Abstract

A graphene-embedded tunable plasmonic nanodisk resonator operating at near-infrared wavelength range is proposed, in which a certain resonant mode among multiple whispering-gallery modes (WGMs) can be selected as a dominant mode by modulating the Fermi level of the graphene. Our theoretical investigation reveals that the dominant mode selection mechanism in the proposed resonator is governed by the figure-of-merit (FOM) of the one-dimensional (1D) waveguide of the resonator’s vertical structure, which is defined as a propagation length to mode size ratio. As the conductivity of the graphene changes with a gating voltage, the wavelength dependence of the FOM changes and a WGM closest to the maximum FOM wavelength is selected. Partial tuning of the selected dominant mode is incurred by the change of the effective index of the 1D waveguide. This novel mode selection mechanism of the proposed resonator can be adopted to realize an optically pumped tunable nanolaser with a wide wavelength tuning range.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2014 (1)

2013 (6)

C. L. Yu, H. Kim, N. de Leon, I. W. Frank, J. T. Robinson, M. McCutcheon, M. Liu, M. D. Lukin, M. Loncar, and H. Park, “Stretchable photonic crystal cavity with wide frequency tunability,” Nano Lett. 13(1), 248–252 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Majumdar, J. Kim, J. Vuckovic, and F. Wang, “Electrical control of silicon photonic crystal cavity by graphene,” Nano Lett. 13(2), 515–518 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Yao, M. A. Kats, P. Genevet, N. Yu, Y. Song, J. Kong, and F. Capasso, “Broad electrical tuning of graphene-loaded plasmonic antennas,” Nano Lett. 13(3), 1257–1264 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Valmorra, G. Scalari, C. Maissen, W. Fu, C. Schönenberger, J. W. Choi, H. G. Park, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Low-bias active control of terahertz waves by coupling large-area CVD graphene to a terahertz metamaterial,” Nano Lett. 13(7), 3193–3198 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Zhu, I. D. Rukhlenko, L.-M. Si, and M. Premaratne, “Graphene-enabled tunability of optical fishnet metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(12), 121911 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. Zhu, I. D. Rukhlenko, and M. Premaratne, “Graphene metamaterial for optical reflection modulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(24), 241914 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (14)

N. Wang, M. Feng, Z. Feng, M. Y. Lam, L. Gao, B. Chen, A. Q. Liu, Y. H. Tsang, and X. Zhang, “Narrow-linewidth tunable lasers with retro-reflective external cavity,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(18), 1591–1593 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. K. Emani, T.-F. Chung, X. Ni, A. V. Kildishev, Y. P. Chen, and A. Boltasseva, “Electrically tunable Damping of plasmonic resonances with graphene,” Nano Lett. 12(10), 5202–5206 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Liu, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Double-layer graphene optical modulator,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1482–1485 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Li and T. Taubner, “Broadband subwavelength imaging using a tunable graphene-lens,” ACS Nano 6(11), 10107–10114 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Christensen, A. Manjavacas, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. H. L. Koppens, and F. J. de Abajo, “Graphene plasmon waveguiding and hybridization in individual and paired nanoribbons,” ACS Nano 6(1), 431–440 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Gao, J. Shu, C. Qiu, and Q. Xu, “Excitation of plasmonic waves in graphene by guided-mode resonances,” ACS Nano 6(9), 7806–7813 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Y. Nikitin, F. Guinea, F. J. Garcia-Vidal, and L. Martin-Moreno, “Surface plasmon enhanced absorption and suppressed transmission in periodic arrays of graphene ribbons,” Phys. Rev. B 85(8), 081405 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Liu, W. Cai, L. Wang, X. Zhang, and J. Xu, “Tunable terahertz optical antennas based on graphene ring structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(15), 153111 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Yan, X. Li, B. Chandra, G. Tulevski, Y. Wu, M. Freitag, W. Zhu, P. Avouris, F. Xia, and F. Wang, “Tunable infrared plasmonic devices using graphene/insulator stacks,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(5), 330–334 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Thongrattanasiri, F. H. L. Koppens, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Complete optical absorption in periodically patterned graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(4), 047401 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T.-T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C.-G. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 11(11), 936–941 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Hwang, D. A. Siegel, S.-K. Mo, W. Regan, A. Ismach, Y. Zhang, A. Zettl, and A. Lanzara, “Fermi velocity engineering in graphene by substrate modification,” Sci Rep. 2, 590 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. Lu and W. Zhao, “Nanoscale electro-optic modulators based on graphene-slot waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29(6), 1490–1496 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S.-H. Kwon, “Deep subwavelength plasmonic whispering-gallery-mode cavity,” Opt. Express 20(22), 24918–24924 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (4)

