Abstract

Second-order nonlinear optical susceptibilities for second harmonic generation (SHG) associated with intersubband transitions in GaN/AlGaN single quantum well and step quantum well have been studied theoretically by solving Schrödinger and Poisson equations self-consistently. The calculated results suggest that due to the very large polarization-induced field in the quantum well, the potential profile becomes asymmetrical, leading to large second-order susceptibilities. A high value about 4 × 10−7 m/V can be obtained in single quantum well structure. Furthermore, by adopting step quantum well structure to increase the asymmetry degree of the potential profile and manipulate the energy levels for double-resonance, a significant enhancement of second-order susceptibility can occur in step quantum well. Specifically, the susceptibility can be as large as 4 × 10−6 m/V with structure optimization, about an order of magnitude greater than that in single quantum well. The results indicate that nonlinear optical elements based on GaN/AlGaN step quantum wells are very promising for SHG in a wide range of wavelengths from telecommunication to mid-infrared, especially effective in longer wavelength.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. A. Khan, K. Balakrishnan, and T. Katona, “Ultraviolet light-emitting diodes based on group three nitrides,” Nat. Photonics 2(2), 77–84 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. S. Zhang, J. Zhu, Z. D. Zhu, Y. H. Jin, Q. Q. Li, and G. F. Jin, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced GaN-LED based on a multilayered M-shaped nano-grating,” Opt. Express 21(11), 13492–13501 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. H. Yoshida, Y. Yamashita, M. Kuwabara, and H. Kan, “A 342-nm ultraviolet AlGaN multiple-quantum-well laser diode,” Nat. Photonics 2(9), 551–554 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Y. Yamashita, M. Kuwabara, K. Torii, and H. Yoshida, “A 340-nm-band ultraviolet laser diode composed of GaN well layers,” Opt. Express 21(3), 3133–3137 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. W. Tian, W. Y. Yan, X. Hui, S. L. Li, Y. Y. Ding, Y. Li, Y. Tian, J. N. Dai, Y. Y. Fang, Z. H. Wu, C. H. Yu, and C. Q. Chen, “Tunability of intersubband transition wavelength in the atmospheric window in AlGaN/GaN multi-quantum wells grown on different AlGaN templates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(6), 063526 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. Machhadani, M. Beeler, S. Sakr, E. Warde, Y. Kotsar, M. Tchernycheva, M. P. Chauvat, P. Ruterana, G. Nataf, P. De Mierry, E. Monroy, and F. H. Julien, “Systematic study of near-infrared intersubband absorption of polar and semipolar GaN/AlN quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(14), 143109 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. Sakr, E. Giraud, M. Tchernycheva, N. Isac, P. Quach, E. Warde, N. Grandjean, and F. H. Julien, “A simplified GaN/AlGaN quantum cascade detector with an alloy extractor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(25), 251101 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Sakr, E. Giraud, A. Dussaigne, M. Tchernycheva, N. Grandjean, and F. H. Julien, “Two-color GaN/AlGaN quantum cascade detector at short infrared wavelengths of 1 and 1.7μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(18), 181103 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  9. D. N. Hahn, G. T. Kiehne, J. B. Ketterson, G. Wong, P. Kung, A. Saxler, and M. Razeghi, “Phase-matched optical second-harmonic generation in GaN and AlN slab waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 85(5), 2497–2501 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  10. H. Schmidt, A. C. Abare, J. E. Bowers, S. P. Denbaars, and A. Imamoglu, “Large interband second-order susceptibilities in InxGa1-xN/GaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(23), 3611–3613 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  11. C. Xiong, W. Pernice, K. K. Ryu, C. Schuck, K. Y. Fong, T. Palacios, and H. X. Tang, “Integrated GaN photonic circuits on silicon (100) for second harmonic generation,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10462–10470 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. W. Pernice, C. Xiong, C. Schuck, and H. X. Tang, “Second harmonic generation in phase matched aluminum nitride waveguides and micro-ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(22), 223501 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. K. Gurnick and T. A. DeTemple, “Synthetic nonlinear semiconductors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 19(5), 791–794 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  14. L. Tsang, D. Ahn, and S. L. Chuang, “Electric field control of optical second harmonic generation in a quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52(9), 697–699 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. M. Fejer, S. J. B. Yoo, R. L. Byer, A. Harwit, and J. S. Harris., “Observation of extremely large quadratic susceptibility at 9.6-10.8 μm in electric-field-biased AlGaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62(9), 1041–1044 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. E. Rosencher, P. Bois, J. Nagle, and S. Delaitre, “Second harmonic generation by intersub-band transitions in compositionally asymmetrical MQWs,” Electron. Lett. 25(16), 1063–1065 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  17. C. Sirtori, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, S. N. G. Chu, and A. Cho, “Observation of large second order susceptibility via intersubband transitions at λ~10 μm in asymmetric coupled AlInAs/GaInAs quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59(18), 2302–2304 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  18. A. S. Liu, S. L. Chuang, and C. Z. Ning, “Piezoelectric field-enhanced second-order nonlinear optical susceptibilities in wurtzite GaN/AlGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(3), 333–335 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  19. L. Nevou, M. Tchernycheva, F. Julien, M. Raybaut, A. Godard, E. Rosencher, F. Guillot, and E. Monroy, “Intersubband resonant enhancement of second-harmonic generation in GaN/AlN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(15), 151101 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  20. F. Wu, W. Tian, W. Y. Yan, J. Zhang, S. C. Sun, J. N. Dai, Y. Y. Fang, Z. H. Wu, and C. Q. Chen, “Terahertz intersubband transition in GaN/AlGaN step quantum well,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(15), 154505 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  21. H. Y. Zhang, X. H. He, Y. H. Shih, M. Schurman, Z. C. Feng, and R. A. Stall, “Study of nonlinear optical effects in GaN:Mg epitaxial film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(20), 2953–2955 (1996).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (4)

