger, M. Schulz, H.-G. Meyer, M. Schubert, and M. Starkloff, “Toward high-sensitivity and high-resolution submillimeter-wave video imaging,” Opt. Eng. 50(11), 113204 (2011).
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E. Heinz, T. May, D. Born, G. Zieger, K. Peiselt, A. Brömel, S. Anders, V. Zakosarenko, T. Krause, A. Krüger, M. Schulz, and H.-G. Meyer, “Development of passive submillimeter-wave video imaging systems,” in Proc. SPIE, vol. 8715, pp. 87150E (2013).
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E. Heinz, T. May, D. Born, G. Zieger, A. Brömel, S. Anders, V. Zakosarenko, T. Krause, A. Krüger, M. Schulz, F. Bauer, and H.-G. Meyer, “Development of passive submillimeter-wave video imaging systems for security applications,” in Proc. SPIE, vol. 8544, pp. 854,402–1–854,402–8 (2012).

Mäyrä, A.

A. Luukanen, M. Aikio, M. Grönholm, M. M. Leivo, A. Mäyrä, A. Rautiainen, and H. Toivanen, “Design and performance of a passive video-rate THz system demonstrator,” in Passive Millimeter-Wave Imaging Technology XIV, D. A. Wikner and A. R. Luukanen, eds., vol. 8022, p. 802207 (SPIE, 2011).
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Meyer, H.-G.

E. Heinz, T. May, D. Born, G. Zieger, G. Thorwirth, S. Anders, V. Zakosarenko, T. Krause, A. Krüger, M. Schulz, H.-G. Meyer, M. Schubert, and M. Starkloff, “Toward high-sensitivity and high-resolution submillimeter-wave video imaging,” Opt. Eng. 50(11), 113204 (2011).
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E. Heinz, T. May, D. Born, G. Zieger, K. Peiselt, A. Brömel, S. Anders, V. Zakosarenko, T. Krause, A. Krüger, M. Schulz, and H.-G. Meyer, “Development of passive submillimeter-wave video imaging systems,” in Proc. SPIE, vol. 8715, pp. 87150E (2013).
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E. Heinz, T. May, D. Born, G. Zieger, A. Brömel, S. Anders, V. Zakosarenko, T. Krause, A. Krüger, M. Schulz, F. Bauer, and H.-G. Meyer, “Development of passive submillimeter-wave video imaging systems for security applications,” in Proc. SPIE, vol. 8544, pp. 854,402–1–854,402–8 (2012).

Michels, W. C.

W. C. Michels, “Phase Shifts and the Doppler Effect,” Am. J. Phys. 24(2), 51–53 (1956).
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D. A. Robertson, P. N. Marsh, D. R. Bolton, R. J. C. Middleton, R. I. Hunter, P. J. Speirs, D. G. Macfarlane, S. L. Cassidy, and G. M. Smith, “340-GHz 3D radar imaging test bed with 10-Hz frame rate,” in Proc. SPIE, vol. 8362, pp. 836,206–836,206–11 (2012).
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Mrozack, A.

G. Lipworth, A. Mrozack, J. Hunt, D. L. Marks, T. Driscoll, D. Brady, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial apertures for coherent computational imaging on the physical layer,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 30(8), 1603–1612 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Hunt, T. Driscoll, A. Mrozack, G. Lipworth, M. Reynolds, D. Brady, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial Apertures for Computational Imaging,” Science 339(6117), 310–313 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Murrill, S. R.

O’Brien, S.

Peiselt, K.

