Abstract

Transverse coherence of the x-ray beam from a bending magnet source was studied along multiple directions using a 2-D π/2 phase grating by measuring interferogram visibilities at different distances behind the grating. These measurements suggest that the preferred measuring orientation of a 2-D checkerboard grating is along the diagonal directions of the square blocks, where the interferograms have higher visibility and are not sensitive to the deviation of the duty cycle of the grating period. These observations are verified by thorough wavefront propagation simulations. The accuracy of the measured coherence values was also validated by the simulation and analytical results obtained from the source parameters. In addition, capability of the technique in probing spatially resolved local transverse coherence is demonstrated.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2013 (1)

W. Yang, X. Huang, R. Harder, J. N. Clark, I. K. Robinson, and H. K. Mao, “Coherent diffraction imaging of nanoscale strain evolution in a single crystal under high pressure,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1680 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

S. Schleede, F. G. Meinel, M. Bech, J. Herzen, K. Achterhold, G. Potdevin, A. Malecki, S. Adam-Neumair, S. F. Thieme, F. Bamberg, K. Nikolaou, A. Bohla, A. Ö. Yildirim, R. Loewen, M. Gifford, R. Ruth, O. Eickelberg, M. Reiser, and F. Pfeiffer, “Emphysema diagnosis using X-ray dark-field imaging at a laser-driven compact synchrotron light source,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(44), 17880–17885 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Singer, F. Sorgenfrei, A. P. Mancuso, N. Gerasimova, O. M. Yefanov, J. Gulden, T. Gorniak, T. Senkbeil, A. Sakdinawat, Y. Liu, D. Attwood, S. Dziarzhytski, D. D. Mai, R. Treusch, E. Weckert, T. Salditt, A. Rosenhahn, W. Wurth, and I. A. Vartanyants, “Spatial and temporal coherence properties of single free-electron laser pulses,” Opt. Express 20(16), 17480–17495 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

D. Pelliccia, A. Y. Nikulin, H. O. Moser, and K. A. Nugent, “Experimental characterization of the coherence properties of hard x-ray sources,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8073–8078 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Chubar, L. Berman, Y. S. Chu, A. Fluerasu, S. Hulbert, M. Idir, K. Kaznatcheev, D. Shapiro, Q. Shen, and J. Baltser, “Development of partially-coherent wavefront propagation simulation methods for 3rd and 4th generation synchrotron radiation sources,” Proc. SPIE 8141, 814107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (4)

I. Zanette, T. Weitkamp, T. Donath, S. Rutishauser, and C. David, “Two-dimensional X-ray grating interferometer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(24), 248102 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Sakdinawat and D. Attwood, “Nanoscale X-ray imaging,” Nat. Photonics 4(12), 840–848 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. H. Wen, E. E. Bennett, R. Kopace, A. F. Stein, and V. Pai, “Single-shot x-ray differential phase-contrast and diffraction imaging using two-dimensional transmission gratings,” Opt. Lett. 35(12), 1932–1934 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Diaz, C. Mocuta, J. Stangl, M. Keplinger, T. Weitkamp, F. Pfeiffer, C. David, T. H. Metzger, and G. Bauer, “Coherence and wavefront characterization of Si-111 monochromators using double-grating interferometry,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 17(3), 299–307 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

R. Kluender, F. Masiello, P. van Vaerenbergh, and J. Härtwig, “Measurement of the spatial coherence of synchrotron beams using the Talbot effect,” Phys. Status Solidi A 206(8), 1842–1845 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. W. Whitehead, G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, R. A. Dilanian, S. Flewett, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, E. Balaur, and I. McNulty, “Diffractive imaging using partially coherent x rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(24), 243902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

F. Pfeiffer, M. Bech, O. Bunk, P. Kraft, E. F. Eikenberry, C. Brönnimann, C. Grünzweig, and C. David, “Hard-X-ray dark-field imaging using a grating interferometer,” Nat. Mater. 7(2), 134–137 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Marchesini, S. Boutet, A. E. Sakdinawat, M. J. Bogan, S. Bajt, A. Barty, H. N. Chapman, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. Szöke, C. Cui, D. A. Shapiro, M. R. Howells, J. C. H. Spence, J. W. Shaevitz, J. Y. Lee, J. Hajdu, and M. M. Seibert, “Massively parallel X-ray holography,” Nat. Photonics 2(9), 560–563 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

R. L. Sandberg, A. Paul, D. A. Raymondson, S. Hädrich, D. M. Gaudiosi, J. Holtsnider, R. I. Tobey, O. Cohen, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, C. Song, J. Miao, Y. Liu, and F. Salmassi, “Lensless diffractive imaging using tabletop coherent high-harmonic soft-X-ray beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(9), 098103 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. Schulze-Briese, A. Diaz, T. Weitkamp, C. David, J. F. van der Veen, I. Vartanyants, and I. K. Robinson, “Shearing interferometer for quantifying the coherence of hard X-ray beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(16), 164801 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

J. P. Guigay, S. Zabler, P. Cloetens, C. David, R. Mokso, and M. Schlenker, “The partial Talbot effect and its use in measuring the coherence of synchrotron X-rays,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 11(6), 476–482 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

W. Leitenberger, H. Wendrock, L. Bischoff, T. Panzner, U. Pietsch, J. Grenzer, and A. Pucher, “Double pinhole diffraction of white synchrotron radiation,” Physica B 336(1–2), 63–67 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. J. A. Lin, D. Paterson, A. G. Peele, P. J. McMahon, C. T. Chantler, K. A. Nugent, B. Lai, N. Moldovan, Z. Cai, D. C. Mancini, and I. McNulty, “Measurement of the spatial coherence function of undulator radiation using a phase mask,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(7), 074801 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, “Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Science 297(5580), 376–378 (2002).
[PubMed]

2001 (1)

D. Paterson, B. E. Allman, P. J. McMahon, J. Lin, N. Moldovan, K. A. Nugent, I. McNulty, C. T. Chantler, C. C. Retsch, T. H. K. Irving, and D. C. Mancini, “Spatial coherence measurement of X-ray undulator radiation,” Opt. Commun. 195(1–4), 79–84 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1992 (1)

K. A. Nugent and J. E. Trebes, “Coherence measurement technique for short wavelength light sources,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63(4), 2146–2151 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1957 (1)

Achterhold, K.

S. Schleede, F. G. Meinel, M. Bech, J. Herzen, K. Achterhold, G. Potdevin, A. Malecki, S. Adam-Neumair, S. F. Thieme, F. Bamberg, K. Nikolaou, A. Bohla, A. Ö. Yildirim, R. Loewen, M. Gifford, R. Ruth, O. Eickelberg, M. Reiser, and F. Pfeiffer, “Emphysema diagnosis using X-ray dark-field imaging at a laser-driven compact synchrotron light source,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(44), 17880–17885 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adam-Neumair, S.

S. Schleede, F. G. Meinel, M. Bech, J. Herzen, K. Achterhold, G. Potdevin, A. Malecki, S. Adam-Neumair, S. F. Thieme, F. Bamberg, K. Nikolaou, A. Bohla, A. Ö. Yildirim, R. Loewen, M. Gifford, R. Ruth, O. Eickelberg, M. Reiser, and F. Pfeiffer, “Emphysema diagnosis using X-ray dark-field imaging at a laser-driven compact synchrotron light source,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(44), 17880–17885 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Allman, B. E.

D. Paterson, B. E. Allman, P. J. McMahon, J. Lin, N. Moldovan, K. A. Nugent, I. McNulty, C. T. Chantler, C. C. Retsch, T. H. K. Irving, and D. C. Mancini, “Spatial coherence measurement of X-ray undulator radiation,” Opt. Commun. 195(1–4), 79–84 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Attwood, D.

A. Singer, F. Sorgenfrei, A. P. Mancuso, N. Gerasimova, O. M. Yefanov, J. Gulden, T. Gorniak, T. Senkbeil, A. Sakdinawat, Y. Liu, D. Attwood, S. Dziarzhytski, D. D. Mai, R. Treusch, E. Weckert, T. Salditt, A. Rosenhahn, W. Wurth, and I. A. Vartanyants, “Spatial and temporal coherence properties of single free-electron laser pulses,” Opt. Express 20(16), 17480–17495 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Sakdinawat and D. Attwood, “Nanoscale X-ray imaging,” Nat. Photonics 4(12), 840–848 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, “Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Science 297(5580), 376–378 (2002).
[PubMed]

Backus, S.

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, “Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Science 297(5580), 376–378 (2002).
[PubMed]

Bajt, S.

