Abstract

Among the existent X-ray phase-contrast modalities, grating interferometry appears as a very promising technique for commercial applications, since it is compatible with conventional X-ray tubes and is robust from a mechanical point of view. However, since applications such as medical imaging and homeland security demand covering a considerable field of view, the fabrication of large-area gratings, which is known to be challenging and expensive, would be needed. A scanning setup is a good solution for this issue, because it uses cheaper line instead of large-area 2D detectors and, therefore, would require smaller gratings. In such a setup, the phase-retrieval using the conventional phase-stepping approach would be very slow, so having a faster method to record the signals becomes fundamental. To tackle this problem, we present a scanning-mode grating interferometer design, in which a grating is tilted to form Moiré fringes perpendicular to the grating lines. The sample is then translated along the fringes, so each line detector records a different phase step for each slice of the sample. This new approach was tested both in a simulated scenario and in an experimental setting, and its performance was quantitatively satisfactory compared to the traditional phase-stepping method and another existing scanning-mode technique.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2014 (3)

E. Roessl, H. Daerr, T. Koehler, G. Martens, and U. van Stevendaal, “Clinical boundary conditions for grating-based differential phase-contrast mammography,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A372, 1–15 (2014).
[CrossRef]

E. Roessl, H. Daerr, T. Koehler, G. Martens, and U. van Stevendaal, “Slit-scanning differential phase-contrast mammography: First experimental results,” Proc. SPIE9033, 90330C (2014).
[CrossRef]

G. Lovric, P. Oberta, I. Mohacsi, M. Stampanoni, and R. Mokso, “A robust tool for photon source geometry measurements using the fractional Talbot effect,” Opt. Express22, 2745–2760 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2013 (4)

C. Arboleda, Z. Wang, and M. Stampanoni, “Wavelet-based noise-model driven denoising algorithm for differential phase contrast mammography,” Opt. Express21, 10572–10589 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Hauser, Z. Wang, R. Kubik-Huch, M. Trippel, G. Singer, M.K. Hohl, E. Roessl, T. Köhler, U. van Stevendaal, and N. Wieberneit, “A study on mastectomy samples to evaluate breast imaging quality and potential clinical relevance of differential phase contrast mammography,” Invest. Radiol.49(3), 131–137 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Thüring, R. Guggenberger, H. Alkadhi, J. Hodler, M. Vich, Z. Wang, C. David, and M. Stampanoni, “Human hand radiography using X-ray differential phase contrast combined with dark-field imaging,” Skeletal Radiol.42(6), 827–835 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Wang and M. Stampanoni, “Quantitative x-ray radiography using grating interferometry: a feasibility study,” Phys. Med. Biol.58, 6815–6826 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

M. Stampanoni, Z. Wang, T. Thüring, C. David, E. Roessl, M. Trippel, R. Kubik-Huch, G. Singer, M. K. Hohl, and N. Hauser, “The first analysis and clinical evaluation of native breast tissue using differential phase-contrast mammography,” Invest. Radiol.46(12), 801–806 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Stutman, T. J. Beck, J. Carrino, and C. O. Bingham, “Talbot phase-contrast x-ray imaging for the small joints of the hand,” Phys. Med. Biol.56, 5697–5720 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Thuering, P. Modregger, T. Grund, J. Kenntner, C. David, and M. Stampanoni, “High resolution, large field of view x-ray differential phase contrast imaging on a compact setup,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99, 041111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

M. P. Sampat, Z. Wang, S. Gupta, A. C. Bovik, and M. K. Markey, “Complex wavelet structural similarity: a new image similarity index,” IEEE Trans. Image Proc.18, 2385–2401 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. A. McDonald, F. Marone, C. Hintermüller, G. Mikuljan, C. David, F. Pfeiffer, and M. Stampanoni, “Advanced phase-contrast imaging using a grating interferometer,” J. Synchrotron Rad.16, 562–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

F. Pfeiffer, M. Bech, O. Bunk, P. Kraft, E. F. Eikenberry, C. Brönnimann, C. Grünzweig, and C. David, “Hard-X-ray dark-field imaging using a grating interferometer,” Nat. Mater.7, 134–137 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Weitkamp, C. David, O. Bunk, J. Bruder, P. Cloetens, and F. Pfeiffer, “X-ray phase radiography and tomography of soft tissue using grating interferometry,” Eur. J. Radiol.68, S13–S17 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

F. Pfeiffer, C. Kottler, O. Bunk, and C. David, “Hard X-ray phase tomography with low-brilliance sources,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98, 108105 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Castelli, F. Arfelli, D. Dreossi, R. Longo, T. Rokvic, M. A. Cova, E. Quaia, M. Tonutti, F. Zanconati, A. Abrami, V. Chenda, R. H. Menk, E. Quai, G. Tromba, P. Bregant, and F. de Guarrini, “Clinical mammography at the SYRMEP beam line,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A572, 237–240 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Kottler, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. Grünzweig, and C. David, “Grating interferometer based scanning setup for hard X-ray phase contrast imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.78, 043710 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

F. Pfeiffer, T. Weitkamp, O. Bunk, and C. David, “Phase retrieval and differential phase-contrast imaging with low-brilliance X-ray sources,” Nat. Phys.2, 258–261 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

T. Weitkamp, A. Diaz, C. David, F. Pfeiffer, M. Stampanoni, P. Cloetens, and E. Ziegler, “X-ray phase imaging with a grating interferometer,” Opt. Express12(16), 6296–6304 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

A. Momose, S. Kawamoto, I. Koyama, Y. Hamaishi, K. Takai, and Y. Suzuki, “Demonstration of X-Ray Talbot interferometry,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.42, L866–L868 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

C. David, B. Nöhammer, H. H. Solak, and E. Ziegler, “Differential x-ray phase contrast imaging using a shearing interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81, 3287 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

Abrami, A.

