Abstract

Light absorbing carbon aerosols play a substantial role in climate change through radiative forcing, which is the dominant absorber of solar radiation. Radiative properties of light absorbing carbon aerosols are strongly dependent on the morphological factors and the mixing mechanism of black carbon with other aerosol components. This study focuses on the morphological effects on the optical properties of internally mixed light absorbing carbon aerosols using the numerically exact superposition T-matrix method. Three types aerosols with different aging status such as freshly emitted BC particles, thinly coated light absorbing carbon aerosols, heavily coated light absorbing carbon aerosols are studied. Our study showed that morphological factors change with the aging of internally mixed light absorbing carbon aerosols to result in a dramatic change in their optical properties. The absorption properties of light absorbing carbon aerosols can be enhanced approximately a factor of 2 at 0.67 um, and these enhancements depend on the morphological factors. A larger shell/core diameter ratio of volume-equivalent shell-core spheres (S/C), which indicates the degree of coating, leads to stronger absorption. The enhancement of absorption properties accompanies a greater enhancement of scattering properties, which is reflected in an increase in single scattering albedo (SSA). The enhancement of single scattering albedo due to the morphological effects can reach a factor of 3.75 at 0.67 μm. The asymmetry parameter has a similar yet smaller enhancement. Moreover, the corresponding optical properties of shell-and-core model determined by using Lorenz -Mie solutions are presented for comparison. We found that the optical properties of internally mixed light absorbing carbon aerosol can differ fundamentally from those calculated for the Mie theory shell-and-core model, particularly for thinly coated light absorbing carbon aerosols. Our studies indicate that the complex morphology of internally mixed light absorbing carbon aerosols must be explicitly considered in climate radiation balance.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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2014 (3)

D. W. Mackowski, “A general superposition solution for electromagnetic scattering by multiple spherical domains of optically active media,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 133, 264–270 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Wu, T. Cheng, X. Gu, L. Zheng, H. Chen, and H. Xu, “The single scattering properties of soot aggregates with concentric core–shell spherical monomers,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 135, 9–19 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. I. Mishchenko, L. Liu, B. Cairns, and D. W. Mackowski, “Optics of water cloud droplets mixed with black-carbon aerosols,” Opt. Lett. 39(9), 2607–2610 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (8)

S. China, C. Mazzoleni, K. Gorkowski, A. C. Aiken, and M. K. Dubey, “Morphology and mixing state of individual freshly emitted wildfire carbonaceous particles,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2122 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Cheng, X. Gu, Y. Wu, H. Chen, and T. Yu, “The optical properties of absorbing aerosols with fractal soot aggregates: Implications for aerosol remote sensing,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 125, 93–104 (2013).

M. Kahnert, T. Nousiainen, and H. Lindqvist, “Models for integrated and differential scattering optical properties of encapsulated light absorbing carbon aggregates,” Opt. Express 21(7), 7974–7993 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. C. Bond, S. J. Doherty, D. W. Fahey, P. M. Forster, T. Berntsen, O. Boucher, B. J. DeAngelo, M. G. Flanner, S. Ghan, B. Kärcher, D. Koch, S. Kinne, Y. Kondo, P. K. Quinn, M. C. Sarofim, M. G. Schultz, M. Schulz, C. Venkataraman, H. Zhang, S. Zhang, N. Bellouin, S. K. Guttikunda, P. K. Hopke, M. Z. Jacobson, J. W. Kaiser, Z. Klimont, U. Lohmann, J. P. Schwarz, D. Shindell, T. Storelvmo, S. G. Warren, and C. S. Zender, “Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: A scientific assessment,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118, 5380–5552 (2013).

C. D. Cappa, T. B. Onasch, P. Massoli, D. R. Worsnop, T. S. Bates, E. S. Cross, P. Davidovits, J. Hakala, K. L. Hayden, B. T. Jobson, K. R. Kolesar, D. A. Lack, B. M. Lerner, S.-M. Li, D. Mellon, I. Nuaaman, J. S. Olfert, T. Petäjä, P. K. Quinn, C. Song, R. Subramanian, E. J. Williams, and R. A. Zaveri, “Response to comment on “Radiative absorption enhancements due to the mixing state of atmospheric black carbon”,” Science 339(6118), 393 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Z. Jacobson, “Comment on “radiative absorption enhancements due to the mixing state of atmospheric black carbon”,” Science 339(6118), 393 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. I. Mishchenko, G. Videen, N. G. Khlebtsov, and T. Wriedt, “Comprehensive T-matrix reference database: A 2012–2013 update,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 123, 145–152 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. V. Scarnato, S. Vahidinia, D. T. Richard, and T. W. Kirchstetter, “Effects of internal mixing and aggregate morphology on optical properties of black carbon using a discrete dipole approximation model,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13(10), 5089–5101 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

P. R. Buseck, K. Adachi, A. Gelencsér, É. Tompa, and M. Po’sfai, “Are black carbon and soot the same?” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 12, 24821–24846 (2012).

C. D. Cappa, T. B. Onasch, P. Massoli, D. R. Worsnop, T. S. Bates, E. S. Cross, P. Davidovits, J. Hakala, K. L. Hayden, B. T. Jobson, K. R. Kolesar, D. A. Lack, B. M. Lerner, S.-M. Li, D. Mellon, I. Nuaaman, J. S. Olfert, T. Petäjä, P. K. Quinn, C. Song, R. Subramanian, E. J. Williams, and R. A. Zaveri, “Radiative absorption enhancements due to the mixing state of atmospheric black carbon,” Science 337(6098), 1078–1081 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Kahnert, T. Nousiainen, H. Lindqvist, and M. Ebert, “Optical properties of light absorbing carbon aggregates mixed with sulfate: assessment of different model geometries for climate forcing calculations,” Opt. Express 20(9), 10042–10058 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

D. W. Mackowski and M. I. Mishchenko, “A multiple sphere T-matrix Fortran code for use on parallel computer clusters,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 112(13), 2182–2192 (2011).
[Crossref]

E. Coz and C. Leck, “Morphology and state of mixture of atmospheric soot aggregates during the winter season over Southern Asia–a quantitative approach,” Tellus Ser. B 63, 107–116 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Tritscher, Z. Jurányi, M. Martin, R. Chirico, M. Gysel, M. F. Heringa, P. F. DeCarlo, B. Sierau, A. S. H. Prévôt, E. Weingartner, and U. Baltensperger, “Changes of hygroscopicity and morphology during ageing of diesel soot,” Environ. Res. Lett. 6, 034026 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (4)

M. Kahnert, “Modelling the optical and radiative properties of freshly emitted light absorbing carbon within an atmospheric chemical transport model,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10(3), 1403–1416 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. Adachi, S. H. Chung, and P. R. Buseck, “Shapes of light absorbing carbon aerosol particles and implications for their effects on climate,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, D15206 (2010).

