Abstract

In this paper, a technique for molecular dispersion spectroscopy based on heterodyne phase-sensitive detection is presented. The method offers immunity to fluctuations of the received optical power and an output linearly dependent of the gas concentration. Besides this, an analytical model for the propagation of light in gaseous samples has been developed enabling calibration-free operation. The proposed architecture has been tested and experimentally validated using methane as target gas.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. J. Reid, J. Shewchun, B. K. Garside, and E. A. Ballik, “High sensitivity pollution detection employing tunable diode lasers,” Appl. Opt. 17(2), 300–307 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J. Reid, M. El-Sherbiny, B. K. Garside, and E. A. Ballik, “Sensitivity limits of a tunable diode laser spectrometer, with application to the detection of NO(2) at the 100-ppt level,” Appl. Opt. 19(19), 3349–3353 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. H. I. Schiff, D. R. Hastie, G. I. Mackay, T. Iguchi, and B. A. Ridley, “Tunable diode laser systems for measuring trace gases intropospheric air,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 17(8), 352A–364A (1983).
    [PubMed]
  4. G. B. Rieker, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Calibration-free wavelength-modulation spectroscopy for measurements of gas temperature and concentration in harsh environments,” Appl. Opt. 48(29), 5546–5560 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. G. C. Bjorklund, “Frequency-modulation spectroscopy: a new method for measuring weak absorptions and dispersions,” Opt. Lett. 5(1), 15–17 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. W. Lenth, “Optical heterodyne spectroscopy with frequency- and amplitude-modulated semiconductor lasers,” Opt. Lett. 8(11), 575–577 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. J. A. Silver, “Frequency-modulation spectroscopy for trace species detection: theory and comparison among experimental methods,” Appl. Opt. 31(6), 707–717 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. J. Ye, L.-S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, “Ultrasensitive detections in atomic and molecular physics: demonstration in molecular overtone spectroscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15(1), 6–15 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Foltynowicz, F. M. Schmidt, W. Ma, and O. Axner, “Noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy: Current status and future potential,” Appl. Phys. B 92(3), 313–326 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  10. B. M. Siller, M. W. Porambo, A. A. Mills, and B. J. McCall, “Noise immune cavity enhanced optical heterodyne velocity modulation spectroscopy,” Opt. Express 19(24), 24822–24827 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. D. E. Cooper and T. F. Gallagher, “Double frequency modulation spectroscopy: high modulation frequency with low-bandwidth detectors,” Appl. Opt. 24(9), 1327–1334 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. D. E. Cooper and J. P. Watjen, “Two-tone optical heterodyne spectroscopy with a tunable lead-salt diode laser,” Opt. Lett. 11(10), 606–608 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. G. R. Janik, C. B. Carlisle, and T. F. Gallagher, “Two-tone frequency-modulation spectroscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 3(8), 1070–1074 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  14. K. Franz, D. Weidmann, and G. Wysocki, “High dynamic range laser dispersion spectroscopy of saturated absorption lines,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (2010), p. CMJ4.
    [CrossRef]
  15. D. Roschdestwensky, “Anomale Dispersion im Natriumdampf,” Ann. Phys. 344(12), 307–345 (1912).
    [CrossRef]
  16. P. van de Weijer and R. M. Cremers, “Hook method: improvement and simplification of the experimental setup,” Appl. Opt. 22(22), 3500–3502 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. W. T. Bayha, “A revised fringe equation for the hook method in anomalous dispersion,” J. Appl. Phys. 60(5), 1560–1564 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  18. V. Majidi, W. Hsut, and D. M. Coleman, “Number density measurements on analytical discharge systems: application of ‘hook’ spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B At. Spectrosc. 43(4–5), 561–573 (1988).
  19. E. Kindel, M. Kettlitz, C. Schimke, and H. Schöpp, “Application of the hook method and emission spectroscopy for the determination of radial density and temperature profiles in high-pressure mercury discharges,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 31(11), 1352–1361 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  20. V. Hasson, A. J. D. Farmer, and R. W. Nicholls, ““Application of dispersion techniques to molecular band intensity measurements. I. Principles of ‘fringe shift’ and ‘fringe slope’ band analysis procedures,” J. Phys. B At. Mol. Phys. 5(6), 1241–1247 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  21. R. Gross, R. Chodzko, E. Turner, and J. Coffer, “Measurements of the anomalous dispersion of HF in absorption,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16(7), 795–798 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  22. A.-P. Tzannis, J. C. Lee, P. Beaud, H.-M. Frey, T. Greber, B. Mischler, P. P. Radi, and K. Boulouchos, “OH concentration measurements by resonant holographic interferometry and comparison with direct numerical simulations,” Flow Turbul. Combust. 64(3), 183–196 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  23. J. J. Moschella, R. C. Hazelton, and M. D. Keitz, “Resonant, heterodyne laser interferometer for state density measurements in atoms and ions,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77(9), 093108 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  24. G. Wysocki and D. Weidmann, “Molecular dispersion spectroscopy for chemical sensing using chirped mid-infrared quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Express 18(25), 26123–26140 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. P. Martín-Mateos, B. Jerez, and P. Acedo, “Heterodyne architecture for tunable laser chirped dispersion spectroscopy using optical processing,” Opt. Lett. 39(9), 2611–2613 (2014).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. LeRoy, G. Li, D. Long, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 Molecular Spectroscopic Database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
  27. G. Plant, M. Nikodem, D. M. Sonnenfroh, and G. Wysocki, “Chirped laser dispersion spectroscopy for remote sensing of methane at 1.65 µm—Analysis of system performance,” in CLEO: Applications and Technology 2013, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper JW2A.79.

