Abstract

The application of the phase-shift method allows a significant resolution enhancement for proximity lithography in mask aligners. Typically a resolution of 3 µm (half-pitch) at a proximity distance of 30 µm is achieved utilizing binary photomasks. By using an alternating aperture phase shift photomask (AAPSM), a resolution of 1.5 µm (half-pitch) for non-periodic lines and spaces pattern was demonstrated at 30 µm proximity gap. In a second attempt a diffractive photomask design for an elbow pattern having a half-pitch of 2 µm was developed with an iterative design algorithm. The photomask was fabricated by electron-beam lithography and consists of binary amplitude and phase levels.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. Karl Suss: SUSS Mask Aligner MJB 3 Datasheet.
  2. R. Voelkel, U. Vogler, A. Bramati, T. Weichelt, L. Stuerzebecher, U. D. Zeitner, K. Motzek, A. Erdmann, and M. Hornung, “Advanced mask aligner lithography (AMALITH),” Proc. SPIE8326, 83261Y (2012).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. S. Bühling, F. Wyrowski, E.-B. Kley, A. J. M. Nellissen, L. Wang, and M. Dirkzwager, “Resolution enhanced proximity printing by phase and amplitude modulating masks,” J. Micromech. Microeng.11(5), 603–611 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. A. Cirino, R. D. Mansano, P. Verdonck, L. Cescato, and L. G. Neto, “Diffractive phase-shift lithography photomask operating in proximity printing mode,” Opt. Express18(16), 16387–16405 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. R. Voelkel, U. Vogler, A. Bich, P. Pernet, K. J. Weible, M. Hornung, R. Zoberbier, E. Cullmann, L. Stuerzebecher, T. Harzendorf, and U. D. Zeitner, “Advanced mask aligner lithography: New illumination system,” Opt. Express18(20), 20968–20978 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. A. K.-K. Wong, Resolution Enhancement Techniques in Optical Lithography (SPIE, 2001).
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    [CrossRef]
  10. M. D. Levenson, N. S. Viswanathan, and R. A. Simpson, “Improving resolution in photolithography with a phase-shifting mask,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices29(12), 1828–1836 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Fritze, B. M. Tyrell, D. K. Astolfi, R. D. Lambert, D.-R. W. Yost, A. R. Forte, S. G. Cann, and B. D. Wheeler, “Subwavelength optical lithography with phase-shift photomasks,” Lincoln Lab. J.14, 237–250 (2003).
  12. M.-S. Kim, T. Scharf, C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, and H. P. Herzig, “Talbot images of wavelength-scale amplitude gratings,” Opt. Express20, 4903–4920 (2012).
  13. W. J. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, 1968).
  14. P. B. Meliorisz, “Simulation of Proximity Printing,” Dissertation, Friedrich-Alexander Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (2010).
  15. K.-H. Brenner and W. Singer, “Light propagation through microlenses: a new simulation method,” Appl. Opt.32(26), 4984–4988 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. C. Mack, Fundamental Principles of Optical Lithography (Wiley, 2007), Chap. 1.

2014 (1)

2012 (2)

M.-S. Kim, T. Scharf, C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, and H. P. Herzig, “Talbot images of wavelength-scale amplitude gratings,” Opt. Express20, 4903–4920 (2012).

R. Voelkel, U. Vogler, A. Bramati, T. Weichelt, L. Stuerzebecher, U. D. Zeitner, K. Motzek, A. Erdmann, and M. Hornung, “Advanced mask aligner lithography (AMALITH),” Proc. SPIE8326, 83261Y (2012).

2010 (3)

2005 (1)

F. M. Schellenberg, “A history of resolution enhancement technology,” Opt. Rev.12(2), 83–89 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

M. Fritze, B. M. Tyrell, D. K. Astolfi, R. D. Lambert, D.-R. W. Yost, A. R. Forte, S. G. Cann, and B. D. Wheeler, “Subwavelength optical lithography with phase-shift photomasks,” Lincoln Lab. J.14, 237–250 (2003).

2001 (1)

S. Bühling, F. Wyrowski, E.-B. Kley, A. J. M. Nellissen, L. Wang, and M. Dirkzwager, “Resolution enhanced proximity printing by phase and amplitude modulating masks,” J. Micromech. Microeng.11(5), 603–611 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1982 (1)

M. D. Levenson, N. S. Viswanathan, and R. A. Simpson, “Improving resolution in photolithography with a phase-shifting mask,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices29(12), 1828–1836 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Astolfi, D. K.