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. H. L. Koppens, D. E. Chang, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Graphene plasmonics: A platform for strong light-matter interactions,” Nano Lett. 11(8), 3370–3377 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Kim, J.-Y. Choi, T. Kim, S.-H. Cho, and H.-J. Chung, “A role for graphene in silicon-based semiconductor devices,” Nature 479(7373), 338–344 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (4)

S. Schilt, K. Zogal, B. Kogel, P. Meissner, M. Maute, R. Protasio, and M.-C. Amann, “Spectral and modulation properties of a largely tunable MEMS-VCSEL in view of gas phase spectroscopy applications,” Appl. Phys. B 100(2), 321–329 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Masson, R. St-Gelais, A. Poulin, and Y.-A. Peter, “Tunable fiber laser using a MEMS-based in plane Fabry-Perot filter,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(9), 1313–1319 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S.-H. Kwon, J.-H. Kang, C. Seassal, S.-K. Kim, P. Regreny, Y.-H. Lee, C. M. Lieber, and H.-G. Park, “Subwavelength plasmonic lasing from a semiconductor nanodisk with silver nanopan cavity,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3679–3683 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Yu, A. Lakhani, and M. C. Wu, “Subwavelength metal-optic semiconductor nanopatch lasers,” Opt. Express 18(9), 8790–8799 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (4)

2008 (3)

B. Schütte, H. Gothe, S. I. Hintschich, M. Sudzius, H. Frob, V. G. Lyssenko, and K. Leo, “Continuously tunable laser emission from a wedge-shaped organic microcavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 163309 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Tian, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. Crommie, and Y. R. Shen, “Gate-variable optical transitions in graphene,” Science 320(5873), 206–209 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Q. Li, E. A. Henriksen, Z. Jiang, Z. Hao, M. C. Martin, P. Kim, H. L. Stormer, and D. N. Basov, “Dirac charge dynamics in graphene by infrared spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 4(7), 532–535 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

A. Q. Liu and X. M. Zhang, “A review of MEMS external-cavity tunable lasers,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 17(1), R1–R13 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Englund, A. Faraon, I. Fushman, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. Vucković, “Controlling cavity reflectivity with a single quantum dot,” Nature 450(7171), 857–861 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

S. Mosor, J. Hendrickson, B. C. Richards, J. Sweet, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, “Scanning a photonic crystal slab nanocavity by condensation of xenon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(14), 141105 (2005).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

J. F. Verweji and J. H. Klootwijk, “Dielectric breakdown I: A review of oxide breakdown,” Microelectron. J. 27(7), 611–622 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Amann, M.-C.

S. Schilt, K. Zogal, B. Kogel, P. Meissner, M. Maute, R. Protasio, and M.-C. Amann, “Spectral and modulation properties of a largely tunable MEMS-VCSEL in view of gas phase spectroscopy applications,” Appl. Phys. B 100(2), 321–329 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Avouris, P.

H. Yan, X. Li, B. Chandra, G. Tulevski, Y. Wu, M. Freitag, W. Zhu, P. Avouris, F. Xia, and F. Wang, “Tunable infrared plasmonic devices using graphene/insulator stacks,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(5), 330–334 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Basov, D. N.

