Abstract

The GeSn direct gap material system, with Si complementary-metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) compatibility, presents a promising solution for direct incorporation of focal plane arrays with short wave infrared detection on Si. A temperature dependence study of GeSn photoconductors with 0.9, 3.2, and 7.0% Sn was conducted using both electrical and optical characterizations from 300 to 77 K. The GeSn layers were grown on Si substrates using a commercially available chemical vapor deposition reactor in a Si CMOS compatible process. Carrier activation energies due to ionization and trap states are extracted from the temperature dependent dark I-V characteristics. The temperature dependent spectral response of each photoconductor was measured, and a maximum long wavelength response to 2.1 μm was observed for the 7.0% Sn sample. The DC responsivity measured at 1.55 μm showed around two orders of magnitude improvement at reduced temperatures for all samples compared to room temperature measurements. The noise current and temperature dependent specific detectivity (D*) were also measured for each sample at 1.55 μm, and a maximum D* value of 1 × 109 cm·√Hz/W was observed at 77 K.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2014

A. Mosleh, S. Ghetmiri, B. Conley, M. Hawkridge, M. Benamara, A. Nazzal, J. Tolle, S.-Q. Yu, and H. Naseem, “Material characterization of ge1−xsnx alloys grown by a commercial CVD system for optoelectronic device applications,” J. Electron. Mater.43(4), 938–946 (2014).
[CrossRef]

M. Oehme, K. Kostecki, K. Ye, S. Bechler, K. Ulbricht, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, M. Gollhofer, R. Körner, W. Zhang, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “GeSn-on-Si normal incidence photodetectors with bandwidths more than 40 GHz,” Opt. Express22(1), 839–846 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2013

M.-Y. Ryu, T. R. Harris, Y. K. Yeo, R. T. Beeler, and J. Kouvetakis, “Temperature-dependent photoluminescence of Ge/Si and Ge1-ySny/Si, indicating possible indirect-to-direct bandgap transition at lower Sn content,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(17), 171908 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Coppinger, J. Hart, N. Bhargava, S. Kim, and J. Kolodzey, “Photoconductivity of germanium tin alloys grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(14), 141101 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Kim, J. Gupta, N. Bhargava, M. Coppinger, and J. Kolodzey, “Current-voltage characteristics of GeSn/Ge heterojunction diodes grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.34(10), 1217–1219 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. Cheng, W. Wang, X. Gong, L. Sun, P. Guo, H. Hu, Z. Shen, G. Han, and Y.-C. Yeo, “Relaxed and strained patterned germanium-tin structures: a Raman scattering study,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol.2(4), P138–P145 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. H. Tseng, K. Y. Wu, H. Li, V. Mashanov, H. H. Cheng, G. Sun, and R. A. Soref, “Mid-infrared electroluminescence from a Ge/Ge0.922Sn0.078/Ge double heterostructure p-i-n diode on a Si substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(18), 182106 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Wirths, D. Buca, G. Mussler, A. T. Tiedemann, B. Holländer, P. Bernardy, T. Stoica, D. Grützmacher, and S. Mantl, “Reduced pressure CVD growth of Ge and Ge1−xSnx alloys,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol.2(5), 99–102 (2013).
[CrossRef]

F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, J. Demeulemeester, A. Vantomme, A. Moussa, A. Franquet, A. Kumar, H. Bender, J. Meersschaut, W. Vandervorst, R. Loo, M. Caymax, K. Temst, and M. Heyns, “Crystalline properties and strain relaxation mechanism of CVD grown GeSn,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol.2(4), P134–P137 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. H. Tseng, H. Li, V. Mashanov, Y. J. Yang, H. H. Cheng, G. E. Chang, R. A. Soref, and G. Sun, “GeSn-based p-i-n photodiodes with strained active layer on a Si wafer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.103(23), 231907 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

M. Oehme, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, M. Gollhofer, D. Widmann, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “GeSn p-i-n detectors integrated on Si with up to 4% Sn,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(14), 141110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Gassenq, F. Gencarelli, J. Van Campenhout, Y. Shimura, R. Loo, G. Narcy, B. Vincent, and G. Roelkens, “GeSn/Ge heterostructure short-wave infrared photodetectors on silicon,” Opt. Express20(25), 27297–27303 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Rogalski, “Progress in focal plane array technologies,” Prog. Quantum Electron.36(2–3), 342–473 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Grzybowski, R. T. Beeler, L. Jiang, D. J. Smith, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Menendez, “Next generation of Ge1-ySny (y = 0.01-0.09) alloys grown on Si(100) via Ge3H8 and SnD4: Reaction kinetics and tunable emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(7), 072105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W.-S. Jung, J.-H. Park, A. Nainani, D. Nam, and K. C. Saraswat, “Fluorine passivation of vacancy defects in bulk germanium for Ge metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor application,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(7), 072104 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Moontragoon, R. A. Soref, and Z. Ikonic, “The direct and indirect bandgaps of unstrained SixGe1-x-ySny and their photonic device applications,” J. Appl. Phys.112(7), 073106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

R. A. Street, K. W. Song, J. E. Northrup, and S. Cowan, “Photoconductivity measurements of the electronic structure of organic solar cells,” Phys. Rev. B83(16), 165207 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Chen, H. Lin, Y. Huo, C. Hitzman, T. I. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Increased photoluminescence of strain-reduced, high-Sn composition Ge1−xSnx alloys grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(18), 181125 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Wang, H. Liu, A. Lee, F. Pozzi, and A. Seeds, “1.3-μm InAs/GaAs quantum-dot lasers monolithically grown on Si substrates,” Opt. Express19(12), 11381–11386 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Vincent, F. Gencarelli, H. Bender, C. Merckling, B. Douhard, D. H. Petersen, O. Hansen, H. H. Henrichsen, J. Meersschaut, W. Vandervorst, M. Heyns, R. Loo, and M. Caymax, “Undoped and in-situ B doped GeSn epitaxial growth on Ge by atmospheric pressure-chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(15), 152103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Roucka, J. Mathews, C. Weng, R. Beeler, J. Tolle, J. Menendez, and J. Kouvetakis, “High-performance near-IR photodiodes: a novel chemistry-based approach to Ge and Ge–Sn devices integrated on silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.47(2), 213–222 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

J. Kouvetakis, J. Mathews, R. Roucka, A. V. G. Chizmeshya, J. Tolle, and J. Menendez, “Practical materials chemistry approaches for tuning optical and structural properties of group IV semiconductors and prototype photonic devices,” IEEE Photon. J.2(6), 924–941 (2010).
[CrossRef]

O. Nakatsuka, N. Tsutsui, Y. Shimura, S. Takeuchi, A. Sakai, and S. Zaima, “Mobility behavior of Ge1- xSnx layers grown on silicon-on-insulator substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.49(4), 04DA10 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008

B. Kunert, S. Zinnkann, K. Volz, and W. Stolz, “Monolithic integration of Ga(NAsP)/(BGa)P multi-quantum well structures on (001) silicon substrate by MOVPE,” J. Cryst. Growth310(23), 4776–4779 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

G. Roelkens, J. Van Campenhout, J. Brouckaert, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, P. R. Romeo, P. Regreny, A. Kazmierczak, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, G. Hollinger, J. M. Fedeli, L. Di Cioccio, and C. Lagahe-Blanchard, “III-V/Si photonics by die-to-wafer bonding,” Mater. Today10(7–8), 36–43 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

V. D’Costa, C. Cook, A. Birdwell, C. Littler, M. Canonico, S. Zollner, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Menéndez, “Optical critical points of thin-film Ge1−ySny alloys: A comparative Ge1−ySny/Ge1−xSix study,” Phys. Rev. B73(12), 125207 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

K. Akahane, N. Yamamoto, S.-i. Gozu, and N. Ohtani, “Heteroepitaxial growth of GaSb on Si(001) substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth264(1–3), 21–25 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

A. Rogalski, “Infrared detectors: status and trends,” Prog. Quantum Electron.27(2-3), 59–210 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

J. D. Phillips, D. D. Edwall, and D. L. Lee, “Control of very-long-wavelength infrared HgCdTe detector-cutoff wavelength,” J. Electron. Mater.31(7), 664–668 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Bauer, J. Taraci, J. Tolle, A. V. G. Chizmeshya, S. Zollner, D. J. Smith, J. Menendez, C. Hu, and J. Kouvetakis, “Ge–Sn semiconductors for band-gap and lattice engineering,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(16), 2992 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000

H. Mohseni, A. Tahraoui, J. Wojkowski, M. Razeghi, G. J. Brown, W. C. Mitchel, and Y. S. Park, “Very long wavelength infrared type-II detectors operating at 80 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett.77(11), 1572 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1993

J. M. Arias, J. G. Pasko, M. Zandian, S. H. Shin, G. M. Williams, L. O. Bubulac, R. E. DeWames, and W. E. Tennant, “Planar p‐on‐n HgCdTe heterostructure photovoltaic detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.62(9), 976 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Soref, “Silicon-based optoelectronics,” Proc. IEEE81(12), 1687–1706 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1967

Y. P. Varshni, “Temperature dependence of the energy gap in semiconductors,” Physica34(1), 149–154 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1962

Akahane, K.

