Abstract

A graphene-embedded tunable plasmonic nanodisk resonator operating at near-infrared wavelength range is proposed, in which a certain resonant mode among multiple whispering-gallery modes (WGMs) can be selected as a dominant mode by modulating the Fermi level of the graphene. Our theoretical investigation reveals that the dominant mode selection mechanism in the proposed resonator is governed by the figure-of-merit (FOM) of the one-dimensional (1D) waveguide of the resonator’s vertical structure, which is defined as a propagation length to mode size ratio. As the conductivity of the graphene changes with a gating voltage, the wavelength dependence of the FOM changes and a WGM closest to the maximum FOM wavelength is selected. Partial tuning of the selected dominant mode is incurred by the change of the effective index of the 1D waveguide. This novel mode selection mechanism of the proposed resonator can be adopted to realize an optically pumped tunable nanolaser with a wide wavelength tuning range.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2014 (1)

2013 (6)

F. Valmorra, G. Scalari, C. Maissen, W. Fu, C. Schönenberger, J. W. Choi, H. G. Park, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Low-bias active control of terahertz waves by coupling large-area CVD graphene to a terahertz metamaterial,” Nano Lett. 13(7), 3193–3198 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Zhu, I. D. Rukhlenko, L.-M. Si, and M. Premaratne, “Graphene-enabled tunability of optical fishnet metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(12), 121911 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. Zhu, I. D. Rukhlenko, and M. Premaratne, “Graphene metamaterial for optical reflection modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(24), 241914 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Yu, H. Kim, N. de Leon, I. W. Frank, J. T. Robinson, M. McCutcheon, M. Liu, M. D. Lukin, M. Loncar, and H. Park, “Stretchable photonic crystal cavity with wide frequency tunability,” Nano Lett. 13(1), 248–252 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Majumdar, J. Kim, J. Vuckovic, and F. Wang, “Electrical control of silicon photonic crystal cavity by graphene,” Nano Lett. 13(2), 515–518 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Yao, M. A. Kats, P. Genevet, N. Yu, Y. Song, J. Kong, and F. Capasso, “Broad electrical tuning of graphene-loaded plasmonic antennas,” Nano Lett. 13(3), 1257–1264 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (14)

P. Li and T. Taubner, “Broadband subwavelength imaging using a tunable graphene-lens,” ACS Nano 6(11), 10107–10114 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Wang, M. Feng, Z. Feng, M. Y. Lam, L. Gao, B. Chen, A. Q. Liu, Y. H. Tsang, and X. Zhang, “Narrow-linewidth tunable lasers with retro-reflective external cavity,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(18), 1591–1593 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. K. Emani, T.-F. Chung, X. Ni, A. V. Kildishev, Y. P. Chen, and A. Boltasseva, “Electrically tunable Damping of plasmonic resonances with graphene,” Nano Lett. 12(10), 5202–5206 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Christensen, A. Manjavacas, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. H. L. Koppens, and F. J. de Abajo, “Graphene plasmon waveguiding and hybridization in individual and paired nanoribbons,” ACS Nano 6(1), 431–440 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Gao, J. Shu, C. Qiu, and Q. Xu, “Excitation of plasmonic waves in graphene by guided-mode resonances,” ACS Nano 6(9), 7806–7813 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Y. Nikitin, F. Guinea, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and L. Martin-Moreno, “Surface plasmon enhanced absorption and suppressed transmission in periodic arrays of graphene ribbons,” Phys. Rev. B 85(8), 081405 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Liu, W. Cai, L. Wang, X. Zhang, and J. Xu, “Tunable terahertz optical antennas based on graphene ring structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(15), 153111 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Yan, X. Li, B. Chandra, G. Tulevski, Y. Wu, M. Freitag, W. Zhu, P. Avouris, F. Xia, and F. Wang, “Tunable infrared plasmonic devices using graphene/insulator stacks,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(5), 330–334 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Thongrattanasiri, F. H. L. Koppens, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Complete optical absorption in periodically patterned graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(4), 047401 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Liu, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Double-layer graphene optical modulator,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1482–1485 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Lu and W. Zhao, “Nanoscale electro-optic modulators based on graphene-slot waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29(6), 1490–1496 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S.-H. Kwon, “Deep subwavelength plasmonic whispering-gallery-mode cavity,” Opt. Express 20(22), 24918–24924 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Hwang, D. A. Siegel, S.-K. Mo, W. Regan, A. Ismach, Y. Zhang, A. Zettl, and A. Lanzara, “Fermi velocity engineering in graphene by substrate modification,” Sci Rep. 2, 590 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T.-T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C.-G. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 11(11), 936–941 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (4)

