Abstract

This work presents simulation and experimental results of ultra-thin optical ring resonators, having larger Evanescent Field (EF) penetration depths, and therefore larger sensitivities, as compared to conventional Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI)-based resonator sensors. Having higher sensitivities to the changes in the refractive indices of the cladding media is desirable for sensing applications, as the interactions of interest take place in this region. Using ultra-thin waveguides (<100 nm thick) shows promise to enhance sensitivity for both bulk and surface sensing, due to increased penetration of the EF into the cladding. In this work, the designs and characterization of ultra-thin resonator sensors, within the constraints of a multi-project wafer service that offers three waveguide thicknesses (90 nm, 150 nm, and 220 nm), are presented. These services typically allow efficient integration of biosensors with on-chip detectors, moving towards the implementation of lab-on-chip (LoC) systems. Also, higher temperature stability of ultra-thin resonator sensors were characterized and, in the presence of intentional environmental (temperature) fluctuations, were compared to standard transverse electric SOI-based resonator sensors.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2013 (6)

S. Talebi Fard, S. M. Grist, V. Donzella, S. A. Schmidt, J. Flueckiger, X. Wang, W. Shi, A. Millspaugh, M. Webb, D. M. Ratner, K. C. Cheung, and L. Chrostowski, “Label-free silicon photonic biosensors for use in clinical diagnostics,” Proc. SPIE, Silicon Photonics VIII 8629, 862909 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, J. Flueckiger, S. Schmidt, S. Grist, S. T. Fard, J. Kirk, M. Doerfler, K. C. Cheung, D. M. Ratner, and L. Chrostowski, “A silicon photonic biosensor using phase-shifted bragg gratings in slot waveguide,” J. Biophotonics 6, 821 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang, J. Flueckiger, C. Lin, and L. Chrostowski, “Universal grating coupler design,” Proc. SPIE 8915, 89150Y (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Grist, S. A. Schmidt, J. Flueckiger, V. Donzella, W. Shi, S. T. Fard, J. T. Kirk, D. M. Ratner, K. C. Cheung, and L. Chrostowski, “Silicon photonic micro-disk resonators for label-free biosensing,” Opt. Express 21, 7994–8006 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Wang, S. Grist, J. Flueckiger, N. A. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Silicon photonic slot waveguide bragg gratings and resonators,” Opt. Express 21, 19029–19039 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Shi, H. Yun, C. Lin, J. Flueckiger, N. A. F. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Coupler-apodized bragg-grating add-drop filter,” Opt. Lett. 38, 3068–3070 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (4)

M. Gould, A. Pomerene, C. Hill, S. Ocheltree, Y. Zhang, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Ultra-thin silicon-on-insulator strip waveguides and mode couplers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 221106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Chrostowski, S. Grist, J. Flueckiger, W. Shi, X. Wang, E. Ouellet, H. Yun, M. Webb, B. Nie, Z. Liang, K. C. Cheung, S. A. Schmidt, D. M. Ratner, and N. A. F. Jaeger, “Silicon photonic resonator sensors and devices,” Proc. SPIE 8236, 823620 (2012).
[CrossRef]

O. Scheler, J. T. Kindt, A. J. Qavi, L. Kaplinski, B. Glynn, T. Barry, A. Kurg, and R. C. Bailey, “Label-free, multiplexed detection of bacterial tmrna using silicon photonic microring resonators,” Biosensors and Bioelectronics 36, 56–61 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. W. Shia and R. C. Bailey, “Single domain antibodies for the detection of ricin using silicon photonic microring resonator arrays,” Anal. Chem. 85, 805–810 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

T. Yoshie, L. Tang, and S.-Y. Su, “Optical microcavity: Sensing down to single molecules and atoms,” Sensors 11, 1972–1991 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Arce, K. De Vos, T. Claes, K. Komorowska, D. Van Thourhout, and P. Bienstman, “Silicon-on-insulator microring resonator sensor integrated on an optical fiber facet,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 23, 890–892 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Ackert, J. Doylend, D. Logan, P. Jessop, R. Vafaei, L. Chrostowski, and A. Knights, “Defect-mediated resonance shift of silicon-on-insulator racetrack resonators,” Opt. Express 19, 11969–11976 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (6)

P. Dong, W. Qian, S. Liao, H. Liang, C.-C. Kung, N.-N. Feng, R. Shafiiha, J. Fong, D. Feng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and et al., “Low loss shallow-ridge silicon waveguides,” Opt. Express 18, 14474–14479 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D.-X. Xu, M. Vachon, A. Densmore, R. Ma, S. Janz, A. Delâge, J. Lapointe, P. Cheben, J. Schmid, E. Post, and et al., “Real-time cancellation of temperature induced resonance shifts in soi wire waveguide ring resonator label-free biosensor arrays,” Opt. Express 18, 22867–22879 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Luchansky and R. C. Bailey, “Silicon photonic microring resonators for quantitative cytokine detection and t-cell secretion analysis,” Anal. Chem. 82, 1975–1981 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16, 654–661 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16, 654–661 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Luchansky, A. L. Washburn, T. A. Martin, M. Iqbal, L. C. Gunn, and R. C. Bailey, “Characterization of the evanescent field profile and bound mass sensitivity of a label-free silicon photonic microring resonator biosensing platform,” Biosensors and Bioelectronics 26, 1283–1291 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

T. Claes, J. G. Molera, K. De Vos, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Label-free biosensing with a slot-waveguide-based ring resonator in silicon on insulator,” IEEE J. Photonics 1, 197–204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Washburn, L. C. Gunn, and R. C. Bailey, “Label-free quantitation of a cancer biomarker in complex media using silicon photonic microring resonators,” Anal. Chem. 81, 9499–9506 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Densmore, M. Vachon, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, R. Ma, Y.-H. Li, G. Lopinski, A. Delâge, J. Lapointe, C. Luebbert, and et al., “Silicon photonic wire biosensor array for multiplexed, real-time and label-free molecular detection,” Opt. Lett. 34, 3598–3600 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

2006 (2)

F. Grillot, L. Vivien, S. Laval, and E. Cassan, “Propagation loss in single-mode ultrasmall square silicon-on-insulator optical waveguides,” J. Lightwave Tech. 24, 891 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. Densmore, D.-X. Xu, P. Waldron, S. Janz, P. Cheben, J. Lapointe, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, J. Schmid, and E. Post, “A silicon-on-insulator photonic wire based evanescent field sensor,” IEEE Photonics Tech. Lett. 18, 2520–2522 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

G. Veldhuis, O. Parriaux, H. Hoekstra, and P. Lambeck, “Sensitivity enhancement in evanescent optical waveguide sensors,” J. Lightwave Tech. 18, 677 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

V. V. Tuchin, I. L. Maksimova, D. A. Zimnyakov, I. L. Kon, A. H. Mavlyutov, and A. A. Mishin, “Light propagation in tissues with controlled optical properties,” J. Biomed. Opt. 2, 401–417 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

F. Payne and J. Lacey, “A theoretical analysis of scattering loss from planar optical waveguides,” Opt. and Quantum Electron. 26, 977–986 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

H. Li, “Refractive index of silicon and germanium and its wavelength and temperature derivatives,” J. Phys. and Chem. Ref. data 9, 561–658 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

G. Abbate, U. Bernini, E. Ragozzino, and F. Somma, “The temperature dependence of the refractive index of water,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 11, 1167 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Abbate, G.

G. Abbate, U. Bernini, E. Ragozzino, and F. Somma, “The temperature dependence of the refractive index of water,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 11, 1167 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Ackert, J.

Arce, C. L.

C. L. Arce, K. De Vos, T. Claes, K. Komorowska, D. Van Thourhout, and P. Bienstman, “Silicon-on-insulator microring resonator sensor integrated on an optical fiber facet,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 23, 890–892 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Baehr-Jones, T.