K. Akahane, N. Yamamoto, S.-i. Gozu, and N. Ohtani, “Heteroepitaxial growth of GaSb on Si(001) substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth264(1–3), 21–25 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Arias, J. M.

J. M. Arias, J. G. Pasko, M. Zandian, S. H. Shin, G. M. Williams, L. O. Bubulac, R. E. DeWames, and W. E. Tennant, “Planar p‐on‐n HgCdTe heterostructure photovoltaic detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.62(9), 976 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Baets, R.

G. Roelkens, J. Van Campenhout, J. Brouckaert, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, P. R. Romeo, P. Regreny, A. Kazmierczak, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, G. Hollinger, J. M. Fedeli, L. Di Cioccio, and C. Lagahe-Blanchard, “III-V/Si photonics by die-to-wafer bonding,” Mater. Today10(7–8), 36–43 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bauer, M.

M. Bauer, J. Taraci, J. Tolle, A. V. G. Chizmeshya, S. Zollner, D. J. Smith, J. Menendez, C. Hu, and J. Kouvetakis, “Ge–Sn semiconductors for band-gap and lattice engineering,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(16), 2992 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bechler, S.

Beeler, R.

R. Roucka, J. Mathews, C. Weng, R. Beeler, J. Tolle, J. Menendez, and J. Kouvetakis, “High-performance near-IR photodiodes: a novel chemistry-based approach to Ge and Ge–Sn devices integrated on silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.47(2), 213–222 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Beeler, R. T.

M.-Y. Ryu, T. R. Harris, Y. K. Yeo, R. T. Beeler, and J. Kouvetakis, “Temperature-dependent photoluminescence of Ge/Si and Ge1-ySny/Si, indicating possible indirect-to-direct bandgap transition at lower Sn content,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(17), 171908 (2013).
[CrossRef]

G. Grzybowski, R. T. Beeler, L. Jiang, D. J. Smith, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Menendez, “Next generation of Ge1-ySny (y = 0.01-0.09) alloys grown on Si(100) via Ge3H8 and SnD4: Reaction kinetics and tunable emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(7), 072105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Benamara, M.

A. Mosleh, S. Ghetmiri, B. Conley, M. Hawkridge, M. Benamara, A. Nazzal, J. Tolle, S.-Q. Yu, and H. Naseem, “Material characterization of ge1−xsnx alloys grown by a commercial CVD system for optoelectronic device applications,” J. Electron. Mater.43(4), 938–946 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Bender, H.

F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, J. Demeulemeester, A. Vantomme, A. Moussa, A. Franquet, A. Kumar, H. Bender, J. Meersschaut, W. Vandervorst, R. Loo, M. Caymax, K. Temst, and M. Heyns, “Crystalline properties and strain relaxation mechanism of CVD grown GeSn,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol.2(4), P134–P137 (2013).
[CrossRef]

B. Vincent, F. Gencarelli, H. Bender, C. Merckling, B. Douhard, D. H. Petersen, O. Hansen, H. H. Henrichsen, J. Meersschaut, W. Vandervorst, M. Heyns, R. Loo, and M. Caymax, “Undoped and in-situ B doped GeSn epitaxial growth on Ge by atmospheric pressure-chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(15), 152103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bernardy, P.

S. Wirths, D. Buca, G. Mussler, A. T. Tiedemann, B. Holländer, P. Bernardy, T. Stoica, D. Grützmacher, and S. Mantl, “Reduced pressure CVD growth of Ge and Ge1−xSnx alloys,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol.2(5), 99–102 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Bhargava, N.

S. Kim, J. Gupta, N. Bhargava, M. Coppinger, and J. Kolodzey, “Current-voltage characteristics of GeSn/Ge heterojunction diodes grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.34(10), 1217–1219 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Coppinger, J. Hart, N. Bhargava, S. Kim, and J. Kolodzey, “Photoconductivity of germanium tin alloys grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(14), 141101 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Birdwell, A.

V. D’Costa, C. Cook, A. Birdwell, C. Littler, M. Canonico, S. Zollner, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Menéndez, “Optical critical points of thin-film Ge1−ySny alloys: A comparative Ge1−ySny/Ge1−xSix study,” Phys. Rev. B73(12), 125207 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Brouckaert, J.

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H. H. Tseng, K. Y. Wu, H. Li, V. Mashanov, H. H. Cheng, G. Sun, and R. A. Soref, “Mid-infrared electroluminescence from a Ge/Ge0.922Sn0.078/Ge double heterostructure p-i-n diode on a Si substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(18), 182106 (2013).
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A. Mosleh, S. Ghetmiri, B. Conley, M. Hawkridge, M. Benamara, A. Nazzal, J. Tolle, S.-Q. Yu, and H. Naseem, “Material characterization of ge1−xsnx alloys grown by a commercial CVD system for optoelectronic device applications,” J. Electron. Mater.43(4), 938–946 (2014).
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V. D’Costa, C. Cook, A. Birdwell, C. Littler, M. Canonico, S. Zollner, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Menéndez, “Optical critical points of thin-film Ge1−ySny alloys: A comparative Ge1−ySny/Ge1−xSix study,” Phys. Rev. B73(12), 125207 (2006).
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S. Kim, J. Gupta, N. Bhargava, M. Coppinger, and J. Kolodzey, “Current-voltage characteristics of GeSn/Ge heterojunction diodes grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.34(10), 1217–1219 (2013).
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M. Coppinger, J. Hart, N. Bhargava, S. Kim, and J. Kolodzey, “Photoconductivity of germanium tin alloys grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(14), 141101 (2013).
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V. D’Costa, C. Cook, A. Birdwell, C. Littler, M. Canonico, S. Zollner, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Menéndez, “Optical critical points of thin-film Ge1−ySny alloys: A comparative Ge1−ySny/Ge1−xSix study,” Phys. Rev. B73(12), 125207 (2006).
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F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, J. Demeulemeester, A. Vantomme, A. Moussa, A. Franquet, A. Kumar, H. Bender, J. Meersschaut, W. Vandervorst, R. Loo, M. Caymax, K. Temst, and M. Heyns, “Crystalline properties and strain relaxation mechanism of CVD grown GeSn,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol.2(4), P134–P137 (2013).
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J. M. Arias, J. G. Pasko, M. Zandian, S. H. Shin, G. M. Williams, L. O. Bubulac, R. E. DeWames, and W. E. Tennant, “Planar p‐on‐n HgCdTe heterostructure photovoltaic detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.62(9), 976 (1993).
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G. Roelkens, J. Van Campenhout, J. Brouckaert, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, P. R. Romeo, P. Regreny, A. Kazmierczak, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, G. Hollinger, J. M. Fedeli, L. Di Cioccio, and C. Lagahe-Blanchard, “III-V/Si photonics by die-to-wafer bonding,” Mater. Today10(7–8), 36–43 (2007).
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B. Vincent, F. Gencarelli, H. Bender, C. Merckling, B. Douhard, D. H. Petersen, O. Hansen, H. H. Henrichsen, J. Meersschaut, W. Vandervorst, M. Heyns, R. Loo, and M. Caymax, “Undoped and in-situ B doped GeSn epitaxial growth on Ge by atmospheric pressure-chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(15), 152103 (2011).
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J. D. Phillips, D. D. Edwall, and D. L. Lee, “Control of very-long-wavelength infrared HgCdTe detector-cutoff wavelength,” J. Electron. Mater.31(7), 664–668 (2002).
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G. Roelkens, J. Van Campenhout, J. Brouckaert, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, P. R. Romeo, P. Regreny, A. Kazmierczak, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, G. Hollinger, J. M. Fedeli, L. Di Cioccio, and C. Lagahe-Blanchard, “III-V/Si photonics by die-to-wafer bonding,” Mater. Today10(7–8), 36–43 (2007).
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F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, J. Demeulemeester, A. Vantomme, A. Moussa, A. Franquet, A. Kumar, H. Bender, J. Meersschaut, W. Vandervorst, R. Loo, M. Caymax, K. Temst, and M. Heyns, “Crystalline properties and strain relaxation mechanism of CVD grown GeSn,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol.2(4), P134–P137 (2013).
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A. Mosleh, S. Ghetmiri, B. Conley, M. Hawkridge, M. Benamara, A. Nazzal, J. Tolle, S.-Q. Yu, and H. Naseem, “Material characterization of ge1−xsnx alloys grown by a commercial CVD system for optoelectronic device applications,” J. Electron. Mater.43(4), 938–946 (2014).
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Gong, X.