S. Marchesini, S. Boutet, A. E. Sakdinawat, M. J. Bogan, S. Bajt, A. Barty, H. N. Chapman, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. Szöke, C. Cui, D. A. Shapiro, M. R. Howells, J. C. H. Spence, J. W. Shaevitz, J. Y. Lee, J. Hajdu, and M. M. Seibert, “Massively parallel X-ray holography,” Nat. Photonics 2(9), 560–563 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Balaur, E.

L. W. Whitehead, G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, R. A. Dilanian, S. Flewett, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, E. Balaur, and I. McNulty, “Diffractive imaging using partially coherent x rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(24), 243902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baltser, J.

O. Chubar, L. Berman, Y. S. Chu, A. Fluerasu, S. Hulbert, M. Idir, K. Kaznatcheev, D. Shapiro, Q. Shen, and J. Baltser, “Development of partially-coherent wavefront propagation simulation methods for 3rd and 4th generation synchrotron radiation sources,” Proc. SPIE 8141, 814107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bamberg, F.

S. Schleede, F. G. Meinel, M. Bech, J. Herzen, K. Achterhold, G. Potdevin, A. Malecki, S. Adam-Neumair, S. F. Thieme, F. Bamberg, K. Nikolaou, A. Bohla, A. Ö. Yildirim, R. Loewen, M. Gifford, R. Ruth, O. Eickelberg, M. Reiser, and F. Pfeiffer, “Emphysema diagnosis using X-ray dark-field imaging at a laser-driven compact synchrotron light source,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(44), 17880–17885 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartels, R. A.

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, “Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Science 297(5580), 376–378 (2002).
[PubMed]

Barty, A.

S. Marchesini, S. Boutet, A. E. Sakdinawat, M. J. Bogan, S. Bajt, A. Barty, H. N. Chapman, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. Szöke, C. Cui, D. A. Shapiro, M. R. Howells, J. C. H. Spence, J. W. Shaevitz, J. Y. Lee, J. Hajdu, and M. M. Seibert, “Massively parallel X-ray holography,” Nat. Photonics 2(9), 560–563 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Baruchel, J.

Bauer, G.

A. Diaz, C. Mocuta, J. Stangl, M. Keplinger, T. Weitkamp, F. Pfeiffer, C. David, T. H. Metzger, and G. Bauer, “Coherence and wavefront characterization of Si-111 monochromators using double-grating interferometry,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 17(3), 299–307 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bech, M.

S. Schleede, F. G. Meinel, M. Bech, J. Herzen, K. Achterhold, G. Potdevin, A. Malecki, S. Adam-Neumair, S. F. Thieme, F. Bamberg, K. Nikolaou, A. Bohla, A. Ö. Yildirim, R. Loewen, M. Gifford, R. Ruth, O. Eickelberg, M. Reiser, and F. Pfeiffer, “Emphysema diagnosis using X-ray dark-field imaging at a laser-driven compact synchrotron light source,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(44), 17880–17885 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Pfeiffer, M. Bech, O. Bunk, P. Kraft, E. F. Eikenberry, C. Brönnimann, C. Grünzweig, and C. David, “Hard-X-ray dark-field imaging using a grating interferometer,” Nat. Mater. 7(2), 134–137 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bennett, E. E.

Berman, L.

O. Chubar, L. Berman, Y. S. Chu, A. Fluerasu, S. Hulbert, M. Idir, K. Kaznatcheev, D. Shapiro, Q. Shen, and J. Baltser, “Development of partially-coherent wavefront propagation simulation methods for 3rd and 4th generation synchrotron radiation sources,” Proc. SPIE 8141, 814107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bischoff, L.

W. Leitenberger, H. Wendrock, L. Bischoff, T. Panzner, U. Pietsch, J. Grenzer, and A. Pucher, “Double pinhole diffraction of white synchrotron radiation,” Physica B 336(1–2), 63–67 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bogan, M. J.

S. Marchesini, S. Boutet, A. E. Sakdinawat, M. J. Bogan, S. Bajt, A. Barty, H. N. Chapman, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. Szöke, C. Cui, D. A. Shapiro, M. R. Howells, J. C. H. Spence, J. W. Shaevitz, J. Y. Lee, J. Hajdu, and M. M. Seibert, “Massively parallel X-ray holography,” Nat. Photonics 2(9), 560–563 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bohla, A.

S. Schleede, F. G. Meinel, M. Bech, J. Herzen, K. Achterhold, G. Potdevin, A. Malecki, S. Adam-Neumair, S. F. Thieme, F. Bamberg, K. Nikolaou, A. Bohla, A. Ö. Yildirim, R. Loewen, M. Gifford, R. Ruth, O. Eickelberg, M. Reiser, and F. Pfeiffer, “Emphysema diagnosis using X-ray dark-field imaging at a laser-driven compact synchrotron light source,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(44), 17880–17885 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boutet, S.

S. Marchesini, S. Boutet, A. E. Sakdinawat, M. J. Bogan, S. Bajt, A. Barty, H. N. Chapman, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. Szöke, C. Cui, D. A. Shapiro, M. R. Howells, J. C. H. Spence, J. W. Shaevitz, J. Y. Lee, J. Hajdu, and M. M. Seibert, “Massively parallel X-ray holography,” Nat. Photonics 2(9), 560–563 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Brönnimann, C.

F. Pfeiffer, M. Bech, O. Bunk, P. Kraft, E. F. Eikenberry, C. Brönnimann, C. Grünzweig, and C. David, “Hard-X-ray dark-field imaging using a grating interferometer,” Nat. Mater. 7(2), 134–137 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bunk, O.

F. Pfeiffer, M. Bech, O. Bunk, P. Kraft, E. F. Eikenberry, C. Brönnimann, C. Grünzweig, and C. David, “Hard-X-ray dark-field imaging using a grating interferometer,” Nat. Mater. 7(2), 134–137 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. Schulze-Briese, A. Diaz, T. Weitkamp, C. David, J. F. van der Veen, I. Vartanyants, and I. K. Robinson, “Shearing interferometer for quantifying the coherence of hard X-ray beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(16), 164801 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cai, Z.

J. J. A. Lin, D. Paterson, A. G. Peele, P. J. McMahon, C. T. Chantler, K. A. Nugent, B. Lai, N. Moldovan, Z. Cai, D. C. Mancini, and I. McNulty, “Measurement of the spatial coherence function of undulator radiation using a phase mask,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(7), 074801 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chantler, C. T.

J. J. A. Lin, D. Paterson, A. G. Peele, P. J. McMahon, C. T. Chantler, K. A. Nugent, B. Lai, N. Moldovan, Z. Cai, D. C. Mancini, and I. McNulty, “Measurement of the spatial coherence function of undulator radiation using a phase mask,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(7), 074801 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Paterson, B. E. Allman, P. J. McMahon, J. Lin, N. Moldovan, K. A. Nugent, I. McNulty, C. T. Chantler, C. C. Retsch, T. H. K. Irving, and D. C. Mancini, “Spatial coherence measurement of X-ray undulator radiation,” Opt. Commun. 195(1–4), 79–84 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chapman, H. N.

S. Marchesini, S. Boutet, A. E. Sakdinawat, M. J. Bogan, S. Bajt, A. Barty, H. N. Chapman, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. Szöke, C. Cui, D. A. Shapiro, M. R. Howells, J. C. H. Spence, J. W. Shaevitz, J. Y. Lee, J. Hajdu, and M. M. Seibert, “Massively parallel X-ray holography,” Nat. Photonics 2(9), 560–563 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Christov, I. P.

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, “Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Science 297(5580), 376–378 (2002).
[PubMed]

Chu, Y. S.

O. Chubar, L. Berman, Y. S. Chu, A. Fluerasu, S. Hulbert, M. Idir, K. Kaznatcheev, D. Shapiro, Q. Shen, and J. Baltser, “Development of partially-coherent wavefront propagation simulation methods for 3rd and 4th generation synchrotron radiation sources,” Proc. SPIE 8141, 814107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chubar, O.

O. Chubar, L. Berman, Y. S. Chu, A. Fluerasu, S. Hulbert, M. Idir, K. Kaznatcheev, D. Shapiro, Q. Shen, and J. Baltser, “Development of partially-coherent wavefront propagation simulation methods for 3rd and 4th generation synchrotron radiation sources,” Proc. SPIE 8141, 814107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Clark, J. N.

W. Yang, X. Huang, R. Harder, J. N. Clark, I. K. Robinson, and H. K. Mao, “Coherent diffraction imaging of nanoscale strain evolution in a single crystal under high pressure,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1680 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cloetens, P.

