Abstract

The reflectogram of a fiber grating is used to characterize vector modes of an optical fiber supporting orbital angular momentum states. All modes, with a minimal effective index separation around 10−4, are simultaneously measured. OAM states are reflected by the FBG, along with a charge inversion, at the center wavelength of the Bragg reflection peak of the corresponding fiber vector mode.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (2)

2013 (2)

J. Sun, E. Timurdogan, A. Yaacobi, E. S. Hosseini, and M. R. Watts, “Large-scale nanophotonic phased array,” Nature 493(7431), 195–199 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-Scale Orbital Angular Momentum Mode Division Multiplexing in Fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (4)

A. E. Willner, J. Wang, and H. Huang, “Applied physics. A Different Angle on Light Communications,” Science 337(6095), 655–656 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Bozinovic, S. Golowich, P. Kristensen, and S. Ramachandran, “Control of orbital angular momentum of light with optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 37(13), 2451–2453 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. M. Savolainen, L. Grüner-Nielsen, P. Kristensen, and P. Balling, “Measurement of effective refractive-index differences in a few-mode fiber by axial fiber stretching,” Opt. Express 20(17), 18646–18651 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

2010 (1)

F. Stutzki, C. Jauregui, C. Voigtländer, J. U. Thomas, J. Limpert, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Passively stabilized 215 W monolithic CW LMA-fiber laser with innovative transversal mode filter,” Proc. SPIE 7580(75801K), 75801K (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

2005 (1)

2004 (2)

2001 (1)

G. Molina-Terriza, J. Recolons, J. P. Torres, L. Torner, and E. Wright, “Observation of the dynamical inversion of the topological charge of an optical vortex,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(2), 023902 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

T. Erdogan, “Fiber grating spectra,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1277–1294 (1997).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of laguerre-gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ahmed, N.

Allen, L.

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of laguerre-gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Balling, P.

Barnett, S.

Beijersbergen, M. W.

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of laguerre-gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Birnbaum, K. M.

Bozinovic, N.

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-Scale Orbital Angular Momentum Mode Division Multiplexing in Fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Bozinovic, S. Golowich, P. Kristensen, and S. Ramachandran, “Control of orbital angular momentum of light with optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 37(13), 2451–2453 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cappuzzo, M.

Chan, J. S. P.

Clarkson, W. A.

Courtial, J.

Daniel, J. M. O.

Dimarcello, F. V.

Dolinar, S.

J. Wang, J. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Dolinar, S. J.

Earnshaw, M.

Erdogan, T.

T. Erdogan, “Fiber grating spectra,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1277–1294 (1997).
[Crossref]

Erkmen, B. I.

Fazal, I. M.

J. Wang, J. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ferrari, C.

Fleming, J.

Fontaine, N. K.

Franke-Arnold, S.

Ghalmi, S.

Gibson, G.

Golowich, S.

Grüner-Nielsen, L.

Guan, B.

Hosseini, E. S.

J. Sun, E. Timurdogan, A. Yaacobi, E. S. Hosseini, and M. R. Watts, “Large-scale nanophotonic phased array,” Nature 493(7431), 195–199 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, H.

H. Huang, G. Xie, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, D. Rogawski, M. J. Willner, B. I. Erkmen, K. M. Birnbaum, S. J. Dolinar, M. P. Lavery, M. J. Padgett, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “100 Tbit/s free-space data link enabled by three-dimensional multiplexing of orbital angular momentum, polarization, and wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 39(2), 197–200 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-Scale Orbital Angular Momentum Mode Division Multiplexing in Fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. E. Willner, J. Wang, and H. Huang, “Applied physics. A Different Angle on Light Communications,” Science 337(6095), 655–656 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ibsen, M.

Jaiswal, V. K.

S. Roychowdhury, V. K. Jaiswal, and R. P. Singh, “Implementing controlled NOT gate with optical vortex,” Opt. Commun. 236(4-6), 419–424 (2004).
[Crossref]

Jauregui, C.

C. Jocher, C. Jauregui, C. Voigtländer, F. Stutzki, S. Nolte, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Fiber based polarization filter for radially and azimuthally polarized light,” Opt. Express 19(20), 19582–19590 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Stutzki, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Real-time characterisation of modal content in monolithic few-mode fibre lasers,” Electron. Lett. 47(4), 274–275 (2011).
[Crossref]

F. Stutzki, C. Jauregui, C. Voigtländer, J. U. Thomas, J. Limpert, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Passively stabilized 215 W monolithic CW LMA-fiber laser with innovative transversal mode filter,” Proc. SPIE 7580(75801K), 75801K (2010).
[Crossref]

Jocher, C.