E. Castelli, F. Arfelli, D. Dreossi, R. Longo, T. Rokvic, M. A. Cova, E. Quaia, M. Tonutti, F. Zanconati, A. Abrami, V. Chenda, R. H. Menk, E. Quai, G. Tromba, P. Bregant, and F. de Guarrini, “Clinical mammography at the SYRMEP beam line,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A572, 237–240 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Alkadhi, H.

T. Thüring, R. Guggenberger, H. Alkadhi, J. Hodler, M. Vich, Z. Wang, C. David, and M. Stampanoni, “Human hand radiography using X-ray differential phase contrast combined with dark-field imaging,” Skeletal Radiol.42(6), 827–835 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arboleda, C.

Arfelli, F.

E. Castelli, F. Arfelli, D. Dreossi, R. Longo, T. Rokvic, M. A. Cova, E. Quaia, M. Tonutti, F. Zanconati, A. Abrami, V. Chenda, R. H. Menk, E. Quai, G. Tromba, P. Bregant, and F. de Guarrini, “Clinical mammography at the SYRMEP beam line,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A572, 237–240 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bech, M.

F. Pfeiffer, M. Bech, O. Bunk, P. Kraft, E. F. Eikenberry, C. Brönnimann, C. Grünzweig, and C. David, “Hard-X-ray dark-field imaging using a grating interferometer,” Nat. Mater.7, 134–137 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beck, T. J.

D. Stutman, T. J. Beck, J. Carrino, and C. O. Bingham, “Talbot phase-contrast x-ray imaging for the small joints of the hand,” Phys. Med. Biol.56, 5697–5720 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bingham, C. O.

D. Stutman, T. J. Beck, J. Carrino, and C. O. Bingham, “Talbot phase-contrast x-ray imaging for the small joints of the hand,” Phys. Med. Biol.56, 5697–5720 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bovik, A. C.

M. P. Sampat, Z. Wang, S. Gupta, A. C. Bovik, and M. K. Markey, “Complex wavelet structural similarity: a new image similarity index,” IEEE Trans. Image Proc.18, 2385–2401 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bregant, P.

E. Castelli, F. Arfelli, D. Dreossi, R. Longo, T. Rokvic, M. A. Cova, E. Quaia, M. Tonutti, F. Zanconati, A. Abrami, V. Chenda, R. H. Menk, E. Quai, G. Tromba, P. Bregant, and F. de Guarrini, “Clinical mammography at the SYRMEP beam line,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A572, 237–240 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Brönnimann, C.

F. Pfeiffer, M. Bech, O. Bunk, P. Kraft, E. F. Eikenberry, C. Brönnimann, C. Grünzweig, and C. David, “Hard-X-ray dark-field imaging using a grating interferometer,” Nat. Mater.7, 134–137 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bruder, J.

T. Weitkamp, C. David, O. Bunk, J. Bruder, P. Cloetens, and F. Pfeiffer, “X-ray phase radiography and tomography of soft tissue using grating interferometry,” Eur. J. Radiol.68, S13–S17 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bunk, O.

T. Weitkamp, C. David, O. Bunk, J. Bruder, P. Cloetens, and F. Pfeiffer, “X-ray phase radiography and tomography of soft tissue using grating interferometry,” Eur. J. Radiol.68, S13–S17 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Pfeiffer, M. Bech, O. Bunk, P. Kraft, E. F. Eikenberry, C. Brönnimann, C. Grünzweig, and C. David, “Hard-X-ray dark-field imaging using a grating interferometer,” Nat. Mater.7, 134–137 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Pfeiffer, C. Kottler, O. Bunk, and C. David, “Hard X-ray phase tomography with low-brilliance sources,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98, 108105 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Kottler, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. Grünzweig, and C. David, “Grating interferometer based scanning setup for hard X-ray phase contrast imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.78, 043710 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Pfeiffer, T. Weitkamp, O. Bunk, and C. David, “Phase retrieval and differential phase-contrast imaging with low-brilliance X-ray sources,” Nat. Phys.2, 258–261 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Carrino, J.

D. Stutman, T. J. Beck, J. Carrino, and C. O. Bingham, “Talbot phase-contrast x-ray imaging for the small joints of the hand,” Phys. Med. Biol.56, 5697–5720 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Castelli, E.

E. Castelli, F. Arfelli, D. Dreossi, R. Longo, T. Rokvic, M. A. Cova, E. Quaia, M. Tonutti, F. Zanconati, A. Abrami, V. Chenda, R. H. Menk, E. Quai, G. Tromba, P. Bregant, and F. de Guarrini, “Clinical mammography at the SYRMEP beam line,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A572, 237–240 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chenda, V.

E. Castelli, F. Arfelli, D. Dreossi, R. Longo, T. Rokvic, M. A. Cova, E. Quaia, M. Tonutti, F. Zanconati, A. Abrami, V. Chenda, R. H. Menk, E. Quai, G. Tromba, P. Bregant, and F. de Guarrini, “Clinical mammography at the SYRMEP beam line,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A572, 237–240 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cloetens, P.

T. Weitkamp, C. David, O. Bunk, J. Bruder, P. Cloetens, and F. Pfeiffer, “X-ray phase radiography and tomography of soft tissue using grating interferometry,” Eur. J. Radiol.68, S13–S17 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Weitkamp, A. Diaz, C. David, F. Pfeiffer, M. Stampanoni, P. Cloetens, and E. Ziegler, “X-ray phase imaging with a grating interferometer,” Opt. Express12(16), 6296–6304 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cova, M. A.

E. Castelli, F. Arfelli, D. Dreossi, R. Longo, T. Rokvic, M. A. Cova, E. Quaia, M. Tonutti, F. Zanconati, A. Abrami, V. Chenda, R. H. Menk, E. Quai, G. Tromba, P. Bregant, and F. de Guarrini, “Clinical mammography at the SYRMEP beam line,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A572, 237–240 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Daerr, H.

