Abstract

We report the operation and characterization of an upconversion random laser emitting at 560 nm, when directly pumped by three photon excitation at the near IR wavelength of 1350 nm in a colloidal dye solution in the weakly scattering regime. Using a special dye with a high three-photon cross-section and TiO2 nanoparticles (250 nm diameter), optimized upconverted emission was obtained for particle densities of ~2 x 109/cm3. A strong dependence on the nanoparticle concentration and the pumping area was verified. The presence of spikes with linewidths ~0.4 nm in the emitted spectrum is the signature of coherent emission from this three-photon pumped random laser.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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  29. S. Mujumdar, M. Ricci, R. Torre, and D. S. Wiersma, “Amplified extended modes in random lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(5), 053903 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. J. Fallert, R. J. B. Dietz, J. Sartor, D. Schneider, C. Klingshirn, and H. Kalt, “Co-existence of strongly and weakly localized random laser modes,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 279–282 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2013

Q. Zheng, H. Zhu, S.-C. Chen, C. Tang, E. Ma, and X. Chen, “Frequency-upconverted stimulated emission by simultaneous five-photon absorption,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 234–239 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Wiersma, “Disordered photonics,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 188–196 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

X.-Y. Liu, C.-X. Shan, S.-P. Wang, Z.-Z. Zhang, and D.-Z. Shen, “Electrically pumped random lasers fabricated from ZnO nanowire arrays,” Nanoscale 4(9), 2843–2846 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

2010

J. Kitur, G. Zhu, M. Bahoura, and M. A. Noginov, “Dependence of the random laser behavior on the concentration of dye and scatterers,” J. Opt. 12(2), 024009 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Polson and Z. V. Vardeny, “Cancerous tissue mapping from random lasing emission spectra,” J. Opt. 12(2), 024010 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

J. Fallert, R. J. B. Dietz, J. Sartor, D. Schneider, C. Klingshirn, and H. Kalt, “Co-existence of strongly and weakly localized random laser modes,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Zhang, F. Zhang, T. Xia, N. Kumar, J. I. Hahm, J. Liu, Z. L. Wang, and J. Xu, “Low-threshold two-photon pumped ZnO nanowire lasers,” Opt. Express 17(10), 7893–7900 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

2007

C. J. S. de Matos, L. de S Menezes, A. M. Brito-Silva, M. A. Martinez Gámez, A. S. Gomes, and C. B. de Araújo, “Random Fiber Laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(15), 153903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Ma, P. Chen, D. Li, Y. Zhang, and D. Yang, “Electrically pumped ZnO film ultraviolet random lasers on silicon substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 251109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

J. Chen, H. Mizuno, H. Kawano, A. Miyawaki, and K. Midorikawa, “Two-photon pumping of random lasers by picosecond and nanosecond lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 85(1), 45–48 (2006).
[CrossRef]

X. Wu, W. Fang, A. Yamilov, A. A. Chabanov, A. A. Asatryan, L. C. Botten, and H. Cao, “Random lasing in weakly scattering systems,” Phys. Rev. A 74(5), 053812 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Chelnokov, N. Bityurin, I. Ozerov, and W. Marine, “Two-photon pumped random laser in nanocrystalline ZnO,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(17), 171119 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

S. Mujumdar, M. Ricci, R. Torre, and D. S. Wiersma, “Amplified extended modes in random lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(5), 053903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

A. L. Burin, H. Cao, and M. A. Ratner, “Two-photon pumping of a random laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(1), 124–127 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Polson, M. E. Raikh, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Universal properties of random lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(1), 120–123 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. A. R. C. Alencar, A. S. L. Gomes, and C. B. de Araújo, “Directional laserlike emission from a dye-doped polymer containing rutile nanoparticles,” Opt. Soc. Am. B 20(3), 564–567 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Cao, “Lasing in random media,” Waves Random Media 13(3), R1–R39 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, R. Helgeson, T.-C. Lin, Q. Zheng, F. Wudl, and P. N. Prasad, “One-, two-, and three-Photon pumped lasing in a novel liquid dye salt system,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39(8), 1003–1008 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