Z. Q. Li, E. A. Henriksen, Z. Jiang, Z. Hao, M. C. Martin, P. Kim, H. L. Stormer, and D. N. Basov, “Dirac charge dynamics in graphene by infrared spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 4(7), 532–535 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bechtel, H. A.

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beck, M.

F. Valmorra, G. Scalari, C. Maissen, W. Fu, C. Schönenberger, J. W. Choi, H. G. Park, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Low-bias active control of terahertz waves by coupling large-area CVD graphene to a terahertz metamaterial,” Nano Lett. 13(7), 3193–3198 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boltasseva, A.

N. K. Emani, T.-F. Chung, X. Ni, A. V. Kildishev, Y. P. Chen, and A. Boltasseva, “Electrically tunable Damping of plasmonic resonances with graphene,” Nano Lett. 12(10), 5202–5206 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buus, J.

Cai, W.

P. Liu, W. Cai, L. Wang, X. Zhang, and J. Xu, “Tunable terahertz optical antennas based on graphene ring structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(15), 153111 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Capasso, F.

Y. Yao, M. A. Kats, P. Genevet, N. Yu, Y. Song, J. Kong, and F. Capasso, “Broad electrical tuning of graphene-loaded plasmonic antennas,” Nano Lett. 13(3), 1257–1264 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chandra, B.

H. Yan, X. Li, B. Chandra, G. Tulevski, Y. Wu, M. Freitag, W. Zhu, P. Avouris, F. Xia, and F. Wang, “Tunable infrared plasmonic devices using graphene/insulator stacks,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(5), 330–334 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, D. E.

F. H. L. Koppens, D. E. Chang, and F. J. García de Abajo, “Graphene plasmonics: A platform for strong light-matter interactions,” Nano Lett. 11(8), 3370–3377 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, S.-W.

Chen, B.

N. Wang, M. Feng, Z. Feng, M. Y. Lam, L. Gao, B. Chen, A. Q. Liu, Y. H. Tsang, and X. Zhang, “Narrow-linewidth tunable lasers with retro-reflective external cavity,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(18), 1591–1593 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. P.

N. K. Emani, T.-F. Chung, X. Ni, A. V. Kildishev, Y. P. Chen, and A. Boltasseva, “Electrically tunable Damping of plasmonic resonances with graphene,” Nano Lett. 12(10), 5202–5206 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cho, S.-H.

K. Kim, J.-Y. Choi, T. Kim, S.-H. Cho, and H.-J. Chung, “A role for graphene in silicon-based semiconductor devices,” Nature 479(7373), 338–344 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, C.-G.

S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T.-T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C.-G. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 11(11), 936–941 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, H. K.

S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T.-T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C.-G. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 11(11), 936–941 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, J. W.

F. Valmorra, G. Scalari, C. Maissen, W. Fu, C. Schönenberger, J. W. Choi, H. G. Park, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Low-bias active control of terahertz waves by coupling large-area CVD graphene to a terahertz metamaterial,” Nano Lett. 13(7), 3193–3198 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, J.-Y.

K. Kim, J.-Y. Choi, T. Kim, S.-H. Cho, and H.-J. Chung, “A role for graphene in silicon-based semiconductor devices,” Nature 479(7373), 338–344 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, M.

S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T.-T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C.-G. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 11(11), 936–941 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, S.-Y.