J. P. Guigay, S. Zabler, P. Cloetens, C. David, R. Mokso, and M. Schlenker, “The partial Talbot effect and its use in measuring the coherence of synchrotron X-rays,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 11(6), 476–482 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Cloetens, J. P. Guigay, C. De Martino, J. Baruchel, and M. Schlenker, “Fractional Talbot imaging of phase gratings with hard x rays,” Opt. Lett. 22(14), 1059–1061 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cohen, O.

R. L. Sandberg, A. Paul, D. A. Raymondson, S. Hädrich, D. M. Gaudiosi, J. Holtsnider, R. I. Tobey, O. Cohen, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, C. Song, J. Miao, Y. Liu, and F. Salmassi, “Lensless diffractive imaging using tabletop coherent high-harmonic soft-X-ray beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(9), 098103 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cui, C.

S. Marchesini, S. Boutet, A. E. Sakdinawat, M. J. Bogan, S. Bajt, A. Barty, H. N. Chapman, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. Szöke, C. Cui, D. A. Shapiro, M. R. Howells, J. C. H. Spence, J. W. Shaevitz, J. Y. Lee, J. Hajdu, and M. M. Seibert, “Massively parallel X-ray holography,” Nat. Photonics 2(9), 560–563 (2008).
[CrossRef]

David, C.

A. Diaz, C. Mocuta, J. Stangl, M. Keplinger, T. Weitkamp, F. Pfeiffer, C. David, T. H. Metzger, and G. Bauer, “Coherence and wavefront characterization of Si-111 monochromators using double-grating interferometry,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 17(3), 299–307 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Zanette, T. Weitkamp, T. Donath, S. Rutishauser, and C. David, “Two-dimensional X-ray grating interferometer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(24), 248102 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Pfeiffer, M. Bech, O. Bunk, P. Kraft, E. F. Eikenberry, C. Brönnimann, C. Grünzweig, and C. David, “Hard-X-ray dark-field imaging using a grating interferometer,” Nat. Mater. 7(2), 134–137 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. Schulze-Briese, A. Diaz, T. Weitkamp, C. David, J. F. van der Veen, I. Vartanyants, and I. K. Robinson, “Shearing interferometer for quantifying the coherence of hard X-ray beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(16), 164801 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Guigay, S. Zabler, P. Cloetens, C. David, R. Mokso, and M. Schlenker, “The partial Talbot effect and its use in measuring the coherence of synchrotron X-rays,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 11(6), 476–482 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Martino, C.

Diaz, A.

A. Diaz, C. Mocuta, J. Stangl, M. Keplinger, T. Weitkamp, F. Pfeiffer, C. David, T. H. Metzger, and G. Bauer, “Coherence and wavefront characterization of Si-111 monochromators using double-grating interferometry,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 17(3), 299–307 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. Schulze-Briese, A. Diaz, T. Weitkamp, C. David, J. F. van der Veen, I. Vartanyants, and I. K. Robinson, “Shearing interferometer for quantifying the coherence of hard X-ray beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(16), 164801 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dilanian, R. A.

L. W. Whitehead, G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, R. A. Dilanian, S. Flewett, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, E. Balaur, and I. McNulty, “Diffractive imaging using partially coherent x rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(24), 243902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Donath, T.

I. Zanette, T. Weitkamp, T. Donath, S. Rutishauser, and C. David, “Two-dimensional X-ray grating interferometer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(24), 248102 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dziarzhytski, S.

Eickelberg, O.

S. Schleede, F. G. Meinel, M. Bech, J. Herzen, K. Achterhold, G. Potdevin, A. Malecki, S. Adam-Neumair, S. F. Thieme, F. Bamberg, K. Nikolaou, A. Bohla, A. Ö. Yildirim, R. Loewen, M. Gifford, R. Ruth, O. Eickelberg, M. Reiser, and F. Pfeiffer, “Emphysema diagnosis using X-ray dark-field imaging at a laser-driven compact synchrotron light source,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(44), 17880–17885 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eikenberry, E. F.

F. Pfeiffer, M. Bech, O. Bunk, P. Kraft, E. F. Eikenberry, C. Brönnimann, C. Grünzweig, and C. David, “Hard-X-ray dark-field imaging using a grating interferometer,” Nat. Mater. 7(2), 134–137 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flewett, S.

L. W. Whitehead, G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, R. A. Dilanian, S. Flewett, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, E. Balaur, and I. McNulty, “Diffractive imaging using partially coherent x rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(24), 243902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fluerasu, A.

O. Chubar, L. Berman, Y. S. Chu, A. Fluerasu, S. Hulbert, M. Idir, K. Kaznatcheev, D. Shapiro, Q. Shen, and J. Baltser, “Development of partially-coherent wavefront propagation simulation methods for 3rd and 4th generation synchrotron radiation sources,” Proc. SPIE 8141, 814107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Frank, M.

S. Marchesini, S. Boutet, A. E. Sakdinawat, M. J. Bogan, S. Bajt, A. Barty, H. N. Chapman, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. Szöke, C. Cui, D. A. Shapiro, M. R. Howells, J. C. H. Spence, J. W. Shaevitz, J. Y. Lee, J. Hajdu, and M. M. Seibert, “Massively parallel X-ray holography,” Nat. Photonics 2(9), 560–563 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gaudiosi, D. M.

R. L. Sandberg, A. Paul, D. A. Raymondson, S. Hädrich, D. M. Gaudiosi, J. Holtsnider, R. I. Tobey, O. Cohen, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, C. Song, J. Miao, Y. Liu, and F. Salmassi, “Lensless diffractive imaging using tabletop coherent high-harmonic soft-X-ray beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(9), 098103 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gerasimova, N.

Gifford, M.

S. Schleede, F. G. Meinel, M. Bech, J. Herzen, K. Achterhold, G. Potdevin, A. Malecki, S. Adam-Neumair, S. F. Thieme, F. Bamberg, K. Nikolaou, A. Bohla, A. Ö. Yildirim, R. Loewen, M. Gifford, R. Ruth, O. Eickelberg, M. Reiser, and F. Pfeiffer, “Emphysema diagnosis using X-ray dark-field imaging at a laser-driven compact synchrotron light source,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(44), 17880–17885 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gorniak, T.

Green, H.

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, “Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Science 297(5580), 376–378 (2002).
[PubMed]

Grenzer, J.

W. Leitenberger, H. Wendrock, L. Bischoff, T. Panzner, U. Pietsch, J. Grenzer, and A. Pucher, “Double pinhole diffraction of white synchrotron radiation,” Physica B 336(1–2), 63–67 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Grünzweig, C.

F. Pfeiffer, M. Bech, O. Bunk, P. Kraft, E. F. Eikenberry, C. Brönnimann, C. Grünzweig, and C. David, “Hard-X-ray dark-field imaging using a grating interferometer,” Nat. Mater. 7(2), 134–137 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guigay, J. P.

J. P. Guigay, S. Zabler, P. Cloetens, C. David, R. Mokso, and M. Schlenker, “The partial Talbot effect and its use in measuring the coherence of synchrotron X-rays,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 11(6), 476–482 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Cloetens, J. P. Guigay, C. De Martino, J. Baruchel, and M. Schlenker, “Fractional Talbot imaging of phase gratings with hard x rays,” Opt. Lett. 22(14), 1059–1061 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gulden, J.

Hädrich, S.

R. L. Sandberg, A. Paul, D. A. Raymondson, S. Hädrich, D. M. Gaudiosi, J. Holtsnider, R. I. Tobey, O. Cohen, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, C. Song, J. Miao, Y. Liu, and F. Salmassi, “Lensless diffractive imaging using tabletop coherent high-harmonic soft-X-ray beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(9), 098103 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hajdu, J.

S. Marchesini, S. Boutet, A. E. Sakdinawat, M. J. Bogan, S. Bajt, A. Barty, H. N. Chapman, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. Szöke, C. Cui, D. A. Shapiro, M. R. Howells, J. C. H. Spence, J. W. Shaevitz, J. Y. Lee, J. Hajdu, and M. M. Seibert, “Massively parallel X-ray holography,” Nat. Photonics 2(9), 560–563 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Harder, R.

W. Yang, X. Huang, R. Harder, J. N. Clark, I. K. Robinson, and H. K. Mao, “Coherent diffraction imaging of nanoscale strain evolution in a single crystal under high pressure,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1680 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Härtwig, J.

