Abstract

Remote sensing provides an effective tool for timely oil pollution response. In this paper, the spectral signature in the optical and infrared domains of oil slicks observed in shallow coastal waters of the Arabian Gulf was investigated with MODIS, MERIS, and Landsat data. Images of the Floating Algae Index (FAI) and estimates of sea currents from hydrodynamic models supported the multi-sensor oil tracking technique. Scenes with and without sunglint were studied as the spectral signature of oil slicks in the optical domain depends upon the viewing geometry and the solar angle in addition to the type of oil and its thickness. Depending on the combination of those factors, oil slicks may exhibit dark or bright contrasts with respect to oil-free waters. Three oil spills events were thoroughly analyzed, namely, those detected on May 26 2000 by Landsat 7 ETM + and MODIS/Terra, on October 21 2007 by MERIS and MODIS, and on August 17 2013 by Landsat 8 and MODIS/Aqua. The oil slick with bright contrast observed by Landsat 7 ETM + on May 26 2000 showed lower temperature than oil-free areas. The spectral Rayleigh-corrected reflectance (Rrc) signature of oil-covered areas indicated higher variability due to differences in oil fractions while the Rrc spectra of the oil-free area were persistent. Combined with RGB composites, FAI images showed potentials in differentiating oil slicks from algal blooms. Ocean circulation and wind data were used to track oil slicks and forecast their potential landfall. The developed oil spill maps were in agreement with official records. The synergistic use of satellite observations and hydrodynamic modeling is recommended for establishing an early warning and decision support system for oil pollution response.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2014 (1)

J. Zhao, H. Ghedira, “Monitoring red tide with satellite imagery and numerical models: A case study in the Arabian Gulf,” Mar. Pollut. Bull. 79(1-2), 305–313 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2013 (4)

H. A. Naser, “Assessment and management of heavy metal pollution in the marine environment of the Arabian Gulf: A review,” Mar. Pollut. Bull. 72(1), 6–13 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Marghany, “Genetic algorithm for oil spill automatic detection from Envisat satellite data. Computational Science and Its applications-ICCSA,” Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. 7972, 587–598 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. Goyens, C. Jamet, T. Schroeder, “Evaluation of four atmospheric correction algorithms for MODIS-Aqua images over contrasted coastal waters,” Remote Sens. Environ. 131, 63–75 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhao, C. Hu, B. Lapointe, N. Melo, E. M. Johns, R. H. Smith, “Satellite-observed black water events off Southwest Florida: Implications for coral reef health in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary,” Remote Sens. 5(1), 415–431 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (4)

Z. Lee, C. Hu, R. Arnone, Z. Liu, “Impact of sub-pixel variations on ocean color remote sensing products,” Opt. Express 20(19), 20844–20854 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Leifer, W. J. Lehr, D. Simecke-Beatty, E. Bradley, R. Clark, P. Dennison, Y. Hu, S. Matheson, C. E. Jones, B. Holt, M. Reif, D. A. Roberts, J. Svejkovsky, G. Swayze, J. Wozencraft, “State of the art satellite and airborne marine oil spill remote sensing: Application to the BP Deepwater Horizon oil spill,” Remote Sens. Environ. 124, 185–209 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. H. S. Solberg, “Remote Sensing of Ocean Oil-Spill Pollution,” Proc. IEEE 100(10), 2931–2945 (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Bulgarelli, S. Djavidnia, “On MODIS retrieval of oil spill spectral properties in the marine environment,” IEEE Geosci. Remote Sens. Lett. 9(3), 398–402 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (6)

Y. Liu, R. H. Weisberg, C. Hu, L. Zheng, “Tracking the Deepwater Horizon oil spill: A modeling perspective,” Eos Trans. AGU 92(6), 45–46 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, R. H. Weisberg, C. Hu, L. Zheng, “Combing numerical ocean circulation models with satellite observations in a trajectory forecast systems: A rapid response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill,” Proc. SPIE 8030, 80300K (2011), doi:.
[CrossRef]