S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T.-T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C.-G. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 11(11), 936–941 (2012).
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J. Masson, R. St-Gelais, A. Poulin, and Y.-A. Peter, “Tunable fiber laser using a MEMS-based in plane Fabry-Perot filter,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(9), 1313–1319 (2010).
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W. Zhu, I. D. Rukhlenko, L.-M. Si, and M. Premaratne, “Graphene-enabled tunability of optical fishnet metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(12), 121911 (2013).
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F. Valmorra, G. Scalari, C. Maissen, W. Fu, C. Schönenberger, J. W. Choi, H. G. Park, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Low-bias active control of terahertz waves by coupling large-area CVD graphene to a terahertz metamaterial,” Nano Lett. 13(7), 3193–3198 (2013).
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S. Mosor, J. Hendrickson, B. C. Richards, J. Sweet, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, “Scanning a photonic crystal slab nanocavity by condensation of xenon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(14), 141105 (2005).
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L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
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F. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Tian, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. Crommie, and Y. R. Shen, “Gate-variable optical transitions in graphene,” Science 320(5873), 206–209 (2008).
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W. Gao, J. Shu, C. Qiu, and Q. Xu, “Excitation of plasmonic waves in graphene by guided-mode resonances,” ACS Nano 6(9), 7806–7813 (2012).
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W. Zhu, I. D. Rukhlenko, L.-M. Si, and M. Premaratne, “Graphene-enabled tunability of optical fishnet metamaterial,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(12), 121911 (2013).
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C. Hwang, D. A. Siegel, S.-K. Mo, W. Regan, A. Ismach, Y. Zhang, A. Zettl, and A. Lanzara, “Fermi velocity engineering in graphene by substrate modification,” Sci Rep. 2, 590 (2012).
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Y. Yao, M. A. Kats, P. Genevet, N. Yu, Y. Song, J. Kong, and F. Capasso, “Broad electrical tuning of graphene-loaded plasmonic antennas,” Nano Lett. 13(3), 1257–1264 (2013).
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J. Masson, R. St-Gelais, A. Poulin, and Y.-A. Peter, “Tunable fiber laser using a MEMS-based in plane Fabry-Perot filter,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 46(9), 1313–1319 (2010).
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D. Englund, A. Faraon, I. Fushman, N. Stoltz, P. Petroff, and J. Vucković, “Controlling cavity reflectivity with a single quantum dot,” Nature 450(7171), 857–861 (2007).
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Z. Q. Li, E. A. Henriksen, Z. Jiang, Z. Hao, M. C. Martin, P. Kim, H. L. Stormer, and D. N. Basov, “Dirac charge dynamics in graphene by infrared spectroscopy,” Nat. Phys. 4(7), 532–535 (2008).
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B. Schütte, H. Gothe, S. I. Hintschich, M. Sudzius, H. Frob, V. G. Lyssenko, and K. Leo, “Continuously tunable laser emission from a wedge-shaped organic microcavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 163309 (2008).
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S. Mosor, J. Hendrickson, B. C. Richards, J. Sweet, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, “Scanning a photonic crystal slab nanocavity by condensation of xenon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(14), 141105 (2005).
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F. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Tian, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. Crommie, and Y. R. Shen, “Gate-variable optical transitions in graphene,” Science 320(5873), 206–209 (2008).
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N. Wang, M. Feng, Z. Feng, M. Y. Lam, L. Gao, B. Chen, A. Q. Liu, Y. H. Tsang, and X. Zhang, “Narrow-linewidth tunable lasers with retro-reflective external cavity,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(18), 1591–1593 (2012).
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M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
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F. Valmorra, G. Scalari, C. Maissen, W. Fu, C. Schönenberger, J. W. Choi, H. G. Park, M. Beck, and J. Faist, “Low-bias active control of terahertz waves by coupling large-area CVD graphene to a terahertz metamaterial,” Nano Lett. 13(7), 3193–3198 (2013).
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A. Majumdar, J. Kim, J. Vuckovic, and F. Wang, “Electrical control of silicon photonic crystal cavity by graphene,” Nano Lett. 13(2), 515–518 (2013).
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H. Yan, X. Li, B. Chandra, G. Tulevski, Y. Wu, M. Freitag, W. Zhu, P. Avouris, F. Xia, and F. Wang, “Tunable infrared plasmonic devices using graphene/insulator stacks,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(5), 330–334 (2012).
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L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. A. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(10), 630–634 (2011).
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F. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Tian, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. Crommie, and Y. R. Shen, “Gate-variable optical transitions in graphene,” Science 320(5873), 206–209 (2008).
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P. Liu, W. Cai, L. Wang, X. Zhang, and J. Xu, “Tunable terahertz optical antennas based on graphene ring structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(15), 153111 (2012).
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S. Klinkhammer, T. Woggon, U. Geyer, C. Vannahme, S. Dehm, T. Mappes, and U. Lemmer, “A continuously tunable low-threshold organic semiconductor distributed feedback laser fabricated by rotating shadow mask evaporation,” Appl. Phys. B 97(4), 787–791 (2009).
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H. Yan, X. Li, B. Chandra, G. Tulevski, Y. Wu, M. Freitag, W. Zhu, P. Avouris, F. Xia, and F. Wang, “Tunable infrared plasmonic devices using graphene/insulator stacks,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(5), 330–334 (2012).
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P. Liu, W. Cai, L. Wang, X. Zhang, and J. Xu, “Tunable terahertz optical antennas based on graphene ring structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(15), 153111 (2012).
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W. Gao, J. Shu, C. Qiu, and Q. Xu, “Excitation of plasmonic waves in graphene by guided-mode resonances,” ACS Nano 6(9), 7806–7813 (2012).
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Y. Yao, M. A. Kats, P. Genevet, N. Yu, Y. Song, J. Kong, and F. Capasso, “Broad electrical tuning of graphene-loaded plasmonic antennas,” Nano Lett. 13(3), 1257–1264 (2013).
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M. Liu, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Double-layer graphene optical modulator,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1482–1485 (2012).
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M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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S. Mosor, J. Hendrickson, B. C. Richards, J. Sweet, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, T. Yoshie, A. Scherer, O. B. Shchekin, and D. G. Deppe, “Scanning a photonic crystal slab nanocavity by condensation of xenon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(14), 141105 (2005).
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C. L. Yu, H. Kim, N. de Leon, I. W. Frank, J. T. Robinson, M. McCutcheon, M. Liu, M. D. Lukin, M. Loncar, and H. Park, “Stretchable photonic crystal cavity with wide frequency tunability,” Nano Lett. 13(1), 248–252 (2013).
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Yu, N.