R. Kluender, F. Masiello, P. van Vaerenbergh, and J. Härtwig, “Measurement of the spatial coherence of synchrotron beams using the Talbot effect,” Phys. Status Solidi A 206(8), 1842–1845 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hau-Riege, S. P.

S. Marchesini, S. Boutet, A. E. Sakdinawat, M. J. Bogan, S. Bajt, A. Barty, H. N. Chapman, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. Szöke, C. Cui, D. A. Shapiro, M. R. Howells, J. C. H. Spence, J. W. Shaevitz, J. Y. Lee, J. Hajdu, and M. M. Seibert, “Massively parallel X-ray holography,” Nat. Photonics 2(9), 560–563 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Herzen, J.

S. Schleede, F. G. Meinel, M. Bech, J. Herzen, K. Achterhold, G. Potdevin, A. Malecki, S. Adam-Neumair, S. F. Thieme, F. Bamberg, K. Nikolaou, A. Bohla, A. Ö. Yildirim, R. Loewen, M. Gifford, R. Ruth, O. Eickelberg, M. Reiser, and F. Pfeiffer, “Emphysema diagnosis using X-ray dark-field imaging at a laser-driven compact synchrotron light source,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(44), 17880–17885 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holtsnider, J.

R. L. Sandberg, A. Paul, D. A. Raymondson, S. Hädrich, D. M. Gaudiosi, J. Holtsnider, R. I. Tobey, O. Cohen, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, C. Song, J. Miao, Y. Liu, and F. Salmassi, “Lensless diffractive imaging using tabletop coherent high-harmonic soft-X-ray beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(9), 098103 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Howells, M. R.

S. Marchesini, S. Boutet, A. E. Sakdinawat, M. J. Bogan, S. Bajt, A. Barty, H. N. Chapman, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. Szöke, C. Cui, D. A. Shapiro, M. R. Howells, J. C. H. Spence, J. W. Shaevitz, J. Y. Lee, J. Hajdu, and M. M. Seibert, “Massively parallel X-ray holography,” Nat. Photonics 2(9), 560–563 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Huang, X.

W. Yang, X. Huang, R. Harder, J. N. Clark, I. K. Robinson, and H. K. Mao, “Coherent diffraction imaging of nanoscale strain evolution in a single crystal under high pressure,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1680 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hulbert, S.

O. Chubar, L. Berman, Y. S. Chu, A. Fluerasu, S. Hulbert, M. Idir, K. Kaznatcheev, D. Shapiro, Q. Shen, and J. Baltser, “Development of partially-coherent wavefront propagation simulation methods for 3rd and 4th generation synchrotron radiation sources,” Proc. SPIE 8141, 814107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Idir, M.

O. Chubar, L. Berman, Y. S. Chu, A. Fluerasu, S. Hulbert, M. Idir, K. Kaznatcheev, D. Shapiro, Q. Shen, and J. Baltser, “Development of partially-coherent wavefront propagation simulation methods for 3rd and 4th generation synchrotron radiation sources,” Proc. SPIE 8141, 814107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Irving, T. H. K.

D. Paterson, B. E. Allman, P. J. McMahon, J. Lin, N. Moldovan, K. A. Nugent, I. McNulty, C. T. Chantler, C. C. Retsch, T. H. K. Irving, and D. C. Mancini, “Spatial coherence measurement of X-ray undulator radiation,” Opt. Commun. 195(1–4), 79–84 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jacobsen, C.

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, “Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Science 297(5580), 376–378 (2002).
[PubMed]

Kapteyn, H. C.

R. L. Sandberg, A. Paul, D. A. Raymondson, S. Hädrich, D. M. Gaudiosi, J. Holtsnider, R. I. Tobey, O. Cohen, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, C. Song, J. Miao, Y. Liu, and F. Salmassi, “Lensless diffractive imaging using tabletop coherent high-harmonic soft-X-ray beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(9), 098103 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, “Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Science 297(5580), 376–378 (2002).
[PubMed]

Kaznatcheev, K.

O. Chubar, L. Berman, Y. S. Chu, A. Fluerasu, S. Hulbert, M. Idir, K. Kaznatcheev, D. Shapiro, Q. Shen, and J. Baltser, “Development of partially-coherent wavefront propagation simulation methods for 3rd and 4th generation synchrotron radiation sources,” Proc. SPIE 8141, 814107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Keplinger, M.

A. Diaz, C. Mocuta, J. Stangl, M. Keplinger, T. Weitkamp, F. Pfeiffer, C. David, T. H. Metzger, and G. Bauer, “Coherence and wavefront characterization of Si-111 monochromators using double-grating interferometry,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 17(3), 299–307 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kluender, R.

R. Kluender, F. Masiello, P. van Vaerenbergh, and J. Härtwig, “Measurement of the spatial coherence of synchrotron beams using the Talbot effect,” Phys. Status Solidi A 206(8), 1842–1845 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kopace, R.

Kraft, P.

F. Pfeiffer, M. Bech, O. Bunk, P. Kraft, E. F. Eikenberry, C. Brönnimann, C. Grünzweig, and C. David, “Hard-X-ray dark-field imaging using a grating interferometer,” Nat. Mater. 7(2), 134–137 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lai, B.

J. J. A. Lin, D. Paterson, A. G. Peele, P. J. McMahon, C. T. Chantler, K. A. Nugent, B. Lai, N. Moldovan, Z. Cai, D. C. Mancini, and I. McNulty, “Measurement of the spatial coherence function of undulator radiation using a phase mask,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(7), 074801 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, J. Y.

S. Marchesini, S. Boutet, A. E. Sakdinawat, M. J. Bogan, S. Bajt, A. Barty, H. N. Chapman, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. Szöke, C. Cui, D. A. Shapiro, M. R. Howells, J. C. H. Spence, J. W. Shaevitz, J. Y. Lee, J. Hajdu, and M. M. Seibert, “Massively parallel X-ray holography,” Nat. Photonics 2(9), 560–563 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Leitenberger, W.

W. Leitenberger, H. Wendrock, L. Bischoff, T. Panzner, U. Pietsch, J. Grenzer, and A. Pucher, “Double pinhole diffraction of white synchrotron radiation,” Physica B 336(1–2), 63–67 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lin, J.

D. Paterson, B. E. Allman, P. J. McMahon, J. Lin, N. Moldovan, K. A. Nugent, I. McNulty, C. T. Chantler, C. C. Retsch, T. H. K. Irving, and D. C. Mancini, “Spatial coherence measurement of X-ray undulator radiation,” Opt. Commun. 195(1–4), 79–84 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lin, J. J. A.

J. J. A. Lin, D. Paterson, A. G. Peele, P. J. McMahon, C. T. Chantler, K. A. Nugent, B. Lai, N. Moldovan, Z. Cai, D. C. Mancini, and I. McNulty, “Measurement of the spatial coherence function of undulator radiation using a phase mask,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(7), 074801 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Y.

A. Singer, F. Sorgenfrei, A. P. Mancuso, N. Gerasimova, O. M. Yefanov, J. Gulden, T. Gorniak, T. Senkbeil, A. Sakdinawat, Y. Liu, D. Attwood, S. Dziarzhytski, D. D. Mai, R. Treusch, E. Weckert, T. Salditt, A. Rosenhahn, W. Wurth, and I. A. Vartanyants, “Spatial and temporal coherence properties of single free-electron laser pulses,” Opt. Express 20(16), 17480–17495 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. Sandberg, A. Paul, D. A. Raymondson, S. Hädrich, D. M. Gaudiosi, J. Holtsnider, R. I. Tobey, O. Cohen, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, C. Song, J. Miao, Y. Liu, and F. Salmassi, “Lensless diffractive imaging using tabletop coherent high-harmonic soft-X-ray beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(9), 098103 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, “Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Science 297(5580), 376–378 (2002).
[PubMed]

Loewen, R.

S. Schleede, F. G. Meinel, M. Bech, J. Herzen, K. Achterhold, G. Potdevin, A. Malecki, S. Adam-Neumair, S. F. Thieme, F. Bamberg, K. Nikolaou, A. Bohla, A. Ö. Yildirim, R. Loewen, M. Gifford, R. Ruth, O. Eickelberg, M. Reiser, and F. Pfeiffer, “Emphysema diagnosis using X-ray dark-field imaging at a laser-driven compact synchrotron light source,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(44), 17880–17885 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mai, D. D.

Malecki, A.

