Abstract

We report on a strong cross migration of ions in a Tellurite (Te) based glass to form waveguides using a high repetition rate femtosecond laser. The tellurite glass matrix was modified using oxides of P, Na and Zn elements of which Te and Na ions play an important role to form waveguides upon laser irradiation. Tellurium was observed to migrate causing a positive index change zone whereas sodium cross migrates to the tellurium deficient zone forming a relatively low index change region. We have used micro-Raman analysis to scan across the waveguide cross-section to understand the state of the glass network and the relation between ion migration and glass densification for waveguiding. We have found that there is an increase in TeO3 units and reduction of TeO4 units in the Te rich zones enabling densification. This work will help guide the new commercial glass manufacturing industries that aim at producing mid-infrared transparent glasses like tellurite, tellurides and chalcogenides for the production of waveguide based devices.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  12. T. Toney Fernandez, P. Haro-González, B. Sotillo, M. Hernandez, D. Jaque, P. Fernandez, C. Domingo, J. Siegel, and J. Solis, “Ion migration assisted inscription of high refractive index contrast waveguides by femtosecond laser pulses in phosphate glass,” Opt. Lett. 38(24), 5248–5251 (2013).
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    [CrossRef]
  16. Y. Shimotsuma, K. Hirao, J. Qiu, and K. Miura, “Nanofabrication in transparent materials with a femtosecond pulse laser,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(6-7), 646–656 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  17. S. K. Sundaram, C. B. Schaffer, and E. Mazur, “Microexplosions in tellurite glasses,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 76(3), 379–384 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  18. F. Luo, J. Song, X. Hu, H. Sun, G. Lin, H. Pan, Y. Cheng, L. Liu, J. Qiu, Q. Zhao, and Z. Xu, “Femtosecond laser-induced inverted microstructures inside glasses by tuning refractive index of objective’s immersion liquid,” Opt. Lett. 36(11), 2125–2127 (2011).
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    [CrossRef]
  20. H. Kahnt, “Ionic transport in glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 203, 225–231 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  21. J. Kieffer, J. E. Masnik, O. Nickolayev, and J. D. Bass, “Structural developments in supercooled alkali tellurite melts,” Phys. Rev. B 58(2), 694–705 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  22. M. Tatsumisago, S.-K. Lee, T. Minami, and Y. Kowada, “Raman spectra of TeO2-based glasses and glassy liquids: local structure change with temperature in relation to fragility of liquid,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 177, 154–163 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  23. H. Niida, T. Uchino, J. Jin, S.-H. Kim, T. Fukunaga, and T. Yoko, “Structure of alkali tellurite glasses from neutron diffraction and molecular orbital calculations,” J. Chem. Phys. 114(1), 459–467 (2001).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (1)

2012 (2)

S. J. Madden and K. T. Vu, “High-performance integrated optics with tellurite glasses: status and prospects,” Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci. 3(4), 289–298 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Jha, B. Richards, G. Jose, T. Teddy-Fernandez, P. Joshi, X. Jiang, and J. Lousteau, “Rare-earth ion doped TeO2 and GeO2 glasses as laser materials,” Prog. Mater. Sci. 57(8), 1426–1491 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

2010 (2)

2008 (2)

2006 (1)

Y. Shimotsuma, K. Hirao, J. Qiu, and K. Miura, “Nanofabrication in transparent materials with a femtosecond pulse laser,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(6-7), 646–656 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

J. Siegel, J. M. Fernández-Navarro, A. García-Navarro, V. Diez-Blanco, O. Sanz, J. Solis, F. Vega, and J. Armengol, “Waveguide structures in heavy metal oxide glass written with femtosecond laser pulses above the critical self-focusing threshold,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(12), 121109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

S. K. Sundaram, C. B. Schaffer, and E. Mazur, “Microexplosions in tellurite glasses,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 76(3), 379–384 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

H. Niida, T. Uchino, J. Jin, S.-H. Kim, T. Fukunaga, and T. Yoko, “Structure of alkali tellurite glasses from neutron diffraction and molecular orbital calculations,” J. Chem. Phys. 114(1), 459–467 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