H. S. Zhang, J. Zhu, Z. D. Zhu, Y. H. Jin, Q. Q. Li, and G. F. Jin, “Surface-plasmon-enhanced GaN-LED based on a multilayered M-shaped nano-grating,” Opt. Express 21(11), 13492–13501 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Yamashita, M. Kuwabara, K. Torii, and H. Yoshida, “A 340-nm-band ultraviolet laser diode composed of GaN well layers,” Opt. Express 21(3), 3133–3137 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Machhadani, M. Beeler, S. Sakr, E. Warde, Y. Kotsar, M. Tchernycheva, M. P. Chauvat, P. Ruterana, G. Nataf, P. De Mierry, E. Monroy, and F. H. Julien, “Systematic study of near-infrared intersubband absorption of polar and semipolar GaN/AlN quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(14), 143109 (2013).
[CrossRef]

F. Wu, W. Tian, W. Y. Yan, J. Zhang, S. C. Sun, J. N. Dai, Y. Y. Fang, Z. H. Wu, and C. Q. Chen, “Terahertz intersubband transition in GaN/AlGaN step quantum well,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(15), 154505 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (4)

S. Sakr, E. Giraud, M. Tchernycheva, N. Isac, P. Quach, E. Warde, N. Grandjean, and F. H. Julien, “A simplified GaN/AlGaN quantum cascade detector with an alloy extractor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(25), 251101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Sakr, E. Giraud, A. Dussaigne, M. Tchernycheva, N. Grandjean, and F. H. Julien, “Two-color GaN/AlGaN quantum cascade detector at short infrared wavelengths of 1 and 1.7μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(18), 181103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. Tian, W. Y. Yan, X. Hui, S. L. Li, Y. Y. Ding, Y. Li, Y. Tian, J. N. Dai, Y. Y. Fang, Z. H. Wu, C. H. Yu, and C. Q. Chen, “Tunability of intersubband transition wavelength in the atmospheric window in AlGaN/GaN multi-quantum wells grown on different AlGaN templates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(6), 063526 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. Pernice, C. Xiong, C. Schuck, and H. X. Tang, “Second harmonic generation in phase matched aluminum nitride waveguides and micro-ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(22), 223501 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

2008 (2)

A. Khan, K. Balakrishnan, and T. Katona, “Ultraviolet light-emitting diodes based on group three nitrides,” Nat. Photonics 2(2), 77–84 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Yoshida, Y. Yamashita, M. Kuwabara, and H. Kan, “A 342-nm ultraviolet AlGaN multiple-quantum-well laser diode,” Nat. Photonics 2(9), 551–554 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

L. Nevou, M. Tchernycheva, F. Julien, M. Raybaut, A. Godard, E. Rosencher, F. Guillot, and E. Monroy, “Intersubband resonant enhancement of second-harmonic generation in GaN/AlN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(15), 151101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

A. S. Liu, S. L. Chuang, and C. Z. Ning, “Piezoelectric field-enhanced second-order nonlinear optical susceptibilities in wurtzite GaN/AlGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(3), 333–335 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

D. N. Hahn, G. T. Kiehne, J. B. Ketterson, G. Wong, P. Kung, A. Saxler, and M. Razeghi, “Phase-matched optical second-harmonic generation in GaN and AlN slab waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 85(5), 2497–2501 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Schmidt, A. C. Abare, J. E. Bowers, S. P. Denbaars, and A. Imamoglu, “Large interband second-order susceptibilities in InxGa1-xN/GaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(23), 3611–3613 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

H. Y. Zhang, X. H. He, Y. H. Shih, M. Schurman, Z. C. Feng, and R. A. Stall, “Study of nonlinear optical effects in GaN:Mg epitaxial film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(20), 2953–2955 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

C. Sirtori, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, S. N. G. Chu, and A. Cho, “Observation of large second order susceptibility via intersubband transitions at λ~10 μm in asymmetric coupled AlInAs/GaInAs quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59(18), 2302–2304 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989 (2)

M. M. Fejer, S. J. B. Yoo, R. L. Byer, A. Harwit, and J. S. Harris., “Observation of extremely large quadratic susceptibility at 9.6-10.8 μm in electric-field-biased AlGaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62(9), 1041–1044 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Rosencher, P. Bois, J. Nagle, and S. Delaitre, “Second harmonic generation by intersub-band transitions in compositionally asymmetrical MQWs,” Electron. Lett. 25(16), 1063–1065 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

L. Tsang, D. Ahn, and S. L. Chuang, “Electric field control of optical second harmonic generation in a quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52(9), 697–699 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

M. K. Gurnick and T. A. DeTemple, “Synthetic nonlinear semiconductors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 19(5), 791–794 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Abare, A. C.

H. Schmidt, A. C. Abare, J. E. Bowers, S. P. Denbaars, and A. Imamoglu, “Large interband second-order susceptibilities in InxGa1-xN/GaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(23), 3611–3613 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, D.

L. Tsang, D. Ahn, and S. L. Chuang, “Electric field control of optical second harmonic generation in a quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52(9), 697–699 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Balakrishnan, K.

A. Khan, K. Balakrishnan, and T. Katona, “Ultraviolet light-emitting diodes based on group three nitrides,” Nat. Photonics 2(2), 77–84 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Beeler, M.

H. Machhadani, M. Beeler, S. Sakr, E. Warde, Y. Kotsar, M. Tchernycheva, M. P. Chauvat, P. Ruterana, G. Nataf, P. De Mierry, E. Monroy, and F. H. Julien, “Systematic study of near-infrared intersubband absorption of polar and semipolar GaN/AlN quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(14), 143109 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Bois, P.

E. Rosencher, P. Bois, J. Nagle, and S. Delaitre, “Second harmonic generation by intersub-band transitions in compositionally asymmetrical MQWs,” Electron. Lett. 25(16), 1063–1065 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Bowers, J. E.

H. Schmidt, A. C. Abare, J. E. Bowers, S. P. Denbaars, and A. Imamoglu, “Large interband second-order susceptibilities in InxGa1-xN/GaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(23), 3611–3613 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Byer, R. L.

M. M. Fejer, S. J. B. Yoo, R. L. Byer, A. Harwit, and J. S. Harris., “Observation of extremely large quadratic susceptibility at 9.6-10.8 μm in electric-field-biased AlGaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62(9), 1041–1044 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Capasso, F.

