Abstract

We present an electrically tunable terahertz two dimensional plasmonic interferometer with an integrated detection element that down converts the terahertz fields to a DC signal. The integrated detector utilizes a resonant plasmonic homodyne mixing mechanism that measures the component of the plasma waves in-phase with an excitation field functioning as the local oscillator. Plasmonic interferometers with two independently tuned paths are studied. These devices demonstrate a means for developing a spectrometer-on-a-chip where the tuning of electrical length plays a role analogous to that of physical path length in macroscopic spectroscopic tools such as Fourier transform interferometers.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  30. S. Preu, S. Kim, R. Verma, P. G. Burke, M. S. Sherwin, and A. C. Gossard, “An improved model for non-resonant terahertz detection in field-effect transistors,” J. Appl. Phys.111(2), 024502 (2012).
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  33. G. C. Dyer, G. R. Aizin, A. D. Grine, J. L. Reno, J. M. Hensley, S. J. Allen, and E. A. Shaner, “Resonant bolometric subterahertz detection in a 2D plasmonic cavity,” in Proc. of SPIE, Vol. 8363, A. F. M. Anwar, K. D. Nibir, and W. C. Thomas, eds. (SPIE, 2012), pp. 83630T.
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    [CrossRef]
  35. F. Teppe, W. Knap, D. B. Veksler, M. Shur, A. P. Dmitriev, V. Y. Kachorovskii, and S. Rumyantsev, “Room-temperature plasma waves resonant detection of sub-terahertz radiation by nanometer field-effect transistor,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(5), 052107 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  37. A. Shchepetov, C. Gardès, Y. Roelens, A. Cappy, S. Bollaert, S. Boubanga-Tombet, F. Teppe, D. Coquillat, S. Nadar, N. Dyakonova, H. Videlier, W. Knap, D. Seliuta, R. Vadoklis, and G. Valušis, “Oblique modes effect on terahertz plasma wave resonant detection in InGaAs/InAlAs multichannel transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(24), 242105 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  38. V. V. Popov, D. M. Ermolaev, K. V. Maremyanin, N. A. Maleev, V. E. Zemlyakov, V. I. Gavrilenko, and S. Y. Shapoval, “High-responsivity terahertz detection by on-chip InGaAs/GaAs field-effect-transistor array,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 153504 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  40. P. Földesy, “Terahertz responsivity of field-effect transistors under arbitrary biasing conditions,” J. Appl. Phys.114(11), 114501 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  41. V. V. Popov, D. V. Fateev, T. Otsuji, Y. M. Meziani, D. Coquillat, and W. Knap, “Plasmonic terahertz detection by a double-grating-gate field-effect transistor structure with an asymmetric unit cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(24), 243504 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  42. T. Watanabe, S. B. Tombet, Y. Tanimoto, Y. Wang, H. Minamide, H. Ito, D. Fateev, V. Popov, D. Coquillat, W. Knap, Y. Meziani, and T. Otsuji, “Ultrahigh sensitive plasmonic terahertz detector based on an asymmetric dual-grating gate HEMT structure,” Solid-State Electron.78, 109–114 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  43. G. R. Aizin and G. C. Dyer, “Transmission line theory of collective plasma excitations in periodic two-dimensional electron systems: Finite plasmonic crystals and Tamm states,” Phys. Rev. B86(23), 235316 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  44. Z. Fei, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, L. M. Zhang, A. S McLeod, C. Wang, M. K. Stewart, Z. Zhao, G. Dominguez, M. Thiemens, M. M. Fogler, M. J. Tauber, A. H. Castro-Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Infrared nanoscopy of Dirac plasmons at the graphene-SiO2 interface,” Nano Lett.11(11), 4701–4705 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  45. H. Yan, T. Low, W. Zhu, Y. Wu, M. Freitag, X. Li, F. Guinea, P. Avouris, and F. Xia, “Damping pathways of mid-infrared plasmons in graphene nanostructures,” Nat. Photonics7(5), 394–399 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2014

A. R. Davoyan and V. V. Popov, “Nanometer near-field localization and enhancement in a split two-dimensional plasmonic system at terahertz frequencies,” Opt. Commun.315, 352–355 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li, H. Yan, D. B. Farmer, X. Meng, W. Zhu, R. M. Osgood, T. F. Heinz, and P. Avouris, “Graphene plasmon enhanced vibrational sensing of surface-adsorbed layers,” Nano Lett.14(3), 1573–1577 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2013

H. Yan, T. Low, W. Zhu, Y. Wu, M. Freitag, X. Li, F. Guinea, P. Avouris, and F. Xia, “Damping pathways of mid-infrared plasmons in graphene nanostructures,” Nat. Photonics7(5), 394–399 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. Földesy, “Current steering detection scheme of three terminal antenna-coupled terahertz field effect transistor detectors,” Opt. Lett.38(15), 2804–2806 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Földesy, “Terahertz responsivity of field-effect transistors under arbitrary biasing conditions,” J. Appl. Phys.114(11), 114501 (2013).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Dyer, G. R. Aizin, S. J. Allen, A. D. Grine, D. Bethke, J. L. Reno, and E. A. Shaner, “Induced transparency by coupling of Tamm and defect states in tunable terahertz plasmonic crystals,” Nat. Photonics7(11), 925–930 (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. Y. M. Yeung, H. Yoon, W. Andress, K. West, L. Pfeiffer, and D. Ham, “Two-path solid-state interferometry using ultra-subwavelength two-dimensional plasmonic waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(2), 021104 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

V. M. Muravev and I. V. Kukushkin, “Plasmonic detector/spectrometer of subterahertz radiation based on two-dimensional electron system with embedded defect,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(8), 082102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Dyer, S. Preu, G. R. Aizin, J. Mikalopas, A. D. Grine, J. L. Reno, J. M. Hensley, N. Q. Vinh, A. C. Gossard, M. S. Sherwin, S. J. Allen, and E. A. Shaner, “Enhanced performance of resonant sub-terahertz detection in a plasmonic cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(8), 083506 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Dyer, G. R. Aizin, S. Preu, N. Q. Vinh, S. J. Allen, J. L. Reno, and E. A. Shaner, “Inducing an Incipient Terahertz Finite Plasmonic Crystal in Coupled Two Dimensional Plasmonic Cavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett.109(12), 126803 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Preu, S. Kim, R. Verma, P. G. Burke, M. S. Sherwin, and A. C. Gossard, “An improved model for non-resonant terahertz detection in field-effect transistors,” J. Appl. Phys.111(2), 024502 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Davoyan, V. V. Popov, and S. A. Nikitov, “Tailoring terahertz near-field enhancement via two-dimensional plasmons,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108(12), 127401 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. F. Andress, H. Yoon, K. Y. M. Yeung, L. Qin, K. West, L. Pfeiffer, and D. Ham, “Ultra-subwavelength two-dimensional plasmonic circuits,” Nano Lett.12(5), 2272–2277 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yan, X. Li, B. Chandra, G. Tulevski, Y. Wu, M. Freitag, W. Zhu, P. Avouris, and F. Xia, “Tunable infrared plasmonic devices using graphene/insulator stacks,” Nat. Nanotechnol.7(5), 330–334 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Preu, S. Kim, R. Verma, P. G. Burke, N. Q. Vinh, M. S. Sherwin, and A. C. Gossard, “Terahertz detection by a homodyne field effect transistor multiplicative mixer,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol.2(3), 278–283 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Vitiello, D. Coquillat, L. Viti, D. Ercolani, F. Teppe, A. Pitanti, F. Beltram, L. Sorba, W. Knap, and A. Tredicucci, “Room-temperature terahertz detectors based on semiconductor nanowire field-effect transistors,” Nano Lett.12(1), 96–101 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. D. Gaspare, R. Casini, V. Foglietti, V. Giliberti, E. Giovine, and M. Ortolani, “Terahertz current oscillations in a gated two-dimensional electron gas with antenna integrated at the channel ends,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(20), 203504 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Pitanti, D. Coquillat, D. Ercolani, L. Sorba, F. Teppe, W. Knap, G. De Simoni, F. Beltram, A. Tredicucci, and M. S. Vitiello, “Terahetz detection by heterostructed InAs/InSb nanowire based field effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(14), 141103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Vicarelli, M. S. Vitiello, D. Coquillat, A. Lombardo, A. C. Ferrari, W. Knap, M. Polini, V. Pellegrini, and A. Tredicucci, “Graphene field-effect transistors as room-temperature terahertz detectors,” Nat. Mater.11(10), 865–871 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Watanabe, S. B. Tombet, Y. Tanimoto, Y. Wang, H. Minamide, H. Ito, D. Fateev, V. Popov, D. Coquillat, W. Knap, Y. Meziani, and T. Otsuji, “Ultrahigh sensitive plasmonic terahertz detector based on an asymmetric dual-grating gate HEMT structure,” Solid-State Electron.78, 109–114 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. R. Aizin and G. C. Dyer, “Transmission line theory of collective plasma excitations in periodic two-dimensional electron systems: Finite plasmonic crystals and Tamm states,” Phys. Rev. B86(23), 235316 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

