Abstract

Conventional stereoscopic displays force an unnatural decoupling of the accommodation and convergence cues, which may contribute to various visual artifacts and have adverse effects on depth perception accuracy. In this paper, we present the design and implementation of a high-resolution optical see-through multi-focal-plane head-mounted display enabled by state-of-the-art freeform optics. The prototype system is capable of rendering nearly-correct focus cues for a large volume of 3D space, extending into a depth range from 0 to 3 diopters. The freeform optics, consisting of a freeform prism eyepiece and a freeform lens, demonstrates an angular resolution of 1.8 arcminutes across a 40-degree diagonal field of view in the virtual display path while providing a 0.5 arcminutes angular resolution to the see-through view.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. S. Suyama, S. Ohtsuka, H. Takada, K. Uehira, S. Sakai, “Apparent 3-D image perceived from luminance-modulated two 2-D images displayed at different depths,” Vision Res. 44(8), 785–793 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. K. Akeley, S. J. Watt, A. R. Girshick, M. S. Banks, “A stereo display prototype with multiple focal distances,” ACM Trans. Graph. 23(3), 804–813 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  3. G. D. Love, D. M. Hoffman, P. J. W. Hands, J. Gao, A. K. Kirby, M. S. Banks, “High-speed switchable lens enables the development of a volumetric stereoscopic display,” Opt. Express 17(18), 15716–15725 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. S. Liu, H. Hua, D. Cheng, “A novel prototype for an optical see-through head-mounted display with addressable focus cues,” IEEE Trans. Vis. Comput. Graph. 16(3), 381–393 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. X. Hu, Hua, “Distinguished student paper: a depth-fused multi-focal-plane display prototype enabling focus cues in stereoscopic displays,” in SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (2011), Vol. 42, pp. 691–694.
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Liu, H. Hua, “A systematic method for designing depth-fused multi-focal plane three-dimensional displays,” Opt. Express 18(11), 11562–11573 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. S. Ravikumar, K. Akeley, M. S. Banks, “Creating effective focus cues in multi-plane 3D displays,” Opt. Express 19(21), 20940–20952 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. K. J. MacKenzie, D. M. Hoffman, S. J. Watt, “Accommodation to multiple-focal-plane displays: Implications for improving stereoscopic displays and for accommodation control,” J. Vis. 10(8), 22 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. X. Hu, H. Hua, “Design and assessment of a depth-fused multi-focal-plane display prototype,” J. Display Technol. 10(4), 308–316 (2014).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. Cheng, Y. Wang, H. Hua, M. M. Talha, “Design of an optical see-through head-mounted display with a low f-number and large field of view using a freeform prism,” Appl. Opt. 48(14), 2655–2668 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. Q. Wang, D. Cheng, Y. Wang, H. Hua, G. Jin, “Design, tolerance, and fabrication of an optical see-through head-mounted display with free-form surface elements,” Appl. Opt. 52(7), C88–C99 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2014 (1)

2013 (1)

2011 (1)

2010 (3)

S. Liu, H. Hua, “A systematic method for designing depth-fused multi-focal plane three-dimensional displays,” Opt. Express 18(11), 11562–11573 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Liu, H. Hua, D. Cheng, “A novel prototype for an optical see-through head-mounted display with addressable focus cues,” IEEE Trans. Vis. Comput. Graph. 16(3), 381–393 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. J. MacKenzie, D. M. Hoffman, S. J. Watt, “Accommodation to multiple-focal-plane displays: Implications for improving stereoscopic displays and for accommodation control,” J. Vis. 10(8), 22 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

2004 (2)

S. Suyama, S. Ohtsuka, H. Takada, K. Uehira, S. Sakai, “Apparent 3-D image perceived from luminance-modulated two 2-D images displayed at different depths,” Vision Res. 44(8), 785–793 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Akeley, S. J. Watt, A. R. Girshick, M. S. Banks, “A stereo display prototype with multiple focal distances,” ACM Trans. Graph. 23(3), 804–813 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Akeley, K.

S. Ravikumar, K. Akeley, M. S. Banks, “Creating effective focus cues in multi-plane 3D displays,” Opt. Express 19(21), 20940–20952 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Akeley, S. J. Watt, A. R. Girshick, M. S. Banks, “A stereo display prototype with multiple focal distances,” ACM Trans. Graph. 23(3), 804–813 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Banks, M. S.

Cheng, D.

Gao, J.

Girshick, A. R.

K. Akeley, S. J. Watt, A. R. Girshick, M. S. Banks, “A stereo display prototype with multiple focal distances,” ACM Trans. Graph. 23(3), 804–813 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hands, P. J. W.

Hoffman, D. M.

K. J. MacKenzie, D. M. Hoffman, S. J. Watt, “Accommodation to multiple-focal-plane displays: Implications for improving stereoscopic displays and for accommodation control,” J. Vis. 10(8), 22 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. D. Love, D. M. Hoffman, P. J. W. Hands, J. Gao, A. K. Kirby, M. S. Banks, “High-speed switchable lens enables the development of a volumetric stereoscopic display,” Opt. Express 17(18), 15716–15725 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hu, X.