E. Roessl, H. Daerr, T. Koehler, G. Martens, and U. van Stevendaal, “Slit-scanning differential phase-contrast mammography: First experimental results,” Proc. SPIE9033, 90330C (2014).
[CrossRef]

E. Roessl, H. Daerr, T. Koehler, G. Martens, and U. van Stevendaal, “Clinical boundary conditions for grating-based differential phase-contrast mammography,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A372, 1–15 (2014).
[CrossRef]

David, C.

T. Thüring, R. Guggenberger, H. Alkadhi, J. Hodler, M. Vich, Z. Wang, C. David, and M. Stampanoni, “Human hand radiography using X-ray differential phase contrast combined with dark-field imaging,” Skeletal Radiol.42(6), 827–835 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Stampanoni, Z. Wang, T. Thüring, C. David, E. Roessl, M. Trippel, R. Kubik-Huch, G. Singer, M. K. Hohl, and N. Hauser, “The first analysis and clinical evaluation of native breast tissue using differential phase-contrast mammography,” Invest. Radiol.46(12), 801–806 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Thuering, P. Modregger, T. Grund, J. Kenntner, C. David, and M. Stampanoni, “High resolution, large field of view x-ray differential phase contrast imaging on a compact setup,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99, 041111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. A. McDonald, F. Marone, C. Hintermüller, G. Mikuljan, C. David, F. Pfeiffer, and M. Stampanoni, “Advanced phase-contrast imaging using a grating interferometer,” J. Synchrotron Rad.16, 562–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Pfeiffer, M. Bech, O. Bunk, P. Kraft, E. F. Eikenberry, C. Brönnimann, C. Grünzweig, and C. David, “Hard-X-ray dark-field imaging using a grating interferometer,” Nat. Mater.7, 134–137 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Weitkamp, C. David, O. Bunk, J. Bruder, P. Cloetens, and F. Pfeiffer, “X-ray phase radiography and tomography of soft tissue using grating interferometry,” Eur. J. Radiol.68, S13–S17 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Pfeiffer, C. Kottler, O. Bunk, and C. David, “Hard X-ray phase tomography with low-brilliance sources,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98, 108105 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Kottler, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. Grünzweig, and C. David, “Grating interferometer based scanning setup for hard X-ray phase contrast imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.78, 043710 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Pfeiffer, T. Weitkamp, O. Bunk, and C. David, “Phase retrieval and differential phase-contrast imaging with low-brilliance X-ray sources,” Nat. Phys.2, 258–261 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Weitkamp, A. Diaz, C. David, F. Pfeiffer, M. Stampanoni, P. Cloetens, and E. Ziegler, “X-ray phase imaging with a grating interferometer,” Opt. Express12(16), 6296–6304 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. David, B. Nöhammer, H. H. Solak, and E. Ziegler, “Differential x-ray phase contrast imaging using a shearing interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81, 3287 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. David and F. Pfeiffer, “X-ray interferometer for phase contrast imaging,” Patent WO 2008/006470A1 (17. Jan, 2008).

de Guarrini, F.

E. Castelli, F. Arfelli, D. Dreossi, R. Longo, T. Rokvic, M. A. Cova, E. Quaia, M. Tonutti, F. Zanconati, A. Abrami, V. Chenda, R. H. Menk, E. Quai, G. Tromba, P. Bregant, and F. de Guarrini, “Clinical mammography at the SYRMEP beam line,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A572, 237–240 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Diaz, A.

T. Weitkamp, A. Diaz, C. David, F. Pfeiffer, M. Stampanoni, P. Cloetens, and E. Ziegler, “X-ray phase imaging with a grating interferometer,” Opt. Express12(16), 6296–6304 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dreossi, D.

E. Castelli, F. Arfelli, D. Dreossi, R. Longo, T. Rokvic, M. A. Cova, E. Quaia, M. Tonutti, F. Zanconati, A. Abrami, V. Chenda, R. H. Menk, E. Quai, G. Tromba, P. Bregant, and F. de Guarrini, “Clinical mammography at the SYRMEP beam line,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A572, 237–240 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Eikenberry, E. F.

F. Pfeiffer, M. Bech, O. Bunk, P. Kraft, E. F. Eikenberry, C. Brönnimann, C. Grünzweig, and C. David, “Hard-X-ray dark-field imaging using a grating interferometer,” Nat. Mater.7, 134–137 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grund, T.

T. Thuering, P. Modregger, T. Grund, J. Kenntner, C. David, and M. Stampanoni, “High resolution, large field of view x-ray differential phase contrast imaging on a compact setup,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99, 041111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Grünzweig, C.

F. Pfeiffer, M. Bech, O. Bunk, P. Kraft, E. F. Eikenberry, C. Brönnimann, C. Grünzweig, and C. David, “Hard-X-ray dark-field imaging using a grating interferometer,” Nat. Mater.7, 134–137 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Kottler, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. Grünzweig, and C. David, “Grating interferometer based scanning setup for hard X-ray phase contrast imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.78, 043710 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guggenberger, R.

T. Thüring, R. Guggenberger, H. Alkadhi, J. Hodler, M. Vich, Z. Wang, C. David, and M. Stampanoni, “Human hand radiography using X-ray differential phase contrast combined with dark-field imaging,” Skeletal Radiol.42(6), 827–835 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gupta, S.

M. P. Sampat, Z. Wang, S. Gupta, A. C. Bovik, and M. K. Markey, “Complex wavelet structural similarity: a new image similarity index,” IEEE Trans. Image Proc.18, 2385–2401 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hamaishi, Y.

A. Momose, S. Kawamoto, I. Koyama, Y. Hamaishi, K. Takai, and Y. Suzuki, “Demonstration of X-Ray Talbot interferometry,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.42, L866–L868 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hauser, N.