F. H. L. Koppens, D. E. Chang, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Graphene plasmonics: A platform for strong light-matter interactions,” Nano Lett. 11(8), 3370–3377 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Kim, J.-Y. Choi, T. Kim, S.-H. Cho, and H.-J. Chung, “A role for graphene in silicon-based semiconductor devices,” Nature 479(7373), 338–344 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (4)

S. Schilt, K. Zogal, B. Kogel, P. Meissner, M. Maute, R. Protasio, and M.-C. Amann, “Spectral and modulation properties of a largely tunable MEMS-VCSEL in view of gas phase spectroscopy applications,” Appl. Phys. B 100(2), 321–329 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Masson, R. St-Gelais, A. Poulin, and Y.-A. Peter, “Tunable fiber laser using a MEMS-based in plane Fabry-Perot filter,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(9), 1313–1319 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. Yu, A. Lakhani, and M. C. Wu, “Subwavelength metal-optic semiconductor nanopatch lasers,” Opt. Express 18(9), 8790–8799 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S.-H. Kwon, J.-H. Kang, C. Seassal, S.-K. Kim, P. Regreny, Y.-H. Lee, C. M. Lieber, and H.-G. Park, “Subwavelength plasmonic lasing from a semiconductor nanodisk with silver nanopan cavity,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3679–3683 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (4)

2008 (3)

B. Schütte, H. Gothe, S. I. Hintschich, M. Sudzius, H. Frob, V. G. Lyssenko, and K. Leo, “Continuously tunable laser emission from a wedge-shaped organic microcavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 163309 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Tian, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. Crommie, and Y. R. Shen, “Gate-variable optical transitions in graphene,” Science 320(5873), 206–209 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Q. Li, E. A. Henriksen, Z. Jiang, Z. Hao, M. C. Martin, P. Kim, H. L. Stormer, and D. N. Basov, “Dirac charge dynamics in graphene by infrared spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 4(7), 532–535 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

D. Englund, A. Faraon, I. Fushman, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. Vucković, “Controlling cavity reflectivity with a single quantum dot,” Nature 450(7171), 857–861 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Q. Liu and X. M. Zhang, “A review of MEMS external-cavity tunable lasers,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 17(1), R1–R13 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

S. Mosor, J. Hendrickson, B. C. Richards, J. Sweet, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, “Scanning a photonic crystal slab nanocavity by condensation of xenon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(14), 141105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

J. F. Verweji and J. H. Klootwijk, “Dielectric breakdown I: A review of oxide breakdown,” Microelectron. J. 27(7), 611–622 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Amann, M.-C.

S. Schilt, K. Zogal, B. Kogel, P. Meissner, M. Maute, R. Protasio, and M.-C. Amann, “Spectral and modulation properties of a largely tunable MEMS-VCSEL in view of gas phase spectroscopy applications,” Appl. Phys. B 100(2), 321–329 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Avouris, P.

H. Yan, X. Li, B. Chandra, G. Tulevski, Y. Wu, M. Freitag, W. Zhu, P. Avouris, F. Xia, and F. Wang, “Tunable infrared plasmonic devices using graphene/insulator stacks,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(5), 330–334 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Basov, D. N.

Z. Q. Li, E. A. Henriksen, Z. Jiang, Z. Hao, M. C. Martin, P. Kim, H. L. Stormer, and D. N. Basov, “Dirac charge dynamics in graphene by infrared spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 4(7), 532–535 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bechtel, H. A.

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beck, M.

F. Valmorra, G. Scalari, C. Maissen, W. Fu, C. Schönenberger, J. W. Choi, H. G. Park, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Low-bias active control of terahertz waves by coupling large-area CVD graphene to a terahertz metamaterial,” Nano Lett. 13(7), 3193–3198 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boltasseva, A.