Y. Ohishi, A. Mori, M. Yamada, H. Ono, Y. Nishida, and K. Oikawa, “Gain characteristics of tellurite-based erbium-doped fiber amplifiers for 1.5-µm broadband amplification,” Opt. Lett. 23(4), 274–276 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kieffer, J. E. Masnik, O. Nickolayev, and J. D. Bass, “Structural developments in supercooled alkali tellurite melts,” Phys. Rev. B 58(2), 694–705 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

A. Mori, Y. Ohishi, and S. Sudo, “Erbium-doped tellurite glass fibre laser and amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 33(10), 863–864 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

H. Kahnt, “Ionic transport in glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 203, 225–231 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

M. Tatsumisago, S.-K. Lee, T. Minami, and Y. Kowada, “Raman spectra of TeO2-based glasses and glassy liquids: local structure change with temperature in relation to fragility of liquid,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 177, 154–163 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

R. Terai and R. Hayami, “Ionic diffusion in glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 18(2), 217–264 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Armengol, J.

J. Siegel, J. M. Fernández-Navarro, A. García-Navarro, V. Diez-Blanco, O. Sanz, J. Solis, F. Vega, and J. Armengol, “Waveguide structures in heavy metal oxide glass written with femtosecond laser pulses above the critical self-focusing threshold,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(12), 121109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bass, J. D.

J. Kieffer, J. E. Masnik, O. Nickolayev, and J. D. Bass, “Structural developments in supercooled alkali tellurite melts,” Phys. Rev. B 58(2), 694–705 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cerullo, G.

Chen, W.-J.

Cheng, Y.

Della Valle, G.

Diez-Blanco, V.

J. Siegel, J. M. Fernández-Navarro, A. García-Navarro, V. Diez-Blanco, O. Sanz, J. Solis, F. Vega, and J. Armengol, “Waveguide structures in heavy metal oxide glass written with femtosecond laser pulses above the critical self-focusing threshold,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(12), 121109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Domingo, C.

Eaton, S. M.

Fernandez, P.

Fernandez, T. T.

Fernández-Navarro, J. M.

J. Siegel, J. M. Fernández-Navarro, A. García-Navarro, V. Diez-Blanco, O. Sanz, J. Solis, F. Vega, and J. Armengol, “Waveguide structures in heavy metal oxide glass written with femtosecond laser pulses above the critical self-focusing threshold,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(12), 121109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fukunaga, T.

H. Niida, T. Uchino, J. Jin, S.-H. Kim, T. Fukunaga, and T. Yoko, “Structure of alkali tellurite glasses from neutron diffraction and molecular orbital calculations,” J. Chem. Phys. 114(1), 459–467 (2001).
[CrossRef]

García-Navarro, A.

J. Siegel, J. M. Fernández-Navarro, A. García-Navarro, V. Diez-Blanco, O. Sanz, J. Solis, F. Vega, and J. Armengol, “Waveguide structures in heavy metal oxide glass written with femtosecond laser pulses above the critical self-focusing threshold,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(12), 121109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Haro-González, P.

Hayami, R.

R. Terai and R. Hayami, “Ionic diffusion in glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 18(2), 217–264 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Herman, P. R.

Hernandez, M.

Hirao, K.

S. Kanehira, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ion exchange in glass using femtosecond laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 023112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shimotsuma, K. Hirao, J. Qiu, and K. Miura, “Nanofabrication in transparent materials with a femtosecond pulse laser,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(6-7), 646–656 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ho, S.

Hu, X.

Irannejad, M.

Jaque, D.

Jha, A.

A. Jha, B. Richards, G. Jose, T. Teddy-Fernandez, P. Joshi, X. Jiang, and J. Lousteau, “Rare-earth ion doped TeO2 and GeO2 glasses as laser materials,” Prog. Mater. Sci. 57(8), 1426–1491 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. T. Fernandez, S. M. Eaton, G. Della Valle, R. M. Vazquez, M. Irannejad, G. Jose, A. Jha, G. Cerullo, R. Osellame, and P. Laporta, “Femtosecond laser written optical waveguide amplifier in phospho-tellurite glass,” Opt. Express 18(19), 20289–20297 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, X.

A. Jha, B. Richards, G. Jose, T. Teddy-Fernandez, P. Joshi, X. Jiang, and J. Lousteau, “Rare-earth ion doped TeO2 and GeO2 glasses as laser materials,” Prog. Mater. Sci. 57(8), 1426–1491 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jin, J.