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G. Grzybowski, R. T. Beeler, L. Jiang, D. J. Smith, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Menendez, “Next generation of Ge1-ySny (y = 0.01-0.09) alloys grown on Si(100) via Ge3H8 and SnD4: Reaction kinetics and tunable emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(7), 072105 (2012).
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R. Cheng, W. Wang, X. Gong, L. Sun, P. Guo, H. Hu, Z. Shen, G. Han, and Y.-C. Yeo, “Relaxed and strained patterned germanium-tin structures: a Raman scattering study,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol.2(4), P138–P145 (2013).
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S. Kim, J. Gupta, N. Bhargava, M. Coppinger, and J. Kolodzey, “Current-voltage characteristics of GeSn/Ge heterojunction diodes grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.34(10), 1217–1219 (2013).
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R. Cheng, W. Wang, X. Gong, L. Sun, P. Guo, H. Hu, Z. Shen, G. Han, and Y.-C. Yeo, “Relaxed and strained patterned germanium-tin structures: a Raman scattering study,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol.2(4), P138–P145 (2013).
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B. Vincent, F. Gencarelli, H. Bender, C. Merckling, B. Douhard, D. H. Petersen, O. Hansen, H. H. Henrichsen, J. Meersschaut, W. Vandervorst, M. Heyns, R. Loo, and M. Caymax, “Undoped and in-situ B doped GeSn epitaxial growth on Ge by atmospheric pressure-chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(15), 152103 (2011).
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R. Chen, H. Lin, Y. Huo, C. Hitzman, T. I. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Increased photoluminescence of strain-reduced, high-Sn composition Ge1−xSnx alloys grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(18), 181125 (2011).
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M. Coppinger, J. Hart, N. Bhargava, S. Kim, and J. Kolodzey, “Photoconductivity of germanium tin alloys grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(14), 141101 (2013).
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A. Mosleh, S. Ghetmiri, B. Conley, M. Hawkridge, M. Benamara, A. Nazzal, J. Tolle, S.-Q. Yu, and H. Naseem, “Material characterization of ge1−xsnx alloys grown by a commercial CVD system for optoelectronic device applications,” J. Electron. Mater.43(4), 938–946 (2014).
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B. Vincent, F. Gencarelli, H. Bender, C. Merckling, B. Douhard, D. H. Petersen, O. Hansen, H. H. Henrichsen, J. Meersschaut, W. Vandervorst, M. Heyns, R. Loo, and M. Caymax, “Undoped and in-situ B doped GeSn epitaxial growth on Ge by atmospheric pressure-chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(15), 152103 (2011).
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F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, J. Demeulemeester, A. Vantomme, A. Moussa, A. Franquet, A. Kumar, H. Bender, J. Meersschaut, W. Vandervorst, R. Loo, M. Caymax, K. Temst, and M. Heyns, “Crystalline properties and strain relaxation mechanism of CVD grown GeSn,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol.2(4), P134–P137 (2013).
[CrossRef]

B. Vincent, F. Gencarelli, H. Bender, C. Merckling, B. Douhard, D. H. Petersen, O. Hansen, H. H. Henrichsen, J. Meersschaut, W. Vandervorst, M. Heyns, R. Loo, and M. Caymax, “Undoped and in-situ B doped GeSn epitaxial growth on Ge by atmospheric pressure-chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(15), 152103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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R. Chen, H. Lin, Y. Huo, C. Hitzman, T. I. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Increased photoluminescence of strain-reduced, high-Sn composition Ge1−xSnx alloys grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(18), 181125 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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S. Wirths, D. Buca, G. Mussler, A. T. Tiedemann, B. Holländer, P. Bernardy, T. Stoica, D. Grützmacher, and S. Mantl, “Reduced pressure CVD growth of Ge and Ge1−xSnx alloys,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol.2(5), 99–102 (2013).
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G. Roelkens, J. Van Campenhout, J. Brouckaert, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, P. R. Romeo, P. Regreny, A. Kazmierczak, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, G. Hollinger, J. M. Fedeli, L. Di Cioccio, and C. Lagahe-Blanchard, “III-V/Si photonics by die-to-wafer bonding,” Mater. Today10(7–8), 36–43 (2007).
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M. Bauer, J. Taraci, J. Tolle, A. V. G. Chizmeshya, S. Zollner, D. J. Smith, J. Menendez, C. Hu, and J. Kouvetakis, “Ge–Sn semiconductors for band-gap and lattice engineering,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(16), 2992 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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R. Cheng, W. Wang, X. Gong, L. Sun, P. Guo, H. Hu, Z. Shen, G. Han, and Y.-C. Yeo, “Relaxed and strained patterned germanium-tin structures: a Raman scattering study,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol.2(4), P138–P145 (2013).
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R. Chen, H. Lin, Y. Huo, C. Hitzman, T. I. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Increased photoluminescence of strain-reduced, high-Sn composition Ge1−xSnx alloys grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(18), 181125 (2011).
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P. Moontragoon, R. A. Soref, and Z. Ikonic, “The direct and indirect bandgaps of unstrained SixGe1-x-ySny and their photonic device applications,” J. Appl. Phys.112(7), 073106 (2012).
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G. Grzybowski, R. T. Beeler, L. Jiang, D. J. Smith, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Menendez, “Next generation of Ge1-ySny (y = 0.01-0.09) alloys grown on Si(100) via Ge3H8 and SnD4: Reaction kinetics and tunable emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(7), 072105 (2012).
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W.-S. Jung, J.-H. Park, A. Nainani, D. Nam, and K. C. Saraswat, “Fluorine passivation of vacancy defects in bulk germanium for Ge metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor application,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(7), 072104 (2012).
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R. Chen, H. Lin, Y. Huo, C. Hitzman, T. I. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Increased photoluminescence of strain-reduced, high-Sn composition Ge1−xSnx alloys grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(18), 181125 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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Kasper, E.

Kazmierczak, A.

G. Roelkens, J. Van Campenhout, J. Brouckaert, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, P. R. Romeo, P. Regreny, A. Kazmierczak, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, G. Hollinger, J. M. Fedeli, L. Di Cioccio, and C. Lagahe-Blanchard, “III-V/Si photonics by die-to-wafer bonding,” Mater. Today10(7–8), 36–43 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S.

S. Kim, J. Gupta, N. Bhargava, M. Coppinger, and J. Kolodzey, “Current-voltage characteristics of GeSn/Ge heterojunction diodes grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.34(10), 1217–1219 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Coppinger, J. Hart, N. Bhargava, S. Kim, and J. Kolodzey, “Photoconductivity of germanium tin alloys grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(14), 141101 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kolodzey, J.

M. Coppinger, J. Hart, N. Bhargava, S. Kim, and J. Kolodzey, “Photoconductivity of germanium tin alloys grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(14), 141101 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Kim, J. Gupta, N. Bhargava, M. Coppinger, and J. Kolodzey, “Current-voltage characteristics of GeSn/Ge heterojunction diodes grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.34(10), 1217–1219 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Körner, R.

Kostecki, K.

Kouvetakis, J.