M. Kahnert, “On the discrepancy between modeled and measured mass absorption cross sections of light absorbing carbon aerosols,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 44(6), 453–460 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Kahnert, “Numerically exact computation of the optical properties of light absorbing carbon aggregates for wavelength of 200 nm–12.2 μm,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10(17), 8319–8329 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

A. F. Khalizov, H. Xue, L. Wang, J. Zheng, and R. Zhang, “Enhanced light absorption and scattering by carbon soot aerosol internally mixed with sulfuric acid,” J. Phys. Chem. A 113, 1066–1074 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. F. Khalizov, R. Zhang, D. Zhang, H. Xue, J. Pagels, and P. H. McMurry, “Formation of highly hygroscopic light absorbing carbon aerosols upon internal mixing with sulfuric acid vapor,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, D05208 (2009).

2008 (7)

R. Zhang, A. F. Khalizov, J. Pagels, D. Zhang, H. Xue, and P. H. McMurry, “Variability in morphology, hygroscopicity, and optical properties of soot aerosols during atmospheric processing,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 105, 10291–10296 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. P. Schwarz, R. S. Gao, J. R. Spackman, L. A. Watts, D. S. Thomson, D. W. Fahey, T. B. Ryerson, J. Peischl, J. S. Holloway, M. Trainer, G. J. Frost, T. Baynard, D. A. Lack, J. A. de Gouw, C. Warneke, and L. A. Del Negro, “Measurement of the mixing state, mass, and optical size of individual black carbon particles in urban and biomass burning emissions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 35(13), L13810 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Worringen, M. Ebert, T. Trautmann, S. Weinbruch, and G. Helas, “Optical properties of internally mixed ammonium sulfate and soot particles--a study of individual aerosol particles and ambient aerosol populations,” Appl. Opt. 47(21), 3835–3845 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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V. Ramanathan and G. Carmichael, “Global and regional climate changes due to black carbon,” Nat. Geosci. 1(4), 221–227 (2008).
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K. Adachi and P. R. Buseck, “Internally mixed soot, sulfates, and organic matter in aerosol particles from Mexico City,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 6469–6481 (2008).
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L. Liu, M. I. Mishchenko, and W. P. Arnott, “A study of radiative properties of fractal soot aggregates using the superposition T-matrix method,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 109(15), 2656–2663 (2008).
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2007 (1)

N. Moteki and Y. Kondo, “Effects of mixing state on black carbon measurements by laser-induced incandescence,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 41(4), 398–417 (2007).
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2006 (3)

T. C. Bond, G. Habib, and R. W. Bergstrom, “Limitations in the enhancement of visible light absorption due to mixing state,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D20211 (2006).

T. C. Bond and R. W. Bergstrom, “Light absorption by carbonaceous particles: An investigative review,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 40(1), 27–67 (2006).
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M. Fiebig and J. A. Ogren, “Retrieval and climatology of the aerosol asymmetry parameter in the NOAA aerosol monitoring network,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D21204 (2006).

2005 (4)

N. Bellouin, O. Boucher, J. Haywood, and M. S. Reddy, “Global estimate of aerosol direct radiative forcing from satellite measurements,” Nature 438(7071), 1138–1141 (2005).
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K. S. Johnson, B. Zuberi, L. T. Molina, M. J. Molina, M. J. Iedema, J. P. Cowin, D. J. Gaspar, C. Wang, and A. Laskin, “Processing of soot in an urban environment: case study from the Mexico City Metropolitan Area,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 3033–3043 (2005).
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M. Schnaiter, C. Linke, O. Möhler, K.-H. Naumann, H. Saathoff, R. Wagner, U. Schurath, and B. Wehner, “Absorption amplification of black carbon internally mixed with secondary organic aerosol,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D19204 (2005).

L. Liu and M. I. Mishchenko, “Effects of aggregation on scattering and radiative properties of soot aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D11211 (2005).
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2004 (2)

M. I. Mishchenko, L. Liu, L. D. Travis, and A. A. Lacis, “Scattering and radiative properties of semi-external versus external mixtures of different aerosol types,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 88(1–3), 139–147 (2004).
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P. K. Quinn, D. J. Coffman, T. S. Bates, E. J. Welton, D. S. Covert, T. L. Miller, J. E. Johnson, S. Maria, L. Russell, R. Arimoto, C. M. Carrico, M. J. Rood, and J. Anderson, “Aerosol optical properties measured on board the Ronald H. Brown during ACE-Asia as a function of aerosol chemical composition and source region,” J. Geophys. Res. 109(D19), D19S01 (2004).
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2003 (4)

M. Schnaiter, H. Horvath, O. Möhler, K. H. Naumann, H. Saathoff, and O. W. Schöck, “UV-VIS-NIR spectral optical properties of soot and soot-containing aerosols,” J. Aerosol Sci. 34(10), 1421–1444 (2003).
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M. Wentzel, H. Gorzawski, K. H. Naumann, H. Saathoff, and S. Weinbruch, “Transmission electron microscopical and aerosol dynamical characterization of soot aerosols,” J. Aerosol Sci. 34(10), 1347–1370 (2003).
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J. Li, M. Pósfai, P. V. Hobbs, and P. R. Buseck, “Individual aerosol particles from biomass burning in southern Africa: 2. Compositions and aging of inorganic particles,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8484 (2003).

2002 (3)

S. H. Chung and J. H. Seinfeld, “Global distribution and climate forcing of carbonaceous aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 107(D19), 4407 (2002).

Y. Takemura, T. Nakajima, O. Dubovik, B. N. Holben, and S. Kinne, “Single-scattering albedo and radiative forcing of various aerosol species with a global three-dimensional model,” J. Clim. 15(4), 333–352 (2002).
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R. W. Bergstrom, P. B. Russell, and P. Hignett, “Wavelength dependence of the absorption of black carbon particles: Predictions and results from the TARFOX experiment and implications for the aerosol single scattering albedo,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59(3), 567–577 (2002).
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2001 (2)

V. Ramanathan, P. J. Crutzen, J. Lelieveld, A. P. Mitra, D. Althausen, J. Anderson, M. O. Andreae, W. Cantrell, G. R. Cass, C. E. Chung, A. D. Clarke, J. A. Coakley, W. D. Collins, W. C. Conant, F. Dulac, J. Heintzenberg, A. J. Heymsfield, B. Holben, S. Howell, J. Hudson, A. Jayaraman, J. T. Kiehl, T. N. Krishnamurti, D. Lubin, G. McFarquhar, T. Novakov, J. A. Ogren, I. A. Podgorny, K. Prather, K. Priestley, J. M. Prospero, P. K. Quinn, K. Rajeev, P. Rasch, S. Rupert, R. Sadourny, S. K. Satheesh, G. E. Shaw, P. Sheridan, and F. P. J. Valero, “Indian Ocean Experiment: An integrated analysis of the climate forcing and effects of the great Indo-Asian haze,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(D22), 28371–28398 (2001).
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M. Z. Jacobson, “Strong radiative heating due to the mixing state of black carbon in atmospheric aerosols,” Nature 409(6821), 695–697 (2001).
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2000 (1)

G. W. Mulholland and C. Croarkin, “Specific extinction coefficient of flame generated smoke,” Fire Mater. 24(5), 227–230 (2000).
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1998 (1)

M. Hess, P. Koepke, and I. Schult, “Optical properties of aerosols and clouds: The software package OPAC,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc 79(5), 831–844 (1998).
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1997 (1)