D. Casciello, T. Lacava, N. Pergola, V. Tramutoli, “Robust satellite techniques for oil spill detection and monitoring using AVHRR thermal infrared bands,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 32(14), 4107–4129 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. S. L. Grimaldi, D. Casciello, I. Coviello, T. Lacava, N. Pergola, V. Tramutoli, “An improved RST approach for timely alert and Near Real Time monitoring of oil spill disasters by using AVHRR data,” Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci. 11(5), 1281–1291 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. F. Sale, D. A. Feary, J. A. Burt, A. G. Bauman, G. H. Cavalcante, K. G. Drouillard, B. Kjerfve, E. Marquis, C. G. Trick, P. Usseglio, H. Lavieren, “The growing need for sustainable ecological management of marine communities of the Persian Gulf,” Ambio 40(1), 4–17 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Hamza, M. R. Enan, H. Al-Hassini, J.-B. Stuut, D. de-Beer, “Dust storms over the Arabian Gulf: a possible indicators of climate changes consequences,” Aquat. Ecosyst. Health Manage. 14(3), 260–268 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

N. P. Nezlin, I. G. Polikarpov, F. Y. Al-Yamani, D. V. Subba Rao, A. M. Ignatov, “Satellite monitoring of climatic factors regulating phytoplankton variability in the Arabian (Persian) Gulf,” J. Mar. Syst. 82(1-2), 47–60 (2010).
[CrossRef]

C. Hu, Z. Lee, R. Ma, K. Yu, D. Li, S. Shang, “Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) observations of cyanobacteria blooms in Taihu Lake, China,” J. Geophys. Res. 115(C4), C04002 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (5)

E. P. Chassignet, H. E. Hurlburt, E. J. Metzger, O. M. Smedstad, J. A. Cummings, A. J. Wallcraft, C. Lozano, H. L. Tolman, A. Srinivasan, S. Hankin, P. Cornillon, R. Weisburg, A. Barth, R. He, F. Werner, J. Wilkin, “U.S. GODAE: Global Ocean Prediction With the Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM),” Oceanogr. 22(2), 48–59 (2009).

M. Amado, G. De Carolis, V. De Pasquale, G. Pasquariello, “Detection and tracking oil slicks on sun-glittered visible and near infrared satellite imagery,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 30(24), 6403–6427 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Hu, “A novel ocean color index to detect floating algae in the global oceans,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113(10), 2118–2129 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Hu, X. Li, W. G. Pichel, F. E. Muller-Karger, “Detection of natural oil slicks in the NW Gulf of Mexico using MODIS imagery,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 36(1), L01604 (2009), doi:.
[CrossRef]

M. Wang, S. Son, W. Shi, “Evaluation of MODIS SWIR and NIR-SWIR atmospheric correction algorithms using SeaBASS data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 113(3), 635–644 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

F. Alawadi, C. Amos, V. Byfield, P. Petrov, “The application of hyperspectral image techniques on MODIS data for the detection of oil spills in the RSA,” Proc. SPIE 7110, 71100Q (2008), doi:.
[CrossRef]

F. Carnesecchi, V. Byfield, P. Cipollini, G. Corsini, M. Diani, “An optical model for the interpretation of remotely sensed multispectral images of oil spill,” Proc. SPIE 7105, 710504 (2008), doi:.
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

C. Jackson, “Internal wave detection using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS),” J. Geophys. Res. 112(C11), C11012 (2007), doi:.
[CrossRef]

A. A. Elhakeem, W. Elshorbagy, R. Chebbi, “Oil spill simulation and validation in the Arabian (Persian) Gulf with special reference to the UAE coast,” Water Air Soil Pollut. 184(1-4), 243–254 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang, W. Shi, “The NIR-SWIR combined atmospheric correction approach for MODIS ocean color data processing,” Opt. Express 15(24), 15722–15733 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

J. Gower, S. King, G. Borstad, L. Brown, “Detection of intense plankton blooms using the 709 nm band of the MERIS imaging spectrometer,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 26(9), 2005–2012 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Brekke, A. H. Solberg, “Oil spill detection by satellite remote sensing,” Remote Sens. Environ. 95(1), 1–13 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (4)

J. Lu, “Marine oil spill detection, statistics, and mapping with ERS SAR imagery in south-east Asia,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 24(15), 3013–3032 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Hu, F. E. Müller-Karger, C. J. Taylor, D. Myhre, B. Murch, A. L. Odriozola, G. Godoy, “MODIS detects oil spills in lake Maracaibo, Venezuela,” Eos Trans. AGU 84(33), 313–319 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. P. Stumpf, M. E. Culver, P. A. Tester, M. Tomlinson, G. J. Kirkpatrick, B. A. Pederson, E. Truby, V. Ransibrahmanakul, M. Soracco, “Monitoring Karenia brevis blooms in the Gulf of Mexico using satellite ocean color imagery and other data,” Harmful Algae 35, 1–14 (2003).