2014 (1)

2013 (1)

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. LeRoy, G. Li, D. Long, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 Molecular Spectroscopic Database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).

2011 (1)

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

A. Foltynowicz, F. M. Schmidt, W. Ma, and O. Axner, “Noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy: Current status and future potential,” Appl. Phys. B 92(3), 313–326 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

J. J. Moschella, R. C. Hazelton, and M. D. Keitz, “Resonant, heterodyne laser interferometer for state density measurements in atoms and ions,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77(9), 093108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

A.-P. Tzannis, J. C. Lee, P. Beaud, H.-M. Frey, T. Greber, B. Mischler, P. P. Radi, and K. Boulouchos, “OH concentration measurements by resonant holographic interferometry and comparison with direct numerical simulations,” Flow Turbul. Combust. 64(3), 183–196 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

E. Kindel, M. Kettlitz, C. Schimke, and H. Schöpp, “Application of the hook method and emission spectroscopy for the determination of radial density and temperature profiles in high-pressure mercury discharges,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 31(11), 1352–1361 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Ye, L.-S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, “Ultrasensitive detections in atomic and molecular physics: demonstration in molecular overtone spectroscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15(1), 6–15 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

1988 (1)

V. Majidi, W. Hsut, and D. M. Coleman, “Number density measurements on analytical discharge systems: application of ‘hook’ spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B At. Spectrosc. 43(4–5), 561–573 (1988).

1986 (3)

1985 (1)

1983 (3)

1980 (3)

1978 (1)

1972 (1)

V. Hasson, A. J. D. Farmer, and R. W. Nicholls, ““Application of dispersion techniques to molecular band intensity measurements. I. Principles of ‘fringe shift’ and ‘fringe slope’ band analysis procedures,” J. Phys. B At. Mol. Phys. 5(6), 1241–1247 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1912 (1)

D. Roschdestwensky, “Anomale Dispersion im Natriumdampf,” Ann. Phys. 344(12), 307–345 (1912).
[CrossRef]

Acedo, P.

Axner, O.

A. Foltynowicz, F. M. Schmidt, W. Ma, and O. Axner, “Noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy: Current status and future potential,” Appl. Phys. B 92(3), 313–326 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Babikov, Y.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. LeRoy, G. Li, D. Long, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 Molecular Spectroscopic Database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).

Ballik, E. A.

Barbe, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. LeRoy, G. Li, D. Long, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 Molecular Spectroscopic Database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).

Bayha, W. T.

W. T. Bayha, “A revised fringe equation for the hook method in anomalous dispersion,” J. Appl. Phys. 60(5), 1560–1564 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Beaud, P.