C. M. Sorensen and G. C. Roberts, “The prefactor of fractal aggregates,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 186(2), 447–452 (1997).
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1995 (3)

G. Ramachandran and P. C. Reist, “Characterization of morphological changes in agglomerates subject to condensation and evaporation using multiple fractal dimensions,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 23(3), 431–442 (1995).
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Y. Crouzet and W. H. Marlow, “Calculations of the equilibrium vapor pressure of water over adhering 50–200-nm spheres,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 22(1), 43–59 (1995).
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1990 (1)

H. Chang and T. T. Charalampopoulos, “Determination of the wavelength dependence of refractive indices of flame soot,” Proc. R. Soc. London A Math. Phys. Sci. 430, 577–591 (1990).
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1989 (1)

J. Hallett, J. G. Hudson, and C. F. Rogers, “Characterization of combustion aerosols for haze and cloud formation,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 10(1), 70–83 (1989).
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1984 (1)

H. G. E. Hentschel, “Fractal dimension of generalized diffusion-limited aggregates,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 52(3), 212–215 (1984).
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1981 (1)

Ackerman, T. P.

Adachi, K.

P. R. Buseck, K. Adachi, A. Gelencsér, É. Tompa, and M. Po’sfai, “Are black carbon and soot the same?” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 12, 24821–24846 (2012).

K. Adachi, S. H. Chung, and P. R. Buseck, “Shapes of light absorbing carbon aerosol particles and implications for their effects on climate,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, D15206 (2010).

K. Adachi and P. R. Buseck, “Internally mixed soot, sulfates, and organic matter in aerosol particles from Mexico City,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 6469–6481 (2008).
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Aiken, A. C.

S. China, C. Mazzoleni, K. Gorkowski, A. C. Aiken, and M. K. Dubey, “Morphology and mixing state of individual freshly emitted wildfire carbonaceous particles,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2122 (2013).
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Althausen, D.

V. Ramanathan, P. J. Crutzen, J. Lelieveld, A. P. Mitra, D. Althausen, J. Anderson, M. O. Andreae, W. Cantrell, G. R. Cass, C. E. Chung, A. D. Clarke, J. A. Coakley, W. D. Collins, W. C. Conant, F. Dulac, J. Heintzenberg, A. J. Heymsfield, B. Holben, S. Howell, J. Hudson, A. Jayaraman, J. T. Kiehl, T. N. Krishnamurti, D. Lubin, G. McFarquhar, T. Novakov, J. A. Ogren, I. A. Podgorny, K. Prather, K. Priestley, J. M. Prospero, P. K. Quinn, K. Rajeev, P. Rasch, S. Rupert, R. Sadourny, S. K. Satheesh, G. E. Shaw, P. Sheridan, and F. P. J. Valero, “Indian Ocean Experiment: An integrated analysis of the climate forcing and effects of the great Indo-Asian haze,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(D22), 28371–28398 (2001).
[Crossref]

Anderson, J.

P. K. Quinn, D. J. Coffman, T. S. Bates, E. J. Welton, D. S. Covert, T. L. Miller, J. E. Johnson, S. Maria, L. Russell, R. Arimoto, C. M. Carrico, M. J. Rood, and J. Anderson, “Aerosol optical properties measured on board the Ronald H. Brown during ACE-Asia as a function of aerosol chemical composition and source region,” J. Geophys. Res. 109(D19), D19S01 (2004).
[Crossref]

V. Ramanathan, P. J. Crutzen, J. Lelieveld, A. P. Mitra, D. Althausen, J. Anderson, M. O. Andreae, W. Cantrell, G. R. Cass, C. E. Chung, A. D. Clarke, J. A. Coakley, W. D. Collins, W. C. Conant, F. Dulac, J. Heintzenberg, A. J. Heymsfield, B. Holben, S. Howell, J. Hudson, A. Jayaraman, J. T. Kiehl, T. N. Krishnamurti, D. Lubin, G. McFarquhar, T. Novakov, J. A. Ogren, I. A. Podgorny, K. Prather, K. Priestley, J. M. Prospero, P. K. Quinn, K. Rajeev, P. Rasch, S. Rupert, R. Sadourny, S. K. Satheesh, G. E. Shaw, P. Sheridan, and F. P. J. Valero, “Indian Ocean Experiment: An integrated analysis of the climate forcing and effects of the great Indo-Asian haze,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(D22), 28371–28398 (2001).
[Crossref]

Andreae, M. O.

V. Ramanathan, P. J. Crutzen, J. Lelieveld, A. P. Mitra, D. Althausen, J. Anderson, M. O. Andreae, W. Cantrell, G. R. Cass, C. E. Chung, A. D. Clarke, J. A. Coakley, W. D. Collins, W. C. Conant, F. Dulac, J. Heintzenberg, A. J. Heymsfield, B. Holben, S. Howell, J. Hudson, A. Jayaraman, J. T. Kiehl, T. N. Krishnamurti, D. Lubin, G. McFarquhar, T. Novakov, J. A. Ogren, I. A. Podgorny, K. Prather, K. Priestley, J. M. Prospero, P. K. Quinn, K. Rajeev, P. Rasch, S. Rupert, R. Sadourny, S. K. Satheesh, G. E. Shaw, P. Sheridan, and F. P. J. Valero, “Indian Ocean Experiment: An integrated analysis of the climate forcing and effects of the great Indo-Asian haze,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(D22), 28371–28398 (2001).
[Crossref]

Arimoto, R.

P. K. Quinn, D. J. Coffman, T. S. Bates, E. J. Welton, D. S. Covert, T. L. Miller, J. E. Johnson, S. Maria, L. Russell, R. Arimoto, C. M. Carrico, M. J. Rood, and J. Anderson, “Aerosol optical properties measured on board the Ronald H. Brown during ACE-Asia as a function of aerosol chemical composition and source region,” J. Geophys. Res. 109(D19), D19S01 (2004).
[Crossref]

Arnott, W. P.

L. Liu, M. I. Mishchenko, and W. P. Arnott, “A study of radiative properties of fractal soot aggregates using the superposition T-matrix method,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 109(15), 2656–2663 (2008).
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Baltensperger, U.

T. Tritscher, Z. Jurányi, M. Martin, R. Chirico, M. Gysel, M. F. Heringa, P. F. DeCarlo, B. Sierau, A. S. H. Prévôt, E. Weingartner, and U. Baltensperger, “Changes of hygroscopicity and morphology during ageing of diesel soot,” Environ. Res. Lett. 6, 034026 (2011).
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Bates, T.

B. J. Huebert, T. Bates, P. B. Russell, G. Shi, Y. J. Kim, K. Kawamura, G. Carmichael, and T. Nakajima, “An overview of ACE‐Asia: Strategies for quantifying the relationships between Asian aerosols and their climatic impacts,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8633 (2003).

Bates, T. S.