H. Niida, T. Uchino, J. Jin, S.-H. Kim, T. Fukunaga, and T. Yoko, “Structure of alkali tellurite glasses from neutron diffraction and molecular orbital calculations,” J. Chem. Phys. 114(1), 459–467 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jose, G.

A. Jha, B. Richards, G. Jose, T. Teddy-Fernandez, P. Joshi, X. Jiang, and J. Lousteau, “Rare-earth ion doped TeO2 and GeO2 glasses as laser materials,” Prog. Mater. Sci. 57(8), 1426–1491 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. T. Fernandez, S. M. Eaton, G. Della Valle, R. M. Vazquez, M. Irannejad, G. Jose, A. Jha, G. Cerullo, R. Osellame, and P. Laporta, “Femtosecond laser written optical waveguide amplifier in phospho-tellurite glass,” Opt. Express 18(19), 20289–20297 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Joshi, P.

A. Jha, B. Richards, G. Jose, T. Teddy-Fernandez, P. Joshi, X. Jiang, and J. Lousteau, “Rare-earth ion doped TeO2 and GeO2 glasses as laser materials,” Prog. Mater. Sci. 57(8), 1426–1491 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kahnt, H.

H. Kahnt, “Ionic transport in glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 203, 225–231 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kanehira, S.

S. Kanehira, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ion exchange in glass using femtosecond laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 023112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kieffer, J.

J. Kieffer, J. E. Masnik, O. Nickolayev, and J. D. Bass, “Structural developments in supercooled alkali tellurite melts,” Phys. Rev. B 58(2), 694–705 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S.-H.

H. Niida, T. Uchino, J. Jin, S.-H. Kim, T. Fukunaga, and T. Yoko, “Structure of alkali tellurite glasses from neutron diffraction and molecular orbital calculations,” J. Chem. Phys. 114(1), 459–467 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kowada, Y.

M. Tatsumisago, S.-K. Lee, T. Minami, and Y. Kowada, “Raman spectra of TeO2-based glasses and glassy liquids: local structure change with temperature in relation to fragility of liquid,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 177, 154–163 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Laporta, P.

Lee, S.-K.

M. Tatsumisago, S.-K. Lee, T. Minami, and Y. Kowada, “Raman spectra of TeO2-based glasses and glassy liquids: local structure change with temperature in relation to fragility of liquid,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 177, 154–163 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

Lin, G.

Liu, L.

Lousteau, J.

A. Jha, B. Richards, G. Jose, T. Teddy-Fernandez, P. Joshi, X. Jiang, and J. Lousteau, “Rare-earth ion doped TeO2 and GeO2 glasses as laser materials,” Prog. Mater. Sci. 57(8), 1426–1491 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Luo, F.

Madden, S.

Madden, S. J.

S. J. Madden and K. T. Vu, “High-performance integrated optics with tellurite glasses: status and prospects,” Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci. 3(4), 289–298 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Masnik, J. E.

J. Kieffer, J. E. Masnik, O. Nickolayev, and J. D. Bass, “Structural developments in supercooled alkali tellurite melts,” Phys. Rev. B 58(2), 694–705 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mazur, E.

S. K. Sundaram, C. B. Schaffer, and E. Mazur, “Microexplosions in tellurite glasses,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 76(3), 379–384 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Minami, T.

M. Tatsumisago, S.-K. Lee, T. Minami, and Y. Kowada, “Raman spectra of TeO2-based glasses and glassy liquids: local structure change with temperature in relation to fragility of liquid,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 177, 154–163 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Miura, K.

S. Kanehira, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ion exchange in glass using femtosecond laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 023112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shimotsuma, K. Hirao, J. Qiu, and K. Miura, “Nanofabrication in transparent materials with a femtosecond pulse laser,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(6-7), 646–656 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mori, A.

Ng, M. L.

Nickolayev, O.

J. Kieffer, J. E. Masnik, O. Nickolayev, and J. D. Bass, “Structural developments in supercooled alkali tellurite melts,” Phys. Rev. B 58(2), 694–705 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Niida, H.

H. Niida, T. Uchino, J. Jin, S.-H. Kim, T. Fukunaga, and T. Yoko, “Structure of alkali tellurite glasses from neutron diffraction and molecular orbital calculations,” J. Chem. Phys. 114(1), 459–467 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nishida, Y.