A.-P. Tzannis, J. C. Lee, P. Beaud, H.-M. Frey, T. Greber, B. Mischler, P. P. Radi, and K. Boulouchos, “OH concentration measurements by resonant holographic interferometry and comparison with direct numerical simulations,” Flow Turbul. Combust. 64(3), 183–196 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Benner, D. C.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. LeRoy, G. Li, D. Long, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 Molecular Spectroscopic Database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).

Bernath, P. F.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. LeRoy, G. Li, D. Long, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 Molecular Spectroscopic Database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).

Birk, M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. LeRoy, G. Li, D. Long, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 Molecular Spectroscopic Database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).

Bizzocchi, L.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. LeRoy, G. Li, D. Long, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 Molecular Spectroscopic Database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).

Bjorklund, G. C.

Boudon, V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. LeRoy, G. Li, D. Long, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 Molecular Spectroscopic Database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).

Boulouchos, K.

A.-P. Tzannis, J. C. Lee, P. Beaud, H.-M. Frey, T. Greber, B. Mischler, P. P. Radi, and K. Boulouchos, “OH concentration measurements by resonant holographic interferometry and comparison with direct numerical simulations,” Flow Turbul. Combust. 64(3), 183–196 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. LeRoy, G. Li, D. Long, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 Molecular Spectroscopic Database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).

Campargue, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. LeRoy, G. Li, D. Long, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 Molecular Spectroscopic Database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).

Carlisle, C. B.

Chance, K.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. LeRoy, G. Li, D. Long, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 Molecular Spectroscopic Database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).

Chodzko, R.

R. Gross, R. Chodzko, E. Turner, and J. Coffer, “Measurements of the anomalous dispersion of HF in absorption,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16(7), 795–798 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Coffer, J.

R. Gross, R. Chodzko, E. Turner, and J. Coffer, “Measurements of the anomalous dispersion of HF in absorption,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16(7), 795–798 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Coleman, D. M.

V. Majidi, W. Hsut, and D. M. Coleman, “Number density measurements on analytical discharge systems: application of ‘hook’ spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B At. Spectrosc. 43(4–5), 561–573 (1988).

Cooper, D. E.

Coudert, L. H.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. LeRoy, G. Li, D. Long, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 Molecular Spectroscopic Database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).

Cremers, R. M.

Devi, V. M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. LeRoy, G. Li, D. Long, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 Molecular Spectroscopic Database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).

Drouin, B. J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. LeRoy, G. Li, D. Long, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 Molecular Spectroscopic Database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).

El-Sherbiny, M.

Farmer, A. J. D.

V. Hasson, A. J. D. Farmer, and R. W. Nicholls, ““Application of dispersion techniques to molecular band intensity measurements. I. Principles of ‘fringe shift’ and ‘fringe slope’ band analysis procedures,” J. Phys. B At. Mol. Phys. 5(6), 1241–1247 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Fayt, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. LeRoy, G. Li, D. Long, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 Molecular Spectroscopic Database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).

Flaud, J.-M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. LeRoy, G. Li, D. Long, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 Molecular Spectroscopic Database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).

Foltynowicz, A.

A. Foltynowicz, F. M. Schmidt, W. Ma, and O. Axner, “Noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy: Current status and future potential,” Appl. Phys. B 92(3), 313–326 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Frey, H.-M.

A.-P. Tzannis, J. C. Lee, P. Beaud, H.-M. Frey, T. Greber, B. Mischler, P. P. Radi, and K. Boulouchos, “OH concentration measurements by resonant holographic interferometry and comparison with direct numerical simulations,” Flow Turbul. Combust. 64(3), 183–196 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gallagher, T. F.

Gamache, R. R.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. LeRoy, G. Li, D. Long, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 Molecular Spectroscopic Database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).

Garside, B. K.

Gordon, I. E.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. LeRoy, G. Li, D. Long, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 Molecular Spectroscopic Database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).

Greber, T.