E. Heinz, T. May, D. Born, G. Zieger, K. Peiselt, A. Brömel, S. Anders, V. Zakosarenko, T. Krause, A. Krüger, M. Schulz, and H.-G. Meyer, “Development of passive submillimeter-wave video imaging systems,” in Proc. SPIE, vol. 8715, pp. 87150E (2013).
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O. Furxhi, E. L. Jacobs, and C. Preza, “Image plane coded aperture for terahertz imaging,” Opt. Engr. 51(9), 091612 (2012).
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A. Luukanen, J. Ala-Laurinaho, D. G. Martins, J. Häkli, P. Koivisto, P. Pursula, P. Rantakari, J. Säily, A. Tamminen, R. Tuovinen, and M. Sipilä, “Rapid beamsteering reflectarrays for mm-wave and submm-wave imaging radars,” in Passive Millimeter-Wave Imaging Technology XIV, D. A. Wikner and A. R. Luukanen, eds., vol. 8022,p. 80220M (SPIE, 2011).
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A. Tamminen, J. Ala-Laurinaho, S. Mäkelä, D. Gomes-Martins, J. Häkli, P. Koivisto, P. Rantakari, J. Säily, R. Tuovinen, A. R. Luukanen, M. Sipilä, and A. V. Räisänen, “Near-field measurements of submillimeter-wave reflectarrays,” in Proc. SPIE, vol. 8715, pp. 871506 (2013).
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A. Tamminen, J. Ala-Laurinaho, S. Mäkelä, D. Gomes-Martins, J. Häkli, P. Koivisto, P. Rantakari, J. Säily, R. Tuovinen, A. R. Luukanen, M. Sipilä, and A. V. Räisänen, “Near-field measurements of submillimeter-wave reflectarrays,” in Proc. SPIE, vol. 8715, pp. 871506 (2013).
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A. Luukanen, J. Ala-Laurinaho, D. G. Martins, J. Häkli, P. Koivisto, P. Pursula, P. Rantakari, J. Säily, A. Tamminen, R. Tuovinen, and M. Sipilä, “Rapid beamsteering reflectarrays for mm-wave and submm-wave imaging radars,” in Passive Millimeter-Wave Imaging Technology XIV, D. A. Wikner and A. R. Luukanen, eds., vol. 8022,p. 80220M (SPIE, 2011).
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A. Luukanen, M. Aikio, M. Grönholm, M. M. Leivo, A. Mäyrä, A. Rautiainen, and H. Toivanen, “Design and performance of a passive video-rate THz system demonstrator,” in Passive Millimeter-Wave Imaging Technology XIV, D. A. Wikner and A. R. Luukanen, eds., vol. 8022, p. 802207 (SPIE, 2011).
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Reynolds, J.

Reynolds, M.

J. Hunt, T. Driscoll, A. Mrozack, G. Lipworth, M. Reynolds, D. Brady, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial Apertures for Computational Imaging,” Science 339(6117), 310–313 (2013).
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Robertson, D.

T. Gallacher, D. Robertson, and G. Smith, “The Photo-Injected Fresnel Zone Plate Antenna: Optoelectronic Beam Steering at mm-Wave Frequencies,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propaga.,  61(4), 1688–1696 (2013).
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Robertson, D. A.

D. A. Robertson, P. N. Marsh, D. R. Bolton, R. J. C. Middleton, R. I. Hunter, P. J. Speirs, D. G. Macfarlane, S. L. Cassidy, and G. M. Smith, “340-GHz 3D radar imaging test bed with 10-Hz frame rate,” in Proc. SPIE, vol. 8362, pp. 836,206–836,206–11 (2012).
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Säily, J.

A. Luukanen, J. Ala-Laurinaho, D. G. Martins, J. Häkli, P. Koivisto, P. Pursula, P. Rantakari, J. Säily, A. Tamminen, R. Tuovinen, and M. Sipilä, “Rapid beamsteering reflectarrays for mm-wave and submm-wave imaging radars,” in Passive Millimeter-Wave Imaging Technology XIV, D. A. Wikner and A. R. Luukanen, eds., vol. 8022,p. 80220M (SPIE, 2011).
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A. Tamminen, J. Ala-Laurinaho, S. Mäkelä, D. Gomes-Martins, J. Häkli, P. Koivisto, P. Rantakari, J. Säily, R. Tuovinen, A. R. Luukanen, M. Sipilä, and A. V. Räisänen, “Near-field measurements of submillimeter-wave reflectarrays,” in Proc. SPIE, vol. 8715, pp. 871506 (2013).
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Schubert, M.