M.-Y. Ryu, T. R. Harris, Y. K. Yeo, R. T. Beeler, and J. Kouvetakis, “Temperature-dependent photoluminescence of Ge/Si and Ge1-ySny/Si, indicating possible indirect-to-direct bandgap transition at lower Sn content,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(17), 171908 (2013).
[CrossRef]

G. Grzybowski, R. T. Beeler, L. Jiang, D. J. Smith, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Menendez, “Next generation of Ge1-ySny (y = 0.01-0.09) alloys grown on Si(100) via Ge3H8 and SnD4: Reaction kinetics and tunable emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(7), 072105 (2012).
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R. Roucka, J. Mathews, C. Weng, R. Beeler, J. Tolle, J. Menendez, and J. Kouvetakis, “High-performance near-IR photodiodes: a novel chemistry-based approach to Ge and Ge–Sn devices integrated on silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.47(2), 213–222 (2011).
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J. Kouvetakis, J. Mathews, R. Roucka, A. V. G. Chizmeshya, J. Tolle, and J. Menendez, “Practical materials chemistry approaches for tuning optical and structural properties of group IV semiconductors and prototype photonic devices,” IEEE Photon. J.2(6), 924–941 (2010).
[CrossRef]

V. D’Costa, C. Cook, A. Birdwell, C. Littler, M. Canonico, S. Zollner, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Menéndez, “Optical critical points of thin-film Ge1−ySny alloys: A comparative Ge1−ySny/Ge1−xSix study,” Phys. Rev. B73(12), 125207 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Bauer, J. Taraci, J. Tolle, A. V. G. Chizmeshya, S. Zollner, D. J. Smith, J. Menendez, C. Hu, and J. Kouvetakis, “Ge–Sn semiconductors for band-gap and lattice engineering,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(16), 2992 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, A.

F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, J. Demeulemeester, A. Vantomme, A. Moussa, A. Franquet, A. Kumar, H. Bender, J. Meersschaut, W. Vandervorst, R. Loo, M. Caymax, K. Temst, and M. Heyns, “Crystalline properties and strain relaxation mechanism of CVD grown GeSn,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol.2(4), P134–P137 (2013).
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B. Kunert, S. Zinnkann, K. Volz, and W. Stolz, “Monolithic integration of Ga(NAsP)/(BGa)P multi-quantum well structures on (001) silicon substrate by MOVPE,” J. Cryst. Growth310(23), 4776–4779 (2008).
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Lagahe-Blanchard, C.

G. Roelkens, J. Van Campenhout, J. Brouckaert, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, P. R. Romeo, P. Regreny, A. Kazmierczak, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, G. Hollinger, J. M. Fedeli, L. Di Cioccio, and C. Lagahe-Blanchard, “III-V/Si photonics by die-to-wafer bonding,” Mater. Today10(7–8), 36–43 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, A.

Lee, D. L.

J. D. Phillips, D. D. Edwall, and D. L. Lee, “Control of very-long-wavelength infrared HgCdTe detector-cutoff wavelength,” J. Electron. Mater.31(7), 664–668 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Letartre, X.

G. Roelkens, J. Van Campenhout, J. Brouckaert, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, P. R. Romeo, P. Regreny, A. Kazmierczak, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, G. Hollinger, J. M. Fedeli, L. Di Cioccio, and C. Lagahe-Blanchard, “III-V/Si photonics by die-to-wafer bonding,” Mater. Today10(7–8), 36–43 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Li, H.

H. H. Tseng, K. Y. Wu, H. Li, V. Mashanov, H. H. Cheng, G. Sun, and R. A. Soref, “Mid-infrared electroluminescence from a Ge/Ge0.922Sn0.078/Ge double heterostructure p-i-n diode on a Si substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(18), 182106 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. H. Tseng, H. Li, V. Mashanov, Y. J. Yang, H. H. Cheng, G. E. Chang, R. A. Soref, and G. Sun, “GeSn-based p-i-n photodiodes with strained active layer on a Si wafer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.103(23), 231907 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lin, H.

R. Chen, H. Lin, Y. Huo, C. Hitzman, T. I. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Increased photoluminescence of strain-reduced, high-Sn composition Ge1−xSnx alloys grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(18), 181125 (2011).
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F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, J. Demeulemeester, A. Vantomme, A. Moussa, A. Franquet, A. Kumar, H. Bender, J. Meersschaut, W. Vandervorst, R. Loo, M. Caymax, K. Temst, and M. Heyns, “Crystalline properties and strain relaxation mechanism of CVD grown GeSn,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol.2(4), P134–P137 (2013).
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A. Gassenq, F. Gencarelli, J. Van Campenhout, Y. Shimura, R. Loo, G. Narcy, B. Vincent, and G. Roelkens, “GeSn/Ge heterostructure short-wave infrared photodetectors on silicon,” Opt. Express20(25), 27297–27303 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Vincent, F. Gencarelli, H. Bender, C. Merckling, B. Douhard, D. H. Petersen, O. Hansen, H. H. Henrichsen, J. Meersschaut, W. Vandervorst, M. Heyns, R. Loo, and M. Caymax, “Undoped and in-situ B doped GeSn epitaxial growth on Ge by atmospheric pressure-chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(15), 152103 (2011).
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S. Wirths, D. Buca, G. Mussler, A. T. Tiedemann, B. Holländer, P. Bernardy, T. Stoica, D. Grützmacher, and S. Mantl, “Reduced pressure CVD growth of Ge and Ge1−xSnx alloys,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol.2(5), 99–102 (2013).
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H. H. Tseng, K. Y. Wu, H. Li, V. Mashanov, H. H. Cheng, G. Sun, and R. A. Soref, “Mid-infrared electroluminescence from a Ge/Ge0.922Sn0.078/Ge double heterostructure p-i-n diode on a Si substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(18), 182106 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. H. Tseng, H. Li, V. Mashanov, Y. J. Yang, H. H. Cheng, G. E. Chang, R. A. Soref, and G. Sun, “GeSn-based p-i-n photodiodes with strained active layer on a Si wafer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.103(23), 231907 (2013).
[CrossRef]

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R. Roucka, J. Mathews, C. Weng, R. Beeler, J. Tolle, J. Menendez, and J. Kouvetakis, “High-performance near-IR photodiodes: a novel chemistry-based approach to Ge and Ge–Sn devices integrated on silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.47(2), 213–222 (2011).
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J. Kouvetakis, J. Mathews, R. Roucka, A. V. G. Chizmeshya, J. Tolle, and J. Menendez, “Practical materials chemistry approaches for tuning optical and structural properties of group IV semiconductors and prototype photonic devices,” IEEE Photon. J.2(6), 924–941 (2010).
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F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, J. Demeulemeester, A. Vantomme, A. Moussa, A. Franquet, A. Kumar, H. Bender, J. Meersschaut, W. Vandervorst, R. Loo, M. Caymax, K. Temst, and M. Heyns, “Crystalline properties and strain relaxation mechanism of CVD grown GeSn,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol.2(4), P134–P137 (2013).
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B. Vincent, F. Gencarelli, H. Bender, C. Merckling, B. Douhard, D. H. Petersen, O. Hansen, H. H. Henrichsen, J. Meersschaut, W. Vandervorst, M. Heyns, R. Loo, and M. Caymax, “Undoped and in-situ B doped GeSn epitaxial growth on Ge by atmospheric pressure-chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(15), 152103 (2011).
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G. Grzybowski, R. T. Beeler, L. Jiang, D. J. Smith, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Menendez, “Next generation of Ge1-ySny (y = 0.01-0.09) alloys grown on Si(100) via Ge3H8 and SnD4: Reaction kinetics and tunable emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(7), 072105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Roucka, J. Mathews, C. Weng, R. Beeler, J. Tolle, J. Menendez, and J. Kouvetakis, “High-performance near-IR photodiodes: a novel chemistry-based approach to Ge and Ge–Sn devices integrated on silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.47(2), 213–222 (2011).
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J. Kouvetakis, J. Mathews, R. Roucka, A. V. G. Chizmeshya, J. Tolle, and J. Menendez, “Practical materials chemistry approaches for tuning optical and structural properties of group IV semiconductors and prototype photonic devices,” IEEE Photon. J.2(6), 924–941 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Bauer, J. Taraci, J. Tolle, A. V. G. Chizmeshya, S. Zollner, D. J. Smith, J. Menendez, C. Hu, and J. Kouvetakis, “Ge–Sn semiconductors for band-gap and lattice engineering,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(16), 2992 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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V. D’Costa, C. Cook, A. Birdwell, C. Littler, M. Canonico, S. Zollner, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Menéndez, “Optical critical points of thin-film Ge1−ySny alloys: A comparative Ge1−ySny/Ge1−xSix study,” Phys. Rev. B73(12), 125207 (2006).
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B. Vincent, F. Gencarelli, H. Bender, C. Merckling, B. Douhard, D. H. Petersen, O. Hansen, H. H. Henrichsen, J. Meersschaut, W. Vandervorst, M. Heyns, R. Loo, and M. Caymax, “Undoped and in-situ B doped GeSn epitaxial growth on Ge by atmospheric pressure-chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(15), 152103 (2011).
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H. Mohseni, A. Tahraoui, J. Wojkowski, M. Razeghi, G. J. Brown, W. C. Mitchel, and Y. S. Park, “Very long wavelength infrared type-II detectors operating at 80 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett.77(11), 1572 (2000).
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H. Mohseni, A. Tahraoui, J. Wojkowski, M. Razeghi, G. J. Brown, W. C. Mitchel, and Y. S. Park, “Very long wavelength infrared type-II detectors operating at 80 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett.77(11), 1572 (2000).
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P. Moontragoon, R. A. Soref, and Z. Ikonic, “The direct and indirect bandgaps of unstrained SixGe1-x-ySny and their photonic device applications,” J. Appl. Phys.112(7), 073106 (2012).
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A. Mosleh, S. Ghetmiri, B. Conley, M. Hawkridge, M. Benamara, A. Nazzal, J. Tolle, S.-Q. Yu, and H. Naseem, “Material characterization of ge1−xsnx alloys grown by a commercial CVD system for optoelectronic device applications,” J. Electron. Mater.43(4), 938–946 (2014).
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F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, J. Demeulemeester, A. Vantomme, A. Moussa, A. Franquet, A. Kumar, H. Bender, J. Meersschaut, W. Vandervorst, R. Loo, M. Caymax, K. Temst, and M. Heyns, “Crystalline properties and strain relaxation mechanism of CVD grown GeSn,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol.2(4), P134–P137 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Mussler, G.