A.-P. Tzannis, J. C. Lee, P. Beaud, H.-M. Frey, T. Greber, B. Mischler, P. P. Radi, and K. Boulouchos, “OH concentration measurements by resonant holographic interferometry and comparison with direct numerical simulations,” Flow Turbul. Combust. 64(3), 183–196 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gross, R.

R. Gross, R. Chodzko, E. Turner, and J. Coffer, “Measurements of the anomalous dispersion of HF in absorption,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16(7), 795–798 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Hall, J. L.

Hanson, R. K.

Harrison, J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. LeRoy, G. Li, D. Long, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 Molecular Spectroscopic Database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).

Hartmann, J.-M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. LeRoy, G. Li, D. Long, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 Molecular Spectroscopic Database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).

Hasson, V.

V. Hasson, A. J. D. Farmer, and R. W. Nicholls, ““Application of dispersion techniques to molecular band intensity measurements. I. Principles of ‘fringe shift’ and ‘fringe slope’ band analysis procedures,” J. Phys. B At. Mol. Phys. 5(6), 1241–1247 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Hastie, D. R.

H. I. Schiff, D. R. Hastie, G. I. Mackay, T. Iguchi, and B. A. Ridley, “Tunable diode laser systems for measuring trace gases intropospheric air,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 17(8), 352A–364A (1983).
[PubMed]

Hazelton, R. C.

J. J. Moschella, R. C. Hazelton, and M. D. Keitz, “Resonant, heterodyne laser interferometer for state density measurements in atoms and ions,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77(9), 093108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hill, C.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. LeRoy, G. Li, D. Long, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 Molecular Spectroscopic Database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).

Hodges, J. T.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. LeRoy, G. Li, D. Long, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 Molecular Spectroscopic Database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).

Hsut, W.

V. Majidi, W. Hsut, and D. M. Coleman, “Number density measurements on analytical discharge systems: application of ‘hook’ spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B At. Spectrosc. 43(4–5), 561–573 (1988).

Iguchi, T.

H. I. Schiff, D. R. Hastie, G. I. Mackay, T. Iguchi, and B. A. Ridley, “Tunable diode laser systems for measuring trace gases intropospheric air,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 17(8), 352A–364A (1983).
[PubMed]

Jacquemart, D.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. LeRoy, G. Li, D. Long, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 Molecular Spectroscopic Database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).

Janik, G. R.

Jeffries, J. B.

Jerez, B.

Jolly, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. LeRoy, G. Li, D. Long, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 Molecular Spectroscopic Database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).

Keitz, M. D.

J. J. Moschella, R. C. Hazelton, and M. D. Keitz, “Resonant, heterodyne laser interferometer for state density measurements in atoms and ions,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77(9), 093108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kettlitz, M.

E. Kindel, M. Kettlitz, C. Schimke, and H. Schöpp, “Application of the hook method and emission spectroscopy for the determination of radial density and temperature profiles in high-pressure mercury discharges,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 31(11), 1352–1361 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kindel, E.

E. Kindel, M. Kettlitz, C. Schimke, and H. Schöpp, “Application of the hook method and emission spectroscopy for the determination of radial density and temperature profiles in high-pressure mercury discharges,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 31(11), 1352–1361 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lamouroux, J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. LeRoy, G. Li, D. Long, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 Molecular Spectroscopic Database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).

Lee, J. C.

A.-P. Tzannis, J. C. Lee, P. Beaud, H.-M. Frey, T. Greber, B. Mischler, P. P. Radi, and K. Boulouchos, “OH concentration measurements by resonant holographic interferometry and comparison with direct numerical simulations,” Flow Turbul. Combust. 64(3), 183–196 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lenth, W.

LeRoy, R. J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. LeRoy, G. Li, D. Long, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 Molecular Spectroscopic Database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).

Li, G.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. LeRoy, G. Li, D. Long, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 Molecular Spectroscopic Database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).

Long, D.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. LeRoy, G. Li, D. Long, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 Molecular Spectroscopic Database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).

Ma, L.-S.

Ma, W.

A. Foltynowicz, F. M. Schmidt, W. Ma, and O. Axner, “Noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy: Current status and future potential,” Appl. Phys. B 92(3), 313–326 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mackay, G. I.