Keller, B.

Kim, J. W.

Klemens, F.

Kristensen, P.

Lavery, M. P.

Limpert, J.

F. Stutzki, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Real-time characterisation of modal content in monolithic few-mode fibre lasers,” Electron. Lett. 47(4), 274–275 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Jocher, C. Jauregui, C. Voigtländer, F. Stutzki, S. Nolte, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Fiber based polarization filter for radially and azimuthally polarized light,” Opt. Express 19(20), 19582–19590 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Stutzki, C. Jauregui, C. Voigtländer, J. U. Thomas, J. Limpert, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Passively stabilized 215 W monolithic CW LMA-fiber laser with innovative transversal mode filter,” Proc. SPIE 7580(75801K), 75801K (2010).
[Crossref]

Molina-Terriza, G.

G. Molina-Terriza, J. Recolons, J. P. Torres, L. Torner, and E. Wright, “Observation of the dynamical inversion of the topological charge of an optical vortex,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(2), 023902 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Monberg, E.

Nolte, S.

C. Jocher, C. Jauregui, C. Voigtländer, F. Stutzki, S. Nolte, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Fiber based polarization filter for radially and azimuthally polarized light,” Opt. Express 19(20), 19582–19590 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Stutzki, C. Jauregui, C. Voigtländer, J. U. Thomas, J. Limpert, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Passively stabilized 215 W monolithic CW LMA-fiber laser with innovative transversal mode filter,” Proc. SPIE 7580(75801K), 75801K (2010).
[Crossref]

Padgett, M.

Padgett, M. J.

Pas’ko, V.

Qin, C.

Ramachandran, S.

Recolons, J.

G. Molina-Terriza, J. Recolons, J. P. Torres, L. Torner, and E. Wright, “Observation of the dynamical inversion of the topological charge of an optical vortex,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(2), 023902 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ren, Y.

H. Huang, G. Xie, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, D. Rogawski, M. J. Willner, B. I. Erkmen, K. M. Birnbaum, S. J. Dolinar, M. P. Lavery, M. J. Padgett, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “100 Tbit/s free-space data link enabled by three-dimensional multiplexing of orbital angular momentum, polarization, and wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 39(2), 197–200 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-Scale Orbital Angular Momentum Mode Division Multiplexing in Fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Rogawski, D.

Roychowdhury, S.

S. Roychowdhury, V. K. Jaiswal, and R. P. Singh, “Implementing controlled NOT gate with optical vortex,” Opt. Commun. 236(4-6), 419–424 (2004).
[Crossref]

Sahu, J. K.

Savolainen, J. M.

Scott, R. P.

Singh, R. P.

S. Roychowdhury, V. K. Jaiswal, and R. P. Singh, “Implementing controlled NOT gate with optical vortex,” Opt. Commun. 236(4-6), 419–424 (2004).
[Crossref]

Spreeuw, R. J. C.

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of laguerre-gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stutzki, F.

C. Jocher, C. Jauregui, C. Voigtländer, F. Stutzki, S. Nolte, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Fiber based polarization filter for radially and azimuthally polarized light,” Opt. Express 19(20), 19582–19590 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Stutzki, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Real-time characterisation of modal content in monolithic few-mode fibre lasers,” Electron. Lett. 47(4), 274–275 (2011).
[Crossref]

F. Stutzki, C. Jauregui, C. Voigtländer, J. U. Thomas, J. Limpert, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Passively stabilized 215 W monolithic CW LMA-fiber laser with innovative transversal mode filter,” Proc. SPIE 7580(75801K), 75801K (2010).
[Crossref]

Su, T.

Sun, J.

J. Sun, E. Timurdogan, A. Yaacobi, E. S. Hosseini, and M. R. Watts, “Large-scale nanophotonic phased array,” Nature 493(7431), 195–199 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thomas, J. U.

F. Stutzki, C. Jauregui, C. Voigtländer, J. U. Thomas, J. Limpert, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Passively stabilized 215 W monolithic CW LMA-fiber laser with innovative transversal mode filter,” Proc. SPIE 7580(75801K), 75801K (2010).
[Crossref]

Timurdogan, E.