Z. Fei, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, L. M. Zhang, A. S McLeod, C. Wang, M. K. Stewart, Z. Zhao, G. Dominguez, M. Thiemens, M. M. Fogler, M. J. Tauber, A. H. Castro-Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Infrared nanoscopy of Dirac plasmons at the graphene-SiO2 interface,” Nano Lett.11(11), 4701–4705 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. V. Popov, D. V. Fateev, T. Otsuji, Y. M. Meziani, D. Coquillat, and W. Knap, “Plasmonic terahertz detection by a double-grating-gate field-effect transistor structure with an asymmetric unit cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(24), 243504 (2011).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Popov, D. M. Ermolaev, K. V. Maremyanin, N. A. Maleev, V. E. Zemlyakov, V. I. Gavrilenko, and S. Y. Shapoval, “High-responsivity terahertz detection by on-chip InGaAs/GaAs field-effect-transistor array,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 153504 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Boppel, A. Lisauskas, V. Krozer, and H. G. Roskos, “Performance and performance variations of sub-1 THz detectors fabricated with 0.15 micron CMOS foundry process,” Electron. Lett.47(11), 661–662 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol.6(10), 630–634 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Sakowicz, M. B. Lifshits, O. A. Klimenko, F. Schuster, D. Coquillat, F. Teppe, and W. Knap, “Terahertz responsivity of field effect transistors versus their static channel conductivity and loading effects,” J. Appl. Phys.110(5), 54512–54516 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

2009

A. Lisauskas, U. R. Pfeiffer, E. Öjefors, P. H. Bolìvar, D. Glaab, and H. G. Roskos, “Rational design of high-responsivity detectors of terahertz radiation based on distributed self-mixing in silicon field-effect transistors,” J. Appl. Phys.105(11), 114511 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Knap, M. I. Dyakonov, D. Coquillat, F. Teppe, N. Dyakonova, J. Łusakowski, K. Karpierz, M. Sakowicz, G. Valusis, D. Seliuta, I. Kasalynas, A. Fatimy, Y. M. Meziani, and T. Otsuji, “Field effect transistors for terahertz detection: Physics and first imaging applications,” J. Infrared, Milli., and Terahertz Waves30, 1319–1337 (2009).

2008

J. W. Song, N. A. Kabir, Y. Kawano, K. Ishibashi, G. R. Aizin, L. Mourokh, J. L. Reno, A. G. Markelz, and J. P. Bird, “Terahertz response of quantum point contacts,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(22), 223115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Shchepetov, C. Gardès, Y. Roelens, A. Cappy, S. Bollaert, S. Boubanga-Tombet, F. Teppe, D. Coquillat, S. Nadar, N. Dyakonova, H. Videlier, W. Knap, D. Seliuta, R. Vadoklis, and G. Valušis, “Oblique modes effect on terahertz plasma wave resonant detection in InGaAs/InAlAs multichannel transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(24), 242105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006

A. El Fatimy, F. Teppe, N. Dyakonova, W. Knap, D. Seliuta, G. Valušis, A. Shchepetov, Y. Roelens, S. Bollaert, A. Cappy, and S. Rumyantsev, “Resonant and voltage-tunable terahertz detection in InGaAs/InP nanometer transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(13), 131926 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

F. Teppe, W. Knap, D. B. Veksler, M. Shur, A. P. Dmitriev, V. Y. Kachorovskii, and S. Rumyantsev, “Room-temperature plasma waves resonant detection of sub-terahertz radiation by nanometer field-effect transistor,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(5), 052107 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Rosenblatt, H. Lin, V. Sazonova, S. Tiwari, and P. L. McEuen, “Mixing at 50 GHz using a single-walled carbon nanotube transistor,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(15), 153111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Shaner, M. Lee, M. C. Wanke, A. D. Grine, J. L. Reno, and S. J. Allen, “Single-quantum-well grating-gated terahertz plasmon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(19), 193507 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002

W. Knap, Y. Deng, S. Rumyantsev, and M. S. Shur, “Resonant detection of subterahertz and terahertz radiation by plasma waves in submicron field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(24), 4637–4639 (2002).
[CrossRef]

X. G. Peralta, S. J. Allen, M. C. Wanke, N. E. Harff, J. A. Simmons, M. P. Lilly, J. L. Reno, P. J. Burke, and J. P. Eisenstein, “Terahertz photoconductivity and plasmon modes in double-quantum-well field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(9), 1627–1629 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

M. J. W. Rodwell, M. Urteaga, T. Mathew, D. Scott, D. Mensa, Q. Lee, J. Guthrie, Y. Betser, S. C. Martin, R. P. Smith, S. Jaganathan, S. Krishnan, S. I. Long, R. Pullela, B. Agarwal, U. Bhattacharya, L. Samoska, and M. Dahlstrom, “Submicron scaling of HBTs,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.48(11), 2606–2624 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

P. J. Burke, I. B. Spielman, J. P. Eisenstein, L. N. Pfeiffer, and K. W. West, “High frequency conductivity of the high-mobility two-dimensional electron gas,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(6), 745–747 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1996

M. I. Dyakonov and M. S. Shur, “Detection, mixing, and frequency multiplication of terahertz radiation by two-dimensional electronic fluid,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.43(3), 380–387 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993

M. I. Dyakonov and M. S. Shur, “Shallow water analogy for a ballistic field effect transistor: New mechanism of plasma wave generation by dc current,” Phys. Rev. Lett.71(15), 2465–2468 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983

S. J. Allen, H. L. Stormer, and J. C. M. Hwang, “Dimensional resonance of the two-dimensional electron gas in selectively doped GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. B28(8), 4875–4877 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1977

S. J. Allen, D. C. Tsui, and R. A. Logan, “Observation of the two-dimensional plasmon in silicon inversion layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett.38(17), 980–983 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Agarwal, B.

M. J. W. Rodwell, M. Urteaga, T. Mathew, D. Scott, D. Mensa, Q. Lee, J. Guthrie, Y. Betser, S. C. Martin, R. P. Smith, S. Jaganathan, S. Krishnan, S. I. Long, R. Pullela, B. Agarwal, U. Bhattacharya, L. Samoska, and M. Dahlstrom, “Submicron scaling of HBTs,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.48(11), 2606–2624 (2001).
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Aizin, G. R.