M. Gould, A. Pomerene, C. Hill, S. Ocheltree, Y. Zhang, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Ultra-thin silicon-on-insulator strip waveguides and mode couplers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 221106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16, 654–661 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16, 654–661 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Baets, R.

T. Claes, J. G. Molera, K. De Vos, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Label-free biosensing with a slot-waveguide-based ring resonator in silicon on insulator,” IEEE J. Photonics 1, 197–204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bailey, R. C.

O. Scheler, J. T. Kindt, A. J. Qavi, L. Kaplinski, B. Glynn, T. Barry, A. Kurg, and R. C. Bailey, “Label-free, multiplexed detection of bacterial tmrna using silicon photonic microring resonators,” Biosensors and Bioelectronics 36, 56–61 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. W. Shia and R. C. Bailey, “Single domain antibodies for the detection of ricin using silicon photonic microring resonator arrays,” Anal. Chem. 85, 805–810 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16, 654–661 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Luchansky and R. C. Bailey, “Silicon photonic microring resonators for quantitative cytokine detection and t-cell secretion analysis,” Anal. Chem. 82, 1975–1981 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16, 654–661 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Luchansky, A. L. Washburn, T. A. Martin, M. Iqbal, L. C. Gunn, and R. C. Bailey, “Characterization of the evanescent field profile and bound mass sensitivity of a label-free silicon photonic microring resonator biosensing platform,” Biosensors and Bioelectronics 26, 1283–1291 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Washburn, L. C. Gunn, and R. C. Bailey, “Label-free quantitation of a cancer biomarker in complex media using silicon photonic microring resonators,” Anal. Chem. 81, 9499–9506 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barry, T.

O. Scheler, J. T. Kindt, A. J. Qavi, L. Kaplinski, B. Glynn, T. Barry, A. Kurg, and R. C. Bailey, “Label-free, multiplexed detection of bacterial tmrna using silicon photonic microring resonators,” Biosensors and Bioelectronics 36, 56–61 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bashkatov, A. N.

A. N. Bashkatov and E. A. Genina, “Water refractive index in dependence on temperature and wavelength: a simple approximation,” in “Saratov Fall Meeting 2002: Optical Technologies in Biophysics and Medicine IV,” (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2003), pp. 393–395.

Bernini, U.

G. Abbate, U. Bernini, E. Ragozzino, and F. Somma, “The temperature dependence of the refractive index of water,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 11, 1167 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Bienstman, P.

C. L. Arce, K. De Vos, T. Claes, K. Komorowska, D. Van Thourhout, and P. Bienstman, “Silicon-on-insulator microring resonator sensor integrated on an optical fiber facet,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 23, 890–892 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Claes, J. G. Molera, K. De Vos, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Label-free biosensing with a slot-waveguide-based ring resonator in silicon on insulator,” IEEE J. Photonics 1, 197–204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cassan, E.

F. Grillot, L. Vivien, S. Laval, and E. Cassan, “Propagation loss in single-mode ultrasmall square silicon-on-insulator optical waveguides,” J. Lightwave Tech. 24, 891 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cheben, P.

D.-X. Xu, M. Vachon, A. Densmore, R. Ma, S. Janz, A. Delâge, J. Lapointe, P. Cheben, J. Schmid, E. Post, and et al., “Real-time cancellation of temperature induced resonance shifts in soi wire waveguide ring resonator label-free biosensor arrays,” Opt. Express 18, 22867–22879 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Densmore, D.-X. Xu, P. Waldron, S. Janz, P. Cheben, J. Lapointe, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, J. Schmid, and E. Post, “A silicon-on-insulator photonic wire based evanescent field sensor,” IEEE Photonics Tech. Lett. 18, 2520–2522 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cheung, K. C.

X. Wang, J. Flueckiger, S. Schmidt, S. Grist, S. T. Fard, J. Kirk, M. Doerfler, K. C. Cheung, D. M. Ratner, and L. Chrostowski, “A silicon photonic biosensor using phase-shifted bragg gratings in slot waveguide,” J. Biophotonics 6, 821 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Talebi Fard, S. M. Grist, V. Donzella, S. A. Schmidt, J. Flueckiger, X. Wang, W. Shi, A. Millspaugh, M. Webb, D. M. Ratner, K. C. Cheung, and L. Chrostowski, “Label-free silicon photonic biosensors for use in clinical diagnostics,” Proc. SPIE, Silicon Photonics VIII 8629, 862909 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Grist, S. A. Schmidt, J. Flueckiger, V. Donzella, W. Shi, S. T. Fard, J. T. Kirk, D. M. Ratner, K. C. Cheung, and L. Chrostowski, “Silicon photonic micro-disk resonators for label-free biosensing,” Opt. Express 21, 7994–8006 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Chrostowski, S. Grist, J. Flueckiger, W. Shi, X. Wang, E. Ouellet, H. Yun, M. Webb, B. Nie, Z. Liang, K. C. Cheung, S. A. Schmidt, D. M. Ratner, and N. A. F. Jaeger, “Silicon photonic resonator sensors and devices,” Proc. SPIE 8236, 823620 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chrostowski, L.

S. M. Grist, S. A. Schmidt, J. Flueckiger, V. Donzella, W. Shi, S. T. Fard, J. T. Kirk, D. M. Ratner, K. C. Cheung, and L. Chrostowski, “Silicon photonic micro-disk resonators for label-free biosensing,” Opt. Express 21, 7994–8006 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Wang, S. Grist, J. Flueckiger, N. A. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Silicon photonic slot waveguide bragg gratings and resonators,” Opt. Express 21, 19029–19039 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Shi, H. Yun, C. Lin, J. Flueckiger, N. A. F. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Coupler-apodized bragg-grating add-drop filter,” Opt. Lett. 38, 3068–3070 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Talebi Fard, S. M. Grist, V. Donzella, S. A. Schmidt, J. Flueckiger, X. Wang, W. Shi, A. Millspaugh, M. Webb, D. M. Ratner, K. C. Cheung, and L. Chrostowski, “Label-free silicon photonic biosensors for use in clinical diagnostics,” Proc. SPIE, Silicon Photonics VIII 8629, 862909 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, J. Flueckiger, S. Schmidt, S. Grist, S. T. Fard, J. Kirk, M. Doerfler, K. C. Cheung, D. M. Ratner, and L. Chrostowski, “A silicon photonic biosensor using phase-shifted bragg gratings in slot waveguide,” J. Biophotonics 6, 821 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Wang, J. Flueckiger, C. Lin, and L. Chrostowski, “Universal grating coupler design,” Proc. SPIE 8915, 89150Y (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. Chrostowski, S. Grist, J. Flueckiger, W. Shi, X. Wang, E. Ouellet, H. Yun, M. Webb, B. Nie, Z. Liang, K. C. Cheung, S. A. Schmidt, D. M. Ratner, and N. A. F. Jaeger, “Silicon photonic resonator sensors and devices,” Proc. SPIE 8236, 823620 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Ackert, J. Doylend, D. Logan, P. Jessop, R. Vafaei, L. Chrostowski, and A. Knights, “Defect-mediated resonance shift of silicon-on-insulator racetrack resonators,” Opt. Express 19, 11969–11976 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Chrostowski and M. Hochberg, Silicon Photonics DesignWiley, ISBN: 9781105948749 (2013).

J. F. Pond, C. Cone, L. Chrostowski, J. Klein, J. Flueckiger, A. Liu, D. McGuire, and X. Wang, “A complete design flow for silicon photonics,” SPIE Photonics Europe pp. 9133–9139 (2014).