M. Fritze, B. M. Tyrell, D. K. Astolfi, R. D. Lambert, D.-R. W. Yost, A. R. Forte, S. G. Cann, and B. D. Wheeler, “Subwavelength optical lithography with phase-shift photomasks,” Lincoln Lab. J.14, 237–250 (2003).

Bich, A.

Bramati, A.

R. Voelkel, U. Vogler, A. Bramati, T. Weichelt, L. Stuerzebecher, U. D. Zeitner, K. Motzek, A. Erdmann, and M. Hornung, “Advanced mask aligner lithography (AMALITH),” Proc. SPIE8326, 83261Y (2012).

Brenner, K.-H.

Bühling, S.

S. Bühling, F. Wyrowski, E.-B. Kley, A. J. M. Nellissen, L. Wang, and M. Dirkzwager, “Resolution enhanced proximity printing by phase and amplitude modulating masks,” J. Micromech. Microeng.11(5), 603–611 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cann, S. G.

M. Fritze, B. M. Tyrell, D. K. Astolfi, R. D. Lambert, D.-R. W. Yost, A. R. Forte, S. G. Cann, and B. D. Wheeler, “Subwavelength optical lithography with phase-shift photomasks,” Lincoln Lab. J.14, 237–250 (2003).

Cescato, L.

Cirino, G. A.

Cullmann, E.

Dirkzwager, M.

S. Bühling, F. Wyrowski, E.-B. Kley, A. J. M. Nellissen, L. Wang, and M. Dirkzwager, “Resolution enhanced proximity printing by phase and amplitude modulating masks,” J. Micromech. Microeng.11(5), 603–611 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Erdmann, A.

R. Voelkel, U. Vogler, A. Bramati, T. Weichelt, L. Stuerzebecher, U. D. Zeitner, K. Motzek, A. Erdmann, and M. Hornung, “Advanced mask aligner lithography (AMALITH),” Proc. SPIE8326, 83261Y (2012).

Forte, A. R.

M. Fritze, B. M. Tyrell, D. K. Astolfi, R. D. Lambert, D.-R. W. Yost, A. R. Forte, S. G. Cann, and B. D. Wheeler, “Subwavelength optical lithography with phase-shift photomasks,” Lincoln Lab. J.14, 237–250 (2003).

Fritze, M.

M. Fritze, B. M. Tyrell, D. K. Astolfi, R. D. Lambert, D.-R. W. Yost, A. R. Forte, S. G. Cann, and B. D. Wheeler, “Subwavelength optical lithography with phase-shift photomasks,” Lincoln Lab. J.14, 237–250 (2003).

Fuchs, F.

Harzendorf, T.

Herzig, H. P.

Hornung, M.

R. Voelkel, U. Vogler, A. Bramati, T. Weichelt, L. Stuerzebecher, U. D. Zeitner, K. Motzek, A. Erdmann, and M. Hornung, “Advanced mask aligner lithography (AMALITH),” Proc. SPIE8326, 83261Y (2012).

R. Voelkel, U. Vogler, A. Bich, P. Pernet, K. J. Weible, M. Hornung, R. Zoberbier, E. Cullmann, L. Stuerzebecher, T. Harzendorf, and U. D. Zeitner, “Advanced mask aligner lithography: New illumination system,” Opt. Express18(20), 20968–20978 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, M.-S.

Kley, E.-B.

S. Bühling, F. Wyrowski, E.-B. Kley, A. J. M. Nellissen, L. Wang, and M. Dirkzwager, “Resolution enhanced proximity printing by phase and amplitude modulating masks,” J. Micromech. Microeng.11(5), 603–611 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lambert, R. D.

M. Fritze, B. M. Tyrell, D. K. Astolfi, R. D. Lambert, D.-R. W. Yost, A. R. Forte, S. G. Cann, and B. D. Wheeler, “Subwavelength optical lithography with phase-shift photomasks,” Lincoln Lab. J.14, 237–250 (2003).

Levenson, M. D.

M. D. Levenson, N. S. Viswanathan, and R. A. Simpson, “Improving resolution in photolithography with a phase-shifting mask,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices29(12), 1828–1836 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Mansano, R. D.

Menzel, C.

Motzek, K.

R. Voelkel, U. Vogler, A. Bramati, T. Weichelt, L. Stuerzebecher, U. D. Zeitner, K. Motzek, A. Erdmann, and M. Hornung, “Advanced mask aligner lithography (AMALITH),” Proc. SPIE8326, 83261Y (2012).

Nellissen, A. J. M.