N. Hauser, Z. Wang, R. Kubik-Huch, M. Trippel, G. Singer, M.K. Hohl, E. Roessl, T. Köhler, U. van Stevendaal, and N. Wieberneit, “A study on mastectomy samples to evaluate breast imaging quality and potential clinical relevance of differential phase contrast mammography,” Invest. Radiol.49(3), 131–137 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Stampanoni, Z. Wang, T. Thüring, C. David, E. Roessl, M. Trippel, R. Kubik-Huch, G. Singer, M. K. Hohl, and N. Hauser, “The first analysis and clinical evaluation of native breast tissue using differential phase-contrast mammography,” Invest. Radiol.46(12), 801–806 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hintermüller, C.

S. A. McDonald, F. Marone, C. Hintermüller, G. Mikuljan, C. David, F. Pfeiffer, and M. Stampanoni, “Advanced phase-contrast imaging using a grating interferometer,” J. Synchrotron Rad.16, 562–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hodler, J.

T. Thüring, R. Guggenberger, H. Alkadhi, J. Hodler, M. Vich, Z. Wang, C. David, and M. Stampanoni, “Human hand radiography using X-ray differential phase contrast combined with dark-field imaging,” Skeletal Radiol.42(6), 827–835 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hohl, M. K.

M. Stampanoni, Z. Wang, T. Thüring, C. David, E. Roessl, M. Trippel, R. Kubik-Huch, G. Singer, M. K. Hohl, and N. Hauser, “The first analysis and clinical evaluation of native breast tissue using differential phase-contrast mammography,” Invest. Radiol.46(12), 801–806 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hohl, M.K.

N. Hauser, Z. Wang, R. Kubik-Huch, M. Trippel, G. Singer, M.K. Hohl, E. Roessl, T. Köhler, U. van Stevendaal, and N. Wieberneit, “A study on mastectomy samples to evaluate breast imaging quality and potential clinical relevance of differential phase contrast mammography,” Invest. Radiol.49(3), 131–137 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kawamoto, S.

A. Momose, S. Kawamoto, I. Koyama, Y. Hamaishi, K. Takai, and Y. Suzuki, “Demonstration of X-Ray Talbot interferometry,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.42, L866–L868 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kenntner, J.

T. Thuering, P. Modregger, T. Grund, J. Kenntner, C. David, and M. Stampanoni, “High resolution, large field of view x-ray differential phase contrast imaging on a compact setup,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99, 041111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Koehler, T.

E. Roessl, H. Daerr, T. Koehler, G. Martens, and U. van Stevendaal, “Slit-scanning differential phase-contrast mammography: First experimental results,” Proc. SPIE9033, 90330C (2014).
[CrossRef]

E. Roessl, H. Daerr, T. Koehler, G. Martens, and U. van Stevendaal, “Clinical boundary conditions for grating-based differential phase-contrast mammography,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A372, 1–15 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Köhler, T.

N. Hauser, Z. Wang, R. Kubik-Huch, M. Trippel, G. Singer, M.K. Hohl, E. Roessl, T. Köhler, U. van Stevendaal, and N. Wieberneit, “A study on mastectomy samples to evaluate breast imaging quality and potential clinical relevance of differential phase contrast mammography,” Invest. Radiol.49(3), 131–137 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kottler, C.

F. Pfeiffer, C. Kottler, O. Bunk, and C. David, “Hard X-ray phase tomography with low-brilliance sources,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98, 108105 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Kottler, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. Grünzweig, and C. David, “Grating interferometer based scanning setup for hard X-ray phase contrast imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.78, 043710 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koyama, I.

A. Momose, S. Kawamoto, I. Koyama, Y. Hamaishi, K. Takai, and Y. Suzuki, “Demonstration of X-Ray Talbot interferometry,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.42, L866–L868 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kraft, P.

F. Pfeiffer, M. Bech, O. Bunk, P. Kraft, E. F. Eikenberry, C. Brönnimann, C. Grünzweig, and C. David, “Hard-X-ray dark-field imaging using a grating interferometer,” Nat. Mater.7, 134–137 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kubik-Huch, R.

N. Hauser, Z. Wang, R. Kubik-Huch, M. Trippel, G. Singer, M.K. Hohl, E. Roessl, T. Köhler, U. van Stevendaal, and N. Wieberneit, “A study on mastectomy samples to evaluate breast imaging quality and potential clinical relevance of differential phase contrast mammography,” Invest. Radiol.49(3), 131–137 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Stampanoni, Z. Wang, T. Thüring, C. David, E. Roessl, M. Trippel, R. Kubik-Huch, G. Singer, M. K. Hohl, and N. Hauser, “The first analysis and clinical evaluation of native breast tissue using differential phase-contrast mammography,” Invest. Radiol.46(12), 801–806 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Longo, R.

E. Castelli, F. Arfelli, D. Dreossi, R. Longo, T. Rokvic, M. A. Cova, E. Quaia, M. Tonutti, F. Zanconati, A. Abrami, V. Chenda, R. H. Menk, E. Quai, G. Tromba, P. Bregant, and F. de Guarrini, “Clinical mammography at the SYRMEP beam line,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A572, 237–240 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lovric, G.

Markey, M. K.

M. P. Sampat, Z. Wang, S. Gupta, A. C. Bovik, and M. K. Markey, “Complex wavelet structural similarity: a new image similarity index,” IEEE Trans. Image Proc.18, 2385–2401 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Marone, F.

S. A. McDonald, F. Marone, C. Hintermüller, G. Mikuljan, C. David, F. Pfeiffer, and M. Stampanoni, “Advanced phase-contrast imaging using a grating interferometer,” J. Synchrotron Rad.16, 562–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Martens, G.

E. Roessl, H. Daerr, T. Koehler, G. Martens, and U. van Stevendaal, “Clinical boundary conditions for grating-based differential phase-contrast mammography,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A372, 1–15 (2014).
[CrossRef]

E. Roessl, H. Daerr, T. Koehler, G. Martens, and U. van Stevendaal, “Slit-scanning differential phase-contrast mammography: First experimental results,” Proc. SPIE9033, 90330C (2014).
[CrossRef]

McDonald, S. A.