X. Hu, H. Hua, “Design and assessment of a depth-fused multi-focal-plane display prototype,” J. Display Technol. 10(4), 308–316 (2014).
[CrossRef]

X. Hu, Hua, “Distinguished student paper: a depth-fused multi-focal-plane display prototype enabling focus cues in stereoscopic displays,” in SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (2011), Vol. 42, pp. 691–694.
[CrossRef]

Hua,

X. Hu, Hua, “Distinguished student paper: a depth-fused multi-focal-plane display prototype enabling focus cues in stereoscopic displays,” in SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (2011), Vol. 42, pp. 691–694.
[CrossRef]

Hua, H.

Jin, G.

Kirby, A. K.

Liu, S.

S. Liu, H. Hua, “A systematic method for designing depth-fused multi-focal plane three-dimensional displays,” Opt. Express 18(11), 11562–11573 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Liu, H. Hua, D. Cheng, “A novel prototype for an optical see-through head-mounted display with addressable focus cues,” IEEE Trans. Vis. Comput. Graph. 16(3), 381–393 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Love, G. D.

MacKenzie, K. J.

K. J. MacKenzie, D. M. Hoffman, S. J. Watt, “Accommodation to multiple-focal-plane displays: Implications for improving stereoscopic displays and for accommodation control,” J. Vis. 10(8), 22 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ohtsuka, S.

S. Suyama, S. Ohtsuka, H. Takada, K. Uehira, S. Sakai, “Apparent 3-D image perceived from luminance-modulated two 2-D images displayed at different depths,” Vision Res. 44(8), 785–793 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ravikumar, S.

Sakai, S.

S. Suyama, S. Ohtsuka, H. Takada, K. Uehira, S. Sakai, “Apparent 3-D image perceived from luminance-modulated two 2-D images displayed at different depths,” Vision Res. 44(8), 785–793 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suyama, S.

S. Suyama, S. Ohtsuka, H. Takada, K. Uehira, S. Sakai, “Apparent 3-D image perceived from luminance-modulated two 2-D images displayed at different depths,” Vision Res. 44(8), 785–793 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takada, H.

S. Suyama, S. Ohtsuka, H. Takada, K. Uehira, S. Sakai, “Apparent 3-D image perceived from luminance-modulated two 2-D images displayed at different depths,” Vision Res. 44(8), 785–793 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Talha, M. M.

Uehira, K.

S. Suyama, S. Ohtsuka, H. Takada, K. Uehira, S. Sakai, “Apparent 3-D image perceived from luminance-modulated two 2-D images displayed at different depths,” Vision Res. 44(8), 785–793 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Q.

Wang, Y.

Watt, S. J.

K. J. MacKenzie, D. M. Hoffman, S. J. Watt, “Accommodation to multiple-focal-plane displays: Implications for improving stereoscopic displays and for accommodation control,” J. Vis. 10(8), 22 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Akeley, S. J. Watt, A. R. Girshick, M. S. Banks, “A stereo display prototype with multiple focal distances,” ACM Trans. Graph. 23(3), 804–813 (2004).
[CrossRef]

ACM Trans. Graph. (1)

K. Akeley, S. J. Watt, A. R. Girshick, M. S. Banks, “A stereo display prototype with multiple focal distances,” ACM Trans. Graph. 23(3), 804–813 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

IEEE Trans. Vis. Comput. Graph. (1)

S. Liu, H. Hua, D. Cheng, “A novel prototype for an optical see-through head-mounted display with addressable focus cues,” IEEE Trans. Vis. Comput. Graph. 16(3), 381–393 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Display Technol. (1)

J. Vis. (1)

K. J. MacKenzie, D. M. Hoffman, S. J. Watt, “Accommodation to multiple-focal-plane displays: Implications for improving stereoscopic displays and for accommodation control,” J. Vis. 10(8), 22 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (3)

Vision Res. (1)

S. Suyama, S. Ohtsuka, H. Takada, K. Uehira, S. Sakai, “Apparent 3-D image perceived from luminance-modulated two 2-D images displayed at different depths,” Vision Res. 44(8), 785–793 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

X. Hu, Hua, “Distinguished student paper: a depth-fused multi-focal-plane display prototype enabling focus cues in stereoscopic displays,” in SID Symposium Digest of Technical Papers (2011), Vol. 42, pp. 691–694.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) top-view optical layout of the right-eye module of the MFP-HMD prototype. (b) detailed layout of the Image Generation Subsystem (IGS).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Full-field MTF plots of the virtual display; (b) distortion grid of the virtual display; (c) Through-focus performance across 3 diopters of accommodation range.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Full-field MTF plots of the see-through path; (b) distortion grid of the see-through view showing minimal distortion at the corners of the temporal side.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) the freeform composite eyepiece assembly; (b) 3D model of the as-built binocular bench prototype with part of the mechanical mountings moved to show the optical lenses.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Three-dimensional scenes displayed with correct focus cues by depth-fusing 6 discrete focal-planes placed at 0.0D, 0.6D, 1.2D, 1.8D, 2.4D and 3.0D, where: in (a) and (b) the resolution target is rendered at a near distance of 2.7D using two focal planes of 2.4D and 3D; in (c) and (d) the resolution target is rendered at a far distance of 0.9D using two focal planes of 0.6D and 1.2D.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Camera captured see-through view of 40-degree resolution target; (b) Standard eye chart placed at 20ft seeing through the composite freeform eyepiece.

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