Z. Otremba, J. Piskozub, “Modeling the remotely sensed optical contrast caused by oil suspended in the sea water column,” Opt. Express 11(1), 2–6 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

R. Bleck, “An oceanic general circulation model framed in hybrid isopycnic-Cartesian coordinates,” Ocean Model. 4(1), 55–88 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

K. Baith, R. Lindsay, G. Fu, C. R. McClain, “Data analysis system developed for ocean color satellite sensors,” EOS 82(18), 202 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Z. Otremba, J. Piskozub, “Modelling of the optical contrast of an oil film on a sea surface,” Opt. Express 9(8), 411–416 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

H. A. Espedal, O. M. Johannessen, “Detection of oil spills near offshore installations using synthetic aperture radar (SAR),” Int. J. Remote Sens. 21(11), 2141–2144 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. G. Ruddick, F. Ovidio, M. Rijkeboer, “Atmospheric correction of SeaWiFS imagery for turbid coastal and inland waters,” Appl. Opt. 39(6), 897–912 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

A. H. S. Solberg, G. Storvik, R. Solberg, E. Volden, “Automatic detection of oil spills in ERS SAR images,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Rem. Sens. 37(4), 1916–1924 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

European Space Agency, “Oil pollution monitoring. ESA Brochure,” ERS and Its Applications-Marine BR-128, 1 (1998).

M. S. Massoud, F. Al-Abdali, A. N. Al-Ghadban, “The status of oil pollution in the Arabian Gulf by the end of 1993,” Environ. Int. 24(1-2), 11–22 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

M. Fingas, C. E. Brown, “Review of oil spill remote sensing,” Spill Sci. Technol. Bull. 4(4), 199–208 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

A. R. G. Price, C. R. C. Sheppard, C. M. Roberts, “The Persian Gulf: its biological setting,” Mar. Pollut. Bull. 27, 9–15 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Salisbury, D. M. D’Aria, F. F. SabinsJr., “Thermal infrared remote sensing of crude oil slicks,” Remote Sens. Environ. 45(2), 225–231 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

J. R. Jensen, E. W. Ramsey, J. M. Holmes, J. E. Michel, B. Savitsky, B. A. Davis, “Environmental sensitivity Index (ESI) mapping for oil spills using remote sensing and geographic information system technology,” Int. J. Geogr. Info. Syst. 4(2), 181–201 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Adamo, M.

G. De Carolis, M. Adamo, G. Pasquariello, “Thickness estimation of marine oil slicks with near-infrared MERIS and MODIS imagery: The Lebanon oil spill case study,” in Proceedings of the International Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, (Munich, 2012), pp. 3002–3005.
[CrossRef]

Al-Abdali, F.

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P. F. Sale, D. A. Feary, J. A. Burt, A. G. Bauman, G. H. Cavalcante, K. G. Drouillard, B. Kjerfve, E. Marquis, C. G. Trick, P. Usseglio, H. Lavieren, “The growing need for sustainable ecological management of marine communities of the Persian Gulf,” Ambio 40(1), 4–17 (2011).
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C. S. L. Grimaldi, D. Casciello, I. Coviello, T. Lacava, N. Pergola, V. Tramutoli, “An improved RST approach for timely alert and Near Real Time monitoring of oil spill disasters by using AVHRR data,” Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci. 11(5), 1281–1291 (2011).
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Corsini, G.

F. Carnesecchi, V. Byfield, P. Cipollini, G. Corsini, M. Diani, “An optical model for the interpretation of remotely sensed multispectral images of oil spill,” Proc. SPIE 7105, 710504 (2008), doi:.
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Cummings, J. A.

E. P. Chassignet, H. E. Hurlburt, E. J. Metzger, O. M. Smedstad, J. A. Cummings, A. J. Wallcraft, C. Lozano, H. L. Tolman, A. Srinivasan, S. Hankin, P. Cornillon, R. Weisburg, A. Barth, R. He, F. Werner, J. Wilkin, “U.S. GODAE: Global Ocean Prediction With the Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM),” Oceanogr. 22(2), 48–59 (2009).

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De Pasquale, V.