S. A. McDonald, F. Marone, C. Hintermüller, G. Mikuljan, C. David, F. Pfeiffer, and M. Stampanoni, “Advanced phase-contrast imaging using a grating interferometer,” J. Synchrotron Rad.16, 562–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Menk, R. H.

E. Castelli, F. Arfelli, D. Dreossi, R. Longo, T. Rokvic, M. A. Cova, E. Quaia, M. Tonutti, F. Zanconati, A. Abrami, V. Chenda, R. H. Menk, E. Quai, G. Tromba, P. Bregant, and F. de Guarrini, “Clinical mammography at the SYRMEP beam line,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A572, 237–240 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mikuljan, G.

S. A. McDonald, F. Marone, C. Hintermüller, G. Mikuljan, C. David, F. Pfeiffer, and M. Stampanoni, “Advanced phase-contrast imaging using a grating interferometer,” J. Synchrotron Rad.16, 562–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Modregger, P.

T. Thuering, P. Modregger, T. Grund, J. Kenntner, C. David, and M. Stampanoni, “High resolution, large field of view x-ray differential phase contrast imaging on a compact setup,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99, 041111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mohacsi, I.

Mokso, R.

Momose, A.

A. Momose, S. Kawamoto, I. Koyama, Y. Hamaishi, K. Takai, and Y. Suzuki, “Demonstration of X-Ray Talbot interferometry,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.42, L866–L868 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nöhammer, B.

C. David, B. Nöhammer, H. H. Solak, and E. Ziegler, “Differential x-ray phase contrast imaging using a shearing interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81, 3287 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Oberta, P.

Pfeiffer, F.

S. A. McDonald, F. Marone, C. Hintermüller, G. Mikuljan, C. David, F. Pfeiffer, and M. Stampanoni, “Advanced phase-contrast imaging using a grating interferometer,” J. Synchrotron Rad.16, 562–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Pfeiffer, M. Bech, O. Bunk, P. Kraft, E. F. Eikenberry, C. Brönnimann, C. Grünzweig, and C. David, “Hard-X-ray dark-field imaging using a grating interferometer,” Nat. Mater.7, 134–137 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Weitkamp, C. David, O. Bunk, J. Bruder, P. Cloetens, and F. Pfeiffer, “X-ray phase radiography and tomography of soft tissue using grating interferometry,” Eur. J. Radiol.68, S13–S17 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Pfeiffer, C. Kottler, O. Bunk, and C. David, “Hard X-ray phase tomography with low-brilliance sources,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98, 108105 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Kottler, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. Grünzweig, and C. David, “Grating interferometer based scanning setup for hard X-ray phase contrast imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.78, 043710 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Pfeiffer, T. Weitkamp, O. Bunk, and C. David, “Phase retrieval and differential phase-contrast imaging with low-brilliance X-ray sources,” Nat. Phys.2, 258–261 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Weitkamp, A. Diaz, C. David, F. Pfeiffer, M. Stampanoni, P. Cloetens, and E. Ziegler, “X-ray phase imaging with a grating interferometer,” Opt. Express12(16), 6296–6304 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. David and F. Pfeiffer, “X-ray interferometer for phase contrast imaging,” Patent WO 2008/006470A1 (17. Jan, 2008).

Quai, E.

E. Castelli, F. Arfelli, D. Dreossi, R. Longo, T. Rokvic, M. A. Cova, E. Quaia, M. Tonutti, F. Zanconati, A. Abrami, V. Chenda, R. H. Menk, E. Quai, G. Tromba, P. Bregant, and F. de Guarrini, “Clinical mammography at the SYRMEP beam line,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A572, 237–240 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Quaia, E.

E. Castelli, F. Arfelli, D. Dreossi, R. Longo, T. Rokvic, M. A. Cova, E. Quaia, M. Tonutti, F. Zanconati, A. Abrami, V. Chenda, R. H. Menk, E. Quai, G. Tromba, P. Bregant, and F. de Guarrini, “Clinical mammography at the SYRMEP beam line,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A572, 237–240 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Roessl, E.

E. Roessl, H. Daerr, T. Koehler, G. Martens, and U. van Stevendaal, “Slit-scanning differential phase-contrast mammography: First experimental results,” Proc. SPIE9033, 90330C (2014).
[CrossRef]

E. Roessl, H. Daerr, T. Koehler, G. Martens, and U. van Stevendaal, “Clinical boundary conditions for grating-based differential phase-contrast mammography,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A372, 1–15 (2014).
[CrossRef]

N. Hauser, Z. Wang, R. Kubik-Huch, M. Trippel, G. Singer, M.K. Hohl, E. Roessl, T. Köhler, U. van Stevendaal, and N. Wieberneit, “A study on mastectomy samples to evaluate breast imaging quality and potential clinical relevance of differential phase contrast mammography,” Invest. Radiol.49(3), 131–137 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Stampanoni, Z. Wang, T. Thüring, C. David, E. Roessl, M. Trippel, R. Kubik-Huch, G. Singer, M. K. Hohl, and N. Hauser, “The first analysis and clinical evaluation of native breast tissue using differential phase-contrast mammography,” Invest. Radiol.46(12), 801–806 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rokvic, T.

E. Castelli, F. Arfelli, D. Dreossi, R. Longo, T. Rokvic, M. A. Cova, E. Quaia, M. Tonutti, F. Zanconati, A. Abrami, V. Chenda, R. H. Menk, E. Quai, G. Tromba, P. Bregant, and F. de Guarrini, “Clinical mammography at the SYRMEP beam line,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A572, 237–240 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sampat, M. P.

M. P. Sampat, Z. Wang, S. Gupta, A. C. Bovik, and M. K. Markey, “Complex wavelet structural similarity: a new image similarity index,” IEEE Trans. Image Proc.18, 2385–2401 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Singer, G.