H. I. Schiff, D. R. Hastie, G. I. Mackay, T. Iguchi, and B. A. Ridley, “Tunable diode laser systems for measuring trace gases intropospheric air,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 17(8), 352A–364A (1983).
[PubMed]

Mackie, C. J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. LeRoy, G. Li, D. Long, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 Molecular Spectroscopic Database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).

Majidi, V.

V. Majidi, W. Hsut, and D. M. Coleman, “Number density measurements on analytical discharge systems: application of ‘hook’ spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B At. Spectrosc. 43(4–5), 561–573 (1988).

Martín-Mateos, P.

Massie, S. T.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. LeRoy, G. Li, D. Long, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 Molecular Spectroscopic Database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).

McCall, B. J.

Mikhailenko, S.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. LeRoy, G. Li, D. Long, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 Molecular Spectroscopic Database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).

Mills, A. A.

Mischler, B.

A.-P. Tzannis, J. C. Lee, P. Beaud, H.-M. Frey, T. Greber, B. Mischler, P. P. Radi, and K. Boulouchos, “OH concentration measurements by resonant holographic interferometry and comparison with direct numerical simulations,” Flow Turbul. Combust. 64(3), 183–196 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Moschella, J. J.

J. J. Moschella, R. C. Hazelton, and M. D. Keitz, “Resonant, heterodyne laser interferometer for state density measurements in atoms and ions,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77(9), 093108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Müller, H. S. P.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. LeRoy, G. Li, D. Long, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 Molecular Spectroscopic Database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).

Naumenko, O. V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. LeRoy, G. Li, D. Long, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 Molecular Spectroscopic Database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).

Nicholls, R. W.

V. Hasson, A. J. D. Farmer, and R. W. Nicholls, ““Application of dispersion techniques to molecular band intensity measurements. I. Principles of ‘fringe shift’ and ‘fringe slope’ band analysis procedures,” J. Phys. B At. Mol. Phys. 5(6), 1241–1247 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Nikitin, A. V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. LeRoy, G. Li, D. Long, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 Molecular Spectroscopic Database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).

Orphal, J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. LeRoy, G. Li, D. Long, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 Molecular Spectroscopic Database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).

Perevalov, V. I.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. LeRoy, G. Li, D. Long, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 Molecular Spectroscopic Database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).

Perrin, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. LeRoy, G. Li, D. Long, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 Molecular Spectroscopic Database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).

Polovtseva, E. R.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. LeRoy, G. Li, D. Long, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 Molecular Spectroscopic Database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).

Porambo, M. W.

Radi, P. P.

A.-P. Tzannis, J. C. Lee, P. Beaud, H.-M. Frey, T. Greber, B. Mischler, P. P. Radi, and K. Boulouchos, “OH concentration measurements by resonant holographic interferometry and comparison with direct numerical simulations,” Flow Turbul. Combust. 64(3), 183–196 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Reid, J.

Richard, C.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. LeRoy, G. Li, D. Long, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 Molecular Spectroscopic Database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).

Ridley, B. A.

H. I. Schiff, D. R. Hastie, G. I. Mackay, T. Iguchi, and B. A. Ridley, “Tunable diode laser systems for measuring trace gases intropospheric air,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 17(8), 352A–364A (1983).
[PubMed]

Rieker, G. B.

Roschdestwensky, D.

D. Roschdestwensky, “Anomale Dispersion im Natriumdampf,” Ann. Phys. 344(12), 307–345 (1912).
[CrossRef]

Rothman, L. S.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. LeRoy, G. Li, D. Long, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 Molecular Spectroscopic Database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).

Schiff, H. I.

H. I. Schiff, D. R. Hastie, G. I. Mackay, T. Iguchi, and B. A. Ridley, “Tunable diode laser systems for measuring trace gases intropospheric air,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 17(8), 352A–364A (1983).
[PubMed]

Schimke, C.

E. Kindel, M. Kettlitz, C. Schimke, and H. Schöpp, “Application of the hook method and emission spectroscopy for the determination of radial density and temperature profiles in high-pressure mercury discharges,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 31(11), 1352–1361 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, F. M.