L. Chrostowski, J. Flueckiger, C. Lin, M. Hochberg, J. Pond, J. Klein, J. Ferguson, and C. Cone, “Design methodologies for silicon photonic integrated circuits,” Proc. SPIE, Photonics West (2014).

W. Shi, X. Wang, W. Zhang, H. Yun, N. A. F. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Integrated microring add-drop filters with contradirectional couplers,” CLEO (Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics) 2012 p. JW4A.91 (2012).

Claes, T.

C. L. Arce, K. De Vos, T. Claes, K. Komorowska, D. Van Thourhout, and P. Bienstman, “Silicon-on-insulator microring resonator sensor integrated on an optical fiber facet,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 23, 890–892 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Claes, J. G. Molera, K. De Vos, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Label-free biosensing with a slot-waveguide-based ring resonator in silicon on insulator,” IEEE J. Photonics 1, 197–204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cone, C.

L. Chrostowski, J. Flueckiger, C. Lin, M. Hochberg, J. Pond, J. Klein, J. Ferguson, and C. Cone, “Design methodologies for silicon photonic integrated circuits,” Proc. SPIE, Photonics West (2014).

J. F. Pond, C. Cone, L. Chrostowski, J. Klein, J. Flueckiger, A. Liu, D. McGuire, and X. Wang, “A complete design flow for silicon photonics,” SPIE Photonics Europe pp. 9133–9139 (2014).

De Vos, K.

C. L. Arce, K. De Vos, T. Claes, K. Komorowska, D. Van Thourhout, and P. Bienstman, “Silicon-on-insulator microring resonator sensor integrated on an optical fiber facet,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 23, 890–892 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Claes, J. G. Molera, K. De Vos, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Label-free biosensing with a slot-waveguide-based ring resonator in silicon on insulator,” IEEE J. Photonics 1, 197–204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Delâge, A.

Densmore, A.

Doerfler, M.

X. Wang, J. Flueckiger, S. Schmidt, S. Grist, S. T. Fard, J. Kirk, M. Doerfler, K. C. Cheung, D. M. Ratner, and L. Chrostowski, “A silicon photonic biosensor using phase-shifted bragg gratings in slot waveguide,” J. Biophotonics 6, 821 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Dong, P.

Donzella, V.

S. M. Grist, S. A. Schmidt, J. Flueckiger, V. Donzella, W. Shi, S. T. Fard, J. T. Kirk, D. M. Ratner, K. C. Cheung, and L. Chrostowski, “Silicon photonic micro-disk resonators for label-free biosensing,” Opt. Express 21, 7994–8006 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Talebi Fard, S. M. Grist, V. Donzella, S. A. Schmidt, J. Flueckiger, X. Wang, W. Shi, A. Millspaugh, M. Webb, D. M. Ratner, K. C. Cheung, and L. Chrostowski, “Label-free silicon photonic biosensors for use in clinical diagnostics,” Proc. SPIE, Silicon Photonics VIII 8629, 862909 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Doylend, J.

Erickson, D.

Fard, S. T.

S. M. Grist, S. A. Schmidt, J. Flueckiger, V. Donzella, W. Shi, S. T. Fard, J. T. Kirk, D. M. Ratner, K. C. Cheung, and L. Chrostowski, “Silicon photonic micro-disk resonators for label-free biosensing,” Opt. Express 21, 7994–8006 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Wang, J. Flueckiger, S. Schmidt, S. Grist, S. T. Fard, J. Kirk, M. Doerfler, K. C. Cheung, D. M. Ratner, and L. Chrostowski, “A silicon photonic biosensor using phase-shifted bragg gratings in slot waveguide,” J. Biophotonics 6, 821 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Feng, D.

Feng, N.-N.

Ferguson, J.

L. Chrostowski, J. Flueckiger, C. Lin, M. Hochberg, J. Pond, J. Klein, J. Ferguson, and C. Cone, “Design methodologies for silicon photonic integrated circuits,” Proc. SPIE, Photonics West (2014).

Flueckiger, J.

Y. Wang, J. Flueckiger, C. Lin, and L. Chrostowski, “Universal grating coupler design,” Proc. SPIE 8915, 89150Y (2013).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, J. Flueckiger, S. Schmidt, S. Grist, S. T. Fard, J. Kirk, M. Doerfler, K. C. Cheung, D. M. Ratner, and L. Chrostowski, “A silicon photonic biosensor using phase-shifted bragg gratings in slot waveguide,” J. Biophotonics 6, 821 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Talebi Fard, S. M. Grist, V. Donzella, S. A. Schmidt, J. Flueckiger, X. Wang, W. Shi, A. Millspaugh, M. Webb, D. M. Ratner, K. C. Cheung, and L. Chrostowski, “Label-free silicon photonic biosensors for use in clinical diagnostics,” Proc. SPIE, Silicon Photonics VIII 8629, 862909 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Grist, S. A. Schmidt, J. Flueckiger, V. Donzella, W. Shi, S. T. Fard, J. T. Kirk, D. M. Ratner, K. C. Cheung, and L. Chrostowski, “Silicon photonic micro-disk resonators for label-free biosensing,” Opt. Express 21, 7994–8006 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Shi, H. Yun, C. Lin, J. Flueckiger, N. A. F. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Coupler-apodized bragg-grating add-drop filter,” Opt. Lett. 38, 3068–3070 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Wang, S. Grist, J. Flueckiger, N. A. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Silicon photonic slot waveguide bragg gratings and resonators,” Opt. Express 21, 19029–19039 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Chrostowski, S. Grist, J. Flueckiger, W. Shi, X. Wang, E. Ouellet, H. Yun, M. Webb, B. Nie, Z. Liang, K. C. Cheung, S. A. Schmidt, D. M. Ratner, and N. A. F. Jaeger, “Silicon photonic resonator sensors and devices,” Proc. SPIE 8236, 823620 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Chrostowski, J. Flueckiger, C. Lin, M. Hochberg, J. Pond, J. Klein, J. Ferguson, and C. Cone, “Design methodologies for silicon photonic integrated circuits,” Proc. SPIE, Photonics West (2014).

J. F. Pond, C. Cone, L. Chrostowski, J. Klein, J. Flueckiger, A. Liu, D. McGuire, and X. Wang, “A complete design flow for silicon photonics,” SPIE Photonics Europe pp. 9133–9139 (2014).

Fong, J.

Frey, B. J.

B. J. Frey, D. B. Leviton, and T. J. Madison, “Temperature-dependent refractive index of silicon and germanium,” in “Astronomical Telescopes and Instrumentation,” (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2006), pp. 62732J.

Genina, E. A.

A. N. Bashkatov and E. A. Genina, “Water refractive index in dependence on temperature and wavelength: a simple approximation,” in “Saratov Fall Meeting 2002: Optical Technologies in Biophysics and Medicine IV,” (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2003), pp. 393–395.

Gleeson, M. A.

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16, 654–661 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16, 654–661 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Glynn, B.

O. Scheler, J. T. Kindt, A. J. Qavi, L. Kaplinski, B. Glynn, T. Barry, A. Kurg, and R. C. Bailey, “Label-free, multiplexed detection of bacterial tmrna using silicon photonic microring resonators,” Biosensors and Bioelectronics 36, 56–61 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gould, M.

M. Gould, A. Pomerene, C. Hill, S. Ocheltree, Y. Zhang, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Ultra-thin silicon-on-insulator strip waveguides and mode couplers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 221106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Grillot, F.

F. Grillot, L. Vivien, S. Laval, and E. Cassan, “Propagation loss in single-mode ultrasmall square silicon-on-insulator optical waveguides,” J. Lightwave Tech. 24, 891 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Grist, S.

