Abstract

We report a pitch invariance in cholesteric liquid crystals (CLCs) independent of temperature by mixing two chiral dopants. One dopant tends to shorten the helical pitch of the CLC, but the other makes the pitch longer, with increasing temperatures. From an analysis of temperature dependencies of the pitch for each dopant, we determined the mixing ratio of two chiral dopants for the pitch invariance. Finally, we obtained the pitch-invariant CLCs to temperature and the helical twisting power of the mixed dopant was estimated.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. P. G. de Gennes and J. Prost, The Principle of Liquid Crystals (Oxford University Press, 1993).
  2. J. Chen, S. M. Morris, T. D. Wilkinson, and H. J. Coles, “Reversible color switching from blue to red in a polymer stabilized chiral nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(12), 121118 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. G. de Filpo, F. P. Nicoletta, and G. Chidichimo, “Cholesteric emulsions for colored displays,” Adv. Mater.17(9), 1150–1152 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. Xianyu, T.-H. Lin, and S.-T. Wu, “Rollable multicolor display using electrically induced blueshift of a cholesteric reactive mixture,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(9), 091124 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S.-Y. Lu and L.-C. Chien, “A polymer-stabilized single-layer color cholesteric liquid crystal display with anisotropic reflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(13), 131119 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K.-S. Bae, Y.-J. Jang, Y.-K. Moon, S.-G. Kang, U. Cha, C.-J. Yu, J. E. Jang, J. E. Jung, and J.-H. Kim, “Multicolor cholesteric liquid crystal display in a single-layered configuration using a multi-pitch stabilizations,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.49(8), 084103 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  7. L. Kutulya, V. Vashchenko, G. Semenkova, and N. Shkolnikova, “Effect of chiral dopants molecular structure on temperature dependencies of induced cholesteric helical pitch,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)331, 583–591 (1999).
  8. P. N. Keating, “Theory of the cholesteric mesophase,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)8, 315–326 (1969).
  9. Y. Huang, Y. Zhou, C. Doyle, and S.-T. Wu, “Tuning the photonic band gap in cholesteric liquid crystals by temperature-dependent dopant solubility,” Opt. Express14(3), 1236–1242 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. F. Zhang and D. K. Yang, “Temperature dependence of pitch and twist elastic constant in a cholesteric to smectic A phase transition,” Liq. Cryst.29(12), 1497–1501 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  11. V. A. Belyakov, I. W. Stewart, and M. A. Osipov, “Dynamics of jumpwise temperature pitch variations in planar cholesteric layers for a finite strength of surface anchoring,” Sov. Phys. JETP99(1), 73–82 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Y. C. Liao, J. C. Yang, J. W. Shiu, Y. S. Tsai, S. H. Liu, C. J. Chen, C. C. Hsu, W. C. Chen, Y. P. Chang, and R. L. Sun, “Flexible color cholesteric LCD with single-layer structure,” in Digest of Technical Papers of 2008 Society for Information Display International Symposium (Society for Information Display, 2008), pp. 845–848/
    [CrossRef]

2010

K.-S. Bae, Y.-J. Jang, Y.-K. Moon, S.-G. Kang, U. Cha, C.-J. Yu, J. E. Jang, J. E. Jung, and J.-H. Kim, “Multicolor cholesteric liquid crystal display in a single-layered configuration using a multi-pitch stabilizations,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.49(8), 084103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2007

J. Chen, S. M. Morris, T. D. Wilkinson, and H. J. Coles, “Reversible color switching from blue to red in a polymer stabilized chiral nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(12), 121118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S.-Y. Lu and L.-C. Chien, “A polymer-stabilized single-layer color cholesteric liquid crystal display with anisotropic reflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(13), 131119 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

H. Xianyu, T.-H. Lin, and S.-T. Wu, “Rollable multicolor display using electrically induced blueshift of a cholesteric reactive mixture,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(9), 091124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Huang, Y. Zhou, C. Doyle, and S.-T. Wu, “Tuning the photonic band gap in cholesteric liquid crystals by temperature-dependent dopant solubility,” Opt. Express14(3), 1236–1242 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