C. D. Cappa, T. B. Onasch, P. Massoli, D. R. Worsnop, T. S. Bates, E. S. Cross, P. Davidovits, J. Hakala, K. L. Hayden, B. T. Jobson, K. R. Kolesar, D. A. Lack, B. M. Lerner, S.-M. Li, D. Mellon, I. Nuaaman, J. S. Olfert, T. Petäjä, P. K. Quinn, C. Song, R. Subramanian, E. J. Williams, and R. A. Zaveri, “Response to comment on “Radiative absorption enhancements due to the mixing state of atmospheric black carbon”,” Science 339(6118), 393 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. D. Cappa, T. B. Onasch, P. Massoli, D. R. Worsnop, T. S. Bates, E. S. Cross, P. Davidovits, J. Hakala, K. L. Hayden, B. T. Jobson, K. R. Kolesar, D. A. Lack, B. M. Lerner, S.-M. Li, D. Mellon, I. Nuaaman, J. S. Olfert, T. Petäjä, P. K. Quinn, C. Song, R. Subramanian, E. J. Williams, and R. A. Zaveri, “Radiative absorption enhancements due to the mixing state of atmospheric black carbon,” Science 337(6098), 1078–1081 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. K. Quinn, D. J. Coffman, T. S. Bates, E. J. Welton, D. S. Covert, T. L. Miller, J. E. Johnson, S. Maria, L. Russell, R. Arimoto, C. M. Carrico, M. J. Rood, and J. Anderson, “Aerosol optical properties measured on board the Ronald H. Brown during ACE-Asia as a function of aerosol chemical composition and source region,” J. Geophys. Res. 109(D19), D19S01 (2004).
[Crossref]

Baumgardner, D.

J. P. Schwarz, J. R. Spackman, D. W. Fahey, R. S. Gao, U. Lohmann, P. Stier, L. A. Watts, D. S. Thomson, D. A. Lack, L. Pfister, M. J. Mahoney, D. Baumgardner, J. C. Wilson, and J. M. Reeves, “Coatings and their enhancement of black carbon light absorption in the tropical atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D03203 (2008).

Baynard, T.

J. P. Schwarz, R. S. Gao, J. R. Spackman, L. A. Watts, D. S. Thomson, D. W. Fahey, T. B. Ryerson, J. Peischl, J. S. Holloway, M. Trainer, G. J. Frost, T. Baynard, D. A. Lack, J. A. de Gouw, C. Warneke, and L. A. Del Negro, “Measurement of the mixing state, mass, and optical size of individual black carbon particles in urban and biomass burning emissions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 35(13), L13810 (2008).
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Bellouin, N.

T. C. Bond, S. J. Doherty, D. W. Fahey, P. M. Forster, T. Berntsen, O. Boucher, B. J. DeAngelo, M. G. Flanner, S. Ghan, B. Kärcher, D. Koch, S. Kinne, Y. Kondo, P. K. Quinn, M. C. Sarofim, M. G. Schultz, M. Schulz, C. Venkataraman, H. Zhang, S. Zhang, N. Bellouin, S. K. Guttikunda, P. K. Hopke, M. Z. Jacobson, J. W. Kaiser, Z. Klimont, U. Lohmann, J. P. Schwarz, D. Shindell, T. Storelvmo, S. G. Warren, and C. S. Zender, “Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: A scientific assessment,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118, 5380–5552 (2013).

N. Bellouin, O. Boucher, J. Haywood, and M. S. Reddy, “Global estimate of aerosol direct radiative forcing from satellite measurements,” Nature 438(7071), 1138–1141 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bergstrom, R. W.

T. C. Bond, G. Habib, and R. W. Bergstrom, “Limitations in the enhancement of visible light absorption due to mixing state,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D20211 (2006).

T. C. Bond and R. W. Bergstrom, “Light absorption by carbonaceous particles: An investigative review,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 40(1), 27–67 (2006).
[Crossref]

R. W. Bergstrom, P. B. Russell, and P. Hignett, “Wavelength dependence of the absorption of black carbon particles: Predictions and results from the TARFOX experiment and implications for the aerosol single scattering albedo,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59(3), 567–577 (2002).
[Crossref]

Berntsen, T.

T. C. Bond, S. J. Doherty, D. W. Fahey, P. M. Forster, T. Berntsen, O. Boucher, B. J. DeAngelo, M. G. Flanner, S. Ghan, B. Kärcher, D. Koch, S. Kinne, Y. Kondo, P. K. Quinn, M. C. Sarofim, M. G. Schultz, M. Schulz, C. Venkataraman, H. Zhang, S. Zhang, N. Bellouin, S. K. Guttikunda, P. K. Hopke, M. Z. Jacobson, J. W. Kaiser, Z. Klimont, U. Lohmann, J. P. Schwarz, D. Shindell, T. Storelvmo, S. G. Warren, and C. S. Zender, “Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: A scientific assessment,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118, 5380–5552 (2013).

Bond, T. C.

T. C. Bond, S. J. Doherty, D. W. Fahey, P. M. Forster, T. Berntsen, O. Boucher, B. J. DeAngelo, M. G. Flanner, S. Ghan, B. Kärcher, D. Koch, S. Kinne, Y. Kondo, P. K. Quinn, M. C. Sarofim, M. G. Schultz, M. Schulz, C. Venkataraman, H. Zhang, S. Zhang, N. Bellouin, S. K. Guttikunda, P. K. Hopke, M. Z. Jacobson, J. W. Kaiser, Z. Klimont, U. Lohmann, J. P. Schwarz, D. Shindell, T. Storelvmo, S. G. Warren, and C. S. Zender, “Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: A scientific assessment,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118, 5380–5552 (2013).

T. C. Bond, G. Habib, and R. W. Bergstrom, “Limitations in the enhancement of visible light absorption due to mixing state,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, D20211 (2006).

T. C. Bond and R. W. Bergstrom, “Light absorption by carbonaceous particles: An investigative review,” Aerosol Sci. Technol. 40(1), 27–67 (2006).
[Crossref]

Boucher, O.

T. C. Bond, S. J. Doherty, D. W. Fahey, P. M. Forster, T. Berntsen, O. Boucher, B. J. DeAngelo, M. G. Flanner, S. Ghan, B. Kärcher, D. Koch, S. Kinne, Y. Kondo, P. K. Quinn, M. C. Sarofim, M. G. Schultz, M. Schulz, C. Venkataraman, H. Zhang, S. Zhang, N. Bellouin, S. K. Guttikunda, P. K. Hopke, M. Z. Jacobson, J. W. Kaiser, Z. Klimont, U. Lohmann, J. P. Schwarz, D. Shindell, T. Storelvmo, S. G. Warren, and C. S. Zender, “Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: A scientific assessment,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118, 5380–5552 (2013).

N. Bellouin, O. Boucher, J. Haywood, and M. S. Reddy, “Global estimate of aerosol direct radiative forcing from satellite measurements,” Nature 438(7071), 1138–1141 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Buseck, P. R.

P. R. Buseck, K. Adachi, A. Gelencsér, É. Tompa, and M. Po’sfai, “Are black carbon and soot the same?” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 12, 24821–24846 (2012).

K. Adachi, S. H. Chung, and P. R. Buseck, “Shapes of light absorbing carbon aerosol particles and implications for their effects on climate,” J. Geophys. Res. 115, D15206 (2010).