G. C. Dyer, G. R. Aizin, S. J. Allen, A. D. Grine, D. Bethke, J. L. Reno, and E. A. Shaner, “Induced transparency by coupling of Tamm and defect states in tunable terahertz plasmonic crystals,” Nat. Photonics7(11), 925–930 (2013).
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G. C. Dyer, G. R. Aizin, S. Preu, N. Q. Vinh, S. J. Allen, J. L. Reno, and E. A. Shaner, “Inducing an Incipient Terahertz Finite Plasmonic Crystal in Coupled Two Dimensional Plasmonic Cavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett.109(12), 126803 (2012).
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G. C. Dyer, S. Preu, G. R. Aizin, J. Mikalopas, A. D. Grine, J. L. Reno, J. M. Hensley, N. Q. Vinh, A. C. Gossard, M. S. Sherwin, S. J. Allen, and E. A. Shaner, “Enhanced performance of resonant sub-terahertz detection in a plasmonic cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(8), 083506 (2012).
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G. R. Aizin and G. C. Dyer, “Transmission line theory of collective plasma excitations in periodic two-dimensional electron systems: Finite plasmonic crystals and Tamm states,” Phys. Rev. B86(23), 235316 (2012).
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G. C. Dyer, N. Q. Vinh, S. J. Allen, G. R. Aizin, J. Mikalopas, J. L. Reno, and E. A. Shaner, “A terahertz plasmon cavity detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(19), 193507 (2010).
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J. W. Song, N. A. Kabir, Y. Kawano, K. Ishibashi, G. R. Aizin, L. Mourokh, J. L. Reno, A. G. Markelz, and J. P. Bird, “Terahertz response of quantum point contacts,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(22), 223115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Allen, S. J.

G. C. Dyer, G. R. Aizin, S. J. Allen, A. D. Grine, D. Bethke, J. L. Reno, and E. A. Shaner, “Induced transparency by coupling of Tamm and defect states in tunable terahertz plasmonic crystals,” Nat. Photonics7(11), 925–930 (2013).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Dyer, G. R. Aizin, S. Preu, N. Q. Vinh, S. J. Allen, J. L. Reno, and E. A. Shaner, “Inducing an Incipient Terahertz Finite Plasmonic Crystal in Coupled Two Dimensional Plasmonic Cavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett.109(12), 126803 (2012).
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G. C. Dyer, S. Preu, G. R. Aizin, J. Mikalopas, A. D. Grine, J. L. Reno, J. M. Hensley, N. Q. Vinh, A. C. Gossard, M. S. Sherwin, S. J. Allen, and E. A. Shaner, “Enhanced performance of resonant sub-terahertz detection in a plasmonic cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(8), 083506 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Dyer, N. Q. Vinh, S. J. Allen, G. R. Aizin, J. Mikalopas, J. L. Reno, and E. A. Shaner, “A terahertz plasmon cavity detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(19), 193507 (2010).
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E. A. Shaner, M. Lee, M. C. Wanke, A. D. Grine, J. L. Reno, and S. J. Allen, “Single-quantum-well grating-gated terahertz plasmon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(19), 193507 (2005).
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X. G. Peralta, S. J. Allen, M. C. Wanke, N. E. Harff, J. A. Simmons, M. P. Lilly, J. L. Reno, P. J. Burke, and J. P. Eisenstein, “Terahertz photoconductivity and plasmon modes in double-quantum-well field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(9), 1627–1629 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Allen, H. L. Stormer, and J. C. M. Hwang, “Dimensional resonance of the two-dimensional electron gas in selectively doped GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. B28(8), 4875–4877 (1983).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Allen, D. C. Tsui, and R. A. Logan, “Observation of the two-dimensional plasmon in silicon inversion layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett.38(17), 980–983 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Andreev, G. O.

Z. Fei, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, L. M. Zhang, A. S McLeod, C. Wang, M. K. Stewart, Z. Zhao, G. Dominguez, M. Thiemens, M. M. Fogler, M. J. Tauber, A. H. Castro-Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Infrared nanoscopy of Dirac plasmons at the graphene-SiO2 interface,” Nano Lett.11(11), 4701–4705 (2011).
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Andress, W.

K. Y. M. Yeung, H. Yoon, W. Andress, K. West, L. Pfeiffer, and D. Ham, “Two-path solid-state interferometry using ultra-subwavelength two-dimensional plasmonic waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(2), 021104 (2013).
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Andress, W. F.

W. F. Andress, H. Yoon, K. Y. M. Yeung, L. Qin, K. West, L. Pfeiffer, and D. Ham, “Ultra-subwavelength two-dimensional plasmonic circuits,” Nano Lett.12(5), 2272–2277 (2012).
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Avouris, P.

Y. Li, H. Yan, D. B. Farmer, X. Meng, W. Zhu, R. M. Osgood, T. F. Heinz, and P. Avouris, “Graphene plasmon enhanced vibrational sensing of surface-adsorbed layers,” Nano Lett.14(3), 1573–1577 (2014).
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H. Yan, T. Low, W. Zhu, Y. Wu, M. Freitag, X. Li, F. Guinea, P. Avouris, and F. Xia, “Damping pathways of mid-infrared plasmons in graphene nanostructures,” Nat. Photonics7(5), 394–399 (2013).
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H. Yan, X. Li, B. Chandra, G. Tulevski, Y. Wu, M. Freitag, W. Zhu, P. Avouris, and F. Xia, “Tunable infrared plasmonic devices using graphene/insulator stacks,” Nat. Nanotechnol.7(5), 330–334 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bao, W.

Z. Fei, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, L. M. Zhang, A. S McLeod, C. Wang, M. K. Stewart, Z. Zhao, G. Dominguez, M. Thiemens, M. M. Fogler, M. J. Tauber, A. H. Castro-Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Infrared nanoscopy of Dirac plasmons at the graphene-SiO2 interface,” Nano Lett.11(11), 4701–4705 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Basov, D. N.

Z. Fei, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, L. M. Zhang, A. S McLeod, C. Wang, M. K. Stewart, Z. Zhao, G. Dominguez, M. Thiemens, M. M. Fogler, M. J. Tauber, A. H. Castro-Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Infrared nanoscopy of Dirac plasmons at the graphene-SiO2 interface,” Nano Lett.11(11), 4701–4705 (2011).
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Bechtel, H. A.

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol.6(10), 630–634 (2011).
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Beltram, F.

M. S. Vitiello, D. Coquillat, L. Viti, D. Ercolani, F. Teppe, A. Pitanti, F. Beltram, L. Sorba, W. Knap, and A. Tredicucci, “Room-temperature terahertz detectors based on semiconductor nanowire field-effect transistors,” Nano Lett.12(1), 96–101 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Pitanti, D. Coquillat, D. Ercolani, L. Sorba, F. Teppe, W. Knap, G. De Simoni, F. Beltram, A. Tredicucci, and M. S. Vitiello, “Terahetz detection by heterostructed InAs/InSb nanowire based field effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(14), 141103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bethke, D.

G. C. Dyer, G. R. Aizin, S. J. Allen, A. D. Grine, D. Bethke, J. L. Reno, and E. A. Shaner, “Induced transparency by coupling of Tamm and defect states in tunable terahertz plasmonic crystals,” Nat. Photonics7(11), 925–930 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Betser, Y.

M. J. W. Rodwell, M. Urteaga, T. Mathew, D. Scott, D. Mensa, Q. Lee, J. Guthrie, Y. Betser, S. C. Martin, R. P. Smith, S. Jaganathan, S. Krishnan, S. I. Long, R. Pullela, B. Agarwal, U. Bhattacharya, L. Samoska, and M. Dahlstrom, “Submicron scaling of HBTs,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.48(11), 2606–2624 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bhattacharya, U.