E. Heinz, T. May, D. Born, G. Zieger, G. Thorwirth, S. Anders, V. Zakosarenko, T. Krause, A. Krüger, M. Schulz, H.-G. Meyer, M. Schubert, and M. Starkloff, “Toward high-sensitivity and high-resolution submillimeter-wave video imaging,” Opt. Eng. 50(11), 113204 (2011).
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E. Heinz, T. May, D. Born, G. Zieger, G. Thorwirth, S. Anders, V. Zakosarenko, T. Krause, A. Krüger, M. Schulz, H.-G. Meyer, M. Schubert, and M. Starkloff, “Toward high-sensitivity and high-resolution submillimeter-wave video imaging,” Opt. Eng. 50(11), 113204 (2011).
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E. Heinz, T. May, D. Born, G. Zieger, K. Peiselt, A. Brömel, S. Anders, V. Zakosarenko, T. Krause, A. Krüger, M. Schulz, and H.-G. Meyer, “Development of passive submillimeter-wave video imaging systems,” in Proc. SPIE, vol. 8715, pp. 87150E (2013).
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E. Heinz, T. May, D. Born, G. Zieger, A. Brömel, S. Anders, V. Zakosarenko, T. Krause, A. Krüger, M. Schulz, F. Bauer, and H.-G. Meyer, “Development of passive submillimeter-wave video imaging systems for security applications,” in Proc. SPIE, vol. 8544, pp. 854,402–1–854,402–8 (2012).

Sheen, D.

Siegel, P.

K. Cooper, R. Dengler, N. Llombart, B. Thomas, G. Chattopadhyay, and P. Siegel, “THz Imaging Radar for Standoff Personnel Screening,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Tech. 1(1), 169–182 (2011).
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Sipilä, M.

A. Tamminen, J. Ala-Laurinaho, S. Mäkelä, D. Gomes-Martins, J. Häkli, P. Koivisto, P. Rantakari, J. Säily, R. Tuovinen, A. R. Luukanen, M. Sipilä, and A. V. Räisänen, “Near-field measurements of submillimeter-wave reflectarrays,” in Proc. SPIE, vol. 8715, pp. 871506 (2013).
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A. Luukanen, J. Ala-Laurinaho, D. G. Martins, J. Häkli, P. Koivisto, P. Pursula, P. Rantakari, J. Säily, A. Tamminen, R. Tuovinen, and M. Sipilä, “Rapid beamsteering reflectarrays for mm-wave and submm-wave imaging radars,” in Passive Millimeter-Wave Imaging Technology XIV, D. A. Wikner and A. R. Luukanen, eds., vol. 8022,p. 80220M (SPIE, 2011).
[Crossref]

Smith, D. R.

J. Hunt, T. Driscoll, A. Mrozack, G. Lipworth, M. Reynolds, D. Brady, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial Apertures for Computational Imaging,” Science 339(6117), 310–313 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Lipworth, A. Mrozack, J. Hunt, D. L. Marks, T. Driscoll, D. Brady, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial apertures for coherent computational imaging on the physical layer,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 30(8), 1603–1612 (2013).
[Crossref]

Smith, G.

T. Gallacher, D. Robertson, and G. Smith, “The Photo-Injected Fresnel Zone Plate Antenna: Optoelectronic Beam Steering at mm-Wave Frequencies,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propaga.,  61(4), 1688–1696 (2013).
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Smith, G. M.

