Abstract

We show for the first time that multi-ten Watt operation of an Alexandrite laser can be achieved with direct red diode-pumping and with high efficiency. An investigation of diode end-pumped Alexandrite rod lasers demonstrates continuous-wave output power in excess of 26W, more than an order of magnitude higher than previous diode end-pumping systems, and slope efficiency 49%, the highest reported for a diode-pumped Alexandrite laser. Wavelength tuning from 730 to 792nm is demonstrated using self-seeding feedback from an external grating. Q-switched laser operation based on polarization-switching to a lower gain axis of Alexandrite has produced ~mJ-pulse energy at 1kHz pulse rate in fundamental TEM00 mode.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
  2. D. E. Spence, P. N. Kean, and W. Sibbett, “60-fsec pulse generation from a self-mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Lett. 16(1), 42–44 (1991).
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. J. Walling, O. G. Peterson, H. Jenssen, R. Morris, and E. W. O’Dell, “Tunable Alexandrite lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16(12), 1302–1315 (1980).
    [Crossref]
  6. J. W. Kuper, T. Chin, and H. E. Aschoff, “Extended tuning range of Alexandrite at elevated temperatures,” Proc. Advanced Solid State Lasers (OSA) 6, paper CL3 (1990).
  7. R. C. Powell, L. Xi, X. Gang, G. J. Quarles, and J. C. Walling, “Spectroscopic properties of alexandrite crystals,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 32(5), 2788–2797 (1985).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. J. Walling, D. F. Heller, H. Samelson, D. J. Harter, J. Pete, and R. C. Morris, “Tunable alexandrite lasers: Development and performance,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21(10), 1568–1581 (1985).
    [Crossref]
  9. U. Demirbas, M. Schmalz, B. Sumpf, G. Erbert, G. S. Petrich, L. A. Kolodziejski, J. G. Fujimoto, F. X. Kärtner, and A. Leitenstorfer, “Femtosecond Cr:LiSAF and Cr:LiCAF lasers pumped by tapered diode lasers,” Opt. Express 19(21), 20444–20461 (2011).
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  12. X. Peng, A. Marrakchi, J. C. Walling, and D. F. Heller, “Watt-level red and UV output from a CW diode array-pumped tunable Alexandrite laser,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics. Paper CMAA5, OSA (2005).
    [Crossref]
  13. E. Beyatli, I. Baali, B. Sumpf, G. Erbert, A. Leitenstorfer, A. Sennaroglu, and U. Demirbas, “Tapered diode-pumped continuous-wave alexandrite laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30(12), 3184–3192 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  14. M. J. Damzen, G. M. Thomas and A. Minassian, “Multi-watt diode-pumped alexandrite laser operation,” in CLEO Europe, Paper CA-2.6 SUN (2013).
  15. C. J. Lee, P. J. M. van der Slot, and K.-J. Boller, “A gain-coefficient switched Alexandrite laser,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 46(1), 015103 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  16. W. Koechner and M. Bass, Solid-State Lasers: A Graduate Text (Springer-Verlag, New York, 2003).

2013 (2)

E. Beyatli, I. Baali, B. Sumpf, G. Erbert, A. Leitenstorfer, A. Sennaroglu, and U. Demirbas, “Tapered diode-pumped continuous-wave alexandrite laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 30(12), 3184–3192 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. J. Lee, P. J. M. van der Slot, and K.-J. Boller, “A gain-coefficient switched Alexandrite laser,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 46(1), 015103 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

2011 (1)

2009 (1)

1993 (1)

R. Scheps, J. F. Myers, T. R. Glesne, and H. B. Serreze, “Monochromatic end-pumped operation of an Alexandrite laser,” Opt. Commun. 97(5-6), 363–366 (1993).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

1990 (1)

R. Scheps, B. M. Gately, J. F. Myers, J. S. Krasinski, and D. F. Heller, “Alexandrite laser pumped by semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56(23), 2288–2290 (1990).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

P. F. Moulton, “Spectroscopic and laser characteristics of Ti:Al2O3,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 3(1), 125–133 (1986).
[Crossref]

1985 (2)

R. C. Powell, L. Xi, X. Gang, G. J. Quarles, and J. C. Walling, “Spectroscopic properties of alexandrite crystals,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 32(5), 2788–2797 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Walling, D. F. Heller, H. Samelson, D. J. Harter, J. Pete, and R. C. Morris, “Tunable alexandrite lasers: Development and performance,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21(10), 1568–1581 (1985).
[Crossref]

1980 (1)

J. Walling, O. G. Peterson, H. Jenssen, R. Morris, and E. W. O’Dell, “Tunable Alexandrite lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16(12), 1302–1315 (1980).
[Crossref]

Baali, I.

Beyatli, E.

Boller, K.-J.

C. J. Lee, P. J. M. van der Slot, and K.-J. Boller, “A gain-coefficient switched Alexandrite laser,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 46(1), 015103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Burns, D.