M. J. W. Rodwell, M. Urteaga, T. Mathew, D. Scott, D. Mensa, Q. Lee, J. Guthrie, Y. Betser, S. C. Martin, R. P. Smith, S. Jaganathan, S. Krishnan, S. I. Long, R. Pullela, B. Agarwal, U. Bhattacharya, L. Samoska, and M. Dahlstrom, “Submicron scaling of HBTs,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.48(11), 2606–2624 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bird, J. P.

J. W. Song, N. A. Kabir, Y. Kawano, K. Ishibashi, G. R. Aizin, L. Mourokh, J. L. Reno, A. G. Markelz, and J. P. Bird, “Terahertz response of quantum point contacts,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(22), 223115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bolìvar, P. H.

A. Lisauskas, U. R. Pfeiffer, E. Öjefors, P. H. Bolìvar, D. Glaab, and H. G. Roskos, “Rational design of high-responsivity detectors of terahertz radiation based on distributed self-mixing in silicon field-effect transistors,” J. Appl. Phys.105(11), 114511 (2009).
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Bollaert, S.

A. Shchepetov, C. Gardès, Y. Roelens, A. Cappy, S. Bollaert, S. Boubanga-Tombet, F. Teppe, D. Coquillat, S. Nadar, N. Dyakonova, H. Videlier, W. Knap, D. Seliuta, R. Vadoklis, and G. Valušis, “Oblique modes effect on terahertz plasma wave resonant detection in InGaAs/InAlAs multichannel transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(24), 242105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. El Fatimy, F. Teppe, N. Dyakonova, W. Knap, D. Seliuta, G. Valušis, A. Shchepetov, Y. Roelens, S. Bollaert, A. Cappy, and S. Rumyantsev, “Resonant and voltage-tunable terahertz detection in InGaAs/InP nanometer transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(13), 131926 (2006).
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Boppel, S.

S. Boppel, A. Lisauskas, V. Krozer, and H. G. Roskos, “Performance and performance variations of sub-1 THz detectors fabricated with 0.15 micron CMOS foundry process,” Electron. Lett.47(11), 661–662 (2011).
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Boubanga-Tombet, S.

D. Coquillat, S. Nadar, F. Teppe, N. Dyakonova, S. Boubanga-Tombet, W. Knap, T. Nishimura, T. Otsuji, Y. M. Meziani, G. M. Tsymbalov, and V. V. Popov, “Room temperature detection of sub-terahertz radiation in double-grating-gate transistors,” Opt. Express18(6), 6024–6032 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Shchepetov, C. Gardès, Y. Roelens, A. Cappy, S. Bollaert, S. Boubanga-Tombet, F. Teppe, D. Coquillat, S. Nadar, N. Dyakonova, H. Videlier, W. Knap, D. Seliuta, R. Vadoklis, and G. Valušis, “Oblique modes effect on terahertz plasma wave resonant detection in InGaAs/InAlAs multichannel transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(24), 242105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Burke, P. G.

S. Preu, S. Kim, R. Verma, P. G. Burke, M. S. Sherwin, and A. C. Gossard, “An improved model for non-resonant terahertz detection in field-effect transistors,” J. Appl. Phys.111(2), 024502 (2012).
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S. Preu, S. Kim, R. Verma, P. G. Burke, N. Q. Vinh, M. S. Sherwin, and A. C. Gossard, “Terahertz detection by a homodyne field effect transistor multiplicative mixer,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol.2(3), 278–283 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Burke, P. J.

X. G. Peralta, S. J. Allen, M. C. Wanke, N. E. Harff, J. A. Simmons, M. P. Lilly, J. L. Reno, P. J. Burke, and J. P. Eisenstein, “Terahertz photoconductivity and plasmon modes in double-quantum-well field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(9), 1627–1629 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Burke, I. B. Spielman, J. P. Eisenstein, L. N. Pfeiffer, and K. W. West, “High frequency conductivity of the high-mobility two-dimensional electron gas,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(6), 745–747 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cappy, A.

A. Shchepetov, C. Gardès, Y. Roelens, A. Cappy, S. Bollaert, S. Boubanga-Tombet, F. Teppe, D. Coquillat, S. Nadar, N. Dyakonova, H. Videlier, W. Knap, D. Seliuta, R. Vadoklis, and G. Valušis, “Oblique modes effect on terahertz plasma wave resonant detection in InGaAs/InAlAs multichannel transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(24), 242105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. El Fatimy, F. Teppe, N. Dyakonova, W. Knap, D. Seliuta, G. Valušis, A. Shchepetov, Y. Roelens, S. Bollaert, A. Cappy, and S. Rumyantsev, “Resonant and voltage-tunable terahertz detection in InGaAs/InP nanometer transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(13), 131926 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Casini, R.

A. D. Gaspare, R. Casini, V. Foglietti, V. Giliberti, E. Giovine, and M. Ortolani, “Terahertz current oscillations in a gated two-dimensional electron gas with antenna integrated at the channel ends,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(20), 203504 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Castro-Neto, A. H.

Z. Fei, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, L. M. Zhang, A. S McLeod, C. Wang, M. K. Stewart, Z. Zhao, G. Dominguez, M. Thiemens, M. M. Fogler, M. J. Tauber, A. H. Castro-Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Infrared nanoscopy of Dirac plasmons at the graphene-SiO2 interface,” Nano Lett.11(11), 4701–4705 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chandra, B.

H. Yan, X. Li, B. Chandra, G. Tulevski, Y. Wu, M. Freitag, W. Zhu, P. Avouris, and F. Xia, “Tunable infrared plasmonic devices using graphene/insulator stacks,” Nat. Nanotechnol.7(5), 330–334 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coquillat, D.

A. Pitanti, D. Coquillat, D. Ercolani, L. Sorba, F. Teppe, W. Knap, G. De Simoni, F. Beltram, A. Tredicucci, and M. S. Vitiello, “Terahetz detection by heterostructed InAs/InSb nanowire based field effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(14), 141103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Vitiello, D. Coquillat, L. Viti, D. Ercolani, F. Teppe, A. Pitanti, F. Beltram, L. Sorba, W. Knap, and A. Tredicucci, “Room-temperature terahertz detectors based on semiconductor nanowire field-effect transistors,” Nano Lett.12(1), 96–101 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Vicarelli, M. S. Vitiello, D. Coquillat, A. Lombardo, A. C. Ferrari, W. Knap, M. Polini, V. Pellegrini, and A. Tredicucci, “Graphene field-effect transistors as room-temperature terahertz detectors,” Nat. Mater.11(10), 865–871 (2012).
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T. Watanabe, S. B. Tombet, Y. Tanimoto, Y. Wang, H. Minamide, H. Ito, D. Fateev, V. Popov, D. Coquillat, W. Knap, Y. Meziani, and T. Otsuji, “Ultrahigh sensitive plasmonic terahertz detector based on an asymmetric dual-grating gate HEMT structure,” Solid-State Electron.78, 109–114 (2012).
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M. Sakowicz, M. B. Lifshits, O. A. Klimenko, F. Schuster, D. Coquillat, F. Teppe, and W. Knap, “Terahertz responsivity of field effect transistors versus their static channel conductivity and loading effects,” J. Appl. Phys.110(5), 54512–54516 (2011).
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V. V. Popov, D. V. Fateev, T. Otsuji, Y. M. Meziani, D. Coquillat, and W. Knap, “Plasmonic terahertz detection by a double-grating-gate field-effect transistor structure with an asymmetric unit cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(24), 243504 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Coquillat, S. Nadar, F. Teppe, N. Dyakonova, S. Boubanga-Tombet, W. Knap, T. Nishimura, T. Otsuji, Y. M. Meziani, G. M. Tsymbalov, and V. V. Popov, “Room temperature detection of sub-terahertz radiation in double-grating-gate transistors,” Opt. Express18(6), 6024–6032 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Knap, M. I. Dyakonov, D. Coquillat, F. Teppe, N. Dyakonova, J. Łusakowski, K. Karpierz, M. Sakowicz, G. Valusis, D. Seliuta, I. Kasalynas, A. Fatimy, Y. M. Meziani, and T. Otsuji, “Field effect transistors for terahertz detection: Physics and first imaging applications,” J. Infrared, Milli., and Terahertz Waves30, 1319–1337 (2009).