J. Sun, E. Timurdogan, A. Yaacobi, E. S. Hosseini, and M. R. Watts, “Large-scale nanophotonic phased array,” Nature 493(7431), 195–199 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Torner, L.

G. Molina-Terriza, J. Recolons, J. P. Torres, L. Torner, and E. Wright, “Observation of the dynamical inversion of the topological charge of an optical vortex,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(2), 023902 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Torres, J. P.

G. Molina-Terriza, J. Recolons, J. P. Torres, L. Torner, and E. Wright, “Observation of the dynamical inversion of the topological charge of an optical vortex,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(2), 023902 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tünnermann, A.

C. Jocher, C. Jauregui, C. Voigtländer, F. Stutzki, S. Nolte, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Fiber based polarization filter for radially and azimuthally polarized light,” Opt. Express 19(20), 19582–19590 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Stutzki, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Real-time characterisation of modal content in monolithic few-mode fibre lasers,” Electron. Lett. 47(4), 274–275 (2011).
[Crossref]

F. Stutzki, C. Jauregui, C. Voigtländer, J. U. Thomas, J. Limpert, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Passively stabilized 215 W monolithic CW LMA-fiber laser with innovative transversal mode filter,” Proc. SPIE 7580(75801K), 75801K (2010).
[Crossref]

Tur, M.

H. Huang, G. Xie, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, D. Rogawski, M. J. Willner, B. I. Erkmen, K. M. Birnbaum, S. J. Dolinar, M. P. Lavery, M. J. Padgett, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “100 Tbit/s free-space data link enabled by three-dimensional multiplexing of orbital angular momentum, polarization, and wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 39(2), 197–200 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-Scale Orbital Angular Momentum Mode Division Multiplexing in Fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Vasnetsov, M.

Voigtländer, C.

C. Jocher, C. Jauregui, C. Voigtländer, F. Stutzki, S. Nolte, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Fiber based polarization filter for radially and azimuthally polarized light,” Opt. Express 19(20), 19582–19590 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Stutzki, C. Jauregui, C. Voigtländer, J. U. Thomas, J. Limpert, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Passively stabilized 215 W monolithic CW LMA-fiber laser with innovative transversal mode filter,” Proc. SPIE 7580(75801K), 75801K (2010).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

J. Wang, J. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. E. Willner, J. Wang, and H. Huang, “Applied physics. A Different Angle on Light Communications,” Science 337(6095), 655–656 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Watts, M. R.

J. Sun, E. Timurdogan, A. Yaacobi, E. S. Hosseini, and M. R. Watts, “Large-scale nanophotonic phased array,” Nature 493(7431), 195–199 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Willner, A.

J. Wang, J. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Willner, A. E.

H. Huang, G. Xie, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, D. Rogawski, M. J. Willner, B. I. Erkmen, K. M. Birnbaum, S. J. Dolinar, M. P. Lavery, M. J. Padgett, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “100 Tbit/s free-space data link enabled by three-dimensional multiplexing of orbital angular momentum, polarization, and wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 39(2), 197–200 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-Scale Orbital Angular Momentum Mode Division Multiplexing in Fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. E. Willner, J. Wang, and H. Huang, “Applied physics. A Different Angle on Light Communications,” Science 337(6095), 655–656 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Willner, M. J.

Wisk, P.

Woerdman, J. P.

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of laguerre-gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A 45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wright, E.

G. Molina-Terriza, J. Recolons, J. P. Torres, L. Torner, and E. Wright, “Observation of the dynamical inversion of the topological charge of an optical vortex,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(2), 023902 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xie, G.

Yaacobi, A.

J. Sun, E. Timurdogan, A. Yaacobi, E. S. Hosseini, and M. R. Watts, “Large-scale nanophotonic phased array,” Nature 493(7431), 195–199 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yan, M. F.

Yan, Y.

Yang, J.

J. Wang, J. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yoo, S. J.

Yue, Y.