A. Foltynowicz, F. M. Schmidt, W. Ma, and O. Axner, “Noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy: Current status and future potential,” Appl. Phys. B 92(3), 313–326 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schöpp, H.

E. Kindel, M. Kettlitz, C. Schimke, and H. Schöpp, “Application of the hook method and emission spectroscopy for the determination of radial density and temperature profiles in high-pressure mercury discharges,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 31(11), 1352–1361 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shewchun, J.

Siller, B. M.

Silver, J. A.

Smith, M. A. H.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. LeRoy, G. Li, D. Long, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 Molecular Spectroscopic Database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).

Starikova, E.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. LeRoy, G. Li, D. Long, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 Molecular Spectroscopic Database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).

Sung, K.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. LeRoy, G. Li, D. Long, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 Molecular Spectroscopic Database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).

Tashkun, S. A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. LeRoy, G. Li, D. Long, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 Molecular Spectroscopic Database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).

Tennyson, J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. LeRoy, G. Li, D. Long, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 Molecular Spectroscopic Database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).

Toon, G. C.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. LeRoy, G. Li, D. Long, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 Molecular Spectroscopic Database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).

Turner, E.

R. Gross, R. Chodzko, E. Turner, and J. Coffer, “Measurements of the anomalous dispersion of HF in absorption,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16(7), 795–798 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Tyuterev, V. G.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. LeRoy, G. Li, D. Long, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 Molecular Spectroscopic Database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).

Tzannis, A.-P.

A.-P. Tzannis, J. C. Lee, P. Beaud, H.-M. Frey, T. Greber, B. Mischler, P. P. Radi, and K. Boulouchos, “OH concentration measurements by resonant holographic interferometry and comparison with direct numerical simulations,” Flow Turbul. Combust. 64(3), 183–196 (2000).
[CrossRef]

van de Weijer, P.

Wagner, G.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. LeRoy, G. Li, D. Long, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 Molecular Spectroscopic Database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).

Watjen, J. P.

Weidmann, D.

Wysocki, G.

Ye, J.

Ann. Phys. (1)

D. Roschdestwensky, “Anomale Dispersion im Natriumdampf,” Ann. Phys. 344(12), 307–345 (1912).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (6)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

A. Foltynowicz, F. M. Schmidt, W. Ma, and O. Axner, “Noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy: Current status and future potential,” Appl. Phys. B 92(3), 313–326 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Environ. Sci. Technol. (1)

H. I. Schiff, D. R. Hastie, G. I. Mackay, T. Iguchi, and B. A. Ridley, “Tunable diode laser systems for measuring trace gases intropospheric air,” Environ. Sci. Technol. 17(8), 352A–364A (1983).
[PubMed]

Flow Turbul. Combust. (1)

A.-P. Tzannis, J. C. Lee, P. Beaud, H.-M. Frey, T. Greber, B. Mischler, P. P. Radi, and K. Boulouchos, “OH concentration measurements by resonant holographic interferometry and comparison with direct numerical simulations,” Flow Turbul. Combust. 64(3), 183–196 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. Gross, R. Chodzko, E. Turner, and J. Coffer, “Measurements of the anomalous dispersion of HF in absorption,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16(7), 795–798 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

W. T. Bayha, “A revised fringe equation for the hook method in anomalous dispersion,” J. Appl. Phys. 60(5), 1560–1564 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

J. Phys. B At. Mol. Phys. (1)

V. Hasson, A. J. D. Farmer, and R. W. Nicholls, ““Application of dispersion techniques to molecular band intensity measurements. I. Principles of ‘fringe shift’ and ‘fringe slope’ band analysis procedures,” J. Phys. B At. Mol. Phys. 5(6), 1241–1247 (1972).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

E. Kindel, M. Kettlitz, C. Schimke, and H. Schöpp, “Application of the hook method and emission spectroscopy for the determination of radial density and temperature profiles in high-pressure mercury discharges,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 31(11), 1352–1361 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (1)

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. LeRoy, G. Li, D. Long, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN 2012 Molecular Spectroscopic Database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

J. J. Moschella, R. C. Hazelton, and M. D. Keitz, “Resonant, heterodyne laser interferometer for state density measurements in atoms and ions,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 77(9), 093108 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Spectrochim. Acta Part B At. Spectrosc. (1)

V. Majidi, W. Hsut, and D. M. Coleman, “Number density measurements on analytical discharge systems: application of ‘hook’ spectroscopy,” Spectrochim. Acta Part B At. Spectrosc. 43(4–5), 561–573 (1988).