C. Sirtori, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, S. N. G. Chu, and A. Cho, “Observation of large second order susceptibility via intersubband transitions at λ~10 μm in asymmetric coupled AlInAs/GaInAs quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59(18), 2302–2304 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Chauvat, M. P.

H. Machhadani, M. Beeler, S. Sakr, E. Warde, Y. Kotsar, M. Tchernycheva, M. P. Chauvat, P. Ruterana, G. Nataf, P. De Mierry, E. Monroy, and F. H. Julien, “Systematic study of near-infrared intersubband absorption of polar and semipolar GaN/AlN quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(14), 143109 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. Q.

F. Wu, W. Tian, W. Y. Yan, J. Zhang, S. C. Sun, J. N. Dai, Y. Y. Fang, Z. H. Wu, and C. Q. Chen, “Terahertz intersubband transition in GaN/AlGaN step quantum well,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(15), 154505 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. Tian, W. Y. Yan, X. Hui, S. L. Li, Y. Y. Ding, Y. Li, Y. Tian, J. N. Dai, Y. Y. Fang, Z. H. Wu, C. H. Yu, and C. Q. Chen, “Tunability of intersubband transition wavelength in the atmospheric window in AlGaN/GaN multi-quantum wells grown on different AlGaN templates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(6), 063526 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cho, A.

C. Sirtori, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, S. N. G. Chu, and A. Cho, “Observation of large second order susceptibility via intersubband transitions at λ~10 μm in asymmetric coupled AlInAs/GaInAs quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59(18), 2302–2304 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Chu, S. N. G.

C. Sirtori, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, S. N. G. Chu, and A. Cho, “Observation of large second order susceptibility via intersubband transitions at λ~10 μm in asymmetric coupled AlInAs/GaInAs quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59(18), 2302–2304 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Chuang, S. L.

A. S. Liu, S. L. Chuang, and C. Z. Ning, “Piezoelectric field-enhanced second-order nonlinear optical susceptibilities in wurtzite GaN/AlGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(3), 333–335 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Tsang, D. Ahn, and S. L. Chuang, “Electric field control of optical second harmonic generation in a quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52(9), 697–699 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Dai, J. N.

F. Wu, W. Tian, W. Y. Yan, J. Zhang, S. C. Sun, J. N. Dai, Y. Y. Fang, Z. H. Wu, and C. Q. Chen, “Terahertz intersubband transition in GaN/AlGaN step quantum well,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(15), 154505 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. Tian, W. Y. Yan, X. Hui, S. L. Li, Y. Y. Ding, Y. Li, Y. Tian, J. N. Dai, Y. Y. Fang, Z. H. Wu, C. H. Yu, and C. Q. Chen, “Tunability of intersubband transition wavelength in the atmospheric window in AlGaN/GaN multi-quantum wells grown on different AlGaN templates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(6), 063526 (2012).
[CrossRef]

De Mierry, P.

H. Machhadani, M. Beeler, S. Sakr, E. Warde, Y. Kotsar, M. Tchernycheva, M. P. Chauvat, P. Ruterana, G. Nataf, P. De Mierry, E. Monroy, and F. H. Julien, “Systematic study of near-infrared intersubband absorption of polar and semipolar GaN/AlN quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(14), 143109 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Delaitre, S.

E. Rosencher, P. Bois, J. Nagle, and S. Delaitre, “Second harmonic generation by intersub-band transitions in compositionally asymmetrical MQWs,” Electron. Lett. 25(16), 1063–1065 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Denbaars, S. P.

H. Schmidt, A. C. Abare, J. E. Bowers, S. P. Denbaars, and A. Imamoglu, “Large interband second-order susceptibilities in InxGa1-xN/GaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(23), 3611–3613 (1999).
[CrossRef]

DeTemple, T. A.

M. K. Gurnick and T. A. DeTemple, “Synthetic nonlinear semiconductors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 19(5), 791–794 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Ding, Y. Y.

W. Tian, W. Y. Yan, X. Hui, S. L. Li, Y. Y. Ding, Y. Li, Y. Tian, J. N. Dai, Y. Y. Fang, Z. H. Wu, C. H. Yu, and C. Q. Chen, “Tunability of intersubband transition wavelength in the atmospheric window in AlGaN/GaN multi-quantum wells grown on different AlGaN templates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(6), 063526 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Dussaigne, A.

S. Sakr, E. Giraud, A. Dussaigne, M. Tchernycheva, N. Grandjean, and F. H. Julien, “Two-color GaN/AlGaN quantum cascade detector at short infrared wavelengths of 1 and 1.7μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(18), 181103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fang, Y. Y.

F. Wu, W. Tian, W. Y. Yan, J. Zhang, S. C. Sun, J. N. Dai, Y. Y. Fang, Z. H. Wu, and C. Q. Chen, “Terahertz intersubband transition in GaN/AlGaN step quantum well,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(15), 154505 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. Tian, W. Y. Yan, X. Hui, S. L. Li, Y. Y. Ding, Y. Li, Y. Tian, J. N. Dai, Y. Y. Fang, Z. H. Wu, C. H. Yu, and C. Q. Chen, “Tunability of intersubband transition wavelength in the atmospheric window in AlGaN/GaN multi-quantum wells grown on different AlGaN templates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(6), 063526 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fejer, M. M.

M. M. Fejer, S. J. B. Yoo, R. L. Byer, A. Harwit, and J. S. Harris., “Observation of extremely large quadratic susceptibility at 9.6-10.8 μm in electric-field-biased AlGaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62(9), 1041–1044 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feng, Z. C.

H. Y. Zhang, X. H. He, Y. H. Shih, M. Schurman, Z. C. Feng, and R. A. Stall, “Study of nonlinear optical effects in GaN:Mg epitaxial film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(20), 2953–2955 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fong, K. Y.

Giraud, E.

S. Sakr, E. Giraud, A. Dussaigne, M. Tchernycheva, N. Grandjean, and F. H. Julien, “Two-color GaN/AlGaN quantum cascade detector at short infrared wavelengths of 1 and 1.7μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(18), 181103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Sakr, E. Giraud, M. Tchernycheva, N. Isac, P. Quach, E. Warde, N. Grandjean, and F. H. Julien, “A simplified GaN/AlGaN quantum cascade detector with an alloy extractor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(25), 251101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Godard, A.