X. Wang, S. Grist, J. Flueckiger, N. A. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Silicon photonic slot waveguide bragg gratings and resonators,” Opt. Express 21, 19029–19039 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Wang, J. Flueckiger, S. Schmidt, S. Grist, S. T. Fard, J. Kirk, M. Doerfler, K. C. Cheung, D. M. Ratner, and L. Chrostowski, “A silicon photonic biosensor using phase-shifted bragg gratings in slot waveguide,” J. Biophotonics 6, 821 (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. Chrostowski, S. Grist, J. Flueckiger, W. Shi, X. Wang, E. Ouellet, H. Yun, M. Webb, B. Nie, Z. Liang, K. C. Cheung, S. A. Schmidt, D. M. Ratner, and N. A. F. Jaeger, “Silicon photonic resonator sensors and devices,” Proc. SPIE 8236, 823620 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Grist, S. M.

S. Talebi Fard, S. M. Grist, V. Donzella, S. A. Schmidt, J. Flueckiger, X. Wang, W. Shi, A. Millspaugh, M. Webb, D. M. Ratner, K. C. Cheung, and L. Chrostowski, “Label-free silicon photonic biosensors for use in clinical diagnostics,” Proc. SPIE, Silicon Photonics VIII 8629, 862909 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Grist, S. A. Schmidt, J. Flueckiger, V. Donzella, W. Shi, S. T. Fard, J. T. Kirk, D. M. Ratner, K. C. Cheung, and L. Chrostowski, “Silicon photonic micro-disk resonators for label-free biosensing,” Opt. Express 21, 7994–8006 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gunn, L. C.

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16, 654–661 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Luchansky, A. L. Washburn, T. A. Martin, M. Iqbal, L. C. Gunn, and R. C. Bailey, “Characterization of the evanescent field profile and bound mass sensitivity of a label-free silicon photonic microring resonator biosensing platform,” Biosensors and Bioelectronics 26, 1283–1291 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16, 654–661 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Washburn, L. C. Gunn, and R. C. Bailey, “Label-free quantitation of a cancer biomarker in complex media using silicon photonic microring resonators,” Anal. Chem. 81, 9499–9506 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gunn, W. G.

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16, 654–661 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16, 654–661 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hill, C.

M. Gould, A. Pomerene, C. Hill, S. Ocheltree, Y. Zhang, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Ultra-thin silicon-on-insulator strip waveguides and mode couplers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 221106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hochberg, M.

M. Gould, A. Pomerene, C. Hill, S. Ocheltree, Y. Zhang, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Ultra-thin silicon-on-insulator strip waveguides and mode couplers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 221106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16, 654–661 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16, 654–661 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Chrostowski and M. Hochberg, Silicon Photonics DesignWiley, ISBN: 9781105948749 (2013).

L. Chrostowski, J. Flueckiger, C. Lin, M. Hochberg, J. Pond, J. Klein, J. Ferguson, and C. Cone, “Design methodologies for silicon photonic integrated circuits,” Proc. SPIE, Photonics West (2014).

Hoekstra, H.

G. Veldhuis, O. Parriaux, H. Hoekstra, and P. Lambeck, “Sensitivity enhancement in evanescent optical waveguide sensors,” J. Lightwave Tech. 18, 677 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Iqbal, M.

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16, 654–661 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Luchansky, A. L. Washburn, T. A. Martin, M. Iqbal, L. C. Gunn, and R. C. Bailey, “Characterization of the evanescent field profile and bound mass sensitivity of a label-free silicon photonic microring resonator biosensing platform,” Biosensors and Bioelectronics 26, 1283–1291 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16, 654–661 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jaeger, N. A.

Jaeger, N. A. F.

W. Shi, H. Yun, C. Lin, J. Flueckiger, N. A. F. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Coupler-apodized bragg-grating add-drop filter,” Opt. Lett. 38, 3068–3070 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Chrostowski, S. Grist, J. Flueckiger, W. Shi, X. Wang, E. Ouellet, H. Yun, M. Webb, B. Nie, Z. Liang, K. C. Cheung, S. A. Schmidt, D. M. Ratner, and N. A. F. Jaeger, “Silicon photonic resonator sensors and devices,” Proc. SPIE 8236, 823620 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. Shi, X. Wang, W. Zhang, H. Yun, N. A. F. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Integrated microring add-drop filters with contradirectional couplers,” CLEO (Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics) 2012 p. JW4A.91 (2012).

Janz, S.

Jessop, P.

Kaplinski, L.

O. Scheler, J. T. Kindt, A. J. Qavi, L. Kaplinski, B. Glynn, T. Barry, A. Kurg, and R. C. Bailey, “Label-free, multiplexed detection of bacterial tmrna using silicon photonic microring resonators,” Biosensors and Bioelectronics 36, 56–61 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kindt, J. T.

O. Scheler, J. T. Kindt, A. J. Qavi, L. Kaplinski, B. Glynn, T. Barry, A. Kurg, and R. C. Bailey, “Label-free, multiplexed detection of bacterial tmrna using silicon photonic microring resonators,” Biosensors and Bioelectronics 36, 56–61 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kirk, J.

X. Wang, J. Flueckiger, S. Schmidt, S. Grist, S. T. Fard, J. Kirk, M. Doerfler, K. C. Cheung, D. M. Ratner, and L. Chrostowski, “A silicon photonic biosensor using phase-shifted bragg gratings in slot waveguide,” J. Biophotonics 6, 821 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kirk, J. T.

Klein, J.

L. Chrostowski, J. Flueckiger, C. Lin, M. Hochberg, J. Pond, J. Klein, J. Ferguson, and C. Cone, “Design methodologies for silicon photonic integrated circuits,” Proc. SPIE, Photonics West (2014).

J. F. Pond, C. Cone, L. Chrostowski, J. Klein, J. Flueckiger, A. Liu, D. McGuire, and X. Wang, “A complete design flow for silicon photonics,” SPIE Photonics Europe pp. 9133–9139 (2014).

Knights, A.

Komorowska, K.

C. L. Arce, K. De Vos, T. Claes, K. Komorowska, D. Van Thourhout, and P. Bienstman, “Silicon-on-insulator microring resonator sensor integrated on an optical fiber facet,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 23, 890–892 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kon, I. L.

V. V. Tuchin, I. L. Maksimova, D. A. Zimnyakov, I. L. Kon, A. H. Mavlyutov, and A. A. Mishin, “Light propagation in tissues with controlled optical properties,” J. Biomed. Opt. 2, 401–417 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

Kung, C.-C.

Kurg, A.

O. Scheler, J. T. Kindt, A. J. Qavi, L. Kaplinski, B. Glynn, T. Barry, A. Kurg, and R. C. Bailey, “Label-free, multiplexed detection of bacterial tmrna using silicon photonic microring resonators,” Biosensors and Bioelectronics 36, 56–61 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lacey, J.

F. Payne and J. Lacey, “A theoretical analysis of scattering loss from planar optical waveguides,” Opt. and Quantum Electron. 26, 977–986 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lambeck, P.

G. Veldhuis, O. Parriaux, H. Hoekstra, and P. Lambeck, “Sensitivity enhancement in evanescent optical waveguide sensors,” J. Lightwave Tech. 18, 677 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lamontagne, B.

A. Densmore, D.-X. Xu, P. Waldron, S. Janz, P. Cheben, J. Lapointe, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, J. Schmid, and E. Post, “A silicon-on-insulator photonic wire based evanescent field sensor,” IEEE Photonics Tech. Lett. 18, 2520–2522 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lapointe, J.

Laval, S.

F. Grillot, L. Vivien, S. Laval, and E. Cassan, “Propagation loss in single-mode ultrasmall square silicon-on-insulator optical waveguides,” J. Lightwave Tech. 24, 891 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Leviton, D. B.

B. J. Frey, D. B. Leviton, and T. J. Madison, “Temperature-dependent refractive index of silicon and germanium,” in “Astronomical Telescopes and Instrumentation,” (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2006), pp. 62732J.