S. Wirths, D. Buca, G. Mussler, A. T. Tiedemann, B. Holländer, P. Bernardy, T. Stoica, D. Grützmacher, and S. Mantl, “Reduced pressure CVD growth of Ge and Ge1−xSnx alloys,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol.2(5), 99–102 (2013).
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W.-S. Jung, J.-H. Park, A. Nainani, D. Nam, and K. C. Saraswat, “Fluorine passivation of vacancy defects in bulk germanium for Ge metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor application,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(7), 072104 (2012).
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O. Nakatsuka, N. Tsutsui, Y. Shimura, S. Takeuchi, A. Sakai, and S. Zaima, “Mobility behavior of Ge1- xSnx layers grown on silicon-on-insulator substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.49(4), 04DA10 (2010).
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W.-S. Jung, J.-H. Park, A. Nainani, D. Nam, and K. C. Saraswat, “Fluorine passivation of vacancy defects in bulk germanium for Ge metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor application,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(7), 072104 (2012).
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Naseem, H.

A. Mosleh, S. Ghetmiri, B. Conley, M. Hawkridge, M. Benamara, A. Nazzal, J. Tolle, S.-Q. Yu, and H. Naseem, “Material characterization of ge1−xsnx alloys grown by a commercial CVD system for optoelectronic device applications,” J. Electron. Mater.43(4), 938–946 (2014).
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A. Mosleh, S. Ghetmiri, B. Conley, M. Hawkridge, M. Benamara, A. Nazzal, J. Tolle, S.-Q. Yu, and H. Naseem, “Material characterization of ge1−xsnx alloys grown by a commercial CVD system for optoelectronic device applications,” J. Electron. Mater.43(4), 938–946 (2014).
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R. A. Street, K. W. Song, J. E. Northrup, and S. Cowan, “Photoconductivity measurements of the electronic structure of organic solar cells,” Phys. Rev. B83(16), 165207 (2011).
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H. Mohseni, A. Tahraoui, J. Wojkowski, M. Razeghi, G. J. Brown, W. C. Mitchel, and Y. S. Park, “Very long wavelength infrared type-II detectors operating at 80 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett.77(11), 1572 (2000).
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J. M. Arias, J. G. Pasko, M. Zandian, S. H. Shin, G. M. Williams, L. O. Bubulac, R. E. DeWames, and W. E. Tennant, “Planar p‐on‐n HgCdTe heterostructure photovoltaic detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.62(9), 976 (1993).
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B. Vincent, F. Gencarelli, H. Bender, C. Merckling, B. Douhard, D. H. Petersen, O. Hansen, H. H. Henrichsen, J. Meersschaut, W. Vandervorst, M. Heyns, R. Loo, and M. Caymax, “Undoped and in-situ B doped GeSn epitaxial growth on Ge by atmospheric pressure-chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(15), 152103 (2011).
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G. Roelkens, J. Van Campenhout, J. Brouckaert, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, P. R. Romeo, P. Regreny, A. Kazmierczak, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, G. Hollinger, J. M. Fedeli, L. Di Cioccio, and C. Lagahe-Blanchard, “III-V/Si photonics by die-to-wafer bonding,” Mater. Today10(7–8), 36–43 (2007).
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A. Gassenq, F. Gencarelli, J. Van Campenhout, Y. Shimura, R. Loo, G. Narcy, B. Vincent, and G. Roelkens, “GeSn/Ge heterostructure short-wave infrared photodetectors on silicon,” Opt. Express20(25), 27297–27303 (2012).
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G. Roelkens, J. Van Campenhout, J. Brouckaert, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, P. R. Romeo, P. Regreny, A. Kazmierczak, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, G. Hollinger, J. M. Fedeli, L. Di Cioccio, and C. Lagahe-Blanchard, “III-V/Si photonics by die-to-wafer bonding,” Mater. Today10(7–8), 36–43 (2007).
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G. Roelkens, J. Van Campenhout, J. Brouckaert, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, P. R. Romeo, P. Regreny, A. Kazmierczak, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, G. Hollinger, J. M. Fedeli, L. Di Cioccio, and C. Lagahe-Blanchard, “III-V/Si photonics by die-to-wafer bonding,” Mater. Today10(7–8), 36–43 (2007).
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R. Roucka, J. Mathews, C. Weng, R. Beeler, J. Tolle, J. Menendez, and J. Kouvetakis, “High-performance near-IR photodiodes: a novel chemistry-based approach to Ge and Ge–Sn devices integrated on silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.47(2), 213–222 (2011).
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J. Kouvetakis, J. Mathews, R. Roucka, A. V. G. Chizmeshya, J. Tolle, and J. Menendez, “Practical materials chemistry approaches for tuning optical and structural properties of group IV semiconductors and prototype photonic devices,” IEEE Photon. J.2(6), 924–941 (2010).
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M.-Y. Ryu, T. R. Harris, Y. K. Yeo, R. T. Beeler, and J. Kouvetakis, “Temperature-dependent photoluminescence of Ge/Si and Ge1-ySny/Si, indicating possible indirect-to-direct bandgap transition at lower Sn content,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(17), 171908 (2013).
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O. Nakatsuka, N. Tsutsui, Y. Shimura, S. Takeuchi, A. Sakai, and S. Zaima, “Mobility behavior of Ge1- xSnx layers grown on silicon-on-insulator substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.49(4), 04DA10 (2010).
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W.-S. Jung, J.-H. Park, A. Nainani, D. Nam, and K. C. Saraswat, “Fluorine passivation of vacancy defects in bulk germanium for Ge metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor application,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(7), 072104 (2012).
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Schulze, J.

Seassal, C.

G. Roelkens, J. Van Campenhout, J. Brouckaert, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, P. R. Romeo, P. Regreny, A. Kazmierczak, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, G. Hollinger, J. M. Fedeli, L. Di Cioccio, and C. Lagahe-Blanchard, “III-V/Si photonics by die-to-wafer bonding,” Mater. Today10(7–8), 36–43 (2007).
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Shen, Z.