L. Nevou, M. Tchernycheva, F. Julien, M. Raybaut, A. Godard, E. Rosencher, F. Guillot, and E. Monroy, “Intersubband resonant enhancement of second-harmonic generation in GaN/AlN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(15), 151101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Grandjean, N.

S. Sakr, E. Giraud, M. Tchernycheva, N. Isac, P. Quach, E. Warde, N. Grandjean, and F. H. Julien, “A simplified GaN/AlGaN quantum cascade detector with an alloy extractor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(25), 251101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Sakr, E. Giraud, A. Dussaigne, M. Tchernycheva, N. Grandjean, and F. H. Julien, “Two-color GaN/AlGaN quantum cascade detector at short infrared wavelengths of 1 and 1.7μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(18), 181103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Guillot, F.

L. Nevou, M. Tchernycheva, F. Julien, M. Raybaut, A. Godard, E. Rosencher, F. Guillot, and E. Monroy, “Intersubband resonant enhancement of second-harmonic generation in GaN/AlN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(15), 151101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gurnick, M. K.

M. K. Gurnick and T. A. DeTemple, “Synthetic nonlinear semiconductors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 19(5), 791–794 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Hahn, D. N.

D. N. Hahn, G. T. Kiehne, J. B. Ketterson, G. Wong, P. Kung, A. Saxler, and M. Razeghi, “Phase-matched optical second-harmonic generation in GaN and AlN slab waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 85(5), 2497–2501 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Harris, J. S.

M. M. Fejer, S. J. B. Yoo, R. L. Byer, A. Harwit, and J. S. Harris., “Observation of extremely large quadratic susceptibility at 9.6-10.8 μm in electric-field-biased AlGaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62(9), 1041–1044 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harwit, A.

M. M. Fejer, S. J. B. Yoo, R. L. Byer, A. Harwit, and J. S. Harris., “Observation of extremely large quadratic susceptibility at 9.6-10.8 μm in electric-field-biased AlGaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62(9), 1041–1044 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

He, X. H.

H. Y. Zhang, X. H. He, Y. H. Shih, M. Schurman, Z. C. Feng, and R. A. Stall, “Study of nonlinear optical effects in GaN:Mg epitaxial film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(20), 2953–2955 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hui, X.

W. Tian, W. Y. Yan, X. Hui, S. L. Li, Y. Y. Ding, Y. Li, Y. Tian, J. N. Dai, Y. Y. Fang, Z. H. Wu, C. H. Yu, and C. Q. Chen, “Tunability of intersubband transition wavelength in the atmospheric window in AlGaN/GaN multi-quantum wells grown on different AlGaN templates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(6), 063526 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Imamoglu, A.

H. Schmidt, A. C. Abare, J. E. Bowers, S. P. Denbaars, and A. Imamoglu, “Large interband second-order susceptibilities in InxGa1-xN/GaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(23), 3611–3613 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Isac, N.

S. Sakr, E. Giraud, M. Tchernycheva, N. Isac, P. Quach, E. Warde, N. Grandjean, and F. H. Julien, “A simplified GaN/AlGaN quantum cascade detector with an alloy extractor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(25), 251101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jin, G. F.

Jin, Y. H.

Julien, F.

L. Nevou, M. Tchernycheva, F. Julien, M. Raybaut, A. Godard, E. Rosencher, F. Guillot, and E. Monroy, “Intersubband resonant enhancement of second-harmonic generation in GaN/AlN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(15), 151101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Julien, F. H.

H. Machhadani, M. Beeler, S. Sakr, E. Warde, Y. Kotsar, M. Tchernycheva, M. P. Chauvat, P. Ruterana, G. Nataf, P. De Mierry, E. Monroy, and F. H. Julien, “Systematic study of near-infrared intersubband absorption of polar and semipolar GaN/AlN quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(14), 143109 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Sakr, E. Giraud, M. Tchernycheva, N. Isac, P. Quach, E. Warde, N. Grandjean, and F. H. Julien, “A simplified GaN/AlGaN quantum cascade detector with an alloy extractor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(25), 251101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Sakr, E. Giraud, A. Dussaigne, M. Tchernycheva, N. Grandjean, and F. H. Julien, “Two-color GaN/AlGaN quantum cascade detector at short infrared wavelengths of 1 and 1.7μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(18), 181103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kan, H.

H. Yoshida, Y. Yamashita, M. Kuwabara, and H. Kan, “A 342-nm ultraviolet AlGaN multiple-quantum-well laser diode,” Nat. Photonics 2(9), 551–554 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Katona, T.

A. Khan, K. Balakrishnan, and T. Katona, “Ultraviolet light-emitting diodes based on group three nitrides,” Nat. Photonics 2(2), 77–84 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ketterson, J. B.

D. N. Hahn, G. T. Kiehne, J. B. Ketterson, G. Wong, P. Kung, A. Saxler, and M. Razeghi, “Phase-matched optical second-harmonic generation in GaN and AlN slab waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 85(5), 2497–2501 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Khan, A.

A. Khan, K. Balakrishnan, and T. Katona, “Ultraviolet light-emitting diodes based on group three nitrides,” Nat. Photonics 2(2), 77–84 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kiehne, G. T.

D. N. Hahn, G. T. Kiehne, J. B. Ketterson, G. Wong, P. Kung, A. Saxler, and M. Razeghi, “Phase-matched optical second-harmonic generation in GaN and AlN slab waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 85(5), 2497–2501 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kotsar, Y.

H. Machhadani, M. Beeler, S. Sakr, E. Warde, Y. Kotsar, M. Tchernycheva, M. P. Chauvat, P. Ruterana, G. Nataf, P. De Mierry, E. Monroy, and F. H. Julien, “Systematic study of near-infrared intersubband absorption of polar and semipolar GaN/AlN quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(14), 143109 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kung, P.

D. N. Hahn, G. T. Kiehne, J. B. Ketterson, G. Wong, P. Kung, A. Saxler, and M. Razeghi, “Phase-matched optical second-harmonic generation in GaN and AlN slab waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 85(5), 2497–2501 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kuwabara, M.