G. S. He, P. P. Markowicz, T.-C. Lin, and P. N. Prasad, “Observation of stimulated emission by direct three-photon excitation,” Nature 415(6873), 767–770 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Zacharakis, N. A. Papadogiannis, and T. G. Papazoglou, “Random lasing following two-photon excitation of highly scattering media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(14), 2511–2513 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

H. Cao, Y. Ling, J. Y. Xu, C. Q. Cao, and P. Kumar, “Photon Statistics of Random Lasers with Resonant Feedback,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(20), 4524–4527 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ling, H. Cao, A. L. Burin, M. A. Ratner, X. Liu, and R. P. H. Chang, “Investigation of random lasers with resonant feedback,” Phys. Rev. A 64(6), 063808 (2001).

1994

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, “Laser action in strongly scattering media,” Nature 368(6470), 436–438 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992

1968

V. S. Letokhov, “Generation of light by a scattering medium with negative resonance absorption,” Sov. Phys. JETP 26(4), 835–840 (1968).

1966

R. V. Ambartsumyan, N. G. Basov, P. G. Kryukov, and V. S. Letokhov, “A laser with a nonresonant feedback,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 2(9), 442–446 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1960

T. H. Maiman, “Stimulated Optical radiation in Ruby,” Nature 187(4736), 493–494 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Alencar, M. A. R. C.

M. A. R. C. Alencar, A. S. L. Gomes, and C. B. de Araújo, “Directional laserlike emission from a dye-doped polymer containing rutile nanoparticles,” Opt. Soc. Am. B 20(3), 564–567 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ambartsumyan, R. V.

R. V. Ambartsumyan, N. G. Basov, P. G. Kryukov, and V. S. Letokhov, “A laser with a nonresonant feedback,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 2(9), 442–446 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Asatryan, A. A.

X. Wu, W. Fang, A. Yamilov, A. A. Chabanov, A. A. Asatryan, L. C. Botten, and H. Cao, “Random lasing in weakly scattering systems,” Phys. Rev. A 74(5), 053812 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bahoura, M.

J. Kitur, G. Zhu, M. Bahoura, and M. A. Noginov, “Dependence of the random laser behavior on the concentration of dye and scatterers,” J. Opt. 12(2), 024009 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Balachandran, R. M.

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, “Laser action in strongly scattering media,” Nature 368(6470), 436–438 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Basov, N. G.

R. V. Ambartsumyan, N. G. Basov, P. G. Kryukov, and V. S. Letokhov, “A laser with a nonresonant feedback,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 2(9), 442–446 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Bityurin, N.

E. V. Chelnokov, N. Bityurin, I. Ozerov, and W. Marine, “Two-photon pumped random laser in nanocrystalline ZnO,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(17), 171119 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Botten, L. C.

X. Wu, W. Fang, A. Yamilov, A. A. Chabanov, A. A. Asatryan, L. C. Botten, and H. Cao, “Random lasing in weakly scattering systems,” Phys. Rev. A 74(5), 053812 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Brito-Silva, A. M.

C. J. S. de Matos, L. de S Menezes, A. M. Brito-Silva, M. A. Martinez Gámez, A. S. Gomes, and C. B. de Araújo, “Random Fiber Laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(15), 153903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burin, A. L.

A. L. Burin, H. Cao, and M. A. Ratner, “Two-photon pumping of a random laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(1), 124–127 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ling, H. Cao, A. L. Burin, M. A. Ratner, X. Liu, and R. P. H. Chang, “Investigation of random lasers with resonant feedback,” Phys. Rev. A 64(6), 063808 (2001).

Cao, C. Q.

H. Cao, Y. Ling, J. Y. Xu, C. Q. Cao, and P. Kumar, “Photon Statistics of Random Lasers with Resonant Feedback,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(20), 4524–4527 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cao, H.