S. Schleede, F. G. Meinel, M. Bech, J. Herzen, K. Achterhold, G. Potdevin, A. Malecki, S. Adam-Neumair, S. F. Thieme, F. Bamberg, K. Nikolaou, A. Bohla, A. Ö. Yildirim, R. Loewen, M. Gifford, R. Ruth, O. Eickelberg, M. Reiser, and F. Pfeiffer, “Emphysema diagnosis using X-ray dark-field imaging at a laser-driven compact synchrotron light source,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(44), 17880–17885 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mancini, D. C.

J. J. A. Lin, D. Paterson, A. G. Peele, P. J. McMahon, C. T. Chantler, K. A. Nugent, B. Lai, N. Moldovan, Z. Cai, D. C. Mancini, and I. McNulty, “Measurement of the spatial coherence function of undulator radiation using a phase mask,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(7), 074801 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Paterson, B. E. Allman, P. J. McMahon, J. Lin, N. Moldovan, K. A. Nugent, I. McNulty, C. T. Chantler, C. C. Retsch, T. H. K. Irving, and D. C. Mancini, “Spatial coherence measurement of X-ray undulator radiation,” Opt. Commun. 195(1–4), 79–84 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mancuso, A. P.

Mao, H. K.

W. Yang, X. Huang, R. Harder, J. N. Clark, I. K. Robinson, and H. K. Mao, “Coherent diffraction imaging of nanoscale strain evolution in a single crystal under high pressure,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1680 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marchesini, S.

S. Marchesini, S. Boutet, A. E. Sakdinawat, M. J. Bogan, S. Bajt, A. Barty, H. N. Chapman, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. Szöke, C. Cui, D. A. Shapiro, M. R. Howells, J. C. H. Spence, J. W. Shaevitz, J. Y. Lee, J. Hajdu, and M. M. Seibert, “Massively parallel X-ray holography,” Nat. Photonics 2(9), 560–563 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Masiello, F.

R. Kluender, F. Masiello, P. van Vaerenbergh, and J. Härtwig, “Measurement of the spatial coherence of synchrotron beams using the Talbot effect,” Phys. Status Solidi A 206(8), 1842–1845 (2009).
[CrossRef]

McMahon, P. J.

J. J. A. Lin, D. Paterson, A. G. Peele, P. J. McMahon, C. T. Chantler, K. A. Nugent, B. Lai, N. Moldovan, Z. Cai, D. C. Mancini, and I. McNulty, “Measurement of the spatial coherence function of undulator radiation using a phase mask,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(7), 074801 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Paterson, B. E. Allman, P. J. McMahon, J. Lin, N. Moldovan, K. A. Nugent, I. McNulty, C. T. Chantler, C. C. Retsch, T. H. K. Irving, and D. C. Mancini, “Spatial coherence measurement of X-ray undulator radiation,” Opt. Commun. 195(1–4), 79–84 (2001).
[CrossRef]

McNulty, I.

L. W. Whitehead, G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, R. A. Dilanian, S. Flewett, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, E. Balaur, and I. McNulty, “Diffractive imaging using partially coherent x rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(24), 243902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. A. Lin, D. Paterson, A. G. Peele, P. J. McMahon, C. T. Chantler, K. A. Nugent, B. Lai, N. Moldovan, Z. Cai, D. C. Mancini, and I. McNulty, “Measurement of the spatial coherence function of undulator radiation using a phase mask,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(7), 074801 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Paterson, B. E. Allman, P. J. McMahon, J. Lin, N. Moldovan, K. A. Nugent, I. McNulty, C. T. Chantler, C. C. Retsch, T. H. K. Irving, and D. C. Mancini, “Spatial coherence measurement of X-ray undulator radiation,” Opt. Commun. 195(1–4), 79–84 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Meinel, F. G.

S. Schleede, F. G. Meinel, M. Bech, J. Herzen, K. Achterhold, G. Potdevin, A. Malecki, S. Adam-Neumair, S. F. Thieme, F. Bamberg, K. Nikolaou, A. Bohla, A. Ö. Yildirim, R. Loewen, M. Gifford, R. Ruth, O. Eickelberg, M. Reiser, and F. Pfeiffer, “Emphysema diagnosis using X-ray dark-field imaging at a laser-driven compact synchrotron light source,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(44), 17880–17885 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Metzger, T. H.

A. Diaz, C. Mocuta, J. Stangl, M. Keplinger, T. Weitkamp, F. Pfeiffer, C. David, T. H. Metzger, and G. Bauer, “Coherence and wavefront characterization of Si-111 monochromators using double-grating interferometry,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 17(3), 299–307 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miao, J.

R. L. Sandberg, A. Paul, D. A. Raymondson, S. Hädrich, D. M. Gaudiosi, J. Holtsnider, R. I. Tobey, O. Cohen, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, C. Song, J. Miao, Y. Liu, and F. Salmassi, “Lensless diffractive imaging using tabletop coherent high-harmonic soft-X-ray beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(9), 098103 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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A. Diaz, C. Mocuta, J. Stangl, M. Keplinger, T. Weitkamp, F. Pfeiffer, C. David, T. H. Metzger, and G. Bauer, “Coherence and wavefront characterization of Si-111 monochromators using double-grating interferometry,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 17(3), 299–307 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mokso, R.

J. P. Guigay, S. Zabler, P. Cloetens, C. David, R. Mokso, and M. Schlenker, “The partial Talbot effect and its use in measuring the coherence of synchrotron X-rays,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 11(6), 476–482 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moldovan, N.

J. J. A. Lin, D. Paterson, A. G. Peele, P. J. McMahon, C. T. Chantler, K. A. Nugent, B. Lai, N. Moldovan, Z. Cai, D. C. Mancini, and I. McNulty, “Measurement of the spatial coherence function of undulator radiation using a phase mask,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(7), 074801 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Paterson, B. E. Allman, P. J. McMahon, J. Lin, N. Moldovan, K. A. Nugent, I. McNulty, C. T. Chantler, C. C. Retsch, T. H. K. Irving, and D. C. Mancini, “Spatial coherence measurement of X-ray undulator radiation,” Opt. Commun. 195(1–4), 79–84 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Moser, H. O.

Murnane, M. M.

R. L. Sandberg, A. Paul, D. A. Raymondson, S. Hädrich, D. M. Gaudiosi, J. Holtsnider, R. I. Tobey, O. Cohen, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, C. Song, J. Miao, Y. Liu, and F. Salmassi, “Lensless diffractive imaging using tabletop coherent high-harmonic soft-X-ray beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(9), 098103 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, “Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Science 297(5580), 376–378 (2002).
[PubMed]

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S. Schleede, F. G. Meinel, M. Bech, J. Herzen, K. Achterhold, G. Potdevin, A. Malecki, S. Adam-Neumair, S. F. Thieme, F. Bamberg, K. Nikolaou, A. Bohla, A. Ö. Yildirim, R. Loewen, M. Gifford, R. Ruth, O. Eickelberg, M. Reiser, and F. Pfeiffer, “Emphysema diagnosis using X-ray dark-field imaging at a laser-driven compact synchrotron light source,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(44), 17880–17885 (2012).
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Nikulin, A. Y.

Nugent, K. A.

D. Pelliccia, A. Y. Nikulin, H. O. Moser, and K. A. Nugent, “Experimental characterization of the coherence properties of hard x-ray sources,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8073–8078 (2011).
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L. W. Whitehead, G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, R. A. Dilanian, S. Flewett, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, E. Balaur, and I. McNulty, “Diffractive imaging using partially coherent x rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(24), 243902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. A. Lin, D. Paterson, A. G. Peele, P. J. McMahon, C. T. Chantler, K. A. Nugent, B. Lai, N. Moldovan, Z. Cai, D. C. Mancini, and I. McNulty, “Measurement of the spatial coherence function of undulator radiation using a phase mask,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(7), 074801 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Paterson, B. E. Allman, P. J. McMahon, J. Lin, N. Moldovan, K. A. Nugent, I. McNulty, C. T. Chantler, C. C. Retsch, T. H. K. Irving, and D. C. Mancini, “Spatial coherence measurement of X-ray undulator radiation,” Opt. Commun. 195(1–4), 79–84 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Nugent and J. E. Trebes, “Coherence measurement technique for short wavelength light sources,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63(4), 2146–2151 (1992).
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Pai, V.

Panzner, T.

W. Leitenberger, H. Wendrock, L. Bischoff, T. Panzner, U. Pietsch, J. Grenzer, and A. Pucher, “Double pinhole diffraction of white synchrotron radiation,” Physica B 336(1–2), 63–67 (2003).
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Paterson, D.