A. Shchepetov, C. Gardès, Y. Roelens, A. Cappy, S. Bollaert, S. Boubanga-Tombet, F. Teppe, D. Coquillat, S. Nadar, N. Dyakonova, H. Videlier, W. Knap, D. Seliuta, R. Vadoklis, and G. Valušis, “Oblique modes effect on terahertz plasma wave resonant detection in InGaAs/InAlAs multichannel transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(24), 242105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dahlstrom, M.

M. J. W. Rodwell, M. Urteaga, T. Mathew, D. Scott, D. Mensa, Q. Lee, J. Guthrie, Y. Betser, S. C. Martin, R. P. Smith, S. Jaganathan, S. Krishnan, S. I. Long, R. Pullela, B. Agarwal, U. Bhattacharya, L. Samoska, and M. Dahlstrom, “Submicron scaling of HBTs,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.48(11), 2606–2624 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Davoyan, A. R.

A. R. Davoyan and V. V. Popov, “Nanometer near-field localization and enhancement in a split two-dimensional plasmonic system at terahertz frequencies,” Opt. Commun.315, 352–355 (2014).
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A. R. Davoyan, V. V. Popov, and S. A. Nikitov, “Tailoring terahertz near-field enhancement via two-dimensional plasmons,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108(12), 127401 (2012).
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A. Pitanti, D. Coquillat, D. Ercolani, L. Sorba, F. Teppe, W. Knap, G. De Simoni, F. Beltram, A. Tredicucci, and M. S. Vitiello, “Terahetz detection by heterostructed InAs/InSb nanowire based field effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(14), 141103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Deng, Y.

W. Knap, Y. Deng, S. Rumyantsev, and M. S. Shur, “Resonant detection of subterahertz and terahertz radiation by plasma waves in submicron field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(24), 4637–4639 (2002).
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Dmitriev, A. P.

F. Teppe, W. Knap, D. B. Veksler, M. Shur, A. P. Dmitriev, V. Y. Kachorovskii, and S. Rumyantsev, “Room-temperature plasma waves resonant detection of sub-terahertz radiation by nanometer field-effect transistor,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(5), 052107 (2005).
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Dominguez, G.

Z. Fei, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, L. M. Zhang, A. S McLeod, C. Wang, M. K. Stewart, Z. Zhao, G. Dominguez, M. Thiemens, M. M. Fogler, M. J. Tauber, A. H. Castro-Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Infrared nanoscopy of Dirac plasmons at the graphene-SiO2 interface,” Nano Lett.11(11), 4701–4705 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dyakonov, M. I.

W. Knap, M. I. Dyakonov, D. Coquillat, F. Teppe, N. Dyakonova, J. Łusakowski, K. Karpierz, M. Sakowicz, G. Valusis, D. Seliuta, I. Kasalynas, A. Fatimy, Y. M. Meziani, and T. Otsuji, “Field effect transistors for terahertz detection: Physics and first imaging applications,” J. Infrared, Milli., and Terahertz Waves30, 1319–1337 (2009).

M. I. Dyakonov and M. S. Shur, “Detection, mixing, and frequency multiplication of terahertz radiation by two-dimensional electronic fluid,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.43(3), 380–387 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Dyakonov and M. S. Shur, “Shallow water analogy for a ballistic field effect transistor: New mechanism of plasma wave generation by dc current,” Phys. Rev. Lett.71(15), 2465–2468 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dyakonova, N.

D. Coquillat, S. Nadar, F. Teppe, N. Dyakonova, S. Boubanga-Tombet, W. Knap, T. Nishimura, T. Otsuji, Y. M. Meziani, G. M. Tsymbalov, and V. V. Popov, “Room temperature detection of sub-terahertz radiation in double-grating-gate transistors,” Opt. Express18(6), 6024–6032 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Knap, M. I. Dyakonov, D. Coquillat, F. Teppe, N. Dyakonova, J. Łusakowski, K. Karpierz, M. Sakowicz, G. Valusis, D. Seliuta, I. Kasalynas, A. Fatimy, Y. M. Meziani, and T. Otsuji, “Field effect transistors for terahertz detection: Physics and first imaging applications,” J. Infrared, Milli., and Terahertz Waves30, 1319–1337 (2009).

A. Shchepetov, C. Gardès, Y. Roelens, A. Cappy, S. Bollaert, S. Boubanga-Tombet, F. Teppe, D. Coquillat, S. Nadar, N. Dyakonova, H. Videlier, W. Knap, D. Seliuta, R. Vadoklis, and G. Valušis, “Oblique modes effect on terahertz plasma wave resonant detection in InGaAs/InAlAs multichannel transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(24), 242105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. El Fatimy, F. Teppe, N. Dyakonova, W. Knap, D. Seliuta, G. Valušis, A. Shchepetov, Y. Roelens, S. Bollaert, A. Cappy, and S. Rumyantsev, “Resonant and voltage-tunable terahertz detection in InGaAs/InP nanometer transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(13), 131926 (2006).
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L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol.6(10), 630–634 (2011).
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W. Knap, M. I. Dyakonov, D. Coquillat, F. Teppe, N. Dyakonova, J. Łusakowski, K. Karpierz, M. Sakowicz, G. Valusis, D. Seliuta, I. Kasalynas, A. Fatimy, Y. M. Meziani, and T. Otsuji, “Field effect transistors for terahertz detection: Physics and first imaging applications,” J. Infrared, Milli., and Terahertz Waves30, 1319–1337 (2009).

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J. W. Song, N. A. Kabir, Y. Kawano, K. Ishibashi, G. R. Aizin, L. Mourokh, J. L. Reno, A. G. Markelz, and J. P. Bird, “Terahertz response of quantum point contacts,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(22), 223115 (2008).
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A. Shchepetov, C. Gardès, Y. Roelens, A. Cappy, S. Bollaert, S. Boubanga-Tombet, F. Teppe, D. Coquillat, S. Nadar, N. Dyakonova, H. Videlier, W. Knap, D. Seliuta, R. Vadoklis, and G. Valušis, “Oblique modes effect on terahertz plasma wave resonant detection in InGaAs/InAlAs multichannel transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(24), 242105 (2008).
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A. El Fatimy, F. Teppe, N. Dyakonova, W. Knap, D. Seliuta, G. Valušis, A. Shchepetov, Y. Roelens, S. Bollaert, A. Cappy, and S. Rumyantsev, “Resonant and voltage-tunable terahertz detection in InGaAs/InP nanometer transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(13), 131926 (2006).
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F. Teppe, W. Knap, D. B. Veksler, M. Shur, A. P. Dmitriev, V. Y. Kachorovskii, and S. Rumyantsev, “Room-temperature plasma waves resonant detection of sub-terahertz radiation by nanometer field-effect transistor,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(5), 052107 (2005).
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W. Knap, Y. Deng, S. Rumyantsev, and M. S. Shur, “Resonant detection of subterahertz and terahertz radiation by plasma waves in submicron field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(24), 4637–4639 (2002).
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A. R. Davoyan, V. V. Popov, and S. A. Nikitov, “Tailoring terahertz near-field enhancement via two-dimensional plasmons,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108(12), 127401 (2012).
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V. V. Popov, D. V. Fateev, T. Otsuji, Y. M. Meziani, D. Coquillat, and W. Knap, “Plasmonic terahertz detection by a double-grating-gate field-effect transistor structure with an asymmetric unit cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(24), 243504 (2011).
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V. V. Popov, D. M. Ermolaev, K. V. Maremyanin, N. A. Maleev, V. E. Zemlyakov, V. I. Gavrilenko, and S. Y. Shapoval, “High-responsivity terahertz detection by on-chip InGaAs/GaAs field-effect-transistor array,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 153504 (2011).
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M. J. W. Rodwell, M. Urteaga, T. Mathew, D. Scott, D. Mensa, Q. Lee, J. Guthrie, Y. Betser, S. C. Martin, R. P. Smith, S. Jaganathan, S. Krishnan, S. I. Long, R. Pullela, B. Agarwal, U. Bhattacharya, L. Samoska, and M. Dahlstrom, “Submicron scaling of HBTs,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.48(11), 2606–2624 (2001).
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W. F. Andress, H. Yoon, K. Y. M. Yeung, L. Qin, K. West, L. Pfeiffer, and D. Ham, “Ultra-subwavelength two-dimensional plasmonic circuits,” Nano Lett.12(5), 2272–2277 (2012).
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G. C. Dyer, G. R. Aizin, S. Preu, N. Q. Vinh, S. J. Allen, J. L. Reno, and E. A. Shaner, “Inducing an Incipient Terahertz Finite Plasmonic Crystal in Coupled Two Dimensional Plasmonic Cavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett.109(12), 126803 (2012).
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G. C. Dyer, S. Preu, G. R. Aizin, J. Mikalopas, A. D. Grine, J. L. Reno, J. M. Hensley, N. Q. Vinh, A. C. Gossard, M. S. Sherwin, S. J. Allen, and E. A. Shaner, “Enhanced performance of resonant sub-terahertz detection in a plasmonic cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(8), 083506 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Dyer, N. Q. Vinh, S. J. Allen, G. R. Aizin, J. Mikalopas, J. L. Reno, and E. A. Shaner, “A terahertz plasmon cavity detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(19), 193507 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