G. de Filpo, F. P. Nicoletta, and G. Chidichimo, “Cholesteric emulsions for colored displays,” Adv. Mater.17(9), 1150–1152 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

V. A. Belyakov, I. W. Stewart, and M. A. Osipov, “Dynamics of jumpwise temperature pitch variations in planar cholesteric layers for a finite strength of surface anchoring,” Sov. Phys. JETP99(1), 73–82 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002

F. Zhang and D. K. Yang, “Temperature dependence of pitch and twist elastic constant in a cholesteric to smectic A phase transition,” Liq. Cryst.29(12), 1497–1501 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999

L. Kutulya, V. Vashchenko, G. Semenkova, and N. Shkolnikova, “Effect of chiral dopants molecular structure on temperature dependencies of induced cholesteric helical pitch,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)331, 583–591 (1999).

1969

P. N. Keating, “Theory of the cholesteric mesophase,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)8, 315–326 (1969).

Bae, K.-S.

K.-S. Bae, Y.-J. Jang, Y.-K. Moon, S.-G. Kang, U. Cha, C.-J. Yu, J. E. Jang, J. E. Jung, and J.-H. Kim, “Multicolor cholesteric liquid crystal display in a single-layered configuration using a multi-pitch stabilizations,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.49(8), 084103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Belyakov, V. A.

V. A. Belyakov, I. W. Stewart, and M. A. Osipov, “Dynamics of jumpwise temperature pitch variations in planar cholesteric layers for a finite strength of surface anchoring,” Sov. Phys. JETP99(1), 73–82 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cha, U.

K.-S. Bae, Y.-J. Jang, Y.-K. Moon, S.-G. Kang, U. Cha, C.-J. Yu, J. E. Jang, J. E. Jung, and J.-H. Kim, “Multicolor cholesteric liquid crystal display in a single-layered configuration using a multi-pitch stabilizations,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.49(8), 084103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

J. Chen, S. M. Morris, T. D. Wilkinson, and H. J. Coles, “Reversible color switching from blue to red in a polymer stabilized chiral nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(12), 121118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chidichimo, G.

G. de Filpo, F. P. Nicoletta, and G. Chidichimo, “Cholesteric emulsions for colored displays,” Adv. Mater.17(9), 1150–1152 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chien, L.-C.

S.-Y. Lu and L.-C. Chien, “A polymer-stabilized single-layer color cholesteric liquid crystal display with anisotropic reflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(13), 131119 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Coles, H. J.

J. Chen, S. M. Morris, T. D. Wilkinson, and H. J. Coles, “Reversible color switching from blue to red in a polymer stabilized chiral nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(12), 121118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

de Filpo, G.

G. de Filpo, F. P. Nicoletta, and G. Chidichimo, “Cholesteric emulsions for colored displays,” Adv. Mater.17(9), 1150–1152 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Doyle, C.

Huang, Y.

Jang, J. E.

K.-S. Bae, Y.-J. Jang, Y.-K. Moon, S.-G. Kang, U. Cha, C.-J. Yu, J. E. Jang, J. E. Jung, and J.-H. Kim, “Multicolor cholesteric liquid crystal display in a single-layered configuration using a multi-pitch stabilizations,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.49(8), 084103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jang, Y.-J.

K.-S. Bae, Y.-J. Jang, Y.-K. Moon, S.-G. Kang, U. Cha, C.-J. Yu, J. E. Jang, J. E. Jung, and J.-H. Kim, “Multicolor cholesteric liquid crystal display in a single-layered configuration using a multi-pitch stabilizations,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.49(8), 084103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jung, J. E.

K.-S. Bae, Y.-J. Jang, Y.-K. Moon, S.-G. Kang, U. Cha, C.-J. Yu, J. E. Jang, J. E. Jung, and J.-H. Kim, “Multicolor cholesteric liquid crystal display in a single-layered configuration using a multi-pitch stabilizations,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.49(8), 084103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kang, S.-G.

K.-S. Bae, Y.-J. Jang, Y.-K. Moon, S.-G. Kang, U. Cha, C.-J. Yu, J. E. Jang, J. E. Jung, and J.-H. Kim, “Multicolor cholesteric liquid crystal display in a single-layered configuration using a multi-pitch stabilizations,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.49(8), 084103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Keating, P. N.