Demirbas, U.

Erbert, G.

Fujimoto, J. G.

Gang, X.

R. C. Powell, L. Xi, X. Gang, G. J. Quarles, and J. C. Walling, “Spectroscopic properties of alexandrite crystals,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 32(5), 2788–2797 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gately, B. M.

R. Scheps, B. M. Gately, J. F. Myers, J. S. Krasinski, and D. F. Heller, “Alexandrite laser pumped by semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56(23), 2288–2290 (1990).
[Crossref]

Glesne, T. R.

R. Scheps, J. F. Myers, T. R. Glesne, and H. B. Serreze, “Monochromatic end-pumped operation of an Alexandrite laser,” Opt. Commun. 97(5-6), 363–366 (1993).
[Crossref]

Harter, D. J.

J. Walling, D. F. Heller, H. Samelson, D. J. Harter, J. Pete, and R. C. Morris, “Tunable alexandrite lasers: Development and performance,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21(10), 1568–1581 (1985).
[Crossref]

Heller, D. F.

R. Scheps, B. M. Gately, J. F. Myers, J. S. Krasinski, and D. F. Heller, “Alexandrite laser pumped by semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56(23), 2288–2290 (1990).
[Crossref]

J. Walling, D. F. Heller, H. Samelson, D. J. Harter, J. Pete, and R. C. Morris, “Tunable alexandrite lasers: Development and performance,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21(10), 1568–1581 (1985).
[Crossref]

Jenssen, H.

J. Walling, O. G. Peterson, H. Jenssen, R. Morris, and E. W. O’Dell, “Tunable Alexandrite lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16(12), 1302–1315 (1980).
[Crossref]

Kärtner, F. X.

Kean, P. N.

Kemp, A. J.

Kolodziejski, L. A.

Krasinski, J. S.

R. Scheps, B. M. Gately, J. F. Myers, J. S. Krasinski, and D. F. Heller, “Alexandrite laser pumped by semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56(23), 2288–2290 (1990).
[Crossref]

Lee, C. J.

C. J. Lee, P. J. M. van der Slot, and K.-J. Boller, “A gain-coefficient switched Alexandrite laser,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 46(1), 015103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Leitenstorfer, A.

Maclean, A. J.

Morris, R.

J. Walling, O. G. Peterson, H. Jenssen, R. Morris, and E. W. O’Dell, “Tunable Alexandrite lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16(12), 1302–1315 (1980).
[Crossref]

Morris, R. C.

J. Walling, D. F. Heller, H. Samelson, D. J. Harter, J. Pete, and R. C. Morris, “Tunable alexandrite lasers: Development and performance,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21(10), 1568–1581 (1985).
[Crossref]

Moulton, P. F.

P. F. Moulton, “Spectroscopic and laser characteristics of Ti:Al2O3,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 3(1), 125–133 (1986).
[Crossref]

Myers, J. F.

R. Scheps, J. F. Myers, T. R. Glesne, and H. B. Serreze, “Monochromatic end-pumped operation of an Alexandrite laser,” Opt. Commun. 97(5-6), 363–366 (1993).
[Crossref]

R. Scheps, B. M. Gately, J. F. Myers, J. S. Krasinski, and D. F. Heller, “Alexandrite laser pumped by semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56(23), 2288–2290 (1990).
[Crossref]

O’Dell, E. W.

J. Walling, O. G. Peterson, H. Jenssen, R. Morris, and E. W. O’Dell, “Tunable Alexandrite lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16(12), 1302–1315 (1980).
[Crossref]

Pete, J.

J. Walling, D. F. Heller, H. Samelson, D. J. Harter, J. Pete, and R. C. Morris, “Tunable alexandrite lasers: Development and performance,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21(10), 1568–1581 (1985).
[Crossref]

Peterson, O. G.

J. Walling, O. G. Peterson, H. Jenssen, R. Morris, and E. W. O’Dell, “Tunable Alexandrite lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16(12), 1302–1315 (1980).
[Crossref]

Petrich, G. S.

Powell, R. C.

R. C. Powell, L. Xi, X. Gang, G. J. Quarles, and J. C. Walling, “Spectroscopic properties of alexandrite crystals,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 32(5), 2788–2797 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Quarles, G. J.

R. C. Powell, L. Xi, X. Gang, G. J. Quarles, and J. C. Walling, “Spectroscopic properties of alexandrite crystals,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 32(5), 2788–2797 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roth, P. W.

Samelson, H.

J. Walling, D. F. Heller, H. Samelson, D. J. Harter, J. Pete, and R. C. Morris, “Tunable alexandrite lasers: Development and performance,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21(10), 1568–1581 (1985).
[Crossref]

Scheps, R.