Y. Yamashita, M. Kuwabara, K. Torii, and H. Yoshida, “A 340-nm-band ultraviolet laser diode composed of GaN well layers,” Opt. Express 21(3), 3133–3137 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yoshida, Y. Yamashita, M. Kuwabara, and H. Kan, “A 342-nm ultraviolet AlGaN multiple-quantum-well laser diode,” Nat. Photonics 2(9), 551–554 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, Q. Q.

Li, S. L.

W. Tian, W. Y. Yan, X. Hui, S. L. Li, Y. Y. Ding, Y. Li, Y. Tian, J. N. Dai, Y. Y. Fang, Z. H. Wu, C. H. Yu, and C. Q. Chen, “Tunability of intersubband transition wavelength in the atmospheric window in AlGaN/GaN multi-quantum wells grown on different AlGaN templates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(6), 063526 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

W. Tian, W. Y. Yan, X. Hui, S. L. Li, Y. Y. Ding, Y. Li, Y. Tian, J. N. Dai, Y. Y. Fang, Z. H. Wu, C. H. Yu, and C. Q. Chen, “Tunability of intersubband transition wavelength in the atmospheric window in AlGaN/GaN multi-quantum wells grown on different AlGaN templates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(6), 063526 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Liu, A. S.

A. S. Liu, S. L. Chuang, and C. Z. Ning, “Piezoelectric field-enhanced second-order nonlinear optical susceptibilities in wurtzite GaN/AlGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(3), 333–335 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Machhadani, H.

H. Machhadani, M. Beeler, S. Sakr, E. Warde, Y. Kotsar, M. Tchernycheva, M. P. Chauvat, P. Ruterana, G. Nataf, P. De Mierry, E. Monroy, and F. H. Julien, “Systematic study of near-infrared intersubband absorption of polar and semipolar GaN/AlN quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(14), 143109 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Monroy, E.

H. Machhadani, M. Beeler, S. Sakr, E. Warde, Y. Kotsar, M. Tchernycheva, M. P. Chauvat, P. Ruterana, G. Nataf, P. De Mierry, E. Monroy, and F. H. Julien, “Systematic study of near-infrared intersubband absorption of polar and semipolar GaN/AlN quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(14), 143109 (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. Nevou, M. Tchernycheva, F. Julien, M. Raybaut, A. Godard, E. Rosencher, F. Guillot, and E. Monroy, “Intersubband resonant enhancement of second-harmonic generation in GaN/AlN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(15), 151101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nagle, J.

E. Rosencher, P. Bois, J. Nagle, and S. Delaitre, “Second harmonic generation by intersub-band transitions in compositionally asymmetrical MQWs,” Electron. Lett. 25(16), 1063–1065 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Nataf, G.

H. Machhadani, M. Beeler, S. Sakr, E. Warde, Y. Kotsar, M. Tchernycheva, M. P. Chauvat, P. Ruterana, G. Nataf, P. De Mierry, E. Monroy, and F. H. Julien, “Systematic study of near-infrared intersubband absorption of polar and semipolar GaN/AlN quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(14), 143109 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Nevou, L.

L. Nevou, M. Tchernycheva, F. Julien, M. Raybaut, A. Godard, E. Rosencher, F. Guillot, and E. Monroy, “Intersubband resonant enhancement of second-harmonic generation in GaN/AlN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(15), 151101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ning, C. Z.

A. S. Liu, S. L. Chuang, and C. Z. Ning, “Piezoelectric field-enhanced second-order nonlinear optical susceptibilities in wurtzite GaN/AlGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(3), 333–335 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Palacios, T.

Pernice, W.

W. Pernice, C. Xiong, C. Schuck, and H. X. Tang, “Second harmonic generation in phase matched aluminum nitride waveguides and micro-ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(22), 223501 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Xiong, W. Pernice, K. K. Ryu, C. Schuck, K. Y. Fong, T. Palacios, and H. X. Tang, “Integrated GaN photonic circuits on silicon (100) for second harmonic generation,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10462–10470 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quach, P.

S. Sakr, E. Giraud, M. Tchernycheva, N. Isac, P. Quach, E. Warde, N. Grandjean, and F. H. Julien, “A simplified GaN/AlGaN quantum cascade detector with an alloy extractor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(25), 251101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Raybaut, M.

L. Nevou, M. Tchernycheva, F. Julien, M. Raybaut, A. Godard, E. Rosencher, F. Guillot, and E. Monroy, “Intersubband resonant enhancement of second-harmonic generation in GaN/AlN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(15), 151101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Razeghi, M.

D. N. Hahn, G. T. Kiehne, J. B. Ketterson, G. Wong, P. Kung, A. Saxler, and M. Razeghi, “Phase-matched optical second-harmonic generation in GaN and AlN slab waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 85(5), 2497–2501 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rosencher, E.

L. Nevou, M. Tchernycheva, F. Julien, M. Raybaut, A. Godard, E. Rosencher, F. Guillot, and E. Monroy, “Intersubband resonant enhancement of second-harmonic generation in GaN/AlN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(15), 151101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Rosencher, P. Bois, J. Nagle, and S. Delaitre, “Second harmonic generation by intersub-band transitions in compositionally asymmetrical MQWs,” Electron. Lett. 25(16), 1063–1065 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ruterana, P.

H. Machhadani, M. Beeler, S. Sakr, E. Warde, Y. Kotsar, M. Tchernycheva, M. P. Chauvat, P. Ruterana, G. Nataf, P. De Mierry, E. Monroy, and F. H. Julien, “Systematic study of near-infrared intersubband absorption of polar and semipolar GaN/AlN quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(14), 143109 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Ryu, K. K.

Sakr, S.