M. Amado, G. De Carolis, V. De Pasquale, G. Pasquariello, “Detection and tracking oil slicks on sun-glittered visible and near infrared satellite imagery,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 30(24), 6403–6427 (2009).
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W. Hamza, M. R. Enan, H. Al-Hassini, J.-B. Stuut, D. de-Beer, “Dust storms over the Arabian Gulf: a possible indicators of climate changes consequences,” Aquat. Ecosyst. Health Manage. 14(3), 260–268 (2011).
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F. Carnesecchi, V. Byfield, P. Cipollini, G. Corsini, M. Diani, “An optical model for the interpretation of remotely sensed multispectral images of oil spill,” Proc. SPIE 7105, 710504 (2008), doi:.
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B. Bulgarelli, S. Djavidnia, “On MODIS retrieval of oil spill spectral properties in the marine environment,” IEEE Geosci. Remote Sens. Lett. 9(3), 398–402 (2012).
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P. F. Sale, D. A. Feary, J. A. Burt, A. G. Bauman, G. H. Cavalcante, K. G. Drouillard, B. Kjerfve, E. Marquis, C. G. Trick, P. Usseglio, H. Lavieren, “The growing need for sustainable ecological management of marine communities of the Persian Gulf,” Ambio 40(1), 4–17 (2011).
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A. A. Elhakeem, W. Elshorbagy, R. Chebbi, “Oil spill simulation and validation in the Arabian (Persian) Gulf with special reference to the UAE coast,” Water Air Soil Pollut. 184(1-4), 243–254 (2007).
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A. A. Elhakeem, W. Elshorbagy, R. Chebbi, “Oil spill simulation and validation in the Arabian (Persian) Gulf with special reference to the UAE coast,” Water Air Soil Pollut. 184(1-4), 243–254 (2007).
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W. Hamza, M. R. Enan, H. Al-Hassini, J.-B. Stuut, D. de-Beer, “Dust storms over the Arabian Gulf: a possible indicators of climate changes consequences,” Aquat. Ecosyst. Health Manage. 14(3), 260–268 (2011).
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P. F. Sale, D. A. Feary, J. A. Burt, A. G. Bauman, G. H. Cavalcante, K. G. Drouillard, B. Kjerfve, E. Marquis, C. G. Trick, P. Usseglio, H. Lavieren, “The growing need for sustainable ecological management of marine communities of the Persian Gulf,” Ambio 40(1), 4–17 (2011).
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M. Fingas, C. E. Brown, “Review of oil spill remote sensing,” Spill Sci. Technol. Bull. 4(4), 199–208 (1997).
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K. Baith, R. Lindsay, G. Fu, C. R. McClain, “Data analysis system developed for ocean color satellite sensors,” EOS 82(18), 202 (2001).
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J. Gower, S. King, G. Borstad, L. Brown, “Detection of intense plankton blooms using the 709 nm band of the MERIS imaging spectrometer,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 26(9), 2005–2012 (2005).
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C. S. L. Grimaldi, D. Casciello, I. Coviello, T. Lacava, N. Pergola, V. Tramutoli, “An improved RST approach for timely alert and Near Real Time monitoring of oil spill disasters by using AVHRR data,” Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci. 11(5), 1281–1291 (2011).
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W. Hamza, M. R. Enan, H. Al-Hassini, J.-B. Stuut, D. de-Beer, “Dust storms over the Arabian Gulf: a possible indicators of climate changes consequences,” Aquat. Ecosyst. Health Manage. 14(3), 260–268 (2011).
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Holmes, J. M.

J. R. Jensen, E. W. Ramsey, J. M. Holmes, J. E. Michel, B. Savitsky, B. A. Davis, “Environmental sensitivity Index (ESI) mapping for oil spills using remote sensing and geographic information system technology,” Int. J. Geogr. Info. Syst. 4(2), 181–201 (1990).
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J. Zhao, C. Hu, B. Lapointe, N. Melo, E. M. Johns, R. H. Smith, “Satellite-observed black water events off Southwest Florida: Implications for coral reef health in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary,” Remote Sens. 5(1), 415–431 (2013).
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I. Leifer, W. J. Lehr, D. Simecke-Beatty, E. Bradley, R. Clark, P. Dennison, Y. Hu, S. Matheson, C. E. Jones, B. Holt, M. Reif, D. A. Roberts, J. Svejkovsky, G. Swayze, J. Wozencraft, “State of the art satellite and airborne marine oil spill remote sensing: Application to the BP Deepwater Horizon oil spill,” Remote Sens. Environ. 124, 185–209 (2012).
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E. P. Chassignet, H. E. Hurlburt, E. J. Metzger, O. M. Smedstad, J. A. Cummings, A. J. Wallcraft, C. Lozano, H. L. Tolman, A. Srinivasan, S. Hankin, P. Cornillon, R. Weisburg, A. Barth, R. He, F. Werner, J. Wilkin, “U.S. GODAE: Global Ocean Prediction With the Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM),” Oceanogr. 22(2), 48–59 (2009).