H. Huang, G. Xie, Y. Yan, N. Ahmed, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, D. Rogawski, M. J. Willner, B. I. Erkmen, K. M. Birnbaum, S. J. Dolinar, M. P. Lavery, M. J. Padgett, M. Tur, and A. E. Willner, “100 Tbit/s free-space data link enabled by three-dimensional multiplexing of orbital angular momentum, polarization, and wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 39(2), 197–200 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Bozinovic, Y. Yue, Y. Ren, M. Tur, P. Kristensen, H. Huang, A. E. Willner, and S. Ramachandran, “Terabit-Scale Orbital Angular Momentum Mode Division Multiplexing in Fibers,” Science 340(6140), 1545–1548 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wang, J. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
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Electron. Lett. (1)

F. Stutzki, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Real-time characterisation of modal content in monolithic few-mode fibre lasers,” Electron. Lett. 47(4), 274–275 (2011).
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[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

J. Wang, J. Yang, I. M. Fazal, N. Ahmed, Y. Yan, H. Huang, Y. Ren, Y. Yue, S. Dolinar, M. Tur, and A. Willner, “Terabit free-space data transmission employing orbital angular momentum multiplexing,” Nat. Photonics 6(7), 488–496 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

J. Sun, E. Timurdogan, A. Yaacobi, E. S. Hosseini, and M. R. Watts, “Large-scale nanophotonic phased array,” Nature 493(7431), 195–199 (2013).
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Opt. Lett. (4)

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Proc. SPIE (1)

F. Stutzki, C. Jauregui, C. Voigtländer, J. U. Thomas, J. Limpert, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Passively stabilized 215 W monolithic CW LMA-fiber laser with innovative transversal mode filter,” Proc. SPIE 7580(75801K), 75801K (2010).
[Crossref]

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Other (4)

N. Fontaine, C. Doerr, and L. Buhl, “Efficient Multiplexing and Demultiplexing of Free-space Orbital Angular Momentum using Photonic Integrated Circuits,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper OTu1I.2.
[Crossref]

P. Gregg, P. Kristensen, S. Golowich, J. Olsen, P. Steinvurzel, and S. Ramachandran, “Stable Transmission of 12 OAM States in Air-Core Fiber,” in CLEO: 2013, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper CTu2K.2.

B. Ung, L. Wang, C. Brunet, P. Vaity, C. Jin, L. A. Rusch, Y. Messaddeq, and S. LaRochelle, “Inverse-parabolic graded-index profile for transmission of cylindrical vector modes in optical fibers,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper Tu3K.4.
[Crossref]

C. Brunet, B. Ung, Y. Messaddeq, S. LaRochelle, E. Bernier, and L. Rusch, “Design of an Optical Fiber Supporting 16 OAM Modes”, in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2014), paper Th2A.24.
[Crossref]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

a) The designed and fabricated index profile of the OAM fiber; b) calculated effective indices of the fiber vector modes based on the fabricated profile.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup for measuring the reflectogram of FBGs in OAM fibers .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

a) Reflectogram of the FBG; b) zoom-in on mode group #1; c) zoom-in on mode group #2; d) zoom-in on mode group #3; e) zoom-in on the cross-coupling peak between mode group #1 and #2; f) zoom-in on the cross-coupling peak between mode group #1 and #3; g) zoom-in on the cross-coupling peak between mode group #2 and #3. The symbol “←→” in the figure denotes “cross-coupling”.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Upper part: experimental setup for detecting the Bragg reflections of the FBG. TL: tunable laser; PC: polarization controller; PBS: polarization beam splitter; M: mirror; SLM: spatial light modulator; FM: flip mirror; BE: beam expander; QWP: quarter-wave plate; BS: beam splitter; HWP: half-wave plate; IM: index matching oil. Lower part: the physical sizes of the OAM fiber and FBG under test.

Tables (5)

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Table 1 Comparison between the calculated and measured modal effective index values.

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Table 2 Profile and interference pattern of the incident and reflected beams. The wavelength is located in the Bragg wavelength of HE11 mode.

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Table 3 Profiles and interference patterns of the incident and reflected beams. The wavelength is located in the Bragg wavelength of HE21 mode.

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Table 4 Profiles and interference patterns of the incident and reflected beams. The wavelength is located in the Bragg wavelength of EH11 mode.

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Table 5 Profiles and interference patterns of the incident and reflected beams. The wavelength is located in the Bragg wavelength of HE31 mode.

Equations (4)

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n(r)={ n 1 1NΔ( r 2 / r core 2 ) 0r r core n 2 r r core
λ=( n eff,j + n eff,k ) Λ PM /2
n eff = λ Bragg / Λ PM
n eff,j =( 2 λ j,HE11 λ HE11 )/ Λ PM

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