N. Hauser, Z. Wang, R. Kubik-Huch, M. Trippel, G. Singer, M.K. Hohl, E. Roessl, T. Köhler, U. van Stevendaal, and N. Wieberneit, “A study on mastectomy samples to evaluate breast imaging quality and potential clinical relevance of differential phase contrast mammography,” Invest. Radiol.49(3), 131–137 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Stampanoni, Z. Wang, T. Thüring, C. David, E. Roessl, M. Trippel, R. Kubik-Huch, G. Singer, M. K. Hohl, and N. Hauser, “The first analysis and clinical evaluation of native breast tissue using differential phase-contrast mammography,” Invest. Radiol.46(12), 801–806 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Solak, H. H.

C. David, B. Nöhammer, H. H. Solak, and E. Ziegler, “Differential x-ray phase contrast imaging using a shearing interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81, 3287 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Stampanoni, M.

G. Lovric, P. Oberta, I. Mohacsi, M. Stampanoni, and R. Mokso, “A robust tool for photon source geometry measurements using the fractional Talbot effect,” Opt. Express22, 2745–2760 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Arboleda, Z. Wang, and M. Stampanoni, “Wavelet-based noise-model driven denoising algorithm for differential phase contrast mammography,” Opt. Express21, 10572–10589 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Thüring, R. Guggenberger, H. Alkadhi, J. Hodler, M. Vich, Z. Wang, C. David, and M. Stampanoni, “Human hand radiography using X-ray differential phase contrast combined with dark-field imaging,” Skeletal Radiol.42(6), 827–835 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Wang and M. Stampanoni, “Quantitative x-ray radiography using grating interferometry: a feasibility study,” Phys. Med. Biol.58, 6815–6826 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Stampanoni, Z. Wang, T. Thüring, C. David, E. Roessl, M. Trippel, R. Kubik-Huch, G. Singer, M. K. Hohl, and N. Hauser, “The first analysis and clinical evaluation of native breast tissue using differential phase-contrast mammography,” Invest. Radiol.46(12), 801–806 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Thuering, P. Modregger, T. Grund, J. Kenntner, C. David, and M. Stampanoni, “High resolution, large field of view x-ray differential phase contrast imaging on a compact setup,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99, 041111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. A. McDonald, F. Marone, C. Hintermüller, G. Mikuljan, C. David, F. Pfeiffer, and M. Stampanoni, “Advanced phase-contrast imaging using a grating interferometer,” J. Synchrotron Rad.16, 562–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Weitkamp, A. Diaz, C. David, F. Pfeiffer, M. Stampanoni, P. Cloetens, and E. Ziegler, “X-ray phase imaging with a grating interferometer,” Opt. Express12(16), 6296–6304 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Stutman, D.

D. Stutman, T. J. Beck, J. Carrino, and C. O. Bingham, “Talbot phase-contrast x-ray imaging for the small joints of the hand,” Phys. Med. Biol.56, 5697–5720 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suleski, T. J.

Suzuki, Y.

A. Momose, S. Kawamoto, I. Koyama, Y. Hamaishi, K. Takai, and Y. Suzuki, “Demonstration of X-Ray Talbot interferometry,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.42, L866–L868 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Takai, K.

A. Momose, S. Kawamoto, I. Koyama, Y. Hamaishi, K. Takai, and Y. Suzuki, “Demonstration of X-Ray Talbot interferometry,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.42, L866–L868 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Thuering, T.

T. Thuering, P. Modregger, T. Grund, J. Kenntner, C. David, and M. Stampanoni, “High resolution, large field of view x-ray differential phase contrast imaging on a compact setup,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99, 041111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Thüring, T.

T. Thüring, R. Guggenberger, H. Alkadhi, J. Hodler, M. Vich, Z. Wang, C. David, and M. Stampanoni, “Human hand radiography using X-ray differential phase contrast combined with dark-field imaging,” Skeletal Radiol.42(6), 827–835 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Stampanoni, Z. Wang, T. Thüring, C. David, E. Roessl, M. Trippel, R. Kubik-Huch, G. Singer, M. K. Hohl, and N. Hauser, “The first analysis and clinical evaluation of native breast tissue using differential phase-contrast mammography,” Invest. Radiol.46(12), 801–806 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Thüring, “Compact X-ray grating interferometry for phase and dark-field computed tomography in the diagnostic energy range,” PhD thesis, ETH Zurich (2013).

Tonutti, M.

E. Castelli, F. Arfelli, D. Dreossi, R. Longo, T. Rokvic, M. A. Cova, E. Quaia, M. Tonutti, F. Zanconati, A. Abrami, V. Chenda, R. H. Menk, E. Quai, G. Tromba, P. Bregant, and F. de Guarrini, “Clinical mammography at the SYRMEP beam line,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A572, 237–240 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Trippel, M.

N. Hauser, Z. Wang, R. Kubik-Huch, M. Trippel, G. Singer, M.K. Hohl, E. Roessl, T. Köhler, U. van Stevendaal, and N. Wieberneit, “A study on mastectomy samples to evaluate breast imaging quality and potential clinical relevance of differential phase contrast mammography,” Invest. Radiol.49(3), 131–137 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Stampanoni, Z. Wang, T. Thüring, C. David, E. Roessl, M. Trippel, R. Kubik-Huch, G. Singer, M. K. Hohl, and N. Hauser, “The first analysis and clinical evaluation of native breast tissue using differential phase-contrast mammography,” Invest. Radiol.46(12), 801–806 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tromba, G.

E. Castelli, F. Arfelli, D. Dreossi, R. Longo, T. Rokvic, M. A. Cova, E. Quaia, M. Tonutti, F. Zanconati, A. Abrami, V. Chenda, R. H. Menk, E. Quai, G. Tromba, P. Bregant, and F. de Guarrini, “Clinical mammography at the SYRMEP beam line,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A572, 237–240 (2007).
[CrossRef]

van Stevendaal, U.