K. Adachi and P. R. Buseck, “Internally mixed soot, sulfates, and organic matter in aerosol particles from Mexico City,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8, 6469–6481 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Li, M. Pósfai, P. V. Hobbs, and P. R. Buseck, “Individual aerosol particles from biomass burning in southern Africa: 2. Compositions and aging of inorganic particles,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8484 (2003).

Cairns, B.

Cantrell, W.

V. Ramanathan, P. J. Crutzen, J. Lelieveld, A. P. Mitra, D. Althausen, J. Anderson, M. O. Andreae, W. Cantrell, G. R. Cass, C. E. Chung, A. D. Clarke, J. A. Coakley, W. D. Collins, W. C. Conant, F. Dulac, J. Heintzenberg, A. J. Heymsfield, B. Holben, S. Howell, J. Hudson, A. Jayaraman, J. T. Kiehl, T. N. Krishnamurti, D. Lubin, G. McFarquhar, T. Novakov, J. A. Ogren, I. A. Podgorny, K. Prather, K. Priestley, J. M. Prospero, P. K. Quinn, K. Rajeev, P. Rasch, S. Rupert, R. Sadourny, S. K. Satheesh, G. E. Shaw, P. Sheridan, and F. P. J. Valero, “Indian Ocean Experiment: An integrated analysis of the climate forcing and effects of the great Indo-Asian haze,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(D22), 28371–28398 (2001).
[Crossref]

Cappa, C. D.

C. D. Cappa, T. B. Onasch, P. Massoli, D. R. Worsnop, T. S. Bates, E. S. Cross, P. Davidovits, J. Hakala, K. L. Hayden, B. T. Jobson, K. R. Kolesar, D. A. Lack, B. M. Lerner, S.-M. Li, D. Mellon, I. Nuaaman, J. S. Olfert, T. Petäjä, P. K. Quinn, C. Song, R. Subramanian, E. J. Williams, and R. A. Zaveri, “Response to comment on “Radiative absorption enhancements due to the mixing state of atmospheric black carbon”,” Science 339(6118), 393 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. D. Cappa, T. B. Onasch, P. Massoli, D. R. Worsnop, T. S. Bates, E. S. Cross, P. Davidovits, J. Hakala, K. L. Hayden, B. T. Jobson, K. R. Kolesar, D. A. Lack, B. M. Lerner, S.-M. Li, D. Mellon, I. Nuaaman, J. S. Olfert, T. Petäjä, P. K. Quinn, C. Song, R. Subramanian, E. J. Williams, and R. A. Zaveri, “Radiative absorption enhancements due to the mixing state of atmospheric black carbon,” Science 337(6098), 1078–1081 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carmichael, G.

V. Ramanathan and G. Carmichael, “Global and regional climate changes due to black carbon,” Nat. Geosci. 1(4), 221–227 (2008).
[Crossref]

B. J. Huebert, T. Bates, P. B. Russell, G. Shi, Y. J. Kim, K. Kawamura, G. Carmichael, and T. Nakajima, “An overview of ACE‐Asia: Strategies for quantifying the relationships between Asian aerosols and their climatic impacts,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8633 (2003).

Carrico, C. M.

P. K. Quinn, D. J. Coffman, T. S. Bates, E. J. Welton, D. S. Covert, T. L. Miller, J. E. Johnson, S. Maria, L. Russell, R. Arimoto, C. M. Carrico, M. J. Rood, and J. Anderson, “Aerosol optical properties measured on board the Ronald H. Brown during ACE-Asia as a function of aerosol chemical composition and source region,” J. Geophys. Res. 109(D19), D19S01 (2004).
[Crossref]

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V. Ramanathan, P. J. Crutzen, J. Lelieveld, A. P. Mitra, D. Althausen, J. Anderson, M. O. Andreae, W. Cantrell, G. R. Cass, C. E. Chung, A. D. Clarke, J. A. Coakley, W. D. Collins, W. C. Conant, F. Dulac, J. Heintzenberg, A. J. Heymsfield, B. Holben, S. Howell, J. Hudson, A. Jayaraman, J. T. Kiehl, T. N. Krishnamurti, D. Lubin, G. McFarquhar, T. Novakov, J. A. Ogren, I. A. Podgorny, K. Prather, K. Priestley, J. M. Prospero, P. K. Quinn, K. Rajeev, P. Rasch, S. Rupert, R. Sadourny, S. K. Satheesh, G. E. Shaw, P. Sheridan, and F. P. J. Valero, “Indian Ocean Experiment: An integrated analysis of the climate forcing and effects of the great Indo-Asian haze,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(D22), 28371–28398 (2001).
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Dubey, M. K.

S. China, C. Mazzoleni, K. Gorkowski, A. C. Aiken, and M. K. Dubey, “Morphology and mixing state of individual freshly emitted wildfire carbonaceous particles,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2122 (2013).
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Fahey, D. W.

T. C. Bond, S. J. Doherty, D. W. Fahey, P. M. Forster, T. Berntsen, O. Boucher, B. J. DeAngelo, M. G. Flanner, S. Ghan, B. Kärcher, D. Koch, S. Kinne, Y. Kondo, P. K. Quinn, M. C. Sarofim, M. G. Schultz, M. Schulz, C. Venkataraman, H. Zhang, S. Zhang, N. Bellouin, S. K. Guttikunda, P. K. Hopke, M. Z. Jacobson, J. W. Kaiser, Z. Klimont, U. Lohmann, J. P. Schwarz, D. Shindell, T. Storelvmo, S. G. Warren, and C. S. Zender, “Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: A scientific assessment,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118, 5380–5552 (2013).

J. P. Schwarz, J. R. Spackman, D. W. Fahey, R. S. Gao, U. Lohmann, P. Stier, L. A. Watts, D. S. Thomson, D. A. Lack, L. Pfister, M. J. Mahoney, D. Baumgardner, J. C. Wilson, and J. M. Reeves, “Coatings and their enhancement of black carbon light absorption in the tropical atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D03203 (2008).

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T. C. Bond, S. J. Doherty, D. W. Fahey, P. M. Forster, T. Berntsen, O. Boucher, B. J. DeAngelo, M. G. Flanner, S. Ghan, B. Kärcher, D. Koch, S. Kinne, Y. Kondo, P. K. Quinn, M. C. Sarofim, M. G. Schultz, M. Schulz, C. Venkataraman, H. Zhang, S. Zhang, N. Bellouin, S. K. Guttikunda, P. K. Hopke, M. Z. Jacobson, J. W. Kaiser, Z. Klimont, U. Lohmann, J. P. Schwarz, D. Shindell, T. Storelvmo, S. G. Warren, and C. S. Zender, “Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: A scientific assessment,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118, 5380–5552 (2013).

Frost, G. J.

J. P. Schwarz, R. S. Gao, J. R. Spackman, L. A. Watts, D. S. Thomson, D. W. Fahey, T. B. Ryerson, J. Peischl, J. S. Holloway, M. Trainer, G. J. Frost, T. Baynard, D. A. Lack, J. A. de Gouw, C. Warneke, and L. A. Del Negro, “Measurement of the mixing state, mass, and optical size of individual black carbon particles in urban and biomass burning emissions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 35(13), L13810 (2008).
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J. P. Schwarz, R. S. Gao, J. R. Spackman, L. A. Watts, D. S. Thomson, D. W. Fahey, T. B. Ryerson, J. Peischl, J. S. Holloway, M. Trainer, G. J. Frost, T. Baynard, D. A. Lack, J. A. de Gouw, C. Warneke, and L. A. Del Negro, “Measurement of the mixing state, mass, and optical size of individual black carbon particles in urban and biomass burning emissions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 35(13), L13810 (2008).
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Gaspar, D. J.