H. Machhadani, M. Beeler, S. Sakr, E. Warde, Y. Kotsar, M. Tchernycheva, M. P. Chauvat, P. Ruterana, G. Nataf, P. De Mierry, E. Monroy, and F. H. Julien, “Systematic study of near-infrared intersubband absorption of polar and semipolar GaN/AlN quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(14), 143109 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Sakr, E. Giraud, M. Tchernycheva, N. Isac, P. Quach, E. Warde, N. Grandjean, and F. H. Julien, “A simplified GaN/AlGaN quantum cascade detector with an alloy extractor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(25), 251101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Sakr, E. Giraud, A. Dussaigne, M. Tchernycheva, N. Grandjean, and F. H. Julien, “Two-color GaN/AlGaN quantum cascade detector at short infrared wavelengths of 1 and 1.7μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(18), 181103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Saxler, A.

D. N. Hahn, G. T. Kiehne, J. B. Ketterson, G. Wong, P. Kung, A. Saxler, and M. Razeghi, “Phase-matched optical second-harmonic generation in GaN and AlN slab waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 85(5), 2497–2501 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, H.

H. Schmidt, A. C. Abare, J. E. Bowers, S. P. Denbaars, and A. Imamoglu, “Large interband second-order susceptibilities in InxGa1-xN/GaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(23), 3611–3613 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schuck, C.

W. Pernice, C. Xiong, C. Schuck, and H. X. Tang, “Second harmonic generation in phase matched aluminum nitride waveguides and micro-ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(22), 223501 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Xiong, W. Pernice, K. K. Ryu, C. Schuck, K. Y. Fong, T. Palacios, and H. X. Tang, “Integrated GaN photonic circuits on silicon (100) for second harmonic generation,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10462–10470 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schurman, M.

H. Y. Zhang, X. H. He, Y. H. Shih, M. Schurman, Z. C. Feng, and R. A. Stall, “Study of nonlinear optical effects in GaN:Mg epitaxial film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(20), 2953–2955 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Shih, Y. H.

H. Y. Zhang, X. H. He, Y. H. Shih, M. Schurman, Z. C. Feng, and R. A. Stall, “Study of nonlinear optical effects in GaN:Mg epitaxial film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(20), 2953–2955 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sirtori, C.

C. Sirtori, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, S. N. G. Chu, and A. Cho, “Observation of large second order susceptibility via intersubband transitions at λ~10 μm in asymmetric coupled AlInAs/GaInAs quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59(18), 2302–2304 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sivco, D. L.

C. Sirtori, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, S. N. G. Chu, and A. Cho, “Observation of large second order susceptibility via intersubband transitions at λ~10 μm in asymmetric coupled AlInAs/GaInAs quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59(18), 2302–2304 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Stall, R. A.

H. Y. Zhang, X. H. He, Y. H. Shih, M. Schurman, Z. C. Feng, and R. A. Stall, “Study of nonlinear optical effects in GaN:Mg epitaxial film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(20), 2953–2955 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sun, S. C.

F. Wu, W. Tian, W. Y. Yan, J. Zhang, S. C. Sun, J. N. Dai, Y. Y. Fang, Z. H. Wu, and C. Q. Chen, “Terahertz intersubband transition in GaN/AlGaN step quantum well,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(15), 154505 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Tang, H. X.

W. Pernice, C. Xiong, C. Schuck, and H. X. Tang, “Second harmonic generation in phase matched aluminum nitride waveguides and micro-ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(22), 223501 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Xiong, W. Pernice, K. K. Ryu, C. Schuck, K. Y. Fong, T. Palacios, and H. X. Tang, “Integrated GaN photonic circuits on silicon (100) for second harmonic generation,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10462–10470 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tchernycheva, M.

H. Machhadani, M. Beeler, S. Sakr, E. Warde, Y. Kotsar, M. Tchernycheva, M. P. Chauvat, P. Ruterana, G. Nataf, P. De Mierry, E. Monroy, and F. H. Julien, “Systematic study of near-infrared intersubband absorption of polar and semipolar GaN/AlN quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(14), 143109 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Sakr, E. Giraud, A. Dussaigne, M. Tchernycheva, N. Grandjean, and F. H. Julien, “Two-color GaN/AlGaN quantum cascade detector at short infrared wavelengths of 1 and 1.7μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(18), 181103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Sakr, E. Giraud, M. Tchernycheva, N. Isac, P. Quach, E. Warde, N. Grandjean, and F. H. Julien, “A simplified GaN/AlGaN quantum cascade detector with an alloy extractor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(25), 251101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Nevou, M. Tchernycheva, F. Julien, M. Raybaut, A. Godard, E. Rosencher, F. Guillot, and E. Monroy, “Intersubband resonant enhancement of second-harmonic generation in GaN/AlN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(15), 151101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tian, W.

F. Wu, W. Tian, W. Y. Yan, J. Zhang, S. C. Sun, J. N. Dai, Y. Y. Fang, Z. H. Wu, and C. Q. Chen, “Terahertz intersubband transition in GaN/AlGaN step quantum well,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(15), 154505 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. Tian, W. Y. Yan, X. Hui, S. L. Li, Y. Y. Ding, Y. Li, Y. Tian, J. N. Dai, Y. Y. Fang, Z. H. Wu, C. H. Yu, and C. Q. Chen, “Tunability of intersubband transition wavelength in the atmospheric window in AlGaN/GaN multi-quantum wells grown on different AlGaN templates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(6), 063526 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tian, Y.

W. Tian, W. Y. Yan, X. Hui, S. L. Li, Y. Y. Ding, Y. Li, Y. Tian, J. N. Dai, Y. Y. Fang, Z. H. Wu, C. H. Yu, and C. Q. Chen, “Tunability of intersubband transition wavelength in the atmospheric window in AlGaN/GaN multi-quantum wells grown on different AlGaN templates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(6), 063526 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Torii, K.

Tsang, L.

L. Tsang, D. Ahn, and S. L. Chuang, “Electric field control of optical second harmonic generation in a quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52(9), 697–699 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Warde, E.

H. Machhadani, M. Beeler, S. Sakr, E. Warde, Y. Kotsar, M. Tchernycheva, M. P. Chauvat, P. Ruterana, G. Nataf, P. De Mierry, E. Monroy, and F. H. Julien, “Systematic study of near-infrared intersubband absorption of polar and semipolar GaN/AlN quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(14), 143109 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Sakr, E. Giraud, M. Tchernycheva, N. Isac, P. Quach, E. Warde, N. Grandjean, and F. H. Julien, “A simplified GaN/AlGaN quantum cascade detector with an alloy extractor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(25), 251101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wong, G.