Ohishi, Y.

Oikawa, K.

Ono, H.

Osellame, R.

Pan, H.

Qiu, J.

Richards, B.

A. Jha, B. Richards, G. Jose, T. Teddy-Fernandez, P. Joshi, X. Jiang, and J. Lousteau, “Rare-earth ion doped TeO2 and GeO2 glasses as laser materials,” Prog. Mater. Sci. 57(8), 1426–1491 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sanz, O.

J. Siegel, J. M. Fernández-Navarro, A. García-Navarro, V. Diez-Blanco, O. Sanz, J. Solis, F. Vega, and J. Armengol, “Waveguide structures in heavy metal oxide glass written with femtosecond laser pulses above the critical self-focusing threshold,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(12), 121109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schaffer, C. B.

S. K. Sundaram, C. B. Schaffer, and E. Mazur, “Microexplosions in tellurite glasses,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 76(3), 379–384 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shimotsuma, Y.

Y. Shimotsuma, K. Hirao, J. Qiu, and K. Miura, “Nanofabrication in transparent materials with a femtosecond pulse laser,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(6-7), 646–656 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Siegel, J.

T. Toney Fernandez, P. Haro-González, B. Sotillo, M. Hernandez, D. Jaque, P. Fernandez, C. Domingo, J. Siegel, and J. Solis, “Ion migration assisted inscription of high refractive index contrast waveguides by femtosecond laser pulses in phosphate glass,” Opt. Lett. 38(24), 5248–5251 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Siegel, J. M. Fernández-Navarro, A. García-Navarro, V. Diez-Blanco, O. Sanz, J. Solis, F. Vega, and J. Armengol, “Waveguide structures in heavy metal oxide glass written with femtosecond laser pulses above the critical self-focusing threshold,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(12), 121109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Solis, J.

T. Toney Fernandez, P. Haro-González, B. Sotillo, M. Hernandez, D. Jaque, P. Fernandez, C. Domingo, J. Siegel, and J. Solis, “Ion migration assisted inscription of high refractive index contrast waveguides by femtosecond laser pulses in phosphate glass,” Opt. Lett. 38(24), 5248–5251 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Siegel, J. M. Fernández-Navarro, A. García-Navarro, V. Diez-Blanco, O. Sanz, J. Solis, F. Vega, and J. Armengol, “Waveguide structures in heavy metal oxide glass written with femtosecond laser pulses above the critical self-focusing threshold,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(12), 121109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Song, J.

Sotillo, B.

Sudo, S.

A. Mori, Y. Ohishi, and S. Sudo, “Erbium-doped tellurite glass fibre laser and amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 33(10), 863–864 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sun, H.

Sundaram, S. K.

S. K. Sundaram, C. B. Schaffer, and E. Mazur, “Microexplosions in tellurite glasses,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 76(3), 379–384 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tatsumisago, M.

M. Tatsumisago, S.-K. Lee, T. Minami, and Y. Kowada, “Raman spectra of TeO2-based glasses and glassy liquids: local structure change with temperature in relation to fragility of liquid,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 177, 154–163 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Teddy-Fernandez, T.

A. Jha, B. Richards, G. Jose, T. Teddy-Fernandez, P. Joshi, X. Jiang, and J. Lousteau, “Rare-earth ion doped TeO2 and GeO2 glasses as laser materials,” Prog. Mater. Sci. 57(8), 1426–1491 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Terai, R.

R. Terai and R. Hayami, “Ionic diffusion in glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 18(2), 217–264 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Toney Fernandez, T.

Uchino, T.

H. Niida, T. Uchino, J. Jin, S.-H. Kim, T. Fukunaga, and T. Yoko, “Structure of alkali tellurite glasses from neutron diffraction and molecular orbital calculations,” J. Chem. Phys. 114(1), 459–467 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Vazquez, R. M.

Vega, F.

J. Siegel, J. M. Fernández-Navarro, A. García-Navarro, V. Diez-Blanco, O. Sanz, J. Solis, F. Vega, and J. Armengol, “Waveguide structures in heavy metal oxide glass written with femtosecond laser pulses above the critical self-focusing threshold,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(12), 121109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vu, K.

Vu, K. T.