R. Scheps, J. F. Myers, T. R. Glesne, and H. B. Serreze, “Monochromatic end-pumped operation of an Alexandrite laser,” Opt. Commun. 97(5-6), 363–366 (1993).
[Crossref]

R. Scheps, B. M. Gately, J. F. Myers, J. S. Krasinski, and D. F. Heller, “Alexandrite laser pumped by semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56(23), 2288–2290 (1990).
[Crossref]

Schmalz, M.

Sennaroglu, A.

Serreze, H. B.

R. Scheps, J. F. Myers, T. R. Glesne, and H. B. Serreze, “Monochromatic end-pumped operation of an Alexandrite laser,” Opt. Commun. 97(5-6), 363–366 (1993).
[Crossref]

Sibbett, W.

Spence, D. E.

Sumpf, B.

van der Slot, P. J. M.

C. J. Lee, P. J. M. van der Slot, and K.-J. Boller, “A gain-coefficient switched Alexandrite laser,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 46(1), 015103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Walling, J.

J. Walling, D. F. Heller, H. Samelson, D. J. Harter, J. Pete, and R. C. Morris, “Tunable alexandrite lasers: Development and performance,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21(10), 1568–1581 (1985).
[Crossref]

J. Walling, O. G. Peterson, H. Jenssen, R. Morris, and E. W. O’Dell, “Tunable Alexandrite lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16(12), 1302–1315 (1980).
[Crossref]

Walling, J. C.

R. C. Powell, L. Xi, X. Gang, G. J. Quarles, and J. C. Walling, “Spectroscopic properties of alexandrite crystals,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 32(5), 2788–2797 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xi, L.

R. C. Powell, L. Xi, X. Gang, G. J. Quarles, and J. C. Walling, “Spectroscopic properties of alexandrite crystals,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 32(5), 2788–2797 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

R. Scheps, B. M. Gately, J. F. Myers, J. S. Krasinski, and D. F. Heller, “Alexandrite laser pumped by semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56(23), 2288–2290 (1990).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

J. Walling, O. G. Peterson, H. Jenssen, R. Morris, and E. W. O’Dell, “Tunable Alexandrite lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16(12), 1302–1315 (1980).
[Crossref]

J. Walling, D. F. Heller, H. Samelson, D. J. Harter, J. Pete, and R. C. Morris, “Tunable alexandrite lasers: Development and performance,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 21(10), 1568–1581 (1985).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. (1)

P. F. Moulton, “Spectroscopic and laser characteristics of Ti:Al2O3,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B. 3(1), 125–133 (1986).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

C. J. Lee, P. J. M. van der Slot, and K.-J. Boller, “A gain-coefficient switched Alexandrite laser,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 46(1), 015103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

R. Scheps, J. F. Myers, T. R. Glesne, and H. B. Serreze, “Monochromatic end-pumped operation of an Alexandrite laser,” Opt. Commun. 97(5-6), 363–366 (1993).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter (1)

R. C. Powell, L. Xi, X. Gang, G. J. Quarles, and J. C. Walling, “Spectroscopic properties of alexandrite crystals,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 32(5), 2788–2797 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (4)

J. W. Kuper, T. Chin, and H. E. Aschoff, “Extended tuning range of Alexandrite at elevated temperatures,” Proc. Advanced Solid State Lasers (OSA) 6, paper CL3 (1990).

X. Peng, A. Marrakchi, J. C. Walling, and D. F. Heller, “Watt-level red and UV output from a CW diode array-pumped tunable Alexandrite laser,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics. Paper CMAA5, OSA (2005).
[Crossref]

M. J. Damzen, G. M. Thomas and A. Minassian, “Multi-watt diode-pumped alexandrite laser operation,” in CLEO Europe, Paper CA-2.6 SUN (2013).

W. Koechner and M. Bass, Solid-State Lasers: A Graduate Text (Springer-Verlag, New York, 2003).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic diagram of compact end-pumped Alexandrite rod laser. BM = back mirror (HR755nm/HT639nm); OC = output coupler
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Output power against pump power for Alexandrite laser, rod doping 0.13 at.%; output coupler R = 99%. The red circles are data for a circularized pump beam diameter ~350μm; the blue squares are data for reduced fast-axis pump size ~210μm. Lines are linear fits to the power curves.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Lasing peak wavelength and lasing bandwidth against pump power for diode end-pumped Alexandrite laser with circularized pump beam diameter ~350μm (0.13 at.% rod).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Output power against pump power for Alexandrite laser, rod doping 0.22 at.% and for different output coupler reflectivity. Lines are linear fits to the power curves.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Alexandrite TEM00 laser design for Q-switching and wavelength tuning.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Output pulse energy against pump energy for TEM00 Q-switched Alexandrite laser. Red squares at 1kHz pulse rate (pump duration 0.22ms; pump size 350μm); blue circles at 100Hz (pump duration 0.2ms; pump fast-axis size 210μm).

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