X. Wu, W. Fang, A. Yamilov, A. A. Chabanov, A. A. Asatryan, L. C. Botten, and H. Cao, “Random lasing in weakly scattering systems,” Phys. Rev. A 74(5), 053812 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Burin, H. Cao, and M. A. Ratner, “Two-photon pumping of a random laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(1), 124–127 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Cao, “Lasing in random media,” Waves Random Media 13(3), R1–R39 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Cao, Y. Ling, J. Y. Xu, C. Q. Cao, and P. Kumar, “Photon Statistics of Random Lasers with Resonant Feedback,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(20), 4524–4527 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ling, H. Cao, A. L. Burin, M. A. Ratner, X. Liu, and R. P. H. Chang, “Investigation of random lasers with resonant feedback,” Phys. Rev. A 64(6), 063808 (2001).

Chabanov, A. A.

X. Wu, W. Fang, A. Yamilov, A. A. Chabanov, A. A. Asatryan, L. C. Botten, and H. Cao, “Random lasing in weakly scattering systems,” Phys. Rev. A 74(5), 053812 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chang, R. K.

Chang, R. P. H.

Y. Ling, H. Cao, A. L. Burin, M. A. Ratner, X. Liu, and R. P. H. Chang, “Investigation of random lasers with resonant feedback,” Phys. Rev. A 64(6), 063808 (2001).

Chelnokov, E. V.

E. V. Chelnokov, N. Bityurin, I. Ozerov, and W. Marine, “Two-photon pumped random laser in nanocrystalline ZnO,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(17), 171119 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

J. Chen, H. Mizuno, H. Kawano, A. Miyawaki, and K. Midorikawa, “Two-photon pumping of random lasers by picosecond and nanosecond lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 85(1), 45–48 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, P.

X. Ma, P. Chen, D. Li, Y. Zhang, and D. Yang, “Electrically pumped ZnO film ultraviolet random lasers on silicon substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 251109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S.-C.

Q. Zheng, H. Zhu, S.-C. Chen, C. Tang, E. Ma, and X. Chen, “Frequency-upconverted stimulated emission by simultaneous five-photon absorption,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 234–239 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.

Q. Zheng, H. Zhu, S.-C. Chen, C. Tang, E. Ma, and X. Chen, “Frequency-upconverted stimulated emission by simultaneous five-photon absorption,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 234–239 (2013).
[CrossRef]

de Araújo, C. B.

M. A. S. de Oliveira, C. B. de Araújo, and Y. Messaddeq, “Upconversion ultraviolet random lasing in Nd3+ doped fluoroindate glass powder,” Opt. Express 19(6), 5620–5626 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. S. de Matos, L. de S Menezes, A. M. Brito-Silva, M. A. Martinez Gámez, A. S. Gomes, and C. B. de Araújo, “Random Fiber Laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(15), 153903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. R. C. Alencar, A. S. L. Gomes, and C. B. de Araújo, “Directional laserlike emission from a dye-doped polymer containing rutile nanoparticles,” Opt. Soc. Am. B 20(3), 564–567 (2003).
[CrossRef]

de Matos, C. J. S.

C. J. S. de Matos, L. de S Menezes, A. M. Brito-Silva, M. A. Martinez Gámez, A. S. Gomes, and C. B. de Araújo, “Random Fiber Laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(15), 153903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Oliveira, M. A. S.

de S Menezes, L.

C. J. S. de Matos, L. de S Menezes, A. M. Brito-Silva, M. A. Martinez Gámez, A. S. Gomes, and C. B. de Araújo, “Random Fiber Laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(15), 153903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dietz, R. J. B.

J. Fallert, R. J. B. Dietz, J. Sartor, D. Schneider, C. Klingshirn, and H. Kalt, “Co-existence of strongly and weakly localized random laser modes,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fallert, J.

J. Fallert, R. J. B. Dietz, J. Sartor, D. Schneider, C. Klingshirn, and H. Kalt, “Co-existence of strongly and weakly localized random laser modes,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fang, W.