R. Cheng, W. Wang, X. Gong, L. Sun, P. Guo, H. Hu, Z. Shen, G. Han, and Y.-C. Yeo, “Relaxed and strained patterned germanium-tin structures: a Raman scattering study,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol.2(4), P138–P145 (2013).
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A. Gassenq, F. Gencarelli, J. Van Campenhout, Y. Shimura, R. Loo, G. Narcy, B. Vincent, and G. Roelkens, “GeSn/Ge heterostructure short-wave infrared photodetectors on silicon,” Opt. Express20(25), 27297–27303 (2012).
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O. Nakatsuka, N. Tsutsui, Y. Shimura, S. Takeuchi, A. Sakai, and S. Zaima, “Mobility behavior of Ge1- xSnx layers grown on silicon-on-insulator substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.49(4), 04DA10 (2010).
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J. M. Arias, J. G. Pasko, M. Zandian, S. H. Shin, G. M. Williams, L. O. Bubulac, R. E. DeWames, and W. E. Tennant, “Planar p‐on‐n HgCdTe heterostructure photovoltaic detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.62(9), 976 (1993).
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G. Grzybowski, R. T. Beeler, L. Jiang, D. J. Smith, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Menendez, “Next generation of Ge1-ySny (y = 0.01-0.09) alloys grown on Si(100) via Ge3H8 and SnD4: Reaction kinetics and tunable emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(7), 072105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Bauer, J. Taraci, J. Tolle, A. V. G. Chizmeshya, S. Zollner, D. J. Smith, J. Menendez, C. Hu, and J. Kouvetakis, “Ge–Sn semiconductors for band-gap and lattice engineering,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(16), 2992 (2002).
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R. A. Street, K. W. Song, J. E. Northrup, and S. Cowan, “Photoconductivity measurements of the electronic structure of organic solar cells,” Phys. Rev. B83(16), 165207 (2011).
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H. H. Tseng, H. Li, V. Mashanov, Y. J. Yang, H. H. Cheng, G. E. Chang, R. A. Soref, and G. Sun, “GeSn-based p-i-n photodiodes with strained active layer on a Si wafer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.103(23), 231907 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. H. Tseng, K. Y. Wu, H. Li, V. Mashanov, H. H. Cheng, G. Sun, and R. A. Soref, “Mid-infrared electroluminescence from a Ge/Ge0.922Sn0.078/Ge double heterostructure p-i-n diode on a Si substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(18), 182106 (2013).
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P. Moontragoon, R. A. Soref, and Z. Ikonic, “The direct and indirect bandgaps of unstrained SixGe1-x-ySny and their photonic device applications,” J. Appl. Phys.112(7), 073106 (2012).
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R. A. Street, K. W. Song, J. E. Northrup, and S. Cowan, “Photoconductivity measurements of the electronic structure of organic solar cells,” Phys. Rev. B83(16), 165207 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sun, G.

H. H. Tseng, H. Li, V. Mashanov, Y. J. Yang, H. H. Cheng, G. E. Chang, R. A. Soref, and G. Sun, “GeSn-based p-i-n photodiodes with strained active layer on a Si wafer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.103(23), 231907 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. H. Tseng, K. Y. Wu, H. Li, V. Mashanov, H. H. Cheng, G. Sun, and R. A. Soref, “Mid-infrared electroluminescence from a Ge/Ge0.922Sn0.078/Ge double heterostructure p-i-n diode on a Si substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(18), 182106 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Sun, L.

R. Cheng, W. Wang, X. Gong, L. Sun, P. Guo, H. Hu, Z. Shen, G. Han, and Y.-C. Yeo, “Relaxed and strained patterned germanium-tin structures: a Raman scattering study,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol.2(4), P138–P145 (2013).
[CrossRef]

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H. Mohseni, A. Tahraoui, J. Wojkowski, M. Razeghi, G. J. Brown, W. C. Mitchel, and Y. S. Park, “Very long wavelength infrared type-II detectors operating at 80 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett.77(11), 1572 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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O. Nakatsuka, N. Tsutsui, Y. Shimura, S. Takeuchi, A. Sakai, and S. Zaima, “Mobility behavior of Ge1- xSnx layers grown on silicon-on-insulator substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.49(4), 04DA10 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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M. Bauer, J. Taraci, J. Tolle, A. V. G. Chizmeshya, S. Zollner, D. J. Smith, J. Menendez, C. Hu, and J. Kouvetakis, “Ge–Sn semiconductors for band-gap and lattice engineering,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(16), 2992 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, J. Demeulemeester, A. Vantomme, A. Moussa, A. Franquet, A. Kumar, H. Bender, J. Meersschaut, W. Vandervorst, R. Loo, M. Caymax, K. Temst, and M. Heyns, “Crystalline properties and strain relaxation mechanism of CVD grown GeSn,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol.2(4), P134–P137 (2013).
[CrossRef]

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J. M. Arias, J. G. Pasko, M. Zandian, S. H. Shin, G. M. Williams, L. O. Bubulac, R. E. DeWames, and W. E. Tennant, “Planar p‐on‐n HgCdTe heterostructure photovoltaic detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.62(9), 976 (1993).
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S. Wirths, D. Buca, G. Mussler, A. T. Tiedemann, B. Holländer, P. Bernardy, T. Stoica, D. Grützmacher, and S. Mantl, “Reduced pressure CVD growth of Ge and Ge1−xSnx alloys,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol.2(5), 99–102 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Tolle, J.

A. Mosleh, S. Ghetmiri, B. Conley, M. Hawkridge, M. Benamara, A. Nazzal, J. Tolle, S.-Q. Yu, and H. Naseem, “Material characterization of ge1−xsnx alloys grown by a commercial CVD system for optoelectronic device applications,” J. Electron. Mater.43(4), 938–946 (2014).
[CrossRef]

R. Roucka, J. Mathews, C. Weng, R. Beeler, J. Tolle, J. Menendez, and J. Kouvetakis, “High-performance near-IR photodiodes: a novel chemistry-based approach to Ge and Ge–Sn devices integrated on silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.47(2), 213–222 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Kouvetakis, J. Mathews, R. Roucka, A. V. G. Chizmeshya, J. Tolle, and J. Menendez, “Practical materials chemistry approaches for tuning optical and structural properties of group IV semiconductors and prototype photonic devices,” IEEE Photon. J.2(6), 924–941 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Bauer, J. Taraci, J. Tolle, A. V. G. Chizmeshya, S. Zollner, D. J. Smith, J. Menendez, C. Hu, and J. Kouvetakis, “Ge–Sn semiconductors for band-gap and lattice engineering,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(16), 2992 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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H. H. Tseng, K. Y. Wu, H. Li, V. Mashanov, H. H. Cheng, G. Sun, and R. A. Soref, “Mid-infrared electroluminescence from a Ge/Ge0.922Sn0.078/Ge double heterostructure p-i-n diode on a Si substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(18), 182106 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. H. Tseng, H. Li, V. Mashanov, Y. J. Yang, H. H. Cheng, G. E. Chang, R. A. Soref, and G. Sun, “GeSn-based p-i-n photodiodes with strained active layer on a Si wafer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.103(23), 231907 (2013).
[CrossRef]

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O. Nakatsuka, N. Tsutsui, Y. Shimura, S. Takeuchi, A. Sakai, and S. Zaima, “Mobility behavior of Ge1- xSnx layers grown on silicon-on-insulator substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.49(4), 04DA10 (2010).
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Van Campenhout, J.

A. Gassenq, F. Gencarelli, J. Van Campenhout, Y. Shimura, R. Loo, G. Narcy, B. Vincent, and G. Roelkens, “GeSn/Ge heterostructure short-wave infrared photodetectors on silicon,” Opt. Express20(25), 27297–27303 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Roelkens, J. Van Campenhout, J. Brouckaert, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, P. R. Romeo, P. Regreny, A. Kazmierczak, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, G. Hollinger, J. M. Fedeli, L. Di Cioccio, and C. Lagahe-Blanchard, “III-V/Si photonics by die-to-wafer bonding,” Mater. Today10(7–8), 36–43 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Van Thourhout, D.

G. Roelkens, J. Van Campenhout, J. Brouckaert, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, P. R. Romeo, P. Regreny, A. Kazmierczak, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, G. Hollinger, J. M. Fedeli, L. Di Cioccio, and C. Lagahe-Blanchard, “III-V/Si photonics by die-to-wafer bonding,” Mater. Today10(7–8), 36–43 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vandervorst, W.