S. Bühling, F. Wyrowski, E.-B. Kley, A. J. M. Nellissen, L. Wang, and M. Dirkzwager, “Resolution enhanced proximity printing by phase and amplitude modulating masks,” J. Micromech. Microeng.11(5), 603–611 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Neto, L. G.

Pernet, P.

Rockstuhl, C.

Scharf, T.

Schellenberg, F. M.

F. M. Schellenberg, “A history of resolution enhancement technology,” Opt. Rev.12(2), 83–89 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Simpson, R. A.

M. D. Levenson, N. S. Viswanathan, and R. A. Simpson, “Improving resolution in photolithography with a phase-shifting mask,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices29(12), 1828–1836 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Singer, W.

Stuerzebecher, L.

Tyrell, B. M.

M. Fritze, B. M. Tyrell, D. K. Astolfi, R. D. Lambert, D.-R. W. Yost, A. R. Forte, S. G. Cann, and B. D. Wheeler, “Subwavelength optical lithography with phase-shift photomasks,” Lincoln Lab. J.14, 237–250 (2003).

Verdonck, P.

Viswanathan, N. S.

M. D. Levenson, N. S. Viswanathan, and R. A. Simpson, “Improving resolution in photolithography with a phase-shifting mask,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices29(12), 1828–1836 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Voelkel, R.

Vogler, U.

Wang, L.

S. Bühling, F. Wyrowski, E.-B. Kley, A. J. M. Nellissen, L. Wang, and M. Dirkzwager, “Resolution enhanced proximity printing by phase and amplitude modulating masks,” J. Micromech. Microeng.11(5), 603–611 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Weible, K. J.

Weichelt, T.

R. Voelkel, U. Vogler, A. Bramati, T. Weichelt, L. Stuerzebecher, U. D. Zeitner, K. Motzek, A. Erdmann, and M. Hornung, “Advanced mask aligner lithography (AMALITH),” Proc. SPIE8326, 83261Y (2012).

Wheeler, B. D.

M. Fritze, B. M. Tyrell, D. K. Astolfi, R. D. Lambert, D.-R. W. Yost, A. R. Forte, S. G. Cann, and B. D. Wheeler, “Subwavelength optical lithography with phase-shift photomasks,” Lincoln Lab. J.14, 237–250 (2003).

Wyrowski, F.

S. Bühling, F. Wyrowski, E.-B. Kley, A. J. M. Nellissen, L. Wang, and M. Dirkzwager, “Resolution enhanced proximity printing by phase and amplitude modulating masks,” J. Micromech. Microeng.11(5), 603–611 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yost, D.-R. W.

M. Fritze, B. M. Tyrell, D. K. Astolfi, R. D. Lambert, D.-R. W. Yost, A. R. Forte, S. G. Cann, and B. D. Wheeler, “Subwavelength optical lithography with phase-shift photomasks,” Lincoln Lab. J.14, 237–250 (2003).

Zeitner, U. D.

Zoberbier, R.

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE Trans. Electron Devices (1)

M. D. Levenson, N. S. Viswanathan, and R. A. Simpson, “Improving resolution in photolithography with a phase-shifting mask,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices29(12), 1828–1836 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Micromech. Microeng. (1)

S. Bühling, F. Wyrowski, E.-B. Kley, A. J. M. Nellissen, L. Wang, and M. Dirkzwager, “Resolution enhanced proximity printing by phase and amplitude modulating masks,” J. Micromech. Microeng.11(5), 603–611 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lincoln Lab. J. (1)

M. Fritze, B. M. Tyrell, D. K. Astolfi, R. D. Lambert, D.-R. W. Yost, A. R. Forte, S. G. Cann, and B. D. Wheeler, “Subwavelength optical lithography with phase-shift photomasks,” Lincoln Lab. J.14, 237–250 (2003).

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Rev. (1)

F. M. Schellenberg, “A history of resolution enhancement technology,” Opt. Rev.12(2), 83–89 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

R. Voelkel, U. Vogler, A. Bramati, T. Weichelt, L. Stuerzebecher, U. D. Zeitner, K. Motzek, A. Erdmann, and M. Hornung, “Advanced mask aligner lithography (AMALITH),” Proc. SPIE8326, 83261Y (2012).

Other (5)

A. K.-K. Wong, Resolution Enhancement Techniques in Optical Lithography (SPIE, 2001).

Karl Suss: SUSS Mask Aligner MJB 3 Datasheet.

W. J. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics (McGraw-Hill, 1968).

P. B. Meliorisz, “Simulation of Proximity Printing,” Dissertation, Friedrich-Alexander Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (2010).

C. Mack, Fundamental Principles of Optical Lithography (Wiley, 2007), Chap. 1.

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