Other (2)

K. Franz, D. Weidmann, and G. Wysocki, “High dynamic range laser dispersion spectroscopy of saturated absorption lines,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (2010), p. CMJ4.
[CrossRef]

G. Plant, M. Nikodem, D. M. Sonnenfroh, and G. Wysocki, “Chirped laser dispersion spectroscopy for remote sensing of methane at 1.65 µm—Analysis of system performance,” in CLEO: Applications and Technology 2013, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper JW2A.79.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Refractive index in the vicinity of a molecular transition with center ω c . (b) Spectrum of an intensity modulated optical carrier centered in the dispersion line.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Block diagram of the phase-sensitive detection technique.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Relationship between modulation frequency (normalized by the FWHM) and the maximum output phase. The modulation frequency that optimizes the measurement of dispersion is equal to the FWHM multiplied by 0.58.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured phase at a function of the optical frequency for the optimum modulation frequency.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Block diagram of the dispersion spectroscopy sensor based on electrical frequency conversion.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Block diagram of the dispersion spectroscopy sensor based on optical frequency conversion.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Optical spectrum at the output of the second intensity modulator.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Dispersion spectrum obtained.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Dispersion spectrum obtained using optical heterodyne frequency conversion.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Measurements of the maximum peak to peak output phase as a function of the modulation frequency.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Output phase signal for different power levels. The three signals are shifted vertically for viewing purposes.

Equations (22)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

n( ω )= n 0 +s ω c  ω ( ω c  ω ) 2 + ( γ 2 ) 2  
E 1 =  A 1 cos( ω 0 t )
E 2 =  A 2 cos[ ( ω 0 + Ω 1 )t ]
E 3 =  A 3 cos[ ( ω 0 Ω 1 )t ]
E 1 =  A 1 cos( ω 0 t   φ 1 )
E 2 =  A 2 cos[ ( ω 0 + Ω 1 )  φ 2 ]
E 3 =  A 3 cos[ ( ω 0 Ω 1 )  φ 3 ]
φ 1 =  ω 0 L c [ n( ω 0 )1 ]
φ 2 =  ω 0 L c [ n( ω 0 + Ω 1 )1 ]
φ 3 =  ω 0 L c [ n( ω 0 Ω 1 )1 ]
I 12   A 1 2 2 +  A 2 2 2 + A 1 A 2 cos[ Ω 1 t  ( φ 2   φ 1 ) ]
I 13   A 1 2 2 +  A 3 2 2 + A 1 A 3 cos[ Ω 1 t  ( φ 1   φ 3 ) ]
φ o =  tan 1 A 2 sin( φ 2   φ 1 )+ A 3 sin( φ 1   φ 3 ) A 2 cos( φ 2   φ 1 )+ A 3 cos( φ 1   φ 3 )
φ o = φ 2   φ 3 2
φ o = ω 0 L 2c  ( n( ω 0 + Ω 1 ) n( ω 0 Ω 1 ) )
E 4 =  A 4 cos[ ( ω 0 + Ω 2 )  φ 1 ]
E 5 =  A 5 cos[ ( ω 0 Ω 2 )  φ 1 ]
E 6 =  A 6 cos[ ( ω 0 + Ω 1 + Ω 2 )  φ 2 ]
E 7 =  A 7 cos[ ( ω 0 + Ω 1 Ω 2 )  φ 2 ]
E 8 =  A 8 cos[ ( ω 0 Ω 1 + Ω 2 )  φ 3 ]
E 9 =  A 9 cos[ ( ω 0 Ω 1 Ω 2 )  φ 3 ]
φ o = ω 0 L 2c  ( k*n( ω 0 + Ω 1 ) n( ω 0 Ω 1 ) )

Metrics