N. K. Emani, T.-F. Chung, X. Ni, A. V. Kildishev, Y. P. Chen, and A. Boltasseva, “Electrically tunable Damping of plasmonic resonances with graphene,” Nano Lett. 12(10), 5202–5206 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buus, J.

Cai, W.

P. Liu, W. Cai, L. Wang, X. Zhang, and J. Xu, “Tunable terahertz optical antennas based on graphene ring structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(15), 153111 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Capasso, F.

Y. Yao, M. A. Kats, P. Genevet, N. Yu, Y. Song, J. Kong, and F. Capasso, “Broad electrical tuning of graphene-loaded plasmonic antennas,” Nano Lett. 13(3), 1257–1264 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chandra, B.

H. Yan, X. Li, B. Chandra, G. Tulevski, Y. Wu, M. Freitag, W. Zhu, P. Avouris, F. Xia, and F. Wang, “Tunable infrared plasmonic devices using graphene/insulator stacks,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(5), 330–334 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, D. E.

F. H. L. Koppens, D. E. Chang, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Graphene plasmonics: A platform for strong light-matter interactions,” Nano Lett. 11(8), 3370–3377 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, S.-W.

Chen, B.

N. Wang, M. Feng, Z. Feng, M. Y. Lam, L. Gao, B. Chen, A. Q. Liu, Y. H. Tsang, and X. Zhang, “Narrow-linewidth tunable lasers with retro-reflective external cavity,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(18), 1591–1593 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. P.

N. K. Emani, T.-F. Chung, X. Ni, A. V. Kildishev, Y. P. Chen, and A. Boltasseva, “Electrically tunable Damping of plasmonic resonances with graphene,” Nano Lett. 12(10), 5202–5206 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cho, S.-H.

K. Kim, J.-Y. Choi, T. Kim, S.-H. Cho, and H.-J. Chung, “A role for graphene in silicon-based semiconductor devices,” Nature 479(7373), 338–344 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, C.-G.

S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T.-T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C.-G. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 11(11), 936–941 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, H. K.

S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T.-T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C.-G. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 11(11), 936–941 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, J. W.

F. Valmorra, G. Scalari, C. Maissen, W. Fu, C. Schönenberger, J. W. Choi, H. G. Park, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Low-bias active control of terahertz waves by coupling large-area CVD graphene to a terahertz metamaterial,” Nano Lett. 13(7), 3193–3198 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, J.-Y.

K. Kim, J.-Y. Choi, T. Kim, S.-H. Cho, and H.-J. Chung, “A role for graphene in silicon-based semiconductor devices,” Nature 479(7373), 338–344 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, M.

S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T.-T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C.-G. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 11(11), 936–941 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, S.-Y.