D. A. Robertson, P. N. Marsh, D. R. Bolton, R. J. C. Middleton, R. I. Hunter, P. J. Speirs, D. G. Macfarlane, S. L. Cassidy, and G. M. Smith, “340-GHz 3D radar imaging test bed with 10-Hz frame rate,” in Proc. SPIE, vol. 8362, pp. 836,206–836,206–11 (2012).
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D. A. Robertson, P. N. Marsh, D. R. Bolton, R. J. C. Middleton, R. I. Hunter, P. J. Speirs, D. G. Macfarlane, S. L. Cassidy, and G. M. Smith, “340-GHz 3D radar imaging test bed with 10-Hz frame rate,” in Proc. SPIE, vol. 8362, pp. 836,206–836,206–11 (2012).
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E. Heinz, T. May, D. Born, G. Zieger, G. Thorwirth, S. Anders, V. Zakosarenko, T. Krause, A. Krüger, M. Schulz, H.-G. Meyer, M. Schubert, and M. Starkloff, “Toward high-sensitivity and high-resolution submillimeter-wave video imaging,” Opt. Eng. 50(11), 113204 (2011).
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A. Luukanen, J. Ala-Laurinaho, D. G. Martins, J. Häkli, P. Koivisto, P. Pursula, P. Rantakari, J. Säily, A. Tamminen, R. Tuovinen, and M. Sipilä, “Rapid beamsteering reflectarrays for mm-wave and submm-wave imaging radars,” in Passive Millimeter-Wave Imaging Technology XIV, D. A. Wikner and A. R. Luukanen, eds., vol. 8022,p. 80220M (SPIE, 2011).
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A. Tamminen, J. Ala-Laurinaho, S. Mäkelä, D. Gomes-Martins, J. Häkli, P. Koivisto, P. Rantakari, J. Säily, R. Tuovinen, A. R. Luukanen, M. Sipilä, and A. V. Räisänen, “Near-field measurements of submillimeter-wave reflectarrays,” in Proc. SPIE, vol. 8715, pp. 871506 (2013).
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K. Cooper, R. Dengler, N. Llombart, B. Thomas, G. Chattopadhyay, and P. Siegel, “THz Imaging Radar for Standoff Personnel Screening,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Tech. 1(1), 169–182 (2011).
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E. Heinz, T. May, D. Born, G. Zieger, G. Thorwirth, S. Anders, V. Zakosarenko, T. Krause, A. Krüger, M. Schulz, H.-G. Meyer, M. Schubert, and M. Starkloff, “Toward high-sensitivity and high-resolution submillimeter-wave video imaging,” Opt. Eng. 50(11), 113204 (2011).
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Toivanen, H.

A. Luukanen, M. Aikio, M. Grönholm, M. M. Leivo, A. Mäyrä, A. Rautiainen, and H. Toivanen, “Design and performance of a passive video-rate THz system demonstrator,” in Passive Millimeter-Wave Imaging Technology XIV, D. A. Wikner and A. R. Luukanen, eds., vol. 8022, p. 802207 (SPIE, 2011).
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K. Goda, K. K. Tsia, and B. Jalali, “Serial time-encoded amplified imaging for real-time observation of fast dynamic phenomena,” Nature 458(7242), 1145–1149 (2009).
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Tuovinen, R.

A. Tamminen, J. Ala-Laurinaho, S. Mäkelä, D. Gomes-Martins, J. Häkli, P. Koivisto, P. Rantakari, J. Säily, R. Tuovinen, A. R. Luukanen, M. Sipilä, and A. V. Räisänen, “Near-field measurements of submillimeter-wave reflectarrays,” in Proc. SPIE, vol. 8715, pp. 871506 (2013).
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E. Heinz, T. May, D. Born, G. Zieger, G. Thorwirth, S. Anders, V. Zakosarenko, T. Krause, A. Krüger, M. Schulz, H.-G. Meyer, M. Schubert, and M. Starkloff, “Toward high-sensitivity and high-resolution submillimeter-wave video imaging,” Opt. Eng. 50(11), 113204 (2011).
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E. Heinz, T. May, D. Born, G. Zieger, K. Peiselt, A. Brömel, S. Anders, V. Zakosarenko, T. Krause, A. Krüger, M. Schulz, and H.-G. Meyer, “Development of passive submillimeter-wave video imaging systems,” in Proc. SPIE, vol. 8715, pp. 87150E (2013).
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E. Heinz, T. May, D. Born, G. Zieger, A. Brömel, S. Anders, V. Zakosarenko, T. Krause, A. Krüger, M. Schulz, F. Bauer, and H.-G. Meyer, “Development of passive submillimeter-wave video imaging systems for security applications,” in Proc. SPIE, vol. 8544, pp. 854,402–1–854,402–8 (2012).