X. Wu, W. Fang, A. Yamilov, A. A. Chabanov, A. A. Asatryan, L. C. Botten, and H. Cao, “Random lasing in weakly scattering systems,” Phys. Rev. A 74(5), 053812 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gillespie, J. B.

Gomes, A. S.

C. J. S. de Matos, L. de S Menezes, A. M. Brito-Silva, M. A. Martinez Gámez, A. S. Gomes, and C. B. de Araújo, “Random Fiber Laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(15), 153903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gomes, A. S. L.

M. A. R. C. Alencar, A. S. L. Gomes, and C. B. de Araújo, “Directional laserlike emission from a dye-doped polymer containing rutile nanoparticles,” Opt. Soc. Am. B 20(3), 564–567 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, “Laser action in strongly scattering media,” Nature 368(6470), 436–438 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hahm, J. I.

He, G. S.

G. S. He, R. Helgeson, T.-C. Lin, Q. Zheng, F. Wudl, and P. N. Prasad, “One-, two-, and three-Photon pumped lasing in a novel liquid dye salt system,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39(8), 1003–1008 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, P. P. Markowicz, T.-C. Lin, and P. N. Prasad, “Observation of stimulated emission by direct three-photon excitation,” Nature 415(6873), 767–770 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Helgeson, R.

G. S. He, R. Helgeson, T.-C. Lin, Q. Zheng, F. Wudl, and P. N. Prasad, “One-, two-, and three-Photon pumped lasing in a novel liquid dye salt system,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39(8), 1003–1008 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hsieh, W.-F.

Kalt, H.

J. Fallert, R. J. B. Dietz, J. Sartor, D. Schneider, C. Klingshirn, and H. Kalt, “Co-existence of strongly and weakly localized random laser modes,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kawano, H.

J. Chen, H. Mizuno, H. Kawano, A. Miyawaki, and K. Midorikawa, “Two-photon pumping of random lasers by picosecond and nanosecond lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 85(1), 45–48 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kitur, J.

J. Kitur, G. Zhu, M. Bahoura, and M. A. Noginov, “Dependence of the random laser behavior on the concentration of dye and scatterers,” J. Opt. 12(2), 024009 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Klingshirn, C.

J. Fallert, R. J. B. Dietz, J. Sartor, D. Schneider, C. Klingshirn, and H. Kalt, “Co-existence of strongly and weakly localized random laser modes,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kryukov, P. G.

R. V. Ambartsumyan, N. G. Basov, P. G. Kryukov, and V. S. Letokhov, “A laser with a nonresonant feedback,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 2(9), 442–446 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, N.

Kumar, P.

H. Cao, Y. Ling, J. Y. Xu, C. Q. Cao, and P. Kumar, “Photon Statistics of Random Lasers with Resonant Feedback,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(20), 4524–4527 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kwok, A. S.

Lawandy, N. M.

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, “Laser action in strongly scattering media,” Nature 368(6470), 436–438 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Letokhov, V. S.

V. S. Letokhov, “Generation of light by a scattering medium with negative resonance absorption,” Sov. Phys. JETP 26(4), 835–840 (1968).

R. V. Ambartsumyan, N. G. Basov, P. G. Kryukov, and V. S. Letokhov, “A laser with a nonresonant feedback,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 2(9), 442–446 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Li, D.

X. Ma, P. Chen, D. Li, Y. Zhang, and D. Yang, “Electrically pumped ZnO film ultraviolet random lasers on silicon substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 251109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lin, T.-C.

G. S. He, R. Helgeson, T.-C. Lin, Q. Zheng, F. Wudl, and P. N. Prasad, “One-, two-, and three-Photon pumped lasing in a novel liquid dye salt system,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39(8), 1003–1008 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, P. P. Markowicz, T.-C. Lin, and P. N. Prasad, “Observation of stimulated emission by direct three-photon excitation,” Nature 415(6873), 767–770 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ling, Y.