D. N. Hahn, G. T. Kiehne, J. B. Ketterson, G. Wong, P. Kung, A. Saxler, and M. Razeghi, “Phase-matched optical second-harmonic generation in GaN and AlN slab waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 85(5), 2497–2501 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wu, F.

F. Wu, W. Tian, W. Y. Yan, J. Zhang, S. C. Sun, J. N. Dai, Y. Y. Fang, Z. H. Wu, and C. Q. Chen, “Terahertz intersubband transition in GaN/AlGaN step quantum well,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(15), 154505 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Z. H.

F. Wu, W. Tian, W. Y. Yan, J. Zhang, S. C. Sun, J. N. Dai, Y. Y. Fang, Z. H. Wu, and C. Q. Chen, “Terahertz intersubband transition in GaN/AlGaN step quantum well,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(15), 154505 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. Tian, W. Y. Yan, X. Hui, S. L. Li, Y. Y. Ding, Y. Li, Y. Tian, J. N. Dai, Y. Y. Fang, Z. H. Wu, C. H. Yu, and C. Q. Chen, “Tunability of intersubband transition wavelength in the atmospheric window in AlGaN/GaN multi-quantum wells grown on different AlGaN templates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(6), 063526 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Xiong, C.

W. Pernice, C. Xiong, C. Schuck, and H. X. Tang, “Second harmonic generation in phase matched aluminum nitride waveguides and micro-ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(22), 223501 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Xiong, W. Pernice, K. K. Ryu, C. Schuck, K. Y. Fong, T. Palacios, and H. X. Tang, “Integrated GaN photonic circuits on silicon (100) for second harmonic generation,” Opt. Express 19(11), 10462–10470 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamashita, Y.

Y. Yamashita, M. Kuwabara, K. Torii, and H. Yoshida, “A 340-nm-band ultraviolet laser diode composed of GaN well layers,” Opt. Express 21(3), 3133–3137 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yoshida, Y. Yamashita, M. Kuwabara, and H. Kan, “A 342-nm ultraviolet AlGaN multiple-quantum-well laser diode,” Nat. Photonics 2(9), 551–554 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yan, W. Y.

F. Wu, W. Tian, W. Y. Yan, J. Zhang, S. C. Sun, J. N. Dai, Y. Y. Fang, Z. H. Wu, and C. Q. Chen, “Terahertz intersubband transition in GaN/AlGaN step quantum well,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(15), 154505 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. Tian, W. Y. Yan, X. Hui, S. L. Li, Y. Y. Ding, Y. Li, Y. Tian, J. N. Dai, Y. Y. Fang, Z. H. Wu, C. H. Yu, and C. Q. Chen, “Tunability of intersubband transition wavelength in the atmospheric window in AlGaN/GaN multi-quantum wells grown on different AlGaN templates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(6), 063526 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yoo, S. J. B.

M. M. Fejer, S. J. B. Yoo, R. L. Byer, A. Harwit, and J. S. Harris., “Observation of extremely large quadratic susceptibility at 9.6-10.8 μm in electric-field-biased AlGaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62(9), 1041–1044 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoshida, H.

Y. Yamashita, M. Kuwabara, K. Torii, and H. Yoshida, “A 340-nm-band ultraviolet laser diode composed of GaN well layers,” Opt. Express 21(3), 3133–3137 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yoshida, Y. Yamashita, M. Kuwabara, and H. Kan, “A 342-nm ultraviolet AlGaN multiple-quantum-well laser diode,” Nat. Photonics 2(9), 551–554 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yu, C. H.

W. Tian, W. Y. Yan, X. Hui, S. L. Li, Y. Y. Ding, Y. Li, Y. Tian, J. N. Dai, Y. Y. Fang, Z. H. Wu, C. H. Yu, and C. Q. Chen, “Tunability of intersubband transition wavelength in the atmospheric window in AlGaN/GaN multi-quantum wells grown on different AlGaN templates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(6), 063526 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H. S.

Zhang, H. Y.

H. Y. Zhang, X. H. He, Y. H. Shih, M. Schurman, Z. C. Feng, and R. A. Stall, “Study of nonlinear optical effects in GaN:Mg epitaxial film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(20), 2953–2955 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

F. Wu, W. Tian, W. Y. Yan, J. Zhang, S. C. Sun, J. N. Dai, Y. Y. Fang, Z. H. Wu, and C. Q. Chen, “Terahertz intersubband transition in GaN/AlGaN step quantum well,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(15), 154505 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, J.

Zhu, Z. D.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (9)

S. Sakr, E. Giraud, M. Tchernycheva, N. Isac, P. Quach, E. Warde, N. Grandjean, and F. H. Julien, “A simplified GaN/AlGaN quantum cascade detector with an alloy extractor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(25), 251101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Sakr, E. Giraud, A. Dussaigne, M. Tchernycheva, N. Grandjean, and F. H. Julien, “Two-color GaN/AlGaN quantum cascade detector at short infrared wavelengths of 1 and 1.7μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(18), 181103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Schmidt, A. C. Abare, J. E. Bowers, S. P. Denbaars, and A. Imamoglu, “Large interband second-order susceptibilities in InxGa1-xN/GaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(23), 3611–3613 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. Pernice, C. Xiong, C. Schuck, and H. X. Tang, “Second harmonic generation in phase matched aluminum nitride waveguides and micro-ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(22), 223501 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Sirtori, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, S. N. G. Chu, and A. Cho, “Observation of large second order susceptibility via intersubband transitions at λ~10 μm in asymmetric coupled AlInAs/GaInAs quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59(18), 2302–2304 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Liu, S. L. Chuang, and C. Z. Ning, “Piezoelectric field-enhanced second-order nonlinear optical susceptibilities in wurtzite GaN/AlGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(3), 333–335 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Nevou, M. Tchernycheva, F. Julien, M. Raybaut, A. Godard, E. Rosencher, F. Guillot, and E. Monroy, “Intersubband resonant enhancement of second-harmonic generation in GaN/AlN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(15), 151101 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Tsang, D. Ahn, and S. L. Chuang, “Electric field control of optical second harmonic generation in a quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52(9), 697–699 (1988).
[CrossRef]