K. S. Johnson, B. Zuberi, L. T. Molina, M. J. Molina, M. J. Iedema, J. P. Cowin, D. J. Gaspar, C. Wang, and A. Laskin, “Processing of soot in an urban environment: case study from the Mexico City Metropolitan Area,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 3033–3043 (2005).
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Gorkowski, K.

S. China, C. Mazzoleni, K. Gorkowski, A. C. Aiken, and M. K. Dubey, “Morphology and mixing state of individual freshly emitted wildfire carbonaceous particles,” Nat. Commun. 4, 2122 (2013).
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J. P. Schwarz, R. S. Gao, J. R. Spackman, L. A. Watts, D. S. Thomson, D. W. Fahey, T. B. Ryerson, J. Peischl, J. S. Holloway, M. Trainer, G. J. Frost, T. Baynard, D. A. Lack, J. A. de Gouw, C. Warneke, and L. A. Del Negro, “Measurement of the mixing state, mass, and optical size of individual black carbon particles in urban and biomass burning emissions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 35(13), L13810 (2008).
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T. C. Bond, S. J. Doherty, D. W. Fahey, P. M. Forster, T. Berntsen, O. Boucher, B. J. DeAngelo, M. G. Flanner, S. Ghan, B. Kärcher, D. Koch, S. Kinne, Y. Kondo, P. K. Quinn, M. C. Sarofim, M. G. Schultz, M. Schulz, C. Venkataraman, H. Zhang, S. Zhang, N. Bellouin, S. K. Guttikunda, P. K. Hopke, M. Z. Jacobson, J. W. Kaiser, Z. Klimont, U. Lohmann, J. P. Schwarz, D. Shindell, T. Storelvmo, S. G. Warren, and C. S. Zender, “Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: A scientific assessment,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118, 5380–5552 (2013).

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V. Ramanathan, P. J. Crutzen, J. Lelieveld, A. P. Mitra, D. Althausen, J. Anderson, M. O. Andreae, W. Cantrell, G. R. Cass, C. E. Chung, A. D. Clarke, J. A. Coakley, W. D. Collins, W. C. Conant, F. Dulac, J. Heintzenberg, A. J. Heymsfield, B. Holben, S. Howell, J. Hudson, A. Jayaraman, J. T. Kiehl, T. N. Krishnamurti, D. Lubin, G. McFarquhar, T. Novakov, J. A. Ogren, I. A. Podgorny, K. Prather, K. Priestley, J. M. Prospero, P. K. Quinn, K. Rajeev, P. Rasch, S. Rupert, R. Sadourny, S. K. Satheesh, G. E. Shaw, P. Sheridan, and F. P. J. Valero, “Indian Ocean Experiment: An integrated analysis of the climate forcing and effects of the great Indo-Asian haze,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(D22), 28371–28398 (2001).
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M. Schnaiter, C. Linke, O. Möhler, K.-H. Naumann, H. Saathoff, R. Wagner, U. Schurath, and B. Wehner, “Absorption amplification of black carbon internally mixed with secondary organic aerosol,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D19204 (2005).

M. Schnaiter, H. Horvath, O. Möhler, K. H. Naumann, H. Saathoff, and O. W. Schöck, “UV-VIS-NIR spectral optical properties of soot and soot-containing aerosols,” J. Aerosol Sci. 34(10), 1421–1444 (2003).
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Schöck, O. W.

M. Schnaiter, H. Horvath, O. Möhler, K. H. Naumann, H. Saathoff, and O. W. Schöck, “UV-VIS-NIR spectral optical properties of soot and soot-containing aerosols,” J. Aerosol Sci. 34(10), 1421–1444 (2003).
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T. C. Bond, S. J. Doherty, D. W. Fahey, P. M. Forster, T. Berntsen, O. Boucher, B. J. DeAngelo, M. G. Flanner, S. Ghan, B. Kärcher, D. Koch, S. Kinne, Y. Kondo, P. K. Quinn, M. C. Sarofim, M. G. Schultz, M. Schulz, C. Venkataraman, H. Zhang, S. Zhang, N. Bellouin, S. K. Guttikunda, P. K. Hopke, M. Z. Jacobson, J. W. Kaiser, Z. Klimont, U. Lohmann, J. P. Schwarz, D. Shindell, T. Storelvmo, S. G. Warren, and C. S. Zender, “Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: A scientific assessment,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118, 5380–5552 (2013).

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T. C. Bond, S. J. Doherty, D. W. Fahey, P. M. Forster, T. Berntsen, O. Boucher, B. J. DeAngelo, M. G. Flanner, S. Ghan, B. Kärcher, D. Koch, S. Kinne, Y. Kondo, P. K. Quinn, M. C. Sarofim, M. G. Schultz, M. Schulz, C. Venkataraman, H. Zhang, S. Zhang, N. Bellouin, S. K. Guttikunda, P. K. Hopke, M. Z. Jacobson, J. W. Kaiser, Z. Klimont, U. Lohmann, J. P. Schwarz, D. Shindell, T. Storelvmo, S. G. Warren, and C. S. Zender, “Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: A scientific assessment,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118, 5380–5552 (2013).

Schurath, U.

M. Schnaiter, C. Linke, O. Möhler, K.-H. Naumann, H. Saathoff, R. Wagner, U. Schurath, and B. Wehner, “Absorption amplification of black carbon internally mixed with secondary organic aerosol,” J. Geophys. Res. 110, D19204 (2005).

Schwarz, J. P.

T. C. Bond, S. J. Doherty, D. W. Fahey, P. M. Forster, T. Berntsen, O. Boucher, B. J. DeAngelo, M. G. Flanner, S. Ghan, B. Kärcher, D. Koch, S. Kinne, Y. Kondo, P. K. Quinn, M. C. Sarofim, M. G. Schultz, M. Schulz, C. Venkataraman, H. Zhang, S. Zhang, N. Bellouin, S. K. Guttikunda, P. K. Hopke, M. Z. Jacobson, J. W. Kaiser, Z. Klimont, U. Lohmann, J. P. Schwarz, D. Shindell, T. Storelvmo, S. G. Warren, and C. S. Zender, “Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: A scientific assessment,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118, 5380–5552 (2013).

J. P. Schwarz, R. S. Gao, J. R. Spackman, L. A. Watts, D. S. Thomson, D. W. Fahey, T. B. Ryerson, J. Peischl, J. S. Holloway, M. Trainer, G. J. Frost, T. Baynard, D. A. Lack, J. A. de Gouw, C. Warneke, and L. A. Del Negro, “Measurement of the mixing state, mass, and optical size of individual black carbon particles in urban and biomass burning emissions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 35(13), L13810 (2008).
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J. P. Schwarz, J. R. Spackman, D. W. Fahey, R. S. Gao, U. Lohmann, P. Stier, L. A. Watts, D. S. Thomson, D. A. Lack, L. Pfister, M. J. Mahoney, D. Baumgardner, J. C. Wilson, and J. M. Reeves, “Coatings and their enhancement of black carbon light absorption in the tropical atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D03203 (2008).