Li, H.

H. Li, “Refractive index of silicon and germanium and its wavelength and temperature derivatives,” J. Phys. and Chem. Ref. data 9, 561–658 (1980).
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Li, Y.-H.

Liang, H.

Liang, Z.

L. Chrostowski, S. Grist, J. Flueckiger, W. Shi, X. Wang, E. Ouellet, H. Yun, M. Webb, B. Nie, Z. Liang, K. C. Cheung, S. A. Schmidt, D. M. Ratner, and N. A. F. Jaeger, “Silicon photonic resonator sensors and devices,” Proc. SPIE 8236, 823620 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Liao, S.

Lin, C.

W. Shi, H. Yun, C. Lin, J. Flueckiger, N. A. F. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Coupler-apodized bragg-grating add-drop filter,” Opt. Lett. 38, 3068–3070 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, J. Flueckiger, C. Lin, and L. Chrostowski, “Universal grating coupler design,” Proc. SPIE 8915, 89150Y (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. Chrostowski, J. Flueckiger, C. Lin, M. Hochberg, J. Pond, J. Klein, J. Ferguson, and C. Cone, “Design methodologies for silicon photonic integrated circuits,” Proc. SPIE, Photonics West (2014).

Liu, A.

J. F. Pond, C. Cone, L. Chrostowski, J. Klein, J. Flueckiger, A. Liu, D. McGuire, and X. Wang, “A complete design flow for silicon photonics,” SPIE Photonics Europe pp. 9133–9139 (2014).

Logan, D.

Lopinski, G.

Luchansky, M. S.

M. S. Luchansky and R. C. Bailey, “Silicon photonic microring resonators for quantitative cytokine detection and t-cell secretion analysis,” Anal. Chem. 82, 1975–1981 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Luchansky, A. L. Washburn, T. A. Martin, M. Iqbal, L. C. Gunn, and R. C. Bailey, “Characterization of the evanescent field profile and bound mass sensitivity of a label-free silicon photonic microring resonator biosensing platform,” Biosensors and Bioelectronics 26, 1283–1291 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Luebbert, C.

Ma, R.

Madison, T. J.

B. J. Frey, D. B. Leviton, and T. J. Madison, “Temperature-dependent refractive index of silicon and germanium,” in “Astronomical Telescopes and Instrumentation,” (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2006), pp. 62732J.

Maksimova, I. L.

V. V. Tuchin, I. L. Maksimova, D. A. Zimnyakov, I. L. Kon, A. H. Mavlyutov, and A. A. Mishin, “Light propagation in tissues with controlled optical properties,” J. Biomed. Opt. 2, 401–417 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mandal, S.

Martin, T. A.

M. S. Luchansky, A. L. Washburn, T. A. Martin, M. Iqbal, L. C. Gunn, and R. C. Bailey, “Characterization of the evanescent field profile and bound mass sensitivity of a label-free silicon photonic microring resonator biosensing platform,” Biosensors and Bioelectronics 26, 1283–1291 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mavlyutov, A. H.

V. V. Tuchin, I. L. Maksimova, D. A. Zimnyakov, I. L. Kon, A. H. Mavlyutov, and A. A. Mishin, “Light propagation in tissues with controlled optical properties,” J. Biomed. Opt. 2, 401–417 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McGuire, D.

J. F. Pond, C. Cone, L. Chrostowski, J. Klein, J. Flueckiger, A. Liu, D. McGuire, and X. Wang, “A complete design flow for silicon photonics,” SPIE Photonics Europe pp. 9133–9139 (2014).

Millspaugh, A.

S. Talebi Fard, S. M. Grist, V. Donzella, S. A. Schmidt, J. Flueckiger, X. Wang, W. Shi, A. Millspaugh, M. Webb, D. M. Ratner, K. C. Cheung, and L. Chrostowski, “Label-free silicon photonic biosensors for use in clinical diagnostics,” Proc. SPIE, Silicon Photonics VIII 8629, 862909 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Mishin, A. A.

V. V. Tuchin, I. L. Maksimova, D. A. Zimnyakov, I. L. Kon, A. H. Mavlyutov, and A. A. Mishin, “Light propagation in tissues with controlled optical properties,” J. Biomed. Opt. 2, 401–417 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Molera, J. G.

T. Claes, J. G. Molera, K. De Vos, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Label-free biosensing with a slot-waveguide-based ring resonator in silicon on insulator,” IEEE J. Photonics 1, 197–204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Naughton, B. J.

M. R. Tomita, L. S. Russ, R. Sridhar, and B. J. Naughton, “Smart home with healthcare technologies for community-dwelling older adults,” Available as on 13th of March (2012).

Nie, B.

L. Chrostowski, S. Grist, J. Flueckiger, W. Shi, X. Wang, E. Ouellet, H. Yun, M. Webb, B. Nie, Z. Liang, K. C. Cheung, S. A. Schmidt, D. M. Ratner, and N. A. F. Jaeger, “Silicon photonic resonator sensors and devices,” Proc. SPIE 8236, 823620 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ocheltree, S.

M. Gould, A. Pomerene, C. Hill, S. Ocheltree, Y. Zhang, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Ultra-thin silicon-on-insulator strip waveguides and mode couplers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 221106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ouellet, E.

L. Chrostowski, S. Grist, J. Flueckiger, W. Shi, X. Wang, E. Ouellet, H. Yun, M. Webb, B. Nie, Z. Liang, K. C. Cheung, S. A. Schmidt, D. M. Ratner, and N. A. F. Jaeger, “Silicon photonic resonator sensors and devices,” Proc. SPIE 8236, 823620 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Parriaux, O.

G. Veldhuis, O. Parriaux, H. Hoekstra, and P. Lambeck, “Sensitivity enhancement in evanescent optical waveguide sensors,” J. Lightwave Tech. 18, 677 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Payne, F.

F. Payne and J. Lacey, “A theoretical analysis of scattering loss from planar optical waveguides,” Opt. and Quantum Electron. 26, 977–986 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Pomerene, A.

M. Gould, A. Pomerene, C. Hill, S. Ocheltree, Y. Zhang, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Ultra-thin silicon-on-insulator strip waveguides and mode couplers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 221106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Pond, J.

L. Chrostowski, J. Flueckiger, C. Lin, M. Hochberg, J. Pond, J. Klein, J. Ferguson, and C. Cone, “Design methodologies for silicon photonic integrated circuits,” Proc. SPIE, Photonics West (2014).

Pond, J. F.

J. F. Pond, C. Cone, L. Chrostowski, J. Klein, J. Flueckiger, A. Liu, D. McGuire, and X. Wang, “A complete design flow for silicon photonics,” SPIE Photonics Europe pp. 9133–9139 (2014).

Post, E.

D.-X. Xu, M. Vachon, A. Densmore, R. Ma, S. Janz, A. Delâge, J. Lapointe, P. Cheben, J. Schmid, E. Post, and et al., “Real-time cancellation of temperature induced resonance shifts in soi wire waveguide ring resonator label-free biosensor arrays,” Opt. Express 18, 22867–22879 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Densmore, D.-X. Xu, P. Waldron, S. Janz, P. Cheben, J. Lapointe, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, J. Schmid, and E. Post, “A silicon-on-insulator photonic wire based evanescent field sensor,” IEEE Photonics Tech. Lett. 18, 2520–2522 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Qavi, A. J.

O. Scheler, J. T. Kindt, A. J. Qavi, L. Kaplinski, B. Glynn, T. Barry, A. Kurg, and R. C. Bailey, “Label-free, multiplexed detection of bacterial tmrna using silicon photonic microring resonators,” Biosensors and Bioelectronics 36, 56–61 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Qian, W.