H. Y. Zhang, X. H. He, Y. H. Shih, M. Schurman, Z. C. Feng, and R. A. Stall, “Study of nonlinear optical effects in GaN:Mg epitaxial film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(20), 2953–2955 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

E. Rosencher, P. Bois, J. Nagle, and S. Delaitre, “Second harmonic generation by intersub-band transitions in compositionally asymmetrical MQWs,” Electron. Lett. 25(16), 1063–1065 (1989).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. K. Gurnick and T. A. DeTemple, “Synthetic nonlinear semiconductors,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 19(5), 791–794 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (4)

F. Wu, W. Tian, W. Y. Yan, J. Zhang, S. C. Sun, J. N. Dai, Y. Y. Fang, Z. H. Wu, and C. Q. Chen, “Terahertz intersubband transition in GaN/AlGaN step quantum well,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(15), 154505 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. N. Hahn, G. T. Kiehne, J. B. Ketterson, G. Wong, P. Kung, A. Saxler, and M. Razeghi, “Phase-matched optical second-harmonic generation in GaN and AlN slab waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 85(5), 2497–2501 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. Tian, W. Y. Yan, X. Hui, S. L. Li, Y. Y. Ding, Y. Li, Y. Tian, J. N. Dai, Y. Y. Fang, Z. H. Wu, C. H. Yu, and C. Q. Chen, “Tunability of intersubband transition wavelength in the atmospheric window in AlGaN/GaN multi-quantum wells grown on different AlGaN templates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” J. Appl. Phys. 112(6), 063526 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Machhadani, M. Beeler, S. Sakr, E. Warde, Y. Kotsar, M. Tchernycheva, M. P. Chauvat, P. Ruterana, G. Nataf, P. De Mierry, E. Monroy, and F. H. Julien, “Systematic study of near-infrared intersubband absorption of polar and semipolar GaN/AlN quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(14), 143109 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (2)

A. Khan, K. Balakrishnan, and T. Katona, “Ultraviolet light-emitting diodes based on group three nitrides,” Nat. Photonics 2(2), 77–84 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H. Yoshida, Y. Yamashita, M. Kuwabara, and H. Kan, “A 342-nm ultraviolet AlGaN multiple-quantum-well laser diode,” Nat. Photonics 2(9), 551–554 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

M. M. Fejer, S. J. B. Yoo, R. L. Byer, A. Harwit, and J. S. Harris., “Observation of extremely large quadratic susceptibility at 9.6-10.8 μm in electric-field-biased AlGaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62(9), 1041–1044 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Conduction band diagrams and squared envelope wave functions of the first three electronic levels in GaN/AlGaN (a) single quantum well with lw = 6 nm, x1 = 1, and (b) step quantum well with lw = 1 nm, lsw = 3 nm, x1 = 2xs = 1. The dashed lines in (a) and (b) represent the Fermi level. Insets are the schematic one-period cross-sections of both structures, which are doped with a donor density of 1 × 1019 cm−3.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Second-order susceptibility χ 2ω ( 2 ) as a function of the fundamental photon energy ω for different Al mole compositions of the barrier, (b) intersubband transition energies (E21, E32, E31) and the product of dipole matrix elements (z12, z23, z31) as a function of Al mole compositions of the barrier in single quantum well, with well width of 6 nm. The inset in (a) shows the maximal χ 2ω ( 2 ) as a function of x1.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Second-order susceptibility χ 2ω ( 2 ) as a function of the fundamental photon energy ω for different well widths, (b) intersubband transition energies (E21, E32, E31) and the product of dipole matrix elements (z12, z23, z31) as a function of well width in single quantum well, with x1 = 1. The inset in (a) shows the maximal χ 2ω ( 2 ) as a function of well width.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Second-order susceptibility χ 2ω ( 2 ) as a function of the fundamental photon energy ω for different Al mole compositions of the barrier, (b) intersubband transition energies (E21, E32, E31) and the product of dipole matrix elements (z12, z23, z31) as a function of Al mole compositions of the barrier in step quantum well, with x1 = 2xs, lw = 3 nm, and lsw = 6 nm. The inset in (a) shows the maximal χ 2ω ( 2 ) as a function of x1.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Second-order susceptibility χ 2ω ( 2 ) as a function of the fundamental photon energy ω for different step well widths, (b) intersubband transition energies (E21, E32, E31) and the product of dipole matrix elements (z12, z23, z31) as a function of step well width in step quantum well, with x1 = 2xs = 1 and lw = 3 nm. The inset in (a) shows the maximal χ 2ω ( 2 ) as a function of step well width.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Energy difference of the E32 and E21 as a function of the Al mole composition of the barrier x1 for different Al mole compositions of the step well xs with lw = 3 nm and lsw = 6 nm, (b) energy difference of the E32 and E21 as a function of the step well width for different well widths with x1 = 1 and xs = 0.5. The dashed horizontal line indicates zero energy difference for double-resonance condition.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Calculated χ 2ω ( 2 ) and Peak Energy ω at Double-resonance Condition with lw = 3 nm and lsw = 6 nm

Tables Icon

Table 2 Calculated χ 2ω ( 2 ) and Peak Energy ω at Double-resonance Condition with x1 = 1 and xs = 0.5

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

χ 2ω ( 2 ) = e 3 n ε 0 2 m,n z ln z nm z ml { 1 ( ω Ω nl i γ nl )( 2ω Ω ml i γ ml ) + 1 ( ω+ Ω nl i γ nl )( 2ω+ Ω ml i γ ml ) 1 ( 2ω Ω mn i γ mn ) [ 1 ω Ω ml i γ ml + 1 ω+ Ω nl i γ nl ] },
χ 2ω ( 2 ) = e 3 n ε 0 2 z 12 z 23 z 31 ( ωΩiγ )( 2ω2Ωiγ ) ,
χ 2ω,max ( 2 ) = e 3 n ε 0 z 12 z 23 z 31 ( γ ) 2 .

Metrics