F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, J. Demeulemeester, A. Vantomme, A. Moussa, A. Franquet, A. Kumar, H. Bender, J. Meersschaut, W. Vandervorst, R. Loo, M. Caymax, K. Temst, and M. Heyns, “Crystalline properties and strain relaxation mechanism of CVD grown GeSn,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol.2(4), P134–P137 (2013).
[CrossRef]

B. Vincent, F. Gencarelli, H. Bender, C. Merckling, B. Douhard, D. H. Petersen, O. Hansen, H. H. Henrichsen, J. Meersschaut, W. Vandervorst, M. Heyns, R. Loo, and M. Caymax, “Undoped and in-situ B doped GeSn epitaxial growth on Ge by atmospheric pressure-chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(15), 152103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Vantomme, A.

F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, J. Demeulemeester, A. Vantomme, A. Moussa, A. Franquet, A. Kumar, H. Bender, J. Meersschaut, W. Vandervorst, R. Loo, M. Caymax, K. Temst, and M. Heyns, “Crystalline properties and strain relaxation mechanism of CVD grown GeSn,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol.2(4), P134–P137 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Varshni, Y. P.

Y. P. Varshni, “Temperature dependence of the energy gap in semiconductors,” Physica34(1), 149–154 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Vincent, B.

F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, J. Demeulemeester, A. Vantomme, A. Moussa, A. Franquet, A. Kumar, H. Bender, J. Meersschaut, W. Vandervorst, R. Loo, M. Caymax, K. Temst, and M. Heyns, “Crystalline properties and strain relaxation mechanism of CVD grown GeSn,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol.2(4), P134–P137 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Gassenq, F. Gencarelli, J. Van Campenhout, Y. Shimura, R. Loo, G. Narcy, B. Vincent, and G. Roelkens, “GeSn/Ge heterostructure short-wave infrared photodetectors on silicon,” Opt. Express20(25), 27297–27303 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Vincent, F. Gencarelli, H. Bender, C. Merckling, B. Douhard, D. H. Petersen, O. Hansen, H. H. Henrichsen, J. Meersschaut, W. Vandervorst, M. Heyns, R. Loo, and M. Caymax, “Undoped and in-situ B doped GeSn epitaxial growth on Ge by atmospheric pressure-chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(15), 152103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Volz, K.

B. Kunert, S. Zinnkann, K. Volz, and W. Stolz, “Monolithic integration of Ga(NAsP)/(BGa)P multi-quantum well structures on (001) silicon substrate by MOVPE,” J. Cryst. Growth310(23), 4776–4779 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, T.

Wang, W.

R. Cheng, W. Wang, X. Gong, L. Sun, P. Guo, H. Hu, Z. Shen, G. Han, and Y.-C. Yeo, “Relaxed and strained patterned germanium-tin structures: a Raman scattering study,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol.2(4), P138–P145 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Weng, C.

R. Roucka, J. Mathews, C. Weng, R. Beeler, J. Tolle, J. Menendez, and J. Kouvetakis, “High-performance near-IR photodiodes: a novel chemistry-based approach to Ge and Ge–Sn devices integrated on silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.47(2), 213–222 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Widmann, D.

M. Oehme, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, M. Gollhofer, D. Widmann, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “GeSn p-i-n detectors integrated on Si with up to 4% Sn,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(14), 141110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Williams, G. M.

J. M. Arias, J. G. Pasko, M. Zandian, S. H. Shin, G. M. Williams, L. O. Bubulac, R. E. DeWames, and W. E. Tennant, “Planar p‐on‐n HgCdTe heterostructure photovoltaic detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.62(9), 976 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wirths, S.

S. Wirths, D. Buca, G. Mussler, A. T. Tiedemann, B. Holländer, P. Bernardy, T. Stoica, D. Grützmacher, and S. Mantl, “Reduced pressure CVD growth of Ge and Ge1−xSnx alloys,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol.2(5), 99–102 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Wojkowski, J.

H. Mohseni, A. Tahraoui, J. Wojkowski, M. Razeghi, G. J. Brown, W. C. Mitchel, and Y. S. Park, “Very long wavelength infrared type-II detectors operating at 80 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett.77(11), 1572 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wu, K. Y.

H. H. Tseng, K. Y. Wu, H. Li, V. Mashanov, H. H. Cheng, G. Sun, and R. A. Soref, “Mid-infrared electroluminescence from a Ge/Ge0.922Sn0.078/Ge double heterostructure p-i-n diode on a Si substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(18), 182106 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, N.

K. Akahane, N. Yamamoto, S.-i. Gozu, and N. Ohtani, “Heteroepitaxial growth of GaSb on Si(001) substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth264(1–3), 21–25 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Y. J.

H. H. Tseng, H. Li, V. Mashanov, Y. J. Yang, H. H. Cheng, G. E. Chang, R. A. Soref, and G. Sun, “GeSn-based p-i-n photodiodes with strained active layer on a Si wafer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.103(23), 231907 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Ye, K.

Yeo, Y. K.

M.-Y. Ryu, T. R. Harris, Y. K. Yeo, R. T. Beeler, and J. Kouvetakis, “Temperature-dependent photoluminescence of Ge/Si and Ge1-ySny/Si, indicating possible indirect-to-direct bandgap transition at lower Sn content,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(17), 171908 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Yeo, Y.-C.

R. Cheng, W. Wang, X. Gong, L. Sun, P. Guo, H. Hu, Z. Shen, G. Han, and Y.-C. Yeo, “Relaxed and strained patterned germanium-tin structures: a Raman scattering study,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol.2(4), P138–P145 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Yu, S.-Q.

A. Mosleh, S. Ghetmiri, B. Conley, M. Hawkridge, M. Benamara, A. Nazzal, J. Tolle, S.-Q. Yu, and H. Naseem, “Material characterization of ge1−xsnx alloys grown by a commercial CVD system for optoelectronic device applications,” J. Electron. Mater.43(4), 938–946 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Zaima, S.

O. Nakatsuka, N. Tsutsui, Y. Shimura, S. Takeuchi, A. Sakai, and S. Zaima, “Mobility behavior of Ge1- xSnx layers grown on silicon-on-insulator substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.49(4), 04DA10 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zandian, M.

J. M. Arias, J. G. Pasko, M. Zandian, S. H. Shin, G. M. Williams, L. O. Bubulac, R. E. DeWames, and W. E. Tennant, “Planar p‐on‐n HgCdTe heterostructure photovoltaic detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.62(9), 976 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, W.

Zinnkann, S.

B. Kunert, S. Zinnkann, K. Volz, and W. Stolz, “Monolithic integration of Ga(NAsP)/(BGa)P multi-quantum well structures on (001) silicon substrate by MOVPE,” J. Cryst. Growth310(23), 4776–4779 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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V. D’Costa, C. Cook, A. Birdwell, C. Littler, M. Canonico, S. Zollner, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Menéndez, “Optical critical points of thin-film Ge1−ySny alloys: A comparative Ge1−ySny/Ge1−xSix study,” Phys. Rev. B73(12), 125207 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Bauer, J. Taraci, J. Tolle, A. V. G. Chizmeshya, S. Zollner, D. J. Smith, J. Menendez, C. Hu, and J. Kouvetakis, “Ge–Sn semiconductors for band-gap and lattice engineering,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(16), 2992 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

W.-S. Jung, J.-H. Park, A. Nainani, D. Nam, and K. C. Saraswat, “Fluorine passivation of vacancy defects in bulk germanium for Ge metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor application,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(7), 072104 (2012).
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R. Chen, H. Lin, Y. Huo, C. Hitzman, T. I. Kamins, and J. S. Harris, “Increased photoluminescence of strain-reduced, high-Sn composition Ge1−xSnx alloys grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(18), 181125 (2011).
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G. Grzybowski, R. T. Beeler, L. Jiang, D. J. Smith, J. Kouvetakis, and J. Menendez, “Next generation of Ge1-ySny (y = 0.01-0.09) alloys grown on Si(100) via Ge3H8 and SnD4: Reaction kinetics and tunable emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(7), 072105 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Bauer, J. Taraci, J. Tolle, A. V. G. Chizmeshya, S. Zollner, D. J. Smith, J. Menendez, C. Hu, and J. Kouvetakis, “Ge–Sn semiconductors for band-gap and lattice engineering,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(16), 2992 (2002).
[CrossRef]