S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T.-T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C.-G. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 11(11), 936–941 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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F. Valmorra, G. Scalari, C. Maissen, W. Fu, C. Schönenberger, J. W. Choi, H. G. Park, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Low-bias active control of terahertz waves by coupling large-area CVD graphene to a terahertz metamaterial,” Nano Lett. 13(7), 3193–3198 (2013).
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S. Klinkhammer, T. Woggon, U. Geyer, C. Vannahme, S. Dehm, T. Mappes, and U. Lemmer, “A continuously tunable low-threshold organic semiconductor distributed feedback laser fabricated by rotating shadow mask evaporation,” Appl. Phys. B 97(4), 787–791 (2009).
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Z. Q. Li, E. A. Henriksen, Z. Jiang, Z. Hao, M. C. Martin, P. Kim, H. L. Stormer, and D. N. Basov, “Dirac charge dynamics in graphene by infrared spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 4(7), 532–535 (2008).
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S. Mosor, J. Hendrickson, B. C. Richards, J. Sweet, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, “Scanning a photonic crystal slab nanocavity by condensation of xenon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(14), 141105 (2005).
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F. Valmorra, G. Scalari, C. Maissen, W. Fu, C. Schönenberger, J. W. Choi, H. G. Park, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Low-bias active control of terahertz waves by coupling large-area CVD graphene to a terahertz metamaterial,” Nano Lett. 13(7), 3193–3198 (2013).
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J. Masson, R. St-Gelais, A. Poulin, and Y.-A. Peter, “Tunable fiber laser using a MEMS-based in plane Fabry-Perot filter,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(9), 1313–1319 (2010).
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J. Masson, R. St-Gelais, A. Poulin, and Y.-A. Peter, “Tunable fiber laser using a MEMS-based in plane Fabry-Perot filter,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(9), 1313–1319 (2010).
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S. Mosor, J. Hendrickson, B. C. Richards, J. Sweet, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, “Scanning a photonic crystal slab nanocavity by condensation of xenon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(14), 141105 (2005).
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W. Zhu, I. D. Rukhlenko, and M. Premaratne, “Graphene metamaterial for optical reflection modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(24), 241914 (2013).
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W. Zhu, I. D. Rukhlenko, L.-M. Si, and M. Premaratne, “Graphene-enabled tunability of optical fishnet metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(12), 121911 (2013).
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S. Mosor, J. Hendrickson, B. C. Richards, J. Sweet, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, “Scanning a photonic crystal slab nanocavity by condensation of xenon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(14), 141105 (2005).
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S. Schilt, K. Zogal, B. Kogel, P. Meissner, M. Maute, R. Protasio, and M.-C. Amann, “Spectral and modulation properties of a largely tunable MEMS-VCSEL in view of gas phase spectroscopy applications,” Appl. Phys. B 100(2), 321–329 (2010).
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F. Valmorra, G. Scalari, C. Maissen, W. Fu, C. Schönenberger, J. W. Choi, H. G. Park, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Low-bias active control of terahertz waves by coupling large-area CVD graphene to a terahertz metamaterial,” Nano Lett. 13(7), 3193–3198 (2013).
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B. Schütte, H. Gothe, S. I. Hintschich, M. Sudzius, H. Frob, V. G. Lyssenko, and K. Leo, “Continuously tunable laser emission from a wedge-shaped organic microcavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 163309 (2008).
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S.-H. Kwon, J.-H. Kang, C. Seassal, S.-K. Kim, P. Regreny, Y.-H. Lee, C. M. Lieber, and H.-G. Park, “Subwavelength plasmonic lasing from a semiconductor nanodisk with silver nanopan cavity,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3679–3683 (2010).
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S. Mosor, J. Hendrickson, B. C. Richards, J. Sweet, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, “Scanning a photonic crystal slab nanocavity by condensation of xenon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(14), 141105 (2005).
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L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
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F. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Tian, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. Crommie, and Y. R. Shen, “Gate-variable optical transitions in graphene,” Science 320(5873), 206–209 (2008).
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W. Gao, J. Shu, C. Qiu, and Q. Xu, “Excitation of plasmonic waves in graphene by guided-mode resonances,” ACS Nano 6(9), 7806–7813 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Si, L.-M.

W. Zhu, I. D. Rukhlenko, L.-M. Si, and M. Premaratne, “Graphene-enabled tunability of optical fishnet metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(12), 121911 (2013).
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C. Hwang, D. A. Siegel, S.-K. Mo, W. Regan, A. Ismach, Y. Zhang, A. Zettl, and A. Lanzara, “Fermi velocity engineering in graphene by substrate modification,” Sci Rep. 2, 590 (2012).
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Smit, M. K.

Song, Y.