P. N. Keating, “Theory of the cholesteric mesophase,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)8, 315–326 (1969).

Kim, J.-H.

K.-S. Bae, Y.-J. Jang, Y.-K. Moon, S.-G. Kang, U. Cha, C.-J. Yu, J. E. Jang, J. E. Jung, and J.-H. Kim, “Multicolor cholesteric liquid crystal display in a single-layered configuration using a multi-pitch stabilizations,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.49(8), 084103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kutulya, L.

L. Kutulya, V. Vashchenko, G. Semenkova, and N. Shkolnikova, “Effect of chiral dopants molecular structure on temperature dependencies of induced cholesteric helical pitch,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)331, 583–591 (1999).

Lin, T.-H.

H. Xianyu, T.-H. Lin, and S.-T. Wu, “Rollable multicolor display using electrically induced blueshift of a cholesteric reactive mixture,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(9), 091124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lu, S.-Y.

S.-Y. Lu and L.-C. Chien, “A polymer-stabilized single-layer color cholesteric liquid crystal display with anisotropic reflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(13), 131119 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Moon, Y.-K.

K.-S. Bae, Y.-J. Jang, Y.-K. Moon, S.-G. Kang, U. Cha, C.-J. Yu, J. E. Jang, J. E. Jung, and J.-H. Kim, “Multicolor cholesteric liquid crystal display in a single-layered configuration using a multi-pitch stabilizations,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.49(8), 084103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Morris, S. M.

J. Chen, S. M. Morris, T. D. Wilkinson, and H. J. Coles, “Reversible color switching from blue to red in a polymer stabilized chiral nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(12), 121118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nicoletta, F. P.

G. de Filpo, F. P. Nicoletta, and G. Chidichimo, “Cholesteric emulsions for colored displays,” Adv. Mater.17(9), 1150–1152 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Osipov, M. A.

V. A. Belyakov, I. W. Stewart, and M. A. Osipov, “Dynamics of jumpwise temperature pitch variations in planar cholesteric layers for a finite strength of surface anchoring,” Sov. Phys. JETP99(1), 73–82 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Semenkova, G.

L. Kutulya, V. Vashchenko, G. Semenkova, and N. Shkolnikova, “Effect of chiral dopants molecular structure on temperature dependencies of induced cholesteric helical pitch,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)331, 583–591 (1999).

Shkolnikova, N.

L. Kutulya, V. Vashchenko, G. Semenkova, and N. Shkolnikova, “Effect of chiral dopants molecular structure on temperature dependencies of induced cholesteric helical pitch,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)331, 583–591 (1999).

Stewart, I. W.

V. A. Belyakov, I. W. Stewart, and M. A. Osipov, “Dynamics of jumpwise temperature pitch variations in planar cholesteric layers for a finite strength of surface anchoring,” Sov. Phys. JETP99(1), 73–82 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Vashchenko, V.

L. Kutulya, V. Vashchenko, G. Semenkova, and N. Shkolnikova, “Effect of chiral dopants molecular structure on temperature dependencies of induced cholesteric helical pitch,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)331, 583–591 (1999).

Wilkinson, T. D.

J. Chen, S. M. Morris, T. D. Wilkinson, and H. J. Coles, “Reversible color switching from blue to red in a polymer stabilized chiral nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(12), 121118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S.-T.

H. Xianyu, T.-H. Lin, and S.-T. Wu, “Rollable multicolor display using electrically induced blueshift of a cholesteric reactive mixture,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(9), 091124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Huang, Y. Zhou, C. Doyle, and S.-T. Wu, “Tuning the photonic band gap in cholesteric liquid crystals by temperature-dependent dopant solubility,” Opt. Express14(3), 1236–1242 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xianyu, H.

H. Xianyu, T.-H. Lin, and S.-T. Wu, “Rollable multicolor display using electrically induced blueshift of a cholesteric reactive mixture,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(9), 091124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yang, D. K.

F. Zhang and D. K. Yang, “Temperature dependence of pitch and twist elastic constant in a cholesteric to smectic A phase transition,” Liq. Cryst.29(12), 1497–1501 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yu, C.-J.