B. Vincent, F. Gencarelli, H. Bender, C. Merckling, B. Douhard, D. H. Petersen, O. Hansen, H. H. Henrichsen, J. Meersschaut, W. Vandervorst, M. Heyns, R. Loo, and M. Caymax, “Undoped and in-situ B doped GeSn epitaxial growth on Ge by atmospheric pressure-chemical vapor deposition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(15), 152103 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. H. Tseng, K. Y. Wu, H. Li, V. Mashanov, H. H. Cheng, G. Sun, and R. A. Soref, “Mid-infrared electroluminescence from a Ge/Ge0.922Sn0.078/Ge double heterostructure p-i-n diode on a Si substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(18), 182106 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. H. Tseng, H. Li, V. Mashanov, Y. J. Yang, H. H. Cheng, G. E. Chang, R. A. Soref, and G. Sun, “GeSn-based p-i-n photodiodes with strained active layer on a Si wafer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.103(23), 231907 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Oehme, M. Schmid, M. Kaschel, M. Gollhofer, D. Widmann, E. Kasper, and J. Schulze, “GeSn p-i-n detectors integrated on Si with up to 4% Sn,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(14), 141110 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M.-Y. Ryu, T. R. Harris, Y. K. Yeo, R. T. Beeler, and J. Kouvetakis, “Temperature-dependent photoluminescence of Ge/Si and Ge1-ySny/Si, indicating possible indirect-to-direct bandgap transition at lower Sn content,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(17), 171908 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Arias, J. G. Pasko, M. Zandian, S. H. Shin, G. M. Williams, L. O. Bubulac, R. E. DeWames, and W. E. Tennant, “Planar p‐on‐n HgCdTe heterostructure photovoltaic detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.62(9), 976 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. Mohseni, A. Tahraoui, J. Wojkowski, M. Razeghi, G. J. Brown, W. C. Mitchel, and Y. S. Park, “Very long wavelength infrared type-II detectors operating at 80 K,” Appl. Phys. Lett.77(11), 1572 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Coppinger, J. Hart, N. Bhargava, S. Kim, and J. Kolodzey, “Photoconductivity of germanium tin alloys grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(14), 141101 (2013).
[CrossRef]

ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol.

R. Cheng, W. Wang, X. Gong, L. Sun, P. Guo, H. Hu, Z. Shen, G. Han, and Y.-C. Yeo, “Relaxed and strained patterned germanium-tin structures: a Raman scattering study,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol.2(4), P138–P145 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Wirths, D. Buca, G. Mussler, A. T. Tiedemann, B. Holländer, P. Bernardy, T. Stoica, D. Grützmacher, and S. Mantl, “Reduced pressure CVD growth of Ge and Ge1−xSnx alloys,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol.2(5), 99–102 (2013).
[CrossRef]

F. Gencarelli, B. Vincent, J. Demeulemeester, A. Vantomme, A. Moussa, A. Franquet, A. Kumar, H. Bender, J. Meersschaut, W. Vandervorst, R. Loo, M. Caymax, K. Temst, and M. Heyns, “Crystalline properties and strain relaxation mechanism of CVD grown GeSn,” ECS J. Solid State Sci. Technol.2(4), P134–P137 (2013).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Electron Device Lett.

S. Kim, J. Gupta, N. Bhargava, M. Coppinger, and J. Kolodzey, “Current-voltage characteristics of GeSn/Ge heterojunction diodes grown by molecular beam epitaxy,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.34(10), 1217–1219 (2013).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

R. Roucka, J. Mathews, C. Weng, R. Beeler, J. Tolle, J. Menendez, and J. Kouvetakis, “High-performance near-IR photodiodes: a novel chemistry-based approach to Ge and Ge–Sn devices integrated on silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.47(2), 213–222 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. J.

J. Kouvetakis, J. Mathews, R. Roucka, A. V. G. Chizmeshya, J. Tolle, and J. Menendez, “Practical materials chemistry approaches for tuning optical and structural properties of group IV semiconductors and prototype photonic devices,” IEEE Photon. J.2(6), 924–941 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

P. Moontragoon, R. A. Soref, and Z. Ikonic, “The direct and indirect bandgaps of unstrained SixGe1-x-ySny and their photonic device applications,” J. Appl. Phys.112(7), 073106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth

K. Akahane, N. Yamamoto, S.-i. Gozu, and N. Ohtani, “Heteroepitaxial growth of GaSb on Si(001) substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth264(1–3), 21–25 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. Kunert, S. Zinnkann, K. Volz, and W. Stolz, “Monolithic integration of Ga(NAsP)/(BGa)P multi-quantum well structures on (001) silicon substrate by MOVPE,” J. Cryst. Growth310(23), 4776–4779 (2008).
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J. Electron. Mater.

J. D. Phillips, D. D. Edwall, and D. L. Lee, “Control of very-long-wavelength infrared HgCdTe detector-cutoff wavelength,” J. Electron. Mater.31(7), 664–668 (2002).
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A. Mosleh, S. Ghetmiri, B. Conley, M. Hawkridge, M. Benamara, A. Nazzal, J. Tolle, S.-Q. Yu, and H. Naseem, “Material characterization of ge1−xsnx alloys grown by a commercial CVD system for optoelectronic device applications,” J. Electron. Mater.43(4), 938–946 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

O. Nakatsuka, N. Tsutsui, Y. Shimura, S. Takeuchi, A. Sakai, and S. Zaima, “Mobility behavior of Ge1- xSnx layers grown on silicon-on-insulator substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.49(4), 04DA10 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Today

G. Roelkens, J. Van Campenhout, J. Brouckaert, D. Van Thourhout, R. Baets, P. R. Romeo, P. Regreny, A. Kazmierczak, C. Seassal, X. Letartre, G. Hollinger, J. M. Fedeli, L. Di Cioccio, and C. Lagahe-Blanchard, “III-V/Si photonics by die-to-wafer bonding,” Mater. Today10(7–8), 36–43 (2007).
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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Cross sectional TEM image of the (a) 3.2% and (b) 7.0% Sn sample shows the relaxed Ge buffer layer and strained GeSn layer with limited propagating defects. (c) The 2θ-ω XRD scan for each sample measures the increasing lattice constants with increasing Sn composition indicated by the lower diffraction angle.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Cross section view of the growth structure and (b) top view optical image of the GeSn photoconductor shows a top contact, co-planar design.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Dark resistances for each sample are extracted from the I-V measurements and plotted at the measured temperature. The three distinct temperature regions for all samples marked as Regions 1 – 3 are the carrier freeze out, trap activated, and intrinsic regions, respectively. (Inset) I-V measurement of the 0.9% Sn sample shows the linear behavior expected for photoconductive device.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Normalized spectral response of the (a) 0.9, 3.2, and (b) 7.0% Sn photoconductors for different temperatures as a function of wavelength shows the shifting absorption edge for increased Sn composition.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Absolute spectral response temperature profile of the 7.0% Sn photoconductor shows increasing response intensity for decreased temperature. The absorption edge power factor (m) indicates either direct or indirect absorption.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The extracted absorption edge cut-off wavelengths for the 0.9, 3.2, 7.0% Sn, and the calculated Ge direct [35] are plotted for each temperature. The temperature dependent Varshni relationship fit line is drawn across the 0.9 and 7.0% Sn data sets.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

The DC responsivity values for a 0.9, 3.2, and 7.0% Sn photoconductor extracted from both the dark and illuminated I-V measurements. The illuminated condition is a 1.55 μm diode laser with 1.2 mW optical power.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) The Arrhenius plot of Ln (R) vs 1/T plot is linearly fitted for Regions 1 and 2 for from the DC I-V data. (b) The extracted activation energies are shown for each 0.9, 3.2, and 7.0% Sn photoconductor.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Temperature dependent specific detectivity (D*) for the (a) 0.9, (b) 3.2, and (c) 7.0% Sn samples were calculated from the measured AC responsivity and calculated noise current.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Sn Composition, Thickness, Strain, and FWHM for Each Epilayer

Tables Icon

Table 2 Temperature Dependent Parameters Fitted for the Varshni Relationship

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I arb = η i qλ/(hc)(1 R y ) P λ (1exp( α λ w))
I arb =C( α λ )
α [hν Ε g ] m
R= C 2 exp( E A 2kT )

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