J. J. A. Lin, D. Paterson, A. G. Peele, P. J. McMahon, C. T. Chantler, K. A. Nugent, B. Lai, N. Moldovan, Z. Cai, D. C. Mancini, and I. McNulty, “Measurement of the spatial coherence function of undulator radiation using a phase mask,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(7), 074801 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Paterson, B. E. Allman, P. J. McMahon, J. Lin, N. Moldovan, K. A. Nugent, I. McNulty, C. T. Chantler, C. C. Retsch, T. H. K. Irving, and D. C. Mancini, “Spatial coherence measurement of X-ray undulator radiation,” Opt. Commun. 195(1–4), 79–84 (2001).
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Paul, A.

R. L. Sandberg, A. Paul, D. A. Raymondson, S. Hädrich, D. M. Gaudiosi, J. Holtsnider, R. I. Tobey, O. Cohen, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, C. Song, J. Miao, Y. Liu, and F. Salmassi, “Lensless diffractive imaging using tabletop coherent high-harmonic soft-X-ray beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(9), 098103 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Bartels, A. Paul, H. Green, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, S. Backus, I. P. Christov, Y. Liu, D. Attwood, and C. Jacobsen, “Generation of spatially coherent light at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths,” Science 297(5580), 376–378 (2002).
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Peele, A. G.

L. W. Whitehead, G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, R. A. Dilanian, S. Flewett, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, E. Balaur, and I. McNulty, “Diffractive imaging using partially coherent x rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(24), 243902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. A. Lin, D. Paterson, A. G. Peele, P. J. McMahon, C. T. Chantler, K. A. Nugent, B. Lai, N. Moldovan, Z. Cai, D. C. Mancini, and I. McNulty, “Measurement of the spatial coherence function of undulator radiation using a phase mask,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(7), 074801 (2003).
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Pelliccia, D.

Pfeiffer, F.

S. Schleede, F. G. Meinel, M. Bech, J. Herzen, K. Achterhold, G. Potdevin, A. Malecki, S. Adam-Neumair, S. F. Thieme, F. Bamberg, K. Nikolaou, A. Bohla, A. Ö. Yildirim, R. Loewen, M. Gifford, R. Ruth, O. Eickelberg, M. Reiser, and F. Pfeiffer, “Emphysema diagnosis using X-ray dark-field imaging at a laser-driven compact synchrotron light source,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(44), 17880–17885 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Diaz, C. Mocuta, J. Stangl, M. Keplinger, T. Weitkamp, F. Pfeiffer, C. David, T. H. Metzger, and G. Bauer, “Coherence and wavefront characterization of Si-111 monochromators using double-grating interferometry,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 17(3), 299–307 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Pfeiffer, M. Bech, O. Bunk, P. Kraft, E. F. Eikenberry, C. Brönnimann, C. Grünzweig, and C. David, “Hard-X-ray dark-field imaging using a grating interferometer,” Nat. Mater. 7(2), 134–137 (2008).
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F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. Schulze-Briese, A. Diaz, T. Weitkamp, C. David, J. F. van der Veen, I. Vartanyants, and I. K. Robinson, “Shearing interferometer for quantifying the coherence of hard X-ray beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(16), 164801 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pietsch, U.

W. Leitenberger, H. Wendrock, L. Bischoff, T. Panzner, U. Pietsch, J. Grenzer, and A. Pucher, “Double pinhole diffraction of white synchrotron radiation,” Physica B 336(1–2), 63–67 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Potdevin, G.

S. Schleede, F. G. Meinel, M. Bech, J. Herzen, K. Achterhold, G. Potdevin, A. Malecki, S. Adam-Neumair, S. F. Thieme, F. Bamberg, K. Nikolaou, A. Bohla, A. Ö. Yildirim, R. Loewen, M. Gifford, R. Ruth, O. Eickelberg, M. Reiser, and F. Pfeiffer, “Emphysema diagnosis using X-ray dark-field imaging at a laser-driven compact synchrotron light source,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(44), 17880–17885 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pucher, A.

W. Leitenberger, H. Wendrock, L. Bischoff, T. Panzner, U. Pietsch, J. Grenzer, and A. Pucher, “Double pinhole diffraction of white synchrotron radiation,” Physica B 336(1–2), 63–67 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Quiney, H. M.

L. W. Whitehead, G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, R. A. Dilanian, S. Flewett, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, E. Balaur, and I. McNulty, “Diffractive imaging using partially coherent x rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(24), 243902 (2009).
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Raymondson, D. A.

R. L. Sandberg, A. Paul, D. A. Raymondson, S. Hädrich, D. M. Gaudiosi, J. Holtsnider, R. I. Tobey, O. Cohen, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, C. Song, J. Miao, Y. Liu, and F. Salmassi, “Lensless diffractive imaging using tabletop coherent high-harmonic soft-X-ray beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(9), 098103 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reiser, M.

S. Schleede, F. G. Meinel, M. Bech, J. Herzen, K. Achterhold, G. Potdevin, A. Malecki, S. Adam-Neumair, S. F. Thieme, F. Bamberg, K. Nikolaou, A. Bohla, A. Ö. Yildirim, R. Loewen, M. Gifford, R. Ruth, O. Eickelberg, M. Reiser, and F. Pfeiffer, “Emphysema diagnosis using X-ray dark-field imaging at a laser-driven compact synchrotron light source,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(44), 17880–17885 (2012).
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Retsch, C. C.

D. Paterson, B. E. Allman, P. J. McMahon, J. Lin, N. Moldovan, K. A. Nugent, I. McNulty, C. T. Chantler, C. C. Retsch, T. H. K. Irving, and D. C. Mancini, “Spatial coherence measurement of X-ray undulator radiation,” Opt. Commun. 195(1–4), 79–84 (2001).
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Robinson, I. K.

W. Yang, X. Huang, R. Harder, J. N. Clark, I. K. Robinson, and H. K. Mao, “Coherent diffraction imaging of nanoscale strain evolution in a single crystal under high pressure,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1680 (2013).
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F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. Schulze-Briese, A. Diaz, T. Weitkamp, C. David, J. F. van der Veen, I. Vartanyants, and I. K. Robinson, “Shearing interferometer for quantifying the coherence of hard X-ray beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(16), 164801 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rosenhahn, A.

Ruth, R.

S. Schleede, F. G. Meinel, M. Bech, J. Herzen, K. Achterhold, G. Potdevin, A. Malecki, S. Adam-Neumair, S. F. Thieme, F. Bamberg, K. Nikolaou, A. Bohla, A. Ö. Yildirim, R. Loewen, M. Gifford, R. Ruth, O. Eickelberg, M. Reiser, and F. Pfeiffer, “Emphysema diagnosis using X-ray dark-field imaging at a laser-driven compact synchrotron light source,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(44), 17880–17885 (2012).
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I. Zanette, T. Weitkamp, T. Donath, S. Rutishauser, and C. David, “Two-dimensional X-ray grating interferometer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(24), 248102 (2010).
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Sakdinawat, A. E.

S. Marchesini, S. Boutet, A. E. Sakdinawat, M. J. Bogan, S. Bajt, A. Barty, H. N. Chapman, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. Szöke, C. Cui, D. A. Shapiro, M. R. Howells, J. C. H. Spence, J. W. Shaevitz, J. Y. Lee, J. Hajdu, and M. M. Seibert, “Massively parallel X-ray holography,” Nat. Photonics 2(9), 560–563 (2008).
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Salmassi, F.

R. L. Sandberg, A. Paul, D. A. Raymondson, S. Hädrich, D. M. Gaudiosi, J. Holtsnider, R. I. Tobey, O. Cohen, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, C. Song, J. Miao, Y. Liu, and F. Salmassi, “Lensless diffractive imaging using tabletop coherent high-harmonic soft-X-ray beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(9), 098103 (2007).
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R. L. Sandberg, A. Paul, D. A. Raymondson, S. Hädrich, D. M. Gaudiosi, J. Holtsnider, R. I. Tobey, O. Cohen, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, C. Song, J. Miao, Y. Liu, and F. Salmassi, “Lensless diffractive imaging using tabletop coherent high-harmonic soft-X-ray beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(9), 098103 (2007).
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S. Schleede, F. G. Meinel, M. Bech, J. Herzen, K. Achterhold, G. Potdevin, A. Malecki, S. Adam-Neumair, S. F. Thieme, F. Bamberg, K. Nikolaou, A. Bohla, A. Ö. Yildirim, R. Loewen, M. Gifford, R. Ruth, O. Eickelberg, M. Reiser, and F. Pfeiffer, “Emphysema diagnosis using X-ray dark-field imaging at a laser-driven compact synchrotron light source,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(44), 17880–17885 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schlenker, M.