H. Cao, Y. Ling, J. Y. Xu, C. Q. Cao, and P. Kumar, “Photon Statistics of Random Lasers with Resonant Feedback,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(20), 4524–4527 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ling, H. Cao, A. L. Burin, M. A. Ratner, X. Liu, and R. P. H. Chang, “Investigation of random lasers with resonant feedback,” Phys. Rev. A 64(6), 063808 (2001).

Liu, J.

Liu, X.

Y. Ling, H. Cao, A. L. Burin, M. A. Ratner, X. Liu, and R. P. H. Chang, “Investigation of random lasers with resonant feedback,” Phys. Rev. A 64(6), 063808 (2001).

Liu, X.-Y.

X.-Y. Liu, C.-X. Shan, S.-P. Wang, Z.-Z. Zhang, and D.-Z. Shen, “Electrically pumped random lasers fabricated from ZnO nanowire arrays,” Nanoscale 4(9), 2843–2846 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ma, E.

Q. Zheng, H. Zhu, S.-C. Chen, C. Tang, E. Ma, and X. Chen, “Frequency-upconverted stimulated emission by simultaneous five-photon absorption,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 234–239 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Ma, X.

X. Ma, P. Chen, D. Li, Y. Zhang, and D. Yang, “Electrically pumped ZnO film ultraviolet random lasers on silicon substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 251109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Maiman, T. H.

T. H. Maiman, “Stimulated Optical radiation in Ruby,” Nature 187(4736), 493–494 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Marine, W.

E. V. Chelnokov, N. Bityurin, I. Ozerov, and W. Marine, “Two-photon pumped random laser in nanocrystalline ZnO,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(17), 171119 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Markowicz, P. P.

G. S. He, P. P. Markowicz, T.-C. Lin, and P. N. Prasad, “Observation of stimulated emission by direct three-photon excitation,” Nature 415(6873), 767–770 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martinez Gámez, M. A.

C. J. S. de Matos, L. de S Menezes, A. M. Brito-Silva, M. A. Martinez Gámez, A. S. Gomes, and C. B. de Araújo, “Random Fiber Laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(15), 153903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Messaddeq, Y.

Midorikawa, K.

J. Chen, H. Mizuno, H. Kawano, A. Miyawaki, and K. Midorikawa, “Two-photon pumping of random lasers by picosecond and nanosecond lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 85(1), 45–48 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Miyawaki, A.

J. Chen, H. Mizuno, H. Kawano, A. Miyawaki, and K. Midorikawa, “Two-photon pumping of random lasers by picosecond and nanosecond lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 85(1), 45–48 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mizuno, H.

J. Chen, H. Mizuno, H. Kawano, A. Miyawaki, and K. Midorikawa, “Two-photon pumping of random lasers by picosecond and nanosecond lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 85(1), 45–48 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mujumdar, S.

S. Mujumdar, M. Ricci, R. Torre, and D. S. Wiersma, “Amplified extended modes in random lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(5), 053903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Noginov, M. A.

J. Kitur, G. Zhu, M. Bahoura, and M. A. Noginov, “Dependence of the random laser behavior on the concentration of dye and scatterers,” J. Opt. 12(2), 024009 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Zhu, C. E. Small, and M. A. Noginov, “Single- and two-photon excitation of a GaAs random laser,” Opt. Lett. 33(9), 920–922 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ozerov, I.

E. V. Chelnokov, N. Bityurin, I. Ozerov, and W. Marine, “Two-photon pumped random laser in nanocrystalline ZnO,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(17), 171119 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Papadogiannis, N. A.

G. Zacharakis, N. A. Papadogiannis, and T. G. Papazoglou, “Random lasing following two-photon excitation of highly scattering media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(14), 2511–2513 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Papazoglou, T. G.

G. Zacharakis, N. A. Papadogiannis, and T. G. Papazoglou, “Random lasing following two-photon excitation of highly scattering media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(14), 2511–2513 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Polson, R. C.