Ragozzino, E.

G. Abbate, U. Bernini, E. Ragozzino, and F. Somma, “The temperature dependence of the refractive index of water,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 11, 1167 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Ratner, D. M.

X. Wang, J. Flueckiger, S. Schmidt, S. Grist, S. T. Fard, J. Kirk, M. Doerfler, K. C. Cheung, D. M. Ratner, and L. Chrostowski, “A silicon photonic biosensor using phase-shifted bragg gratings in slot waveguide,” J. Biophotonics 6, 821 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. Talebi Fard, S. M. Grist, V. Donzella, S. A. Schmidt, J. Flueckiger, X. Wang, W. Shi, A. Millspaugh, M. Webb, D. M. Ratner, K. C. Cheung, and L. Chrostowski, “Label-free silicon photonic biosensors for use in clinical diagnostics,” Proc. SPIE, Silicon Photonics VIII 8629, 862909 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Grist, S. A. Schmidt, J. Flueckiger, V. Donzella, W. Shi, S. T. Fard, J. T. Kirk, D. M. Ratner, K. C. Cheung, and L. Chrostowski, “Silicon photonic micro-disk resonators for label-free biosensing,” Opt. Express 21, 7994–8006 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Chrostowski, S. Grist, J. Flueckiger, W. Shi, X. Wang, E. Ouellet, H. Yun, M. Webb, B. Nie, Z. Liang, K. C. Cheung, S. A. Schmidt, D. M. Ratner, and N. A. F. Jaeger, “Silicon photonic resonator sensors and devices,” Proc. SPIE 8236, 823620 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Russ, L. S.

M. R. Tomita, L. S. Russ, R. Sridhar, and B. J. Naughton, “Smart home with healthcare technologies for community-dwelling older adults,” Available as on 13th of March (2012).

Schacht, E.

T. Claes, J. G. Molera, K. De Vos, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Label-free biosensing with a slot-waveguide-based ring resonator in silicon on insulator,” IEEE J. Photonics 1, 197–204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Scheler, O.

O. Scheler, J. T. Kindt, A. J. Qavi, L. Kaplinski, B. Glynn, T. Barry, A. Kurg, and R. C. Bailey, “Label-free, multiplexed detection of bacterial tmrna using silicon photonic microring resonators,” Biosensors and Bioelectronics 36, 56–61 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmid, J.

D.-X. Xu, M. Vachon, A. Densmore, R. Ma, S. Janz, A. Delâge, J. Lapointe, P. Cheben, J. Schmid, E. Post, and et al., “Real-time cancellation of temperature induced resonance shifts in soi wire waveguide ring resonator label-free biosensor arrays,” Opt. Express 18, 22867–22879 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Densmore, D.-X. Xu, P. Waldron, S. Janz, P. Cheben, J. Lapointe, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, J. Schmid, and E. Post, “A silicon-on-insulator photonic wire based evanescent field sensor,” IEEE Photonics Tech. Lett. 18, 2520–2522 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, S.

X. Wang, J. Flueckiger, S. Schmidt, S. Grist, S. T. Fard, J. Kirk, M. Doerfler, K. C. Cheung, D. M. Ratner, and L. Chrostowski, “A silicon photonic biosensor using phase-shifted bragg gratings in slot waveguide,” J. Biophotonics 6, 821 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, S. A.

S. Talebi Fard, S. M. Grist, V. Donzella, S. A. Schmidt, J. Flueckiger, X. Wang, W. Shi, A. Millspaugh, M. Webb, D. M. Ratner, K. C. Cheung, and L. Chrostowski, “Label-free silicon photonic biosensors for use in clinical diagnostics,” Proc. SPIE, Silicon Photonics VIII 8629, 862909 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Grist, S. A. Schmidt, J. Flueckiger, V. Donzella, W. Shi, S. T. Fard, J. T. Kirk, D. M. Ratner, K. C. Cheung, and L. Chrostowski, “Silicon photonic micro-disk resonators for label-free biosensing,” Opt. Express 21, 7994–8006 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Chrostowski, S. Grist, J. Flueckiger, W. Shi, X. Wang, E. Ouellet, H. Yun, M. Webb, B. Nie, Z. Liang, K. C. Cheung, S. A. Schmidt, D. M. Ratner, and N. A. F. Jaeger, “Silicon photonic resonator sensors and devices,” Proc. SPIE 8236, 823620 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Shafiiha, R.

Shi, W.

S. M. Grist, S. A. Schmidt, J. Flueckiger, V. Donzella, W. Shi, S. T. Fard, J. T. Kirk, D. M. Ratner, K. C. Cheung, and L. Chrostowski, “Silicon photonic micro-disk resonators for label-free biosensing,” Opt. Express 21, 7994–8006 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Shi, H. Yun, C. Lin, J. Flueckiger, N. A. F. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Coupler-apodized bragg-grating add-drop filter,” Opt. Lett. 38, 3068–3070 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Talebi Fard, S. M. Grist, V. Donzella, S. A. Schmidt, J. Flueckiger, X. Wang, W. Shi, A. Millspaugh, M. Webb, D. M. Ratner, K. C. Cheung, and L. Chrostowski, “Label-free silicon photonic biosensors for use in clinical diagnostics,” Proc. SPIE, Silicon Photonics VIII 8629, 862909 (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. Chrostowski, S. Grist, J. Flueckiger, W. Shi, X. Wang, E. Ouellet, H. Yun, M. Webb, B. Nie, Z. Liang, K. C. Cheung, S. A. Schmidt, D. M. Ratner, and N. A. F. Jaeger, “Silicon photonic resonator sensors and devices,” Proc. SPIE 8236, 823620 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. Shi, X. Wang, W. Zhang, H. Yun, N. A. F. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Integrated microring add-drop filters with contradirectional couplers,” CLEO (Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics) 2012 p. JW4A.91 (2012).

Shia, W. W.

W. W. Shia and R. C. Bailey, “Single domain antibodies for the detection of ricin using silicon photonic microring resonator arrays,” Anal. Chem. 85, 805–810 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Somma, F.

G. Abbate, U. Bernini, E. Ragozzino, and F. Somma, “The temperature dependence of the refractive index of water,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 11, 1167 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Spaugh, B.

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16, 654–661 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16, 654–661 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sridhar, R.

M. R. Tomita, L. S. Russ, R. Sridhar, and B. J. Naughton, “Smart home with healthcare technologies for community-dwelling older adults,” Available as on 13th of March (2012).

Su, S.-Y.

T. Yoshie, L. Tang, and S.-Y. Su, “Optical microcavity: Sensing down to single molecules and atoms,” Sensors 11, 1972–1991 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Talebi Fard, S.

S. Talebi Fard, S. M. Grist, V. Donzella, S. A. Schmidt, J. Flueckiger, X. Wang, W. Shi, A. Millspaugh, M. Webb, D. M. Ratner, K. C. Cheung, and L. Chrostowski, “Label-free silicon photonic biosensors for use in clinical diagnostics,” Proc. SPIE, Silicon Photonics VIII 8629, 862909 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Tang, L.

T. Yoshie, L. Tang, and S.-Y. Su, “Optical microcavity: Sensing down to single molecules and atoms,” Sensors 11, 1972–1991 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tomita, M. R.

M. R. Tomita, L. S. Russ, R. Sridhar, and B. J. Naughton, “Smart home with healthcare technologies for community-dwelling older adults,” Available as on 13th of March (2012).

Tuchin, V. V.

V. V. Tuchin, I. L. Maksimova, D. A. Zimnyakov, I. L. Kon, A. H. Mavlyutov, and A. A. Mishin, “Light propagation in tissues with controlled optical properties,” J. Biomed. Opt. 2, 401–417 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tybor, F.