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S. H. Chung and J. H. Seinfeld, “Global distribution and climate forcing of carbonaceous aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 107(D19), 4407 (2002).

Shaw, G. E.

V. Ramanathan, P. J. Crutzen, J. Lelieveld, A. P. Mitra, D. Althausen, J. Anderson, M. O. Andreae, W. Cantrell, G. R. Cass, C. E. Chung, A. D. Clarke, J. A. Coakley, W. D. Collins, W. C. Conant, F. Dulac, J. Heintzenberg, A. J. Heymsfield, B. Holben, S. Howell, J. Hudson, A. Jayaraman, J. T. Kiehl, T. N. Krishnamurti, D. Lubin, G. McFarquhar, T. Novakov, J. A. Ogren, I. A. Podgorny, K. Prather, K. Priestley, J. M. Prospero, P. K. Quinn, K. Rajeev, P. Rasch, S. Rupert, R. Sadourny, S. K. Satheesh, G. E. Shaw, P. Sheridan, and F. P. J. Valero, “Indian Ocean Experiment: An integrated analysis of the climate forcing and effects of the great Indo-Asian haze,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(D22), 28371–28398 (2001).
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V. Ramanathan, P. J. Crutzen, J. Lelieveld, A. P. Mitra, D. Althausen, J. Anderson, M. O. Andreae, W. Cantrell, G. R. Cass, C. E. Chung, A. D. Clarke, J. A. Coakley, W. D. Collins, W. C. Conant, F. Dulac, J. Heintzenberg, A. J. Heymsfield, B. Holben, S. Howell, J. Hudson, A. Jayaraman, J. T. Kiehl, T. N. Krishnamurti, D. Lubin, G. McFarquhar, T. Novakov, J. A. Ogren, I. A. Podgorny, K. Prather, K. Priestley, J. M. Prospero, P. K. Quinn, K. Rajeev, P. Rasch, S. Rupert, R. Sadourny, S. K. Satheesh, G. E. Shaw, P. Sheridan, and F. P. J. Valero, “Indian Ocean Experiment: An integrated analysis of the climate forcing and effects of the great Indo-Asian haze,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(D22), 28371–28398 (2001).
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B. J. Huebert, T. Bates, P. B. Russell, G. Shi, Y. J. Kim, K. Kawamura, G. Carmichael, and T. Nakajima, “An overview of ACE‐Asia: Strategies for quantifying the relationships between Asian aerosols and their climatic impacts,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 8633 (2003).

Shindell, D.

T. C. Bond, S. J. Doherty, D. W. Fahey, P. M. Forster, T. Berntsen, O. Boucher, B. J. DeAngelo, M. G. Flanner, S. Ghan, B. Kärcher, D. Koch, S. Kinne, Y. Kondo, P. K. Quinn, M. C. Sarofim, M. G. Schultz, M. Schulz, C. Venkataraman, H. Zhang, S. Zhang, N. Bellouin, S. K. Guttikunda, P. K. Hopke, M. Z. Jacobson, J. W. Kaiser, Z. Klimont, U. Lohmann, J. P. Schwarz, D. Shindell, T. Storelvmo, S. G. Warren, and C. S. Zender, “Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: A scientific assessment,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118, 5380–5552 (2013).

Sierau, B.

T. Tritscher, Z. Jurányi, M. Martin, R. Chirico, M. Gysel, M. F. Heringa, P. F. DeCarlo, B. Sierau, A. S. H. Prévôt, E. Weingartner, and U. Baltensperger, “Changes of hygroscopicity and morphology during ageing of diesel soot,” Environ. Res. Lett. 6, 034026 (2011).
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J. P. Schwarz, R. S. Gao, J. R. Spackman, L. A. Watts, D. S. Thomson, D. W. Fahey, T. B. Ryerson, J. Peischl, J. S. Holloway, M. Trainer, G. J. Frost, T. Baynard, D. A. Lack, J. A. de Gouw, C. Warneke, and L. A. Del Negro, “Measurement of the mixing state, mass, and optical size of individual black carbon particles in urban and biomass burning emissions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 35(13), L13810 (2008).
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J. P. Schwarz, J. R. Spackman, D. W. Fahey, R. S. Gao, U. Lohmann, P. Stier, L. A. Watts, D. S. Thomson, D. A. Lack, L. Pfister, M. J. Mahoney, D. Baumgardner, J. C. Wilson, and J. M. Reeves, “Coatings and their enhancement of black carbon light absorption in the tropical atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D03203 (2008).

Stier, P.

J. P. Schwarz, J. R. Spackman, D. W. Fahey, R. S. Gao, U. Lohmann, P. Stier, L. A. Watts, D. S. Thomson, D. A. Lack, L. Pfister, M. J. Mahoney, D. Baumgardner, J. C. Wilson, and J. M. Reeves, “Coatings and their enhancement of black carbon light absorption in the tropical atmosphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 113, D03203 (2008).

Storelvmo, T.

T. C. Bond, S. J. Doherty, D. W. Fahey, P. M. Forster, T. Berntsen, O. Boucher, B. J. DeAngelo, M. G. Flanner, S. Ghan, B. Kärcher, D. Koch, S. Kinne, Y. Kondo, P. K. Quinn, M. C. Sarofim, M. G. Schultz, M. Schulz, C. Venkataraman, H. Zhang, S. Zhang, N. Bellouin, S. K. Guttikunda, P. K. Hopke, M. Z. Jacobson, J. W. Kaiser, Z. Klimont, U. Lohmann, J. P. Schwarz, D. Shindell, T. Storelvmo, S. G. Warren, and C. S. Zender, “Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: A scientific assessment,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118, 5380–5552 (2013).

Subramanian, R.

C. D. Cappa, T. B. Onasch, P. Massoli, D. R. Worsnop, T. S. Bates, E. S. Cross, P. Davidovits, J. Hakala, K. L. Hayden, B. T. Jobson, K. R. Kolesar, D. A. Lack, B. M. Lerner, S.-M. Li, D. Mellon, I. Nuaaman, J. S. Olfert, T. Petäjä, P. K. Quinn, C. Song, R. Subramanian, E. J. Williams, and R. A. Zaveri, “Response to comment on “Radiative absorption enhancements due to the mixing state of atmospheric black carbon”,” Science 339(6118), 393 (2013).
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J. P. Schwarz, R. S. Gao, J. R. Spackman, L. A. Watts, D. S. Thomson, D. W. Fahey, T. B. Ryerson, J. Peischl, J. S. Holloway, M. Trainer, G. J. Frost, T. Baynard, D. A. Lack, J. A. de Gouw, C. Warneke, and L. A. Del Negro, “Measurement of the mixing state, mass, and optical size of individual black carbon particles in urban and biomass burning emissions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 35(13), L13810 (2008).
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Toon, O. B.