R. C. Polson and Z. V. Vardeny, “Cancerous tissue mapping from random lasing emission spectra,” J. Opt. 12(2), 024010 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Polson, M. E. Raikh, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Universal properties of random lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(1), 120–123 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Prasad, P. N.

G. S. He, R. Helgeson, T.-C. Lin, Q. Zheng, F. Wudl, and P. N. Prasad, “One-, two-, and three-Photon pumped lasing in a novel liquid dye salt system,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39(8), 1003–1008 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, P. P. Markowicz, T.-C. Lin, and P. N. Prasad, “Observation of stimulated emission by direct three-photon excitation,” Nature 415(6873), 767–770 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raikh, M. E.

R. C. Polson, M. E. Raikh, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Universal properties of random lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(1), 120–123 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ratner, M. A.

A. L. Burin, H. Cao, and M. A. Ratner, “Two-photon pumping of a random laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(1), 124–127 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ling, H. Cao, A. L. Burin, M. A. Ratner, X. Liu, and R. P. H. Chang, “Investigation of random lasers with resonant feedback,” Phys. Rev. A 64(6), 063808 (2001).

Ricci, M.

S. Mujumdar, M. Ricci, R. Torre, and D. S. Wiersma, “Amplified extended modes in random lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(5), 053903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sartor, J.

J. Fallert, R. J. B. Dietz, J. Sartor, D. Schneider, C. Klingshirn, and H. Kalt, “Co-existence of strongly and weakly localized random laser modes,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sauvain, E.

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, “Laser action in strongly scattering media,” Nature 368(6470), 436–438 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, D.

J. Fallert, R. J. B. Dietz, J. Sartor, D. Schneider, C. Klingshirn, and H. Kalt, “Co-existence of strongly and weakly localized random laser modes,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Serpengüzel, A.

Shan, C.-X.

X.-Y. Liu, C.-X. Shan, S.-P. Wang, Z.-Z. Zhang, and D.-Z. Shen, “Electrically pumped random lasers fabricated from ZnO nanowire arrays,” Nanoscale 4(9), 2843–2846 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shen, D.-Z.

X.-Y. Liu, C.-X. Shan, S.-P. Wang, Z.-Z. Zhang, and D.-Z. Shen, “Electrically pumped random lasers fabricated from ZnO nanowire arrays,” Nanoscale 4(9), 2843–2846 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Small, C. E.

Tang, C.

Q. Zheng, H. Zhu, S.-C. Chen, C. Tang, E. Ma, and X. Chen, “Frequency-upconverted stimulated emission by simultaneous five-photon absorption,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 234–239 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Torre, R.

S. Mujumdar, M. Ricci, R. Torre, and D. S. Wiersma, “Amplified extended modes in random lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(5), 053903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vardeny, Z. V.

R. C. Polson and Z. V. Vardeny, “Cancerous tissue mapping from random lasing emission spectra,” J. Opt. 12(2), 024010 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Polson, M. E. Raikh, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Universal properties of random lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(1), 120–123 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S.-P.

X.-Y. Liu, C.-X. Shan, S.-P. Wang, Z.-Z. Zhang, and D.-Z. Shen, “Electrically pumped random lasers fabricated from ZnO nanowire arrays,” Nanoscale 4(9), 2843–2846 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Z. L.

Wiersma, D. S.

D. S. Wiersma, “Disordered photonics,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 188–196 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Mujumdar, M. Ricci, R. Torre, and D. S. Wiersma, “Amplified extended modes in random lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(5), 053903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, X.

X. Wu, W. Fang, A. Yamilov, A. A. Chabanov, A. A. Asatryan, L. C. Botten, and H. Cao, “Random lasing in weakly scattering systems,” Phys. Rev. A 74(5), 053812 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wudl, F.

G. S. He, R. Helgeson, T.-C. Lin, Q. Zheng, F. Wudl, and P. N. Prasad, “One-, two-, and three-Photon pumped lasing in a novel liquid dye salt system,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39(8), 1003–1008 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Xia, T.

Xu, J.

Xu, J. Y.