E. A. Shaner, M. Lee, M. C. Wanke, A. D. Grine, J. L. Reno, and S. J. Allen, “Single-quantum-well grating-gated terahertz plasmon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(19), 193507 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. G. Peralta, S. J. Allen, M. C. Wanke, N. E. Harff, J. A. Simmons, M. P. Lilly, J. L. Reno, P. J. Burke, and J. P. Eisenstein, “Terahertz photoconductivity and plasmon modes in double-quantum-well field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(9), 1627–1629 (2002).
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A. Shchepetov, C. Gardès, Y. Roelens, A. Cappy, S. Bollaert, S. Boubanga-Tombet, F. Teppe, D. Coquillat, S. Nadar, N. Dyakonova, H. Videlier, W. Knap, D. Seliuta, R. Vadoklis, and G. Valušis, “Oblique modes effect on terahertz plasma wave resonant detection in InGaAs/InAlAs multichannel transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(24), 242105 (2008).
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S. Preu, S. Kim, R. Verma, P. G. Burke, M. S. Sherwin, and A. C. Gossard, “An improved model for non-resonant terahertz detection in field-effect transistors,” J. Appl. Phys.111(2), 024502 (2012).
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A. Shchepetov, C. Gardès, Y. Roelens, A. Cappy, S. Bollaert, S. Boubanga-Tombet, F. Teppe, D. Coquillat, S. Nadar, N. Dyakonova, H. Videlier, W. Knap, D. Seliuta, R. Vadoklis, and G. Valušis, “Oblique modes effect on terahertz plasma wave resonant detection in InGaAs/InAlAs multichannel transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(24), 242105 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Vinh, N. Q.

G. C. Dyer, G. R. Aizin, S. Preu, N. Q. Vinh, S. J. Allen, J. L. Reno, and E. A. Shaner, “Inducing an Incipient Terahertz Finite Plasmonic Crystal in Coupled Two Dimensional Plasmonic Cavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett.109(12), 126803 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. Dyer, S. Preu, G. R. Aizin, J. Mikalopas, A. D. Grine, J. L. Reno, J. M. Hensley, N. Q. Vinh, A. C. Gossard, M. S. Sherwin, S. J. Allen, and E. A. Shaner, “Enhanced performance of resonant sub-terahertz detection in a plasmonic cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(8), 083506 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Preu, S. Kim, R. Verma, P. G. Burke, N. Q. Vinh, M. S. Sherwin, and A. C. Gossard, “Terahertz detection by a homodyne field effect transistor multiplicative mixer,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol.2(3), 278–283 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Dyer, N. Q. Vinh, S. J. Allen, G. R. Aizin, J. Mikalopas, J. L. Reno, and E. A. Shaner, “A terahertz plasmon cavity detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.97(19), 193507 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Viti, L.

M. S. Vitiello, D. Coquillat, L. Viti, D. Ercolani, F. Teppe, A. Pitanti, F. Beltram, L. Sorba, W. Knap, and A. Tredicucci, “Room-temperature terahertz detectors based on semiconductor nanowire field-effect transistors,” Nano Lett.12(1), 96–101 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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M. S. Vitiello, D. Coquillat, L. Viti, D. Ercolani, F. Teppe, A. Pitanti, F. Beltram, L. Sorba, W. Knap, and A. Tredicucci, “Room-temperature terahertz detectors based on semiconductor nanowire field-effect transistors,” Nano Lett.12(1), 96–101 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Pitanti, D. Coquillat, D. Ercolani, L. Sorba, F. Teppe, W. Knap, G. De Simoni, F. Beltram, A. Tredicucci, and M. S. Vitiello, “Terahetz detection by heterostructed InAs/InSb nanowire based field effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(14), 141103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Vicarelli, M. S. Vitiello, D. Coquillat, A. Lombardo, A. C. Ferrari, W. Knap, M. Polini, V. Pellegrini, and A. Tredicucci, “Graphene field-effect transistors as room-temperature terahertz detectors,” Nat. Mater.11(10), 865–871 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Z. Fei, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, L. M. Zhang, A. S McLeod, C. Wang, M. K. Stewart, Z. Zhao, G. Dominguez, M. Thiemens, M. M. Fogler, M. J. Tauber, A. H. Castro-Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Infrared nanoscopy of Dirac plasmons at the graphene-SiO2 interface,” Nano Lett.11(11), 4701–4705 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, F.

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol.6(10), 630–634 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

T. Watanabe, S. B. Tombet, Y. Tanimoto, Y. Wang, H. Minamide, H. Ito, D. Fateev, V. Popov, D. Coquillat, W. Knap, Y. Meziani, and T. Otsuji, “Ultrahigh sensitive plasmonic terahertz detector based on an asymmetric dual-grating gate HEMT structure,” Solid-State Electron.78, 109–114 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wanke, M. C.

E. A. Shaner, M. Lee, M. C. Wanke, A. D. Grine, J. L. Reno, and S. J. Allen, “Single-quantum-well grating-gated terahertz plasmon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(19), 193507 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. G. Peralta, S. J. Allen, M. C. Wanke, N. E. Harff, J. A. Simmons, M. P. Lilly, J. L. Reno, P. J. Burke, and J. P. Eisenstein, “Terahertz photoconductivity and plasmon modes in double-quantum-well field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(9), 1627–1629 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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T. Watanabe, S. B. Tombet, Y. Tanimoto, Y. Wang, H. Minamide, H. Ito, D. Fateev, V. Popov, D. Coquillat, W. Knap, Y. Meziani, and T. Otsuji, “Ultrahigh sensitive plasmonic terahertz detector based on an asymmetric dual-grating gate HEMT structure,” Solid-State Electron.78, 109–114 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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K. Y. M. Yeung, H. Yoon, W. Andress, K. West, L. Pfeiffer, and D. Ham, “Two-path solid-state interferometry using ultra-subwavelength two-dimensional plasmonic waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(2), 021104 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. F. Andress, H. Yoon, K. Y. M. Yeung, L. Qin, K. West, L. Pfeiffer, and D. Ham, “Ultra-subwavelength two-dimensional plasmonic circuits,” Nano Lett.12(5), 2272–2277 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

West, K. W.