S. J. Madden and K. T. Vu, “High-performance integrated optics with tellurite glasses: status and prospects,” Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci. 3(4), 289–298 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Z.

Yamada, M.

Yoko, T.

H. Niida, T. Uchino, J. Jin, S.-H. Kim, T. Fukunaga, and T. Yoko, “Structure of alkali tellurite glasses from neutron diffraction and molecular orbital calculations,” J. Chem. Phys. 114(1), 459–467 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.

Zhao, Q.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

J. Siegel, J. M. Fernández-Navarro, A. García-Navarro, V. Diez-Blanco, O. Sanz, J. Solis, F. Vega, and J. Armengol, “Waveguide structures in heavy metal oxide glass written with femtosecond laser pulses above the critical self-focusing threshold,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(12), 121109 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Kanehira, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ion exchange in glass using femtosecond laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(2), 023112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. (1)

S. K. Sundaram, C. B. Schaffer, and E. Mazur, “Microexplosions in tellurite glasses,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 76(3), 379–384 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

A. Mori, Y. Ohishi, and S. Sudo, “Erbium-doped tellurite glass fibre laser and amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 33(10), 863–864 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci. (1)

S. J. Madden and K. T. Vu, “High-performance integrated optics with tellurite glasses: status and prospects,” Int. J. Appl. Glass Sci. 3(4), 289–298 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

H. Niida, T. Uchino, J. Jin, S.-H. Kim, T. Fukunaga, and T. Yoko, “Structure of alkali tellurite glasses from neutron diffraction and molecular orbital calculations,” J. Chem. Phys. 114(1), 459–467 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (4)

M. Tatsumisago, S.-K. Lee, T. Minami, and Y. Kowada, “Raman spectra of TeO2-based glasses and glassy liquids: local structure change with temperature in relation to fragility of liquid,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 177, 154–163 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. Terai and R. Hayami, “Ionic diffusion in glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 18(2), 217–264 (1975).
[CrossRef]

H. Kahnt, “Ionic transport in glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 203, 225–231 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shimotsuma, K. Hirao, J. Qiu, and K. Miura, “Nanofabrication in transparent materials with a femtosecond pulse laser,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(6-7), 646–656 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

J. Kieffer, J. E. Masnik, O. Nickolayev, and J. D. Bass, “Structural developments in supercooled alkali tellurite melts,” Phys. Rev. B 58(2), 694–705 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Mater. Sci. (1)

A. Jha, B. Richards, G. Jose, T. Teddy-Fernandez, P. Joshi, X. Jiang, and J. Lousteau, “Rare-earth ion doped TeO2 and GeO2 glasses as laser materials,” Prog. Mater. Sci. 57(8), 1426–1491 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

University of Adelaide tellurite glass data sheet, http://www.adelaide.edu.au/ipas/docs/resources/products/tellurite-glass.pdf .

Schott chalcogenide glasses data sheet, http://www.us.schott.com/advanced_optics/english/download/schott-infrared-chalcog-glasses-family-sheet-october-2013-us.pdf .

Kigre data sheet, www.kigre.com/files/er169.pdf .

G. S. Murugan, T. Suzuki, and Y. Ohishi, Advances in Glass and Optical Materials II (John Wiley, 2006), pp. 135–140.

S. M. Eaton, “Contrasts in thermal diffusion and heat accumulation effects in the fabrication of waveguides in glasses using variable repetition rate femtosecond laser” (University of Toronto, 2008).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

DIC microscope image of (a) waveguide A, (b) waveguide B and (a1) & (b1) respective 980 nm propagated modes. All figures have the same scale shown in (a) and (b).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Line scans showing strong ion migration in (a) waveguide (A), (b) waveguide (B) along with respective (a1) & (b1) secondary electron images

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) DIC image of waveguide (B) with marked scan distance and five relevant transverse scan points (cross, square, star, circle, and diamond), (b) Raman spectrum of the unirradiated bulk glass and (c) peak intensity variation in vibration frequencies of TeO3 (789cm−1 peak, blue line), TeO4 (709cm−1 peak, green line) and Te-O bending (462cm−1 peak, red line) cm−1 units, (d) shift in corresponding peak vibration frequency (e) variation in FWHM of corresponding peak vibration band.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Refractive index change, Te ion increase, and changes to Raman bands for waveguides A and B.

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