H. Cao, Y. Ling, J. Y. Xu, C. Q. Cao, and P. Kumar, “Photon Statistics of Random Lasers with Resonant Feedback,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(20), 4524–4527 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamilov, A.

X. Wu, W. Fang, A. Yamilov, A. A. Chabanov, A. A. Asatryan, L. C. Botten, and H. Cao, “Random lasing in weakly scattering systems,” Phys. Rev. A 74(5), 053812 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yang, D.

X. Ma, P. Chen, D. Li, Y. Zhang, and D. Yang, “Electrically pumped ZnO film ultraviolet random lasers on silicon substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 251109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zacharakis, G.

G. Zacharakis, N. A. Papadogiannis, and T. G. Papazoglou, “Random lasing following two-photon excitation of highly scattering media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(14), 2511–2513 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, C.

Zhang, F.

Zhang, Y.

X. Ma, P. Chen, D. Li, Y. Zhang, and D. Yang, “Electrically pumped ZnO film ultraviolet random lasers on silicon substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 251109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Z.-Z.

X.-Y. Liu, C.-X. Shan, S.-P. Wang, Z.-Z. Zhang, and D.-Z. Shen, “Electrically pumped random lasers fabricated from ZnO nanowire arrays,” Nanoscale 4(9), 2843–2846 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zheng, Q.

Q. Zheng, H. Zhu, S.-C. Chen, C. Tang, E. Ma, and X. Chen, “Frequency-upconverted stimulated emission by simultaneous five-photon absorption,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 234–239 (2013).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, R. Helgeson, T.-C. Lin, Q. Zheng, F. Wudl, and P. N. Prasad, “One-, two-, and three-Photon pumped lasing in a novel liquid dye salt system,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39(8), 1003–1008 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, G.

J. Kitur, G. Zhu, M. Bahoura, and M. A. Noginov, “Dependence of the random laser behavior on the concentration of dye and scatterers,” J. Opt. 12(2), 024009 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Zhu, C. E. Small, and M. A. Noginov, “Single- and two-photon excitation of a GaAs random laser,” Opt. Lett. 33(9), 920–922 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, H.

Q. Zheng, H. Zhu, S.-C. Chen, C. Tang, E. Ma, and X. Chen, “Frequency-upconverted stimulated emission by simultaneous five-photon absorption,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 234–239 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B

J. Chen, H. Mizuno, H. Kawano, A. Miyawaki, and K. Midorikawa, “Two-photon pumping of random lasers by picosecond and nanosecond lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 85(1), 45–48 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

E. V. Chelnokov, N. Bityurin, I. Ozerov, and W. Marine, “Two-photon pumped random laser in nanocrystalline ZnO,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(17), 171119 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Zacharakis, N. A. Papadogiannis, and T. G. Papazoglou, “Random lasing following two-photon excitation of highly scattering media,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(14), 2511–2513 (2002).
[CrossRef]

X. Ma, P. Chen, D. Li, Y. Zhang, and D. Yang, “Electrically pumped ZnO film ultraviolet random lasers on silicon substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(25), 251109 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

R. V. Ambartsumyan, N. G. Basov, P. G. Kryukov, and V. S. Letokhov, “A laser with a nonresonant feedback,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 2(9), 442–446 (1966).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, R. Helgeson, T.-C. Lin, Q. Zheng, F. Wudl, and P. N. Prasad, “One-, two-, and three-Photon pumped lasing in a novel liquid dye salt system,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 39(8), 1003–1008 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

A. L. Burin, H. Cao, and M. A. Ratner, “Two-photon pumping of a random laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(1), 124–127 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Polson, M. E. Raikh, and Z. V. Vardeny, “Universal properties of random lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(1), 120–123 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt.