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16, 654–661 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16, 654–661 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Vachon, M.

Vafaei, R.

Van Thourhout, D.

C. L. Arce, K. De Vos, T. Claes, K. Komorowska, D. Van Thourhout, and P. Bienstman, “Silicon-on-insulator microring resonator sensor integrated on an optical fiber facet,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 23, 890–892 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Veldhuis, G.

G. Veldhuis, O. Parriaux, H. Hoekstra, and P. Lambeck, “Sensitivity enhancement in evanescent optical waveguide sensors,” J. Lightwave Tech. 18, 677 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Vivien, L.

F. Grillot, L. Vivien, S. Laval, and E. Cassan, “Propagation loss in single-mode ultrasmall square silicon-on-insulator optical waveguides,” J. Lightwave Tech. 24, 891 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Waldron, P.

A. Densmore, D.-X. Xu, P. Waldron, S. Janz, P. Cheben, J. Lapointe, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, J. Schmid, and E. Post, “A silicon-on-insulator photonic wire based evanescent field sensor,” IEEE Photonics Tech. Lett. 18, 2520–2522 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

S. Talebi Fard, S. M. Grist, V. Donzella, S. A. Schmidt, J. Flueckiger, X. Wang, W. Shi, A. Millspaugh, M. Webb, D. M. Ratner, K. C. Cheung, and L. Chrostowski, “Label-free silicon photonic biosensors for use in clinical diagnostics,” Proc. SPIE, Silicon Photonics VIII 8629, 862909 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, J. Flueckiger, S. Schmidt, S. Grist, S. T. Fard, J. Kirk, M. Doerfler, K. C. Cheung, D. M. Ratner, and L. Chrostowski, “A silicon photonic biosensor using phase-shifted bragg gratings in slot waveguide,” J. Biophotonics 6, 821 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, S. Grist, J. Flueckiger, N. A. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Silicon photonic slot waveguide bragg gratings and resonators,” Opt. Express 21, 19029–19039 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Chrostowski, S. Grist, J. Flueckiger, W. Shi, X. Wang, E. Ouellet, H. Yun, M. Webb, B. Nie, Z. Liang, K. C. Cheung, S. A. Schmidt, D. M. Ratner, and N. A. F. Jaeger, “Silicon photonic resonator sensors and devices,” Proc. SPIE 8236, 823620 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Pond, C. Cone, L. Chrostowski, J. Klein, J. Flueckiger, A. Liu, D. McGuire, and X. Wang, “A complete design flow for silicon photonics,” SPIE Photonics Europe pp. 9133–9139 (2014).

W. Shi, X. Wang, W. Zhang, H. Yun, N. A. F. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Integrated microring add-drop filters with contradirectional couplers,” CLEO (Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics) 2012 p. JW4A.91 (2012).

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, J. Flueckiger, C. Lin, and L. Chrostowski, “Universal grating coupler design,” Proc. SPIE 8915, 89150Y (2013).
[CrossRef]

Washburn, A. L.

M. S. Luchansky, A. L. Washburn, T. A. Martin, M. Iqbal, L. C. Gunn, and R. C. Bailey, “Characterization of the evanescent field profile and bound mass sensitivity of a label-free silicon photonic microring resonator biosensing platform,” Biosensors and Bioelectronics 26, 1283–1291 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. L. Washburn, L. C. Gunn, and R. C. Bailey, “Label-free quantitation of a cancer biomarker in complex media using silicon photonic microring resonators,” Anal. Chem. 81, 9499–9506 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Webb, M.

S. Talebi Fard, S. M. Grist, V. Donzella, S. A. Schmidt, J. Flueckiger, X. Wang, W. Shi, A. Millspaugh, M. Webb, D. M. Ratner, K. C. Cheung, and L. Chrostowski, “Label-free silicon photonic biosensors for use in clinical diagnostics,” Proc. SPIE, Silicon Photonics VIII 8629, 862909 (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. Chrostowski, S. Grist, J. Flueckiger, W. Shi, X. Wang, E. Ouellet, H. Yun, M. Webb, B. Nie, Z. Liang, K. C. Cheung, S. A. Schmidt, D. M. Ratner, and N. A. F. Jaeger, “Silicon photonic resonator sensors and devices,” Proc. SPIE 8236, 823620 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Xu, D.-X.

Yoshie, T.

T. Yoshie, L. Tang, and S.-Y. Su, “Optical microcavity: Sensing down to single molecules and atoms,” Sensors 11, 1972–1991 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yun, H.

W. Shi, H. Yun, C. Lin, J. Flueckiger, N. A. F. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Coupler-apodized bragg-grating add-drop filter,” Opt. Lett. 38, 3068–3070 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Chrostowski, S. Grist, J. Flueckiger, W. Shi, X. Wang, E. Ouellet, H. Yun, M. Webb, B. Nie, Z. Liang, K. C. Cheung, S. A. Schmidt, D. M. Ratner, and N. A. F. Jaeger, “Silicon photonic resonator sensors and devices,” Proc. SPIE 8236, 823620 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. Shi, X. Wang, W. Zhang, H. Yun, N. A. F. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Integrated microring add-drop filters with contradirectional couplers,” CLEO (Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics) 2012 p. JW4A.91 (2012).

Zhang, W.

W. Shi, X. Wang, W. Zhang, H. Yun, N. A. F. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Integrated microring add-drop filters with contradirectional couplers,” CLEO (Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics) 2012 p. JW4A.91 (2012).

Zhang, Y.

M. Gould, A. Pomerene, C. Hill, S. Ocheltree, Y. Zhang, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Ultra-thin silicon-on-insulator strip waveguides and mode couplers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 221106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zimnyakov, D. A.

V. V. Tuchin, I. L. Maksimova, D. A. Zimnyakov, I. L. Kon, A. H. Mavlyutov, and A. A. Mishin, “Light propagation in tissues with controlled optical properties,” J. Biomed. Opt. 2, 401–417 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anal. Chem. (3)

A. L. Washburn, L. C. Gunn, and R. C. Bailey, “Label-free quantitation of a cancer biomarker in complex media using silicon photonic microring resonators,” Anal. Chem. 81, 9499–9506 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. W. Shia and R. C. Bailey, “Single domain antibodies for the detection of ricin using silicon photonic microring resonator arrays,” Anal. Chem. 85, 805–810 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Luchansky and R. C. Bailey, “Silicon photonic microring resonators for quantitative cytokine detection and t-cell secretion analysis,” Anal. Chem. 82, 1975–1981 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. Gould, A. Pomerene, C. Hill, S. Ocheltree, Y. Zhang, T. Baehr-Jones, and M. Hochberg, “Ultra-thin silicon-on-insulator strip waveguides and mode couplers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 221106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Biosensors and Bioelectronics (2)

O. Scheler, J. T. Kindt, A. J. Qavi, L. Kaplinski, B. Glynn, T. Barry, A. Kurg, and R. C. Bailey, “Label-free, multiplexed detection of bacterial tmrna using silicon photonic microring resonators,” Biosensors and Bioelectronics 36, 56–61 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Luchansky, A. L. Washburn, T. A. Martin, M. Iqbal, L. C. Gunn, and R. C. Bailey, “Characterization of the evanescent field profile and bound mass sensitivity of a label-free silicon photonic microring resonator biosensing platform,” Biosensors and Bioelectronics 26, 1283–1291 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Photonics (1)

T. Claes, J. G. Molera, K. De Vos, E. Schacht, R. Baets, and P. Bienstman, “Label-free biosensing with a slot-waveguide-based ring resonator in silicon on insulator,” IEEE J. Photonics 1, 197–204 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16, 654–661 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Iqbal, M. A. Gleeson, B. Spaugh, F. Tybor, W. G. Gunn, M. Hochberg, T. Baehr-Jones, R. C. Bailey, and L. C. Gunn, “Label-free biosensor arrays based on silicon ring resonators and high-speed optical scanning instrumentation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 16, 654–661 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. (1)