P. J. Burke, I. B. Spielman, J. P. Eisenstein, L. N. Pfeiffer, and K. W. West, “High frequency conductivity of the high-mobility two-dimensional electron gas,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(6), 745–747 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Y.

H. Yan, T. Low, W. Zhu, Y. Wu, M. Freitag, X. Li, F. Guinea, P. Avouris, and F. Xia, “Damping pathways of mid-infrared plasmons in graphene nanostructures,” Nat. Photonics7(5), 394–399 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Yan, X. Li, B. Chandra, G. Tulevski, Y. Wu, M. Freitag, W. Zhu, P. Avouris, and F. Xia, “Tunable infrared plasmonic devices using graphene/insulator stacks,” Nat. Nanotechnol.7(5), 330–334 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xia, F.

H. Yan, T. Low, W. Zhu, Y. Wu, M. Freitag, X. Li, F. Guinea, P. Avouris, and F. Xia, “Damping pathways of mid-infrared plasmons in graphene nanostructures,” Nat. Photonics7(5), 394–399 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Yan, X. Li, B. Chandra, G. Tulevski, Y. Wu, M. Freitag, W. Zhu, P. Avouris, and F. Xia, “Tunable infrared plasmonic devices using graphene/insulator stacks,” Nat. Nanotechnol.7(5), 330–334 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yan, H.

Y. Li, H. Yan, D. B. Farmer, X. Meng, W. Zhu, R. M. Osgood, T. F. Heinz, and P. Avouris, “Graphene plasmon enhanced vibrational sensing of surface-adsorbed layers,” Nano Lett.14(3), 1573–1577 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yan, T. Low, W. Zhu, Y. Wu, M. Freitag, X. Li, F. Guinea, P. Avouris, and F. Xia, “Damping pathways of mid-infrared plasmons in graphene nanostructures,” Nat. Photonics7(5), 394–399 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Yan, X. Li, B. Chandra, G. Tulevski, Y. Wu, M. Freitag, W. Zhu, P. Avouris, and F. Xia, “Tunable infrared plasmonic devices using graphene/insulator stacks,” Nat. Nanotechnol.7(5), 330–334 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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K. Y. M. Yeung, H. Yoon, W. Andress, K. West, L. Pfeiffer, and D. Ham, “Two-path solid-state interferometry using ultra-subwavelength two-dimensional plasmonic waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(2), 021104 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. F. Andress, H. Yoon, K. Y. M. Yeung, L. Qin, K. West, L. Pfeiffer, and D. Ham, “Ultra-subwavelength two-dimensional plasmonic circuits,” Nano Lett.12(5), 2272–2277 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoon, H.

K. Y. M. Yeung, H. Yoon, W. Andress, K. West, L. Pfeiffer, and D. Ham, “Two-path solid-state interferometry using ultra-subwavelength two-dimensional plasmonic waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(2), 021104 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. F. Andress, H. Yoon, K. Y. M. Yeung, L. Qin, K. West, L. Pfeiffer, and D. Ham, “Ultra-subwavelength two-dimensional plasmonic circuits,” Nano Lett.12(5), 2272–2277 (2012).
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V. V. Popov, D. M. Ermolaev, K. V. Maremyanin, N. A. Maleev, V. E. Zemlyakov, V. I. Gavrilenko, and S. Y. Shapoval, “High-responsivity terahertz detection by on-chip InGaAs/GaAs field-effect-transistor array,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 153504 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol.6(10), 630–634 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, L. M.

Z. Fei, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, L. M. Zhang, A. S McLeod, C. Wang, M. K. Stewart, Z. Zhao, G. Dominguez, M. Thiemens, M. M. Fogler, M. J. Tauber, A. H. Castro-Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Infrared nanoscopy of Dirac plasmons at the graphene-SiO2 interface,” Nano Lett.11(11), 4701–4705 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, Z.

Z. Fei, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, L. M. Zhang, A. S McLeod, C. Wang, M. K. Stewart, Z. Zhao, G. Dominguez, M. Thiemens, M. M. Fogler, M. J. Tauber, A. H. Castro-Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Infrared nanoscopy of Dirac plasmons at the graphene-SiO2 interface,” Nano Lett.11(11), 4701–4705 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, W.

Y. Li, H. Yan, D. B. Farmer, X. Meng, W. Zhu, R. M. Osgood, T. F. Heinz, and P. Avouris, “Graphene plasmon enhanced vibrational sensing of surface-adsorbed layers,” Nano Lett.14(3), 1573–1577 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yan, T. Low, W. Zhu, Y. Wu, M. Freitag, X. Li, F. Guinea, P. Avouris, and F. Xia, “Damping pathways of mid-infrared plasmons in graphene nanostructures,” Nat. Photonics7(5), 394–399 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. Yan, X. Li, B. Chandra, G. Tulevski, Y. Wu, M. Freitag, W. Zhu, P. Avouris, and F. Xia, “Tunable infrared plasmonic devices using graphene/insulator stacks,” Nat. Nanotechnol.7(5), 330–334 (2012).
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Appl. Phys. Lett.

P. J. Burke, I. B. Spielman, J. P. Eisenstein, L. N. Pfeiffer, and K. W. West, “High frequency conductivity of the high-mobility two-dimensional electron gas,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(6), 745–747 (2000).
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[CrossRef]

X. G. Peralta, S. J. Allen, M. C. Wanke, N. E. Harff, J. A. Simmons, M. P. Lilly, J. L. Reno, P. J. Burke, and J. P. Eisenstein, “Terahertz photoconductivity and plasmon modes in double-quantum-well field-effect transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(9), 1627–1629 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Shaner, M. Lee, M. C. Wanke, A. D. Grine, J. L. Reno, and S. J. Allen, “Single-quantum-well grating-gated terahertz plasmon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(19), 193507 (2005).
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K. Y. M. Yeung, H. Yoon, W. Andress, K. West, L. Pfeiffer, and D. Ham, “Two-path solid-state interferometry using ultra-subwavelength two-dimensional plasmonic waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(2), 021104 (2013).
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G. C. Dyer, S. Preu, G. R. Aizin, J. Mikalopas, A. D. Grine, J. L. Reno, J. M. Hensley, N. Q. Vinh, A. C. Gossard, M. S. Sherwin, S. J. Allen, and E. A. Shaner, “Enhanced performance of resonant sub-terahertz detection in a plasmonic cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(8), 083506 (2012).
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A. El Fatimy, F. Teppe, N. Dyakonova, W. Knap, D. Seliuta, G. Valušis, A. Shchepetov, Y. Roelens, S. Bollaert, A. Cappy, and S. Rumyantsev, “Resonant and voltage-tunable terahertz detection in InGaAs/InP nanometer transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(13), 131926 (2006).
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A. Shchepetov, C. Gardès, Y. Roelens, A. Cappy, S. Bollaert, S. Boubanga-Tombet, F. Teppe, D. Coquillat, S. Nadar, N. Dyakonova, H. Videlier, W. Knap, D. Seliuta, R. Vadoklis, and G. Valušis, “Oblique modes effect on terahertz plasma wave resonant detection in InGaAs/InAlAs multichannel transistors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(24), 242105 (2008).
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V. V. Popov, D. M. Ermolaev, K. V. Maremyanin, N. A. Maleev, V. E. Zemlyakov, V. I. Gavrilenko, and S. Y. Shapoval, “High-responsivity terahertz detection by on-chip InGaAs/GaAs field-effect-transistor array,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(15), 153504 (2011).
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V. V. Popov, D. V. Fateev, T. Otsuji, Y. M. Meziani, D. Coquillat, and W. Knap, “Plasmonic terahertz detection by a double-grating-gate field-effect transistor structure with an asymmetric unit cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(24), 243504 (2011).
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IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.