Y. Yao, M. A. Kats, P. Genevet, N. Yu, Y. Song, J. Kong, and F. Capasso, “Broad electrical tuning of graphene-loaded plasmonic antennas,” Nano Lett. 13(3), 1257–1264 (2013).
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J. Masson, R. St-Gelais, A. Poulin, and Y.-A. Peter, “Tunable fiber laser using a MEMS-based in plane Fabry-Perot filter,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(9), 1313–1319 (2010).
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D. Englund, A. Faraon, I. Fushman, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. Vucković, “Controlling cavity reflectivity with a single quantum dot,” Nature 450(7171), 857–861 (2007).
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Z. Q. Li, E. A. Henriksen, Z. Jiang, Z. Hao, M. C. Martin, P. Kim, H. L. Stormer, and D. N. Basov, “Dirac charge dynamics in graphene by infrared spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 4(7), 532–535 (2008).
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B. Schütte, H. Gothe, S. I. Hintschich, M. Sudzius, H. Frob, V. G. Lyssenko, and K. Leo, “Continuously tunable laser emission from a wedge-shaped organic microcavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 163309 (2008).
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S. Mosor, J. Hendrickson, B. C. Richards, J. Sweet, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, “Scanning a photonic crystal slab nanocavity by condensation of xenon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(14), 141105 (2005).
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F. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Tian, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. Crommie, and Y. R. Shen, “Gate-variable optical transitions in graphene,” Science 320(5873), 206–209 (2008).
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N. Wang, M. Feng, Z. Feng, M. Y. Lam, L. Gao, B. Chen, A. Q. Liu, Y. H. Tsang, and X. Zhang, “Narrow-linewidth tunable lasers with retro-reflective external cavity,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(18), 1591–1593 (2012).
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M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
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F. Valmorra, G. Scalari, C. Maissen, W. Fu, C. Schönenberger, J. W. Choi, H. G. Park, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Low-bias active control of terahertz waves by coupling large-area CVD graphene to a terahertz metamaterial,” Nano Lett. 13(7), 3193–3198 (2013).
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S. Klinkhammer, T. Woggon, U. Geyer, C. Vannahme, S. Dehm, T. Mappes, and U. Lemmer, “A continuously tunable low-threshold organic semiconductor distributed feedback laser fabricated by rotating shadow mask evaporation,” Appl. Phys. B 97(4), 787–791 (2009).
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A. Majumdar, J. Kim, J. Vuckovic, and F. Wang, “Electrical control of silicon photonic crystal cavity by graphene,” Nano Lett. 13(2), 515–518 (2013).
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H. Yan, X. Li, B. Chandra, G. Tulevski, Y. Wu, M. Freitag, W. Zhu, P. Avouris, F. Xia, and F. Wang, “Tunable infrared plasmonic devices using graphene/insulator stacks,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(5), 330–334 (2012).
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L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
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F. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Tian, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. Crommie, and Y. R. Shen, “Gate-variable optical transitions in graphene,” Science 320(5873), 206–209 (2008).
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P. Liu, W. Cai, L. Wang, X. Zhang, and J. Xu, “Tunable terahertz optical antennas based on graphene ring structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(15), 153111 (2012).
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S. Klinkhammer, T. Woggon, U. Geyer, C. Vannahme, S. Dehm, T. Mappes, and U. Lemmer, “A continuously tunable low-threshold organic semiconductor distributed feedback laser fabricated by rotating shadow mask evaporation,” Appl. Phys. B 97(4), 787–791 (2009).
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H. Yan, X. Li, B. Chandra, G. Tulevski, Y. Wu, M. Freitag, W. Zhu, P. Avouris, F. Xia, and F. Wang, “Tunable infrared plasmonic devices using graphene/insulator stacks,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(5), 330–334 (2012).
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W. Gao, J. Shu, C. Qiu, and Q. Xu, “Excitation of plasmonic waves in graphene by guided-mode resonances,” ACS Nano 6(9), 7806–7813 (2012).
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H. Yan, X. Li, B. Chandra, G. Tulevski, Y. Wu, M. Freitag, W. Zhu, P. Avouris, F. Xia, and F. Wang, “Tunable infrared plasmonic devices using graphene/insulator stacks,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(5), 330–334 (2012).
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Y. Yao, M. A. Kats, P. Genevet, N. Yu, Y. Song, J. Kong, and F. Capasso, “Broad electrical tuning of graphene-loaded plasmonic antennas,” Nano Lett. 13(3), 1257–1264 (2013).
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S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T.-T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C.-G. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 11(11), 936–941 (2012).
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S. Mosor, J. Hendrickson, B. C. Richards, J. Sweet, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, “Scanning a photonic crystal slab nanocavity by condensation of xenon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(14), 141105 (2005).
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C. L. Yu, H. Kim, N. de Leon, I. W. Frank, J. T. Robinson, M. McCutcheon, M. Liu, M. D. Lukin, M. Loncar, and H. Park, “Stretchable photonic crystal cavity with wide frequency tunability,” Nano Lett. 13(1), 248–252 (2013).
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Yu, N.