E. Roessl, H. Daerr, T. Koehler, G. Martens, and U. van Stevendaal, “Slit-scanning differential phase-contrast mammography: First experimental results,” Proc. SPIE9033, 90330C (2014).
[CrossRef]

E. Roessl, H. Daerr, T. Koehler, G. Martens, and U. van Stevendaal, “Clinical boundary conditions for grating-based differential phase-contrast mammography,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A372, 1–15 (2014).
[CrossRef]

N. Hauser, Z. Wang, R. Kubik-Huch, M. Trippel, G. Singer, M.K. Hohl, E. Roessl, T. Köhler, U. van Stevendaal, and N. Wieberneit, “A study on mastectomy samples to evaluate breast imaging quality and potential clinical relevance of differential phase contrast mammography,” Invest. Radiol.49(3), 131–137 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vich, M.

T. Thüring, R. Guggenberger, H. Alkadhi, J. Hodler, M. Vich, Z. Wang, C. David, and M. Stampanoni, “Human hand radiography using X-ray differential phase contrast combined with dark-field imaging,” Skeletal Radiol.42(6), 827–835 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Z.

T. Thüring, R. Guggenberger, H. Alkadhi, J. Hodler, M. Vich, Z. Wang, C. David, and M. Stampanoni, “Human hand radiography using X-ray differential phase contrast combined with dark-field imaging,” Skeletal Radiol.42(6), 827–835 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Arboleda, Z. Wang, and M. Stampanoni, “Wavelet-based noise-model driven denoising algorithm for differential phase contrast mammography,” Opt. Express21, 10572–10589 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Hauser, Z. Wang, R. Kubik-Huch, M. Trippel, G. Singer, M.K. Hohl, E. Roessl, T. Köhler, U. van Stevendaal, and N. Wieberneit, “A study on mastectomy samples to evaluate breast imaging quality and potential clinical relevance of differential phase contrast mammography,” Invest. Radiol.49(3), 131–137 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Wang and M. Stampanoni, “Quantitative x-ray radiography using grating interferometry: a feasibility study,” Phys. Med. Biol.58, 6815–6826 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Stampanoni, Z. Wang, T. Thüring, C. David, E. Roessl, M. Trippel, R. Kubik-Huch, G. Singer, M. K. Hohl, and N. Hauser, “The first analysis and clinical evaluation of native breast tissue using differential phase-contrast mammography,” Invest. Radiol.46(12), 801–806 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. P. Sampat, Z. Wang, S. Gupta, A. C. Bovik, and M. K. Markey, “Complex wavelet structural similarity: a new image similarity index,” IEEE Trans. Image Proc.18, 2385–2401 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Weitkamp, T.

T. Weitkamp, C. David, O. Bunk, J. Bruder, P. Cloetens, and F. Pfeiffer, “X-ray phase radiography and tomography of soft tissue using grating interferometry,” Eur. J. Radiol.68, S13–S17 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Pfeiffer, T. Weitkamp, O. Bunk, and C. David, “Phase retrieval and differential phase-contrast imaging with low-brilliance X-ray sources,” Nat. Phys.2, 258–261 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Weitkamp, A. Diaz, C. David, F. Pfeiffer, M. Stampanoni, P. Cloetens, and E. Ziegler, “X-ray phase imaging with a grating interferometer,” Opt. Express12(16), 6296–6304 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wieberneit, N.

N. Hauser, Z. Wang, R. Kubik-Huch, M. Trippel, G. Singer, M.K. Hohl, E. Roessl, T. Köhler, U. van Stevendaal, and N. Wieberneit, “A study on mastectomy samples to evaluate breast imaging quality and potential clinical relevance of differential phase contrast mammography,” Invest. Radiol.49(3), 131–137 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zanconati, F.

E. Castelli, F. Arfelli, D. Dreossi, R. Longo, T. Rokvic, M. A. Cova, E. Quaia, M. Tonutti, F. Zanconati, A. Abrami, V. Chenda, R. H. Menk, E. Quai, G. Tromba, P. Bregant, and F. de Guarrini, “Clinical mammography at the SYRMEP beam line,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A572, 237–240 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ziegler, E.

T. Weitkamp, A. Diaz, C. David, F. Pfeiffer, M. Stampanoni, P. Cloetens, and E. Ziegler, “X-ray phase imaging with a grating interferometer,” Opt. Express12(16), 6296–6304 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. David, B. Nöhammer, H. H. Solak, and E. Ziegler, “Differential x-ray phase contrast imaging using a shearing interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81, 3287 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

C. David, B. Nöhammer, H. H. Solak, and E. Ziegler, “Differential x-ray phase contrast imaging using a shearing interferometer,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81, 3287 (2002).
[CrossRef]

T. Thuering, P. Modregger, T. Grund, J. Kenntner, C. David, and M. Stampanoni, “High resolution, large field of view x-ray differential phase contrast imaging on a compact setup,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99, 041111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Eur. J. Radiol. (1)

T. Weitkamp, C. David, O. Bunk, J. Bruder, P. Cloetens, and F. Pfeiffer, “X-ray phase radiography and tomography of soft tissue using grating interferometry,” Eur. J. Radiol.68, S13–S17 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Trans. Image Proc. (1)

M. P. Sampat, Z. Wang, S. Gupta, A. C. Bovik, and M. K. Markey, “Complex wavelet structural similarity: a new image similarity index,” IEEE Trans. Image Proc.18, 2385–2401 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Invest. Radiol. (2)

N. Hauser, Z. Wang, R. Kubik-Huch, M. Trippel, G. Singer, M.K. Hohl, E. Roessl, T. Köhler, U. van Stevendaal, and N. Wieberneit, “A study on mastectomy samples to evaluate breast imaging quality and potential clinical relevance of differential phase contrast mammography,” Invest. Radiol.49(3), 131–137 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Stampanoni, Z. Wang, T. Thüring, C. David, E. Roessl, M. Trippel, R. Kubik-Huch, G. Singer, M. K. Hohl, and N. Hauser, “The first analysis and clinical evaluation of native breast tissue using differential phase-contrast mammography,” Invest. Radiol.46(12), 801–806 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Synchrotron Rad. (1)