C. L. Arce, K. De Vos, T. Claes, K. Komorowska, D. Van Thourhout, and P. Bienstman, “Silicon-on-insulator microring resonator sensor integrated on an optical fiber facet,” IEEE Photon. Tech. Lett. 23, 890–892 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Tech. Lett. (1)

A. Densmore, D.-X. Xu, P. Waldron, S. Janz, P. Cheben, J. Lapointe, A. Delâge, B. Lamontagne, J. Schmid, and E. Post, “A silicon-on-insulator photonic wire based evanescent field sensor,” IEEE Photonics Tech. Lett. 18, 2520–2522 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

V. V. Tuchin, I. L. Maksimova, D. A. Zimnyakov, I. L. Kon, A. H. Mavlyutov, and A. A. Mishin, “Light propagation in tissues with controlled optical properties,” J. Biomed. Opt. 2, 401–417 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biophotonics (1)

X. Wang, J. Flueckiger, S. Schmidt, S. Grist, S. T. Fard, J. Kirk, M. Doerfler, K. C. Cheung, D. M. Ratner, and L. Chrostowski, “A silicon photonic biosensor using phase-shifted bragg gratings in slot waveguide,” J. Biophotonics 6, 821 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Tech. (2)

F. Grillot, L. Vivien, S. Laval, and E. Cassan, “Propagation loss in single-mode ultrasmall square silicon-on-insulator optical waveguides,” J. Lightwave Tech. 24, 891 (2006).
[CrossRef]

G. Veldhuis, O. Parriaux, H. Hoekstra, and P. Lambeck, “Sensitivity enhancement in evanescent optical waveguide sensors,” J. Lightwave Tech. 18, 677 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. and Chem. Ref. data (1)

H. Li, “Refractive index of silicon and germanium and its wavelength and temperature derivatives,” J. Phys. and Chem. Ref. data 9, 561–658 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. (1)

G. Abbate, U. Bernini, E. Ragozzino, and F. Somma, “The temperature dependence of the refractive index of water,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 11, 1167 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Opt. and Quantum Electron. (1)

F. Payne and J. Lacey, “A theoretical analysis of scattering loss from planar optical waveguides,” Opt. and Quantum Electron. 26, 977–986 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Proc. SPIE (2)

Y. Wang, J. Flueckiger, C. Lin, and L. Chrostowski, “Universal grating coupler design,” Proc. SPIE 8915, 89150Y (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. Chrostowski, S. Grist, J. Flueckiger, W. Shi, X. Wang, E. Ouellet, H. Yun, M. Webb, B. Nie, Z. Liang, K. C. Cheung, S. A. Schmidt, D. M. Ratner, and N. A. F. Jaeger, “Silicon photonic resonator sensors and devices,” Proc. SPIE 8236, 823620 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE, Silicon Photonics VIII (1)

S. Talebi Fard, S. M. Grist, V. Donzella, S. A. Schmidt, J. Flueckiger, X. Wang, W. Shi, A. Millspaugh, M. Webb, D. M. Ratner, K. C. Cheung, and L. Chrostowski, “Label-free silicon photonic biosensors for use in clinical diagnostics,” Proc. SPIE, Silicon Photonics VIII 8629, 862909 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Sensors (1)

T. Yoshie, L. Tang, and S.-Y. Su, “Optical microcavity: Sensing down to single molecules and atoms,” Sensors 11, 1972–1991 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

B. J. Frey, D. B. Leviton, and T. J. Madison, “Temperature-dependent refractive index of silicon and germanium,” in “Astronomical Telescopes and Instrumentation,” (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2006), pp. 62732J.

A. N. Bashkatov and E. A. Genina, “Water refractive index in dependence on temperature and wavelength: a simple approximation,” in “Saratov Fall Meeting 2002: Optical Technologies in Biophysics and Medicine IV,” (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2003), pp. 393–395.

W. Shi, X. Wang, W. Zhang, H. Yun, N. A. F. Jaeger, and L. Chrostowski, “Integrated microring add-drop filters with contradirectional couplers,” CLEO (Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics) 2012 p. JW4A.91 (2012).

M. R. Tomita, L. S. Russ, R. Sridhar, and B. J. Naughton, “Smart home with healthcare technologies for community-dwelling older adults,” Available as on 13th of March (2012).

J. F. Pond, C. Cone, L. Chrostowski, J. Klein, J. Flueckiger, A. Liu, D. McGuire, and X. Wang, “A complete design flow for silicon photonics,” SPIE Photonics Europe pp. 9133–9139 (2014).

L. Chrostowski, J. Flueckiger, C. Lin, M. Hochberg, J. Pond, J. Klein, J. Ferguson, and C. Cone, “Design methodologies for silicon photonic integrated circuits,” Proc. SPIE, Photonics West (2014).

L. Chrostowski and M. Hochberg, Silicon Photonics DesignWiley, ISBN: 9781105948749 (2013).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Simulation results for the cross-section of the silicon waveguides (SOI) with water as the cladding medium. (a–c) the mode profile of the fundamental TE mode for silicon thicknesses of 220, 150, and 90 nm, calculated using MODE Solutions. (d) the 1/e penetration depths of these modes as functions of width.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Sensitivity of TE waveguide resonators with various thicknesses to the analyte in the cladding medium and temperature

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

SEM image of ultra-thin TE resonator sensors for two radii of 10 μm and 30 μm

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Peak wavelength shift as a function of the change in refractive index of the glucose solutions. There are about 25 measurements for each concentration (i.e. each refractive index point), measured over three days subjected to intentional temperature variations of 1 K. The dashed line is the best linear fit to these measurements, representing the sensitivity in nm/RIU. The estimated sensitivities based on these linear fits for (a) is 38.2 nm/RIU and for (b) is 133 nm/RIU.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Peak wavelength shift as a function of temperature change, demonstrates the sensitivity of our sensors to temperature change. Sensitivities of the 220 nm thick (conventional) and 90 nm ultra-thin resonators are measured to be 69 and 49pm/K, respectively.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The results of predictions of glucose concentrations using the two characterized sensors based on their responses on two different days under intentional temperature fluctuations of about 1 K. a) The red (light) error bars show the predicted results using the 220 nm thick resonator (R2 = 0.85), and the thick black error bars show the predicted results using the 90 nm ultra-thin resonator sensor (R2 = 0.993). b) The bars represent the error in predicted concentrations using our two sensors. The bars are based on the maximum +/− errors.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

The results of predictions of glucose concentrations using ultra-thin resonator sensors at constant temperature (R2 = 0.998). The light dashed line is for: Estimated Concentrations = Known Concentrations.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

The intrinsic limit of detection (ILOD) of the silicon photonic evanescent field sensors, as functions of the normalized sensitivity (S’) and quality factor (Q). The light blue markers are the modelling results for the unloaded resonators and black markers are the modelling results for critically coupled resonators; and the corresponding lines are their theoretical limit of detection. The experimental normalized sensitivities and Q values for each fabricated device are plotted (white markers), with the waveguide dimensions noted in the legend.

Equations (6)

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S mode = δ n eff ( n cl , n co , n sub , ω ) δ n cl
S = Δ λ res Δ n cl = λ res n g δ n eff δ n cl
Q = ω r E d E / d t = 2 π × n g × 4.34 λ res × α [ d B / m ] λ res Δ λ 3 d B
Δ n min = ILOD = λ res Q S
E ( d ) E 0 e d ( 2 π λ 0 ) N eff 2 n cl 2
n glucose ( λ ) = n H 2 O ( λ ) + 1.515 × 10 6 C glucose

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