Y. Yao, M. A. Kats, P. Genevet, N. Yu, Y. Song, J. Kong, and F. Capasso, “Broad electrical tuning of graphene-loaded plasmonic antennas,” Nano Lett. 13(3), 1257–1264 (2013).
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M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
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C. Hwang, D. A. Siegel, S.-K. Mo, W. Regan, A. Ismach, Y. Zhang, A. Zettl, and A. Lanzara, “Fermi velocity engineering in graphene by substrate modification,” Sci Rep. 2, 590 (2012).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

A schematic of the resonator (a) without and (b) with a monolayer graphene. SiO2 is placed between the metal and the graphene so that a capacitive effect is induced. A gate electrode for the graphene is placed on the InP substrate with properly doped InGaAs and InP assumed. The calculated resonant mode spectra of the resonator (c) without and (d) with the graphene layer. Insets show field (Ez) profiles of each resonant mode in the horizontal and the vertical directions. Azimuthal modal number N and quality factor Q are also denoted for each resonant peak. For the vertical field profile, the 1D field profile is also plotted. The graphene is assume to be neutral and geometrical parameters of tM, tL, tG, and tH are fixed to 200 nm, 5 nm, 1 nm, and 300 nm, respectively.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Resonant mode spectrum of the proposed resonator for EF = 0.6 eV. The spectrum is plotted in both (a) a linear scale and (b) a logarithmic scale. The spectrum for the neutral graphene is also plotted in (b) for a reference. Insets show resonant mode profiles (Ez) of the selected dominant mode in the horizontal and the vertical directions. The horizontal mode profile is obtained along the center of the graphene layer, and a magnified-plot of the vertical mode profile shows the strong field confinement in both the SiO2 and the graphene layers.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Property of the 1D waveguide structure of the proposed resonator. (a) Absolute values of graphene’s refractive indices for the neutral graphene and EF = 0.6 eV as a function of wavelength. (b) Schematic of the 1D waveguide structure. Electric field (Ez) distributions at (c) λ = 1.22 μm, (d) λ = 1.517 μm, and (e) λ = 1.85 μm in EF = 0.6 eV case. (f) Propagation length Lp and (g) FOMs Lp/Am as a function of wavelength for EF = 0.6 eV. Black dashed lines in (a), (f), and (g) indicate the wavelength of the selected dominant mode and blue dashed lines indicate the wavelength of the resonant modes of N = 5 (λ = 1.22 μm) and N = 3 (λ = 1.85 μm).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Dominant mode wavelength tuning with various values of graphene’s Fermi levels ranging from EF = 0.58 eV to 0.72 eV. (a) Resonant mode spectra of the proposed resonator, (b) FOMs and (c) propagation lengths of the corresponding 1D waveguide as a function of wavelength for various EF. Insets of (a) show resonant mode profiles (Ez) for the modes of N = 4 and N = 5 at the wavelength near λ = 1.5 µm and 1.3 µm, respectively.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Dominant mode wavelength tuning over a wide wavelength range with a large EF change. (a) Resonant mode spectra of the proposed resonator and (b) FOMs of the corresponding 1D waveguide for various EF ranging from EF = 0.48 eV to 0.85 eV. Insets of (a) show horizontal mode profiles (Ez) of each selected dominant peak.

Equations (6)

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ε Ag = ε ω p 2 ω(ω+iγ) ,
σ G (ω)= 2 e 2 π 2 k B T i ω+i τ 1 ln[2cosh( E F 2 k B T )] + e 2 4 [H(ω/2)+ iω π 0 H(ε)H(ω/2) ω 2 4 ε 2 dε]
H(ε)= sinh(ε/ k B T) cosh( E F / k B T)+cosh(ε/ k B T) .
ε G (ω)=1+ i σ G ω ε o t G ,
A m = W(ω,z) dz max[W(ω,z)] ,
W(ω,z)= 1 2 [ d(ω ε R ) dω ε o | E(ω,z) | 2 + μ o | H(ω,z) | 2 ],

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