S. A. McDonald, F. Marone, C. Hintermüller, G. Mikuljan, C. David, F. Pfeiffer, and M. Stampanoni, “Advanced phase-contrast imaging using a grating interferometer,” J. Synchrotron Rad.16, 562–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

A. Momose, S. Kawamoto, I. Koyama, Y. Hamaishi, K. Takai, and Y. Suzuki, “Demonstration of X-Ray Talbot interferometry,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.42, L866–L868 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater. (1)

F. Pfeiffer, M. Bech, O. Bunk, P. Kraft, E. F. Eikenberry, C. Brönnimann, C. Grünzweig, and C. David, “Hard-X-ray dark-field imaging using a grating interferometer,” Nat. Mater.7, 134–137 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Phys. (1)

F. Pfeiffer, T. Weitkamp, O. Bunk, and C. David, “Phase retrieval and differential phase-contrast imaging with low-brilliance X-ray sources,” Nat. Phys.2, 258–261 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods A (1)

E. Castelli, F. Arfelli, D. Dreossi, R. Longo, T. Rokvic, M. A. Cova, E. Quaia, M. Tonutti, F. Zanconati, A. Abrami, V. Chenda, R. H. Menk, E. Quai, G. Tromba, P. Bregant, and F. de Guarrini, “Clinical mammography at the SYRMEP beam line,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A572, 237–240 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A (1)

E. Roessl, H. Daerr, T. Koehler, G. Martens, and U. van Stevendaal, “Clinical boundary conditions for grating-based differential phase-contrast mammography,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London Ser. A372, 1–15 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Med. Biol. (2)

Z. Wang and M. Stampanoni, “Quantitative x-ray radiography using grating interferometry: a feasibility study,” Phys. Med. Biol.58, 6815–6826 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Stutman, T. J. Beck, J. Carrino, and C. O. Bingham, “Talbot phase-contrast x-ray imaging for the small joints of the hand,” Phys. Med. Biol.56, 5697–5720 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

F. Pfeiffer, C. Kottler, O. Bunk, and C. David, “Hard X-ray phase tomography with low-brilliance sources,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98, 108105 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

E. Roessl, H. Daerr, T. Koehler, G. Martens, and U. van Stevendaal, “Slit-scanning differential phase-contrast mammography: First experimental results,” Proc. SPIE9033, 90330C (2014).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

C. Kottler, F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. Grünzweig, and C. David, “Grating interferometer based scanning setup for hard X-ray phase contrast imaging,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.78, 043710 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Skeletal Radiol. (1)

T. Thüring, R. Guggenberger, H. Alkadhi, J. Hodler, M. Vich, Z. Wang, C. David, and M. Stampanoni, “Human hand radiography using X-ray differential phase contrast combined with dark-field imaging,” Skeletal Radiol.42(6), 827–835 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

T. Thüring, “Compact X-ray grating interferometry for phase and dark-field computed tomography in the diagnostic energy range,” PhD thesis, ETH Zurich (2013).

Precision Linear Stages LTM 80, OWIS GmbH, www.owis.eu .

C. David and F. Pfeiffer, “X-ray interferometer for phase contrast imaging,” Patent WO 2008/006470A1 (17. Jan, 2008).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Sketch of an X-ray grating interferometer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Tilted-grating method. a. Sketch of a staggered grating, where the grating at a different lateral position covers each detector line. b. To achieve the same effect, the grating is tilted so that each line detector records a different phase step (red dots on the phase-stepping curve shown on the right).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Moiré fringes generated for the tilted-grating and Kottler’s methods, during the acquisition of the phantom images.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

DPC images reconstructed from simulated data. Both scanning-mode methods proved to be able to retrieve accurate DPC signals. Detector noise was included in the simulations.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Images of a plastic double-layer Eppendorf tube acquired with a total exposure time of 50 minutes. From top to bottom: Absorption, DPC and dark-field. Both scanning-mode methods yielded reasonable outcomes, but the visual quality of the images acquired with the tilted-grating technique is higher. However, there is some blurring present in these images, which we believe is due to the fact of lacking a stable sample translation stage. Row profiles for all the images corresponding to the position marked by the red line are plotted in Fig. 6.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Row profiles of a plastic double-layer Eppendorf tube acquired with a total exposure time of 50 minutes. Comparison between phase stepping and the two scanning-mode methods implemented. From left to right: Absorption, DPC and dark-field. The quantitative accuracy of our technique can be appreciated.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Images of a plastic double-layer Eppendorf tube acquired with the tilted-grating method (top) and deblurred by registration of the images in one direction (bottom). The edges are better defined in the latter, proving the usefulness of this simple deblurring procedure.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Images of a mouse head. From top to bottom: Absorption, DPC and dark-field. Both scanning-mode methods yielded reasonable outcomes, but the tilted-grating method produced visually nicer images than Kottler’s.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 CW-SSIM and MSE values between the scanning-mode methods and the phase stepping technique for the simulated signals. Both scanning-mode methods proved to be quantitatively accurate, but the tilted-grating method yielded a MSE value much lower than Kottler’s for the DPC signal.

Tables Icon

Table 2 CW-SSIM values between the scanning-mode methods and the phase-stepping technique for the Eppendorf tube images. The values yielded by the tilted-grating technique are superior to Kottler’s for all three signal types. As mentioned above, the tilted-grating and Kottler’s signals were recorded with one and two periods, respectively, but with the same total exposure time.

Tables Icon

Table 3 SNR values for the Eppendorf tube images. The tilted-grating method yielded the highest SNR values for the DPC and dark-field signals, while Kottler’s produced the highest SNR for the absorption image.

Tables Icon

Table 4 CW-SSIM values between the scanning-mode methods and the phase-stepping technique for the mouse head images. The performance of the tilted-grating method was superior in the case of the dark-field and DPC signals.

Equations (3)

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δ x = m p 2 n ,
θ = arctan ( δ x D ) ,
s = D L L + d ,

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