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IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol.

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J. Appl. Phys.

A. Lisauskas, U. R. Pfeiffer, E. Öjefors, P. H. Bolìvar, D. Glaab, and H. G. Roskos, “Rational design of high-responsivity detectors of terahertz radiation based on distributed self-mixing in silicon field-effect transistors,” J. Appl. Phys.105(11), 114511 (2009).
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M. Sakowicz, M. B. Lifshits, O. A. Klimenko, F. Schuster, D. Coquillat, F. Teppe, and W. Knap, “Terahertz responsivity of field effect transistors versus their static channel conductivity and loading effects,” J. Appl. Phys.110(5), 54512–54516 (2011).
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J. Infrared, Milli., and Terahertz Waves

W. Knap, M. I. Dyakonov, D. Coquillat, F. Teppe, N. Dyakonova, J. Łusakowski, K. Karpierz, M. Sakowicz, G. Valusis, D. Seliuta, I. Kasalynas, A. Fatimy, Y. M. Meziani, and T. Otsuji, “Field effect transistors for terahertz detection: Physics and first imaging applications,” J. Infrared, Milli., and Terahertz Waves30, 1319–1337 (2009).

Nano Lett.

M. S. Vitiello, D. Coquillat, L. Viti, D. Ercolani, F. Teppe, A. Pitanti, F. Beltram, L. Sorba, W. Knap, and A. Tredicucci, “Room-temperature terahertz detectors based on semiconductor nanowire field-effect transistors,” Nano Lett.12(1), 96–101 (2012).
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W. F. Andress, H. Yoon, K. Y. M. Yeung, L. Qin, K. West, L. Pfeiffer, and D. Ham, “Ultra-subwavelength two-dimensional plasmonic circuits,” Nano Lett.12(5), 2272–2277 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Fei, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, L. M. Zhang, A. S McLeod, C. Wang, M. K. Stewart, Z. Zhao, G. Dominguez, M. Thiemens, M. M. Fogler, M. J. Tauber, A. H. Castro-Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Infrared nanoscopy of Dirac plasmons at the graphene-SiO2 interface,” Nano Lett.11(11), 4701–4705 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Li, H. Yan, D. B. Farmer, X. Meng, W. Zhu, R. M. Osgood, T. F. Heinz, and P. Avouris, “Graphene plasmon enhanced vibrational sensing of surface-adsorbed layers,” Nano Lett.14(3), 1573–1577 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater.

L. Vicarelli, M. S. Vitiello, D. Coquillat, A. Lombardo, A. C. Ferrari, W. Knap, M. Polini, V. Pellegrini, and A. Tredicucci, “Graphene field-effect transistors as room-temperature terahertz detectors,” Nat. Mater.11(10), 865–871 (2012).
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Nat. Nanotechnol.

H. Yan, X. Li, B. Chandra, G. Tulevski, Y. Wu, M. Freitag, W. Zhu, P. Avouris, and F. Xia, “Tunable infrared plasmonic devices using graphene/insulator stacks,” Nat. Nanotechnol.7(5), 330–334 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol.6(10), 630–634 (2011).
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Nat. Photonics

G. C. Dyer, G. R. Aizin, S. J. Allen, A. D. Grine, D. Bethke, J. L. Reno, and E. A. Shaner, “Induced transparency by coupling of Tamm and defect states in tunable terahertz plasmonic crystals,” Nat. Photonics7(11), 925–930 (2013).
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H. Yan, T. Low, W. Zhu, Y. Wu, M. Freitag, X. Li, F. Guinea, P. Avouris, and F. Xia, “Damping pathways of mid-infrared plasmons in graphene nanostructures,” Nat. Photonics7(5), 394–399 (2013).
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Solid-State Electron.

T. Watanabe, S. B. Tombet, Y. Tanimoto, Y. Wang, H. Minamide, H. Ito, D. Fateev, V. Popov, D. Coquillat, W. Knap, Y. Meziani, and T. Otsuji, “Ultrahigh sensitive plasmonic terahertz detector based on an asymmetric dual-grating gate HEMT structure,” Solid-State Electron.78, 109–114 (2012).
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Other

G. C. Dyer, G. R. Aizin, A. D. Grine, J. L. Reno, J. M. Hensley, S. J. Allen, and E. A. Shaner, “Resonant bolometric subterahertz detection in a 2D plasmonic cavity,” in Proc. of SPIE, Vol. 8363, A. F. M. Anwar, K. D. Nibir, and W. C. Thomas, eds. (SPIE, 2012), pp. 83630T.
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Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Layout of an optical Mach-Zehnder interferometer where the electromagnetic properties of Path D and Path S are independently defined. Beam splitters are labeled BS and mirrors are labeled M. Readout in this schematic is accomplished using a mixer, labelled MX, to produce a DC signal at the second beamsplitter where the recombined beams are 180 degrees out of phase. (b) An equivalent circuit schematic for a two-path plasmonic interferometer where Path D and Path S are independently tunable. Path S, Path D and the mixer’s local oscillator are all excited in phase, and a DC signal is produced by the mixer labelled MX. (c) A scanning electron micrograph of a two-path plasmonic interferometer where gate G2 of a HEMT defines the mixing element and Path S and Path D are tuned by G1 and G3 respectively. The gates are all approximately 2 μm wide and separated by 2 μm. The distance between the Ohmic contacts S and D is 14 μm. In (d) and (e) the same device is shown but with G1 and G3 , respectively, defining the mixing region.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) The channel conductance at 8 K of the HEMT illustrated in Fig. 1 is plotted as a function of voltage applied to gate G1 . (b) Using the channel conductance measured at 8 K, the product G DS R DS / V G1 is calculated and plotted as a function of voltage applied to G1 . (c) The 8 K device photoresponse under 0.270 THz illumination is plotted as a function of voltage applied to G1 .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Using the channel conductance measured at 8 K of the HEMT illustrated in Fig. 1, the product G DS R DS / V Gj is calculated and plotted as a function of voltage applied to gates G1 , G2 and G3 . (b) The 8 K device photoresponse under 0.270 THz illumination is plotted as a function of voltage applied to gates G1 , G2 and G3 . For all measurements, one gate was tuned while the other two were held at ground potential.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

With G2 defining the mixing region of the HEMT as illustrated in Fig. 1(c), the photoresponse under (a) 0.270 THz and (b) 0.330 THz excitation at 8 K is mapped as a function of the electrical lengths of Path S, θ S , and Path D, θ D . A model calculation of the photoresponse under (c) 0.270 THz and (d) 0.330 THz is also plotted using a transmission line formalism to describe the independent signals from Paths S and D coupled to the mixing element below G2 .

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) A scanning electron micrograph of a two-path plasmonic crystal interferometer where gate G2 of the HEMT defines the mixing element and Path S and Path D are tuned by G1 and G3 , respectively. Both G1 and G3 consist of four identically tuned gate stripes that are 2 μm wide and separated by 2 μm. The distance between the Ohmic contacts S and D is 34 μm. (b) The 8 K device photoresponse under 0.345 THz illumination is mapped as a function of voltage applied to gates G1 and G3 with G2 fixed at −2.80 V in the left frame. A model calculation of the photoresponse under 0.345 THz illumination is also plotted in the right frame using a transmission line formalism to describe the independent signals from Paths S and D coupled to the mixing element below G2 .

Equations (4)

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δ V DS = G DS R DS V Gj δ V LO ( t ) [ δ V D ( t )δ V S ( t ) ] .
n 1,3 = n 0 V th V G1,G3 V th ,
q S,D =i iω C 1,3 ( iω L 1,3 + R 1,3 ) ,
θ S,D =a  q S,D

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