R. C. Polson and Z. V. Vardeny, “Cancerous tissue mapping from random lasing emission spectra,” J. Opt. 12(2), 024010 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Kitur, G. Zhu, M. Bahoura, and M. A. Noginov, “Dependence of the random laser behavior on the concentration of dye and scatterers,” J. Opt. 12(2), 024009 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nanoscale

X.-Y. Liu, C.-X. Shan, S.-P. Wang, Z.-Z. Zhang, and D.-Z. Shen, “Electrically pumped random lasers fabricated from ZnO nanowire arrays,” Nanoscale 4(9), 2843–2846 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics

D. S. Wiersma, “Disordered photonics,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 188–196 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Q. Zheng, H. Zhu, S.-C. Chen, C. Tang, E. Ma, and X. Chen, “Frequency-upconverted stimulated emission by simultaneous five-photon absorption,” Nat. Photonics 7(3), 234–239 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Fallert, R. J. B. Dietz, J. Sartor, D. Schneider, C. Klingshirn, and H. Kalt, “Co-existence of strongly and weakly localized random laser modes,” Nat. Photonics 3(5), 279–282 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nature

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, “Laser action in strongly scattering media,” Nature 368(6470), 436–438 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, P. P. Markowicz, T.-C. Lin, and P. N. Prasad, “Observation of stimulated emission by direct three-photon excitation,” Nature 415(6873), 767–770 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. H. Maiman, “Stimulated Optical radiation in Ruby,” Nature 187(4736), 493–494 (1960).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Soc. Am. B

M. A. R. C. Alencar, A. S. L. Gomes, and C. B. de Araújo, “Directional laserlike emission from a dye-doped polymer containing rutile nanoparticles,” Opt. Soc. Am. B 20(3), 564–567 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A

X. Wu, W. Fang, A. Yamilov, A. A. Chabanov, A. A. Asatryan, L. C. Botten, and H. Cao, “Random lasing in weakly scattering systems,” Phys. Rev. A 74(5), 053812 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ling, H. Cao, A. L. Burin, M. A. Ratner, X. Liu, and R. P. H. Chang, “Investigation of random lasers with resonant feedback,” Phys. Rev. A 64(6), 063808 (2001).

Phys. Rev. Lett.

S. Mujumdar, M. Ricci, R. Torre, and D. S. Wiersma, “Amplified extended modes in random lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(5), 053903 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. S. de Matos, L. de S Menezes, A. M. Brito-Silva, M. A. Martinez Gámez, A. S. Gomes, and C. B. de Araújo, “Random Fiber Laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(15), 153903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Cao, Y. Ling, J. Y. Xu, C. Q. Cao, and P. Kumar, “Photon Statistics of Random Lasers with Resonant Feedback,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(20), 4524–4527 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sov. Phys. JETP

V. S. Letokhov, “Generation of light by a scattering medium with negative resonance absorption,” Sov. Phys. JETP 26(4), 835–840 (1968).

Waves Random Media

H. Cao, “Lasing in random media,” Waves Random Media 13(3), R1–R39 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other

M. A. Noginov, Solid State Random Lasers (Springer, 2005).

R. V. Ambartsumyan, N. G. Basov, P. G. Kryukov, and V. S. Lethokov, “Non-resonant feedback lasers,” In Progress in Quantum Electron., J. H. Sanders and K. W. H. Stevens, eds. (Pergamon, 1970), pp. 109–185.

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science Books‬, 1986).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Experimental diagram for the RL experiment, (b) absorption spectral distribution of 1mm path APSS dye in DMSO (1.5x10-3 M) and (c) energy level diagram for the three-photon excitation process in the APSS dye.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Spectral evolution of RL at 1 kHz for different incident pulse laser energy; (b) Single shot RL spectrum below and above threshold; (c) Linewidth reduction as a function of pump energy and (d) Emitted RL peak intensity as a function of pump energy.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Pump threshold versus NP concentration and (b) emitted intensity as a function of pump area for the optimized concentration.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Lasing spectrum obtained at different repetition rates and (b) lasing spectrum at 1Hz. The inset shows details of the spikes over different measurements. The pump excitation and pump area were 50 µJ and 2.8 x 10-3 cm2, respectively.

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