J. P. Guigay, S. Zabler, P. Cloetens, C. David, R. Mokso, and M. Schlenker, “The partial Talbot effect and its use in measuring the coherence of synchrotron X-rays,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 11(6), 476–482 (2004).
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P. Cloetens, J. P. Guigay, C. De Martino, J. Baruchel, and M. Schlenker, “Fractional Talbot imaging of phase gratings with hard x rays,” Opt. Lett. 22(14), 1059–1061 (1997).
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F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. Schulze-Briese, A. Diaz, T. Weitkamp, C. David, J. F. van der Veen, I. Vartanyants, and I. K. Robinson, “Shearing interferometer for quantifying the coherence of hard X-ray beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(16), 164801 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seibert, M. M.

S. Marchesini, S. Boutet, A. E. Sakdinawat, M. J. Bogan, S. Bajt, A. Barty, H. N. Chapman, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. Szöke, C. Cui, D. A. Shapiro, M. R. Howells, J. C. H. Spence, J. W. Shaevitz, J. Y. Lee, J. Hajdu, and M. M. Seibert, “Massively parallel X-ray holography,” Nat. Photonics 2(9), 560–563 (2008).
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Senkbeil, T.

Shaevitz, J. W.

S. Marchesini, S. Boutet, A. E. Sakdinawat, M. J. Bogan, S. Bajt, A. Barty, H. N. Chapman, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. Szöke, C. Cui, D. A. Shapiro, M. R. Howells, J. C. H. Spence, J. W. Shaevitz, J. Y. Lee, J. Hajdu, and M. M. Seibert, “Massively parallel X-ray holography,” Nat. Photonics 2(9), 560–563 (2008).
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Shapiro, D.

O. Chubar, L. Berman, Y. S. Chu, A. Fluerasu, S. Hulbert, M. Idir, K. Kaznatcheev, D. Shapiro, Q. Shen, and J. Baltser, “Development of partially-coherent wavefront propagation simulation methods for 3rd and 4th generation synchrotron radiation sources,” Proc. SPIE 8141, 814107 (2011).
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Shapiro, D. A.

S. Marchesini, S. Boutet, A. E. Sakdinawat, M. J. Bogan, S. Bajt, A. Barty, H. N. Chapman, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. Szöke, C. Cui, D. A. Shapiro, M. R. Howells, J. C. H. Spence, J. W. Shaevitz, J. Y. Lee, J. Hajdu, and M. M. Seibert, “Massively parallel X-ray holography,” Nat. Photonics 2(9), 560–563 (2008).
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Shen, Q.

O. Chubar, L. Berman, Y. S. Chu, A. Fluerasu, S. Hulbert, M. Idir, K. Kaznatcheev, D. Shapiro, Q. Shen, and J. Baltser, “Development of partially-coherent wavefront propagation simulation methods for 3rd and 4th generation synchrotron radiation sources,” Proc. SPIE 8141, 814107 (2011).
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Singer, A.

Song, C.

R. L. Sandberg, A. Paul, D. A. Raymondson, S. Hädrich, D. M. Gaudiosi, J. Holtsnider, R. I. Tobey, O. Cohen, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, C. Song, J. Miao, Y. Liu, and F. Salmassi, “Lensless diffractive imaging using tabletop coherent high-harmonic soft-X-ray beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(9), 098103 (2007).
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Sorgenfrei, F.

Spence, J. C. H.

S. Marchesini, S. Boutet, A. E. Sakdinawat, M. J. Bogan, S. Bajt, A. Barty, H. N. Chapman, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. Szöke, C. Cui, D. A. Shapiro, M. R. Howells, J. C. H. Spence, J. W. Shaevitz, J. Y. Lee, J. Hajdu, and M. M. Seibert, “Massively parallel X-ray holography,” Nat. Photonics 2(9), 560–563 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Stangl, J.

A. Diaz, C. Mocuta, J. Stangl, M. Keplinger, T. Weitkamp, F. Pfeiffer, C. David, T. H. Metzger, and G. Bauer, “Coherence and wavefront characterization of Si-111 monochromators using double-grating interferometry,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 17(3), 299–307 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stein, A. F.

Szöke, A.

S. Marchesini, S. Boutet, A. E. Sakdinawat, M. J. Bogan, S. Bajt, A. Barty, H. N. Chapman, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. Szöke, C. Cui, D. A. Shapiro, M. R. Howells, J. C. H. Spence, J. W. Shaevitz, J. Y. Lee, J. Hajdu, and M. M. Seibert, “Massively parallel X-ray holography,” Nat. Photonics 2(9), 560–563 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Thieme, S. F.

S. Schleede, F. G. Meinel, M. Bech, J. Herzen, K. Achterhold, G. Potdevin, A. Malecki, S. Adam-Neumair, S. F. Thieme, F. Bamberg, K. Nikolaou, A. Bohla, A. Ö. Yildirim, R. Loewen, M. Gifford, R. Ruth, O. Eickelberg, M. Reiser, and F. Pfeiffer, “Emphysema diagnosis using X-ray dark-field imaging at a laser-driven compact synchrotron light source,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(44), 17880–17885 (2012).
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Tobey, R. I.

R. L. Sandberg, A. Paul, D. A. Raymondson, S. Hädrich, D. M. Gaudiosi, J. Holtsnider, R. I. Tobey, O. Cohen, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, C. Song, J. Miao, Y. Liu, and F. Salmassi, “Lensless diffractive imaging using tabletop coherent high-harmonic soft-X-ray beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(9), 098103 (2007).
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Trebes, J. E.

K. A. Nugent and J. E. Trebes, “Coherence measurement technique for short wavelength light sources,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63(4), 2146–2151 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Treusch, R.

van der Veen, J. F.

F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. Schulze-Briese, A. Diaz, T. Weitkamp, C. David, J. F. van der Veen, I. Vartanyants, and I. K. Robinson, “Shearing interferometer for quantifying the coherence of hard X-ray beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(16), 164801 (2005).
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F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. Schulze-Briese, A. Diaz, T. Weitkamp, C. David, J. F. van der Veen, I. Vartanyants, and I. K. Robinson, “Shearing interferometer for quantifying the coherence of hard X-ray beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(16), 164801 (2005).
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Vartanyants, I. A.

Vine, D. J.

L. W. Whitehead, G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, R. A. Dilanian, S. Flewett, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, E. Balaur, and I. McNulty, “Diffractive imaging using partially coherent x rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(24), 243902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weckert, E.

Weitkamp, T.

A. Diaz, C. Mocuta, J. Stangl, M. Keplinger, T. Weitkamp, F. Pfeiffer, C. David, T. H. Metzger, and G. Bauer, “Coherence and wavefront characterization of Si-111 monochromators using double-grating interferometry,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 17(3), 299–307 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Zanette, T. Weitkamp, T. Donath, S. Rutishauser, and C. David, “Two-dimensional X-ray grating interferometer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(24), 248102 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. Schulze-Briese, A. Diaz, T. Weitkamp, C. David, J. F. van der Veen, I. Vartanyants, and I. K. Robinson, “Shearing interferometer for quantifying the coherence of hard X-ray beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(16), 164801 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wen, H. H.

Wendrock, H.

W. Leitenberger, H. Wendrock, L. Bischoff, T. Panzner, U. Pietsch, J. Grenzer, and A. Pucher, “Double pinhole diffraction of white synchrotron radiation,” Physica B 336(1–2), 63–67 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Whitehead, L. W.

L. W. Whitehead, G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, R. A. Dilanian, S. Flewett, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, E. Balaur, and I. McNulty, “Diffractive imaging using partially coherent x rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(24), 243902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, G. J.

L. W. Whitehead, G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, R. A. Dilanian, S. Flewett, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, E. Balaur, and I. McNulty, “Diffractive imaging using partially coherent x rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(24), 243902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Wurth, W.

Yang, W.

W. Yang, X. Huang, R. Harder, J. N. Clark, I. K. Robinson, and H. K. Mao, “Coherent diffraction imaging of nanoscale strain evolution in a single crystal under high pressure,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1680 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Yildirim, A. Ö.

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zanette, I.