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E. Heinz, T. May, D. Born, G. Zieger, G. Thorwirth, S. Anders, V. Zakosarenko, T. Krause, A. Krüger, M. Schulz, H.-G. Meyer, M. Schubert, and M. Starkloff, “Toward high-sensitivity and high-resolution submillimeter-wave video imaging,” Opt. Eng. 50(11), 113204 (2011).
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E. Heinz, T. May, D. Born, G. Zieger, A. Brömel, S. Anders, V. Zakosarenko, T. Krause, A. Krüger, M. Schulz, F. Bauer, and H.-G. Meyer, “Development of passive submillimeter-wave video imaging systems for security applications,” in Proc. SPIE, vol. 8544, pp. 854,402–1–854,402–8 (2012).

E. Heinz, T. May, D. Born, G. Zieger, K. Peiselt, A. Brömel, S. Anders, V. Zakosarenko, T. Krause, A. Krüger, M. Schulz, and H.-G. Meyer, “Development of passive submillimeter-wave video imaging systems,” in Proc. SPIE, vol. 8715, pp. 87150E (2013).
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Am. J. Phys. (1)

W. C. Michels, “Phase Shifts and the Doppler Effect,” Am. J. Phys. 24(2), 51–53 (1956).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (2)

IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. (1)

R. Appleby and H. Wallace, “Standoff Detection of Weapons and Contraband in the 100 GHz to 1 THz Region,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 55(11), 2944–2956 (2007).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Antennas Propaga. (1)

T. Gallacher, D. Robertson, and G. Smith, “The Photo-Injected Fresnel Zone Plate Antenna: Optoelectronic Beam Steering at mm-Wave Frequencies,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propaga.,  61(4), 1688–1696 (2013).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Tech. (1)

K. Cooper, R. Dengler, N. Llombart, B. Thomas, G. Chattopadhyay, and P. Siegel, “THz Imaging Radar for Standoff Personnel Screening,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Tech. 1(1), 169–182 (2011).
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J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nature (1)

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Opt. Eng. (1)

E. Heinz, T. May, D. Born, G. Zieger, G. Thorwirth, S. Anders, V. Zakosarenko, T. Krause, A. Krüger, M. Schulz, H.-G. Meyer, M. Schubert, and M. Starkloff, “Toward high-sensitivity and high-resolution submillimeter-wave video imaging,” Opt. Eng. 50(11), 113204 (2011).
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Opt. Engr. (1)

O. Furxhi, E. L. Jacobs, and C. Preza, “Image plane coded aperture for terahertz imaging,” Opt. Engr. 51(9), 091612 (2012).
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Supplementary Material (4)

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Sketch and photograph of the imager.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Illustration of the grating geometry for off-plane incidence and one-dimensional periodicity and the Zemax axis convention.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Point spread functions for the center of the FOV and four corner points.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Cross sections of the measured and simulated point spread functions. The measured PSFs are shown using the dotted line and the simulated PSFs are shown with the solid line. The frequencies from top to bottom correspond to measurements at 81.13 GHz, 82.26 GHz, 91.27 GHz, 100.37 GHz, and 101.69 GHz respectively.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Frequency to space map; the locations on the two-dimensional map are the positions at which rays from the origin with the calculated directions intersect the object plane. The locations are normalized in the horizontal and vertical directions prior to shifting and scaling necessary to overlay them on the visible image from the Kinect

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Millimeter wave images. (a) Front side of a person, (b) gun to the side, (c) back side, and (d) image of the face and shoulders.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Result of the Doppler measurement. Phase differences of consecutive measurements as a function of time (top) and time spectrum of the doppler measurement (bottom).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Point tracking in three dimensional space. (a) The location in each dimension as a function of frame number, (b) 3-D trajectory, the color indexes the frame number.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 System prescription.

Equations (10)

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K m s = K i s K m d = K i d + m 2 π L K m n = K 2 ( K m d ) 2 ( K m s ) 2
sin θ m = sin θ i + m λ / L
sin θ = m λ 2 L
θ = tan 1 ( m d θ d m )
m = 2 L sin θ λ
d m = 2 L sin θ λ 2 d λ
m = λ d m d λ
L sin θ i = m λ 2
θ i = tan 1 ( m c FOV )
m c = λ c m max m min λ max λ min f c Δ m f max f min

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