Y. Yao, M. A. Kats, P. Genevet, N. Yu, Y. Song, J. Kong, and F. Capasso, “Broad electrical tuning of graphene-loaded plasmonic antennas,” Nano Lett. 13(3), 1257–1264 (2013).
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M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474(7349), 64–67 (2011).
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C. Hwang, D. A. Siegel, S.-K. Mo, W. Regan, A. Ismach, Y. Zhang, A. Zettl, and A. Lanzara, “Fermi velocity engineering in graphene by substrate modification,” Sci Rep. 2, 590 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

M. Liu, X. Yin, and X. Zhang, “Double-layer graphene optical modulator,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1482–1485 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Liu, W. Cai, L. Wang, X. Zhang, and J. Xu, “Tunable terahertz optical antennas based on graphene ring structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(15), 153111 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Lee, M. Choi, T.-T. Kim, S. Lee, M. Liu, X. Yin, H. K. Choi, S. S. Lee, C.-G. Choi, S.-Y. Choi, X. Zhang, and B. Min, “Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials,” Nat. Mater. 11(11), 936–941 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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F. Wang, Y. Zhang, C. Tian, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. Crommie, and Y. R. Shen, “Gate-variable optical transitions in graphene,” Science 320(5873), 206–209 (2008).
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H. Yan, X. Li, B. Chandra, G. Tulevski, Y. Wu, M. Freitag, W. Zhu, P. Avouris, F. Xia, and F. Wang, “Tunable infrared plasmonic devices using graphene/insulator stacks,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(5), 330–334 (2012).
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P. Li and T. Taubner, “Broadband subwavelength imaging using a tunable graphene-lens,” ACS Nano 6(11), 10107–10114 (2012).
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