K.-S. Bae, Y.-J. Jang, Y.-K. Moon, S.-G. Kang, U. Cha, C.-J. Yu, J. E. Jang, J. E. Jung, and J.-H. Kim, “Multicolor cholesteric liquid crystal display in a single-layered configuration using a multi-pitch stabilizations,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.49(8), 084103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, F.

F. Zhang and D. K. Yang, “Temperature dependence of pitch and twist elastic constant in a cholesteric to smectic A phase transition,” Liq. Cryst.29(12), 1497–1501 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, Y.

Adv. Mater.

G. de Filpo, F. P. Nicoletta, and G. Chidichimo, “Cholesteric emulsions for colored displays,” Adv. Mater.17(9), 1150–1152 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

H. Xianyu, T.-H. Lin, and S.-T. Wu, “Rollable multicolor display using electrically induced blueshift of a cholesteric reactive mixture,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(9), 091124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S.-Y. Lu and L.-C. Chien, “A polymer-stabilized single-layer color cholesteric liquid crystal display with anisotropic reflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(13), 131119 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Chen, S. M. Morris, T. D. Wilkinson, and H. J. Coles, “Reversible color switching from blue to red in a polymer stabilized chiral nematic liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(12), 121118 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

K.-S. Bae, Y.-J. Jang, Y.-K. Moon, S.-G. Kang, U. Cha, C.-J. Yu, J. E. Jang, J. E. Jung, and J.-H. Kim, “Multicolor cholesteric liquid crystal display in a single-layered configuration using a multi-pitch stabilizations,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.49(8), 084103 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liq. Cryst.

F. Zhang and D. K. Yang, “Temperature dependence of pitch and twist elastic constant in a cholesteric to smectic A phase transition,” Liq. Cryst.29(12), 1497–1501 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)

L. Kutulya, V. Vashchenko, G. Semenkova, and N. Shkolnikova, “Effect of chiral dopants molecular structure on temperature dependencies of induced cholesteric helical pitch,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)331, 583–591 (1999).

P. N. Keating, “Theory of the cholesteric mesophase,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)8, 315–326 (1969).

Opt. Express

Sov. Phys. JETP

V. A. Belyakov, I. W. Stewart, and M. A. Osipov, “Dynamics of jumpwise temperature pitch variations in planar cholesteric layers for a finite strength of surface anchoring,” Sov. Phys. JETP99(1), 73–82 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other

Y. C. Liao, J. C. Yang, J. W. Shiu, Y. S. Tsai, S. H. Liu, C. J. Chen, C. C. Hsu, W. C. Chen, Y. P. Chang, and R. L. Sun, “Flexible color cholesteric LCD with single-layer structure,” in Digest of Technical Papers of 2008 Society for Information Display International Symposium (Society for Information Display, 2008), pp. 845–848/
[CrossRef]

P. G. de Gennes and J. Prost, The Principle of Liquid Crystals (Oxford University Press, 1993).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Concept of a pitch invariance of the CLC independent of temperature. A dopant of S811 tends to shorten a helical pitch but the other S5011 tends to make the pitch longer with increasing temperature. In the mixed dopant with a suitable mixing ratio, the pitch invariance to temperature is obtained.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The reflection spectra of the CLCs doped with (a) S811 (29.97 wt%) and (b) S5011 (2.15 wt%) with increasing temperature, and (c) the corresponding central wavelengths of reflection spectra. The solid lines in (C) depict the least-squares fits to a straight line. The slopes of the red and blue straight lines are fitted to be −4.33 and 2.17, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The reflection spectra of the CLCs with different concentrations of the mixed dopant (a) 12.98, (b) 15.18, and (c) 18.28 wt% with increasing temperature, and (d) the corresponding central wavelengths of reflection spectra.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The central wavelength as a function of the concentration of the mixed dopant. The solid line depicts the least-squares fit of the measured pitches to Eq. (1) to estimate a HTP of the mixed dopant. The HTP is calculated to be 17.32 ± 1.78 μm−1.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Summary of the calculating procedure to determine the dopant mixing ratio.

Equations (1)

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P= 1 c×HTP ,

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