I. Zanette, T. Weitkamp, T. Donath, S. Rutishauser, and C. David, “Two-dimensional X-ray grating interferometer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(24), 248102 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Synchrotron Radiat. (2)

J. P. Guigay, S. Zabler, P. Cloetens, C. David, R. Mokso, and M. Schlenker, “The partial Talbot effect and its use in measuring the coherence of synchrotron X-rays,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 11(6), 476–482 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Diaz, C. Mocuta, J. Stangl, M. Keplinger, T. Weitkamp, F. Pfeiffer, C. David, T. H. Metzger, and G. Bauer, “Coherence and wavefront characterization of Si-111 monochromators using double-grating interferometry,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 17(3), 299–307 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Commun. (1)

W. Yang, X. Huang, R. Harder, J. N. Clark, I. K. Robinson, and H. K. Mao, “Coherent diffraction imaging of nanoscale strain evolution in a single crystal under high pressure,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1680 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

F. Pfeiffer, M. Bech, O. Bunk, P. Kraft, E. F. Eikenberry, C. Brönnimann, C. Grünzweig, and C. David, “Hard-X-ray dark-field imaging using a grating interferometer,” Nat. Mater. 7(2), 134–137 (2008).
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Nat. Photonics (2)

S. Marchesini, S. Boutet, A. E. Sakdinawat, M. J. Bogan, S. Bajt, A. Barty, H. N. Chapman, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. Szöke, C. Cui, D. A. Shapiro, M. R. Howells, J. C. H. Spence, J. W. Shaevitz, J. Y. Lee, J. Hajdu, and M. M. Seibert, “Massively parallel X-ray holography,” Nat. Photonics 2(9), 560–563 (2008).
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A. Sakdinawat and D. Attwood, “Nanoscale X-ray imaging,” Nat. Photonics 4(12), 840–848 (2010).
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Opt. Commun. (1)

D. Paterson, B. E. Allman, P. J. McMahon, J. Lin, N. Moldovan, K. A. Nugent, I. McNulty, C. T. Chantler, C. C. Retsch, T. H. K. Irving, and D. C. Mancini, “Spatial coherence measurement of X-ray undulator radiation,” Opt. Commun. 195(1–4), 79–84 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (5)

I. Zanette, T. Weitkamp, T. Donath, S. Rutishauser, and C. David, “Two-dimensional X-ray grating interferometer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105(24), 248102 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. W. Whitehead, G. J. Williams, H. M. Quiney, D. J. Vine, R. A. Dilanian, S. Flewett, K. A. Nugent, A. G. Peele, E. Balaur, and I. McNulty, “Diffractive imaging using partially coherent x rays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(24), 243902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. Sandberg, A. Paul, D. A. Raymondson, S. Hädrich, D. M. Gaudiosi, J. Holtsnider, R. I. Tobey, O. Cohen, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, C. Song, J. Miao, Y. Liu, and F. Salmassi, “Lensless diffractive imaging using tabletop coherent high-harmonic soft-X-ray beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(9), 098103 (2007).
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J. J. A. Lin, D. Paterson, A. G. Peele, P. J. McMahon, C. T. Chantler, K. A. Nugent, B. Lai, N. Moldovan, Z. Cai, D. C. Mancini, and I. McNulty, “Measurement of the spatial coherence function of undulator radiation using a phase mask,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(7), 074801 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Pfeiffer, O. Bunk, C. Schulze-Briese, A. Diaz, T. Weitkamp, C. David, J. F. van der Veen, I. Vartanyants, and I. K. Robinson, “Shearing interferometer for quantifying the coherence of hard X-ray beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 94(16), 164801 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Status Solidi A (1)

R. Kluender, F. Masiello, P. van Vaerenbergh, and J. Härtwig, “Measurement of the spatial coherence of synchrotron beams using the Talbot effect,” Phys. Status Solidi A 206(8), 1842–1845 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Physica B (1)

W. Leitenberger, H. Wendrock, L. Bischoff, T. Panzner, U. Pietsch, J. Grenzer, and A. Pucher, “Double pinhole diffraction of white synchrotron radiation,” Physica B 336(1–2), 63–67 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

S. Schleede, F. G. Meinel, M. Bech, J. Herzen, K. Achterhold, G. Potdevin, A. Malecki, S. Adam-Neumair, S. F. Thieme, F. Bamberg, K. Nikolaou, A. Bohla, A. Ö. Yildirim, R. Loewen, M. Gifford, R. Ruth, O. Eickelberg, M. Reiser, and F. Pfeiffer, “Emphysema diagnosis using X-ray dark-field imaging at a laser-driven compact synchrotron light source,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 109(44), 17880–17885 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

O. Chubar, L. Berman, Y. S. Chu, A. Fluerasu, S. Hulbert, M. Idir, K. Kaznatcheev, D. Shapiro, Q. Shen, and J. Baltser, “Development of partially-coherent wavefront propagation simulation methods for 3rd and 4th generation synchrotron radiation sources,” Proc. SPIE 8141, 814107 (2011).
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I. Zanette, C. David, S. Rutishauser, and T. Weitkamp, “2D grating simulation for X-ray phase-contrast and dark-field imaging with a Talbot interferometer,” in X-Ray Optics and Microanalysis, Proceedings of the 20th International Congress, CP1221, M. Denecke and C. Walker, eds. (American Institute of Physics, 2010), pp. 73–79.
[CrossRef]

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principle of Optics, 7th ed. (Cambridge University, 1999).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the experimental setup.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Central portion of the measured interferogram at 83-mm distance. (b) Central portion of the Fourier transform of one of the interferograms showing the harmonic peaks along the 0°, 45°, 90°, and 135° directions. (c) SEM image of the 2-D checkerboard phase grating used for this experiment. The grating fabricated by electroplating Au onto Si3N4 membrane has a period of 4.8 µm and is optimized for a π/2 phase shift. (d) Orientation of the grating in the transverse plane perpendicular to the direction of the beam propagation. The angles θ are with respect to the horizontal direction.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Evolution of the experimental visibility (○) as a function of the grating-to-detector distance (d) and the fitted Gaussian envelope function |j| (dashed lines) along four different directions: (a) 0°, (b) 90°, (c) 45°, and (d) 135° with σθ shown in the figure. The extracted coherence lengths are shown in Table 1. The solid lines and the schematic of the 2-D checkerboard grating are drawn as a visual aid.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Interference patterns simulated at (a) d = 83.6 mm and (b) d = 41.8 mm from the grating. The periodicities in different directions are also indicated.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Simulated evolution of the visibility (solid lines) as a function of the grating-to-detector distance (d) and the fitted Gaussian envelope function |j| (dashed lines) along four different directions: (a) 0°, (b) 90°, (c) 45°, and (d) 135° with σθ shown in the figure. The extracted coherence lengths are shown in Table 1.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Simulated visibility evolution along 45° (or 135°) direction for a 2-D π/2 4.8 µm grating with an ideal duty cycle of 0.5 (black solid line) and for a reduced gold square by 1/50th of the ideal width (red dashed line).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Graphical representation of the coherence area obtained from experiment, simulation, and analytical calculation.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Spatially resolved coherence length measurements within two small area ROI’s of the field of view. (a) Measured interferogram at d = 143 mm with the ROI’s identified by the white rectangles. (b) and (c) Visibility measurements along the 90° direction for the area 1 and area 2, respectively, as identified in Fig. 8(a). The coherence length values for the area 1 and area 2 are 9.7 µm and 8.7 µm, respectively.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Parameters used for coherence length measurement and the measured transverse coherence length values along different directions comparing with calculation and simulation results

Equations (15)

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Γ 12 (τ)= E( p 1 ,t) E * ( p 2 ,t+τ) .
J 12 = Γ 12 (0)= E( p 1 ) E * ( p 2 ) => J 11 = I 1 , J 22 = I 2 .
I= [ E( p 1 )+E( p 2 ) ][ E ( p 1 )+ E ( p 2 ) ] = I 1 + I 2 +2Re{ J 12 }.
j 12 = J 12 J 11 J 22 = J 12 I 1 I 2 .
I= I 1 + I 2 +2 I 1 I 2 | j 12 |cos( φ j 12 ),
V= I max I min I max + I min ,
I max = I 1 + I 2 +2 I 1 I 2 | j 12 |, I min = I 1 + I 2 2 I 1 I 2 | j 12 |.
| j 12 |= V( I 1 + I 2 ) 2 I 1 I 2 .
| j 12 |=V,
I S ( s x , s y )= I 0 exp[ s x 2 2 σ x 2 s y 2 2 σ y 2 ],
| j(x,y) |= j 0 exp[ x 2 2 ξ x 2 y 2 2 ξ y 2 ],
ξ x =λD/2π σ x , ξ y =λD/2π σ y ,
x= dλ p 0 ,
| j(d) |= j 0 exp( - d 2 2* ( σ θ ) 2 ),
ξ exp,θ = λ σ θ p θ ,

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