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J. P. Schwarz, R. S. Gao, J. R. Spackman, L. A. Watts, D. S. Thomson, D. W. Fahey, T. B. Ryerson, J. Peischl, J. S. Holloway, M. Trainer, G. J. Frost, T. Baynard, D. A. Lack, J. A. de Gouw, C. Warneke, and L. A. Del Negro, “Measurement of the mixing state, mass, and optical size of individual black carbon particles in urban and biomass burning emissions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 35(13), L13810 (2008).
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B. V. Scarnato, S. Vahidinia, D. T. Richard, and T. W. Kirchstetter, “Effects of internal mixing and aggregate morphology on optical properties of black carbon using a discrete dipole approximation model,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 13(10), 5089–5101 (2013).
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Valero, F. P. J.

V. Ramanathan, P. J. Crutzen, J. Lelieveld, A. P. Mitra, D. Althausen, J. Anderson, M. O. Andreae, W. Cantrell, G. R. Cass, C. E. Chung, A. D. Clarke, J. A. Coakley, W. D. Collins, W. C. Conant, F. Dulac, J. Heintzenberg, A. J. Heymsfield, B. Holben, S. Howell, J. Hudson, A. Jayaraman, J. T. Kiehl, T. N. Krishnamurti, D. Lubin, G. McFarquhar, T. Novakov, J. A. Ogren, I. A. Podgorny, K. Prather, K. Priestley, J. M. Prospero, P. K. Quinn, K. Rajeev, P. Rasch, S. Rupert, R. Sadourny, S. K. Satheesh, G. E. Shaw, P. Sheridan, and F. P. J. Valero, “Indian Ocean Experiment: An integrated analysis of the climate forcing and effects of the great Indo-Asian haze,” J. Geophys. Res. 106(D22), 28371–28398 (2001).
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T. C. Bond, S. J. Doherty, D. W. Fahey, P. M. Forster, T. Berntsen, O. Boucher, B. J. DeAngelo, M. G. Flanner, S. Ghan, B. Kärcher, D. Koch, S. Kinne, Y. Kondo, P. K. Quinn, M. C. Sarofim, M. G. Schultz, M. Schulz, C. Venkataraman, H. Zhang, S. Zhang, N. Bellouin, S. K. Guttikunda, P. K. Hopke, M. Z. Jacobson, J. W. Kaiser, Z. Klimont, U. Lohmann, J. P. Schwarz, D. Shindell, T. Storelvmo, S. G. Warren, and C. S. Zender, “Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: A scientific assessment,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118, 5380–5552 (2013).

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Wang, C.

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Warren, S. G.

T. C. Bond, S. J. Doherty, D. W. Fahey, P. M. Forster, T. Berntsen, O. Boucher, B. J. DeAngelo, M. G. Flanner, S. Ghan, B. Kärcher, D. Koch, S. Kinne, Y. Kondo, P. K. Quinn, M. C. Sarofim, M. G. Schultz, M. Schulz, C. Venkataraman, H. Zhang, S. Zhang, N. Bellouin, S. K. Guttikunda, P. K. Hopke, M. Z. Jacobson, J. W. Kaiser, Z. Klimont, U. Lohmann, J. P. Schwarz, D. Shindell, T. Storelvmo, S. G. Warren, and C. S. Zender, “Bounding the role of black carbon in the climate system: A scientific assessment,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 118, 5380–5552 (2013).

Watts, L. A.

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Worsnop, D. R.

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Xu, H.

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Zhang, D.

A. F. Khalizov, R. Zhang, D. Zhang, H. Xue, J. Pagels, and P. H. McMurry, “Formation of highly hygroscopic light absorbing carbon aerosols upon internal mixing with sulfuric acid vapor,” J. Geophys. Res. 114, D05208 (2009).

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Zhang, R.

A. F. Khalizov, H. Xue, L. Wang, J. Zheng, and R. Zhang, “Enhanced light absorption and scattering by carbon soot aerosol internally mixed with sulfuric acid,” J. Phys. Chem. A 113, 1066–1074 (2009).
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Zheng, J.

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Transmission electron microscope images of (a) freshly emitted black carbon (BC) particles [40], (b) thinly coated light absorbing carbon aerosols [41], and (c) heavily coated light absorbing carbon aerosols [26].
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Schematic diagram showing the transformation of light absorbing carbon aggregates with increasing mass fraction of condensed materials: (a) freshly emitted black carbon (BC) particles, (b) thinly coated light absorbing carbon aerosols, (c) heavily coated light absorbing carbon aerosols.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Absorption cross sections (Cabs) of internally mixed light absorbing carbon aerosols with various morphological factors: freshly emitted BC particles (Df = 2.0, S/C = 1.0), thinly coated light absorbing carbon aerosols (Df = 2.4, S/C = 1.5), and heavily coated light absorbing carbon aerosols (Df = 2.8, S/C = 2.0).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Single scattering albedo (SSA) and asymmetry parameter (ASY) of internally mixed light absorbing carbon aerosols with various morphological factors: freshly emitted black carbon particles (Df = 2.0, S/C = 1.0), thinly coated light absorbing carbon aerosols (Df = 2.4, S/C = 1.5), and heavily coated light absorbing carbon aerosols (Df = 2.8, S/C = 2.0).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Absorption cross sections of internally mixed light absorbing carbon aerosols with various shell/core ratio (S/C): (a) thinly coated light absorbing carbon aerosol (Df = 2.4, S/C = 1.1, 1.3, 1.5), (b) heavily coated light absorbing carbon aerosol (Df = 2.8, S/C = 1.5, 1.75, 2.0).
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Single scattering albedo (SSA) and asymmetry parameter (ASY) of thinly coated light absorbing carbon aerosols with various shell/core ratio (S/C). Df = 2.4, S/C = 1.1, 1.3, 1.5.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Single scattering albedo (SSA) and asymmetry parameter (ASY) of heavily coated light absorbing carbon aerosols with various shell/core ratio (S/C). Df = 2.8, S/C = 1.5, 1.75, 2.0.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Absorption cross sections of internally mixed light absorbing carbon aerosols with various fractal dimensions (Df): (a) thinly coated light absorbing carbon aerosol (Df = 2.2, 2.4, 2.6, S/C = 1.5), (b) heavily coated light absorbing carbon aerosol (Df = 2.6, 2.8, 3.0, S/C = 1.75).
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Single scattering albedo (SSA) and asymmetry parameter (ASY) of thinly coated light absorbing carbon aerosols with various fractal dimensions (Df = 2.2, 2.4, 2.6, S/C = 1.5)
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Single scattering albedo (SSA) and asymmetry parameter (ASY) of heavily coated light absorbing carbon aerosols with various fractal dimensions (Df = 2.6, 2.8, 3.0, S/C = 1.75)
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 Ranges for optical properties of thinly coated light absorbing carbon aerosols with alterations due to assumption of the concentric spherical core-shell model (Df = 2.4, S/C = 1.1, 1.3, 1.5).
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 Ranges for optical properties of heavily coated light absorbing carbon aerosols with alteration due to assumption of the concentric spherical core-shell model (Df = 2.8, S/C = 1.5, 1.75, 2.0).

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Morphological Properties of Internally Mixed Light Absorbing Carbon Aerosols

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