Ignatov, A. M.

N. P. Nezlin, I. G. Polikarpov, F. Y. Al-Yamani, D. V. Subba Rao, A. M. Ignatov, “Satellite monitoring of climatic factors regulating phytoplankton variability in the Arabian (Persian) Gulf,” J. Mar. Syst. 82(1-2), 47–60 (2010).
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Jensen, J. R.

J. R. Jensen, E. W. Ramsey, J. M. Holmes, J. E. Michel, B. Savitsky, B. A. Davis, “Environmental sensitivity Index (ESI) mapping for oil spills using remote sensing and geographic information system technology,” Int. J. Geogr. Info. Syst. 4(2), 181–201 (1990).
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Johannessen, O. M.

H. A. Espedal, O. M. Johannessen, “Detection of oil spills near offshore installations using synthetic aperture radar (SAR),” Int. J. Remote Sens. 21(11), 2141–2144 (2000).
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Johns, E. M.

J. Zhao, C. Hu, B. Lapointe, N. Melo, E. M. Johns, R. H. Smith, “Satellite-observed black water events off Southwest Florida: Implications for coral reef health in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary,” Remote Sens. 5(1), 415–431 (2013).
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Jones, C. E.

I. Leifer, W. J. Lehr, D. Simecke-Beatty, E. Bradley, R. Clark, P. Dennison, Y. Hu, S. Matheson, C. E. Jones, B. Holt, M. Reif, D. A. Roberts, J. Svejkovsky, G. Swayze, J. Wozencraft, “State of the art satellite and airborne marine oil spill remote sensing: Application to the BP Deepwater Horizon oil spill,” Remote Sens. Environ. 124, 185–209 (2012).
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J. Gower, S. King, G. Borstad, L. Brown, “Detection of intense plankton blooms using the 709 nm band of the MERIS imaging spectrometer,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 26(9), 2005–2012 (2005).
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Kirkpatrick, G. J.

R. P. Stumpf, M. E. Culver, P. A. Tester, M. Tomlinson, G. J. Kirkpatrick, B. A. Pederson, E. Truby, V. Ransibrahmanakul, M. Soracco, “Monitoring Karenia brevis blooms in the Gulf of Mexico using satellite ocean color imagery and other data,” Harmful Algae 35, 1–14 (2003).

Kjerfve, B.

P. F. Sale, D. A. Feary, J. A. Burt, A. G. Bauman, G. H. Cavalcante, K. G. Drouillard, B. Kjerfve, E. Marquis, C. G. Trick, P. Usseglio, H. Lavieren, “The growing need for sustainable ecological management of marine communities of the Persian Gulf,” Ambio 40(1), 4–17 (2011).
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Lacava, T.

D. Casciello, T. Lacava, N. Pergola, V. Tramutoli, “Robust satellite techniques for oil spill detection and monitoring using AVHRR thermal infrared bands,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 32(14), 4107–4129 (2011).
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J. Zhao, C. Hu, B. Lapointe, N. Melo, E. M. Johns, R. H. Smith, “Satellite-observed black water events off Southwest Florida: Implications for coral reef health in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary,” Remote Sens. 5(1), 415–431 (2013).
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Wang, M.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Map of the study area, the Arabian Gulf. Overlaid are the bathymetry data with a spatial resolution of 2 km from NOAA.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Landsat 7 ETM + RGB image collected on May 26 2000 (10:44:18 LT, LT is short for local time). The spatial resolution is 30 m. The inset figure shows the thermal band image for the area where oil spill was found with a spatial resolution of 60 m. The spatial resolution is 250 m. (b) MODIS/Terra RGB image collected on the same day as in (a) but at different time, i.e. 11:25 LT. Oil slicks (Areas 1 and 2) are illustrated with red arrows and the oil spill (Area 3) is outlined with ellipses. Rayleigh-corrected reflectance (Rrc) spectra at the five bands of Landsat 7 ETM + along the two transects (green lines in (a)) are shown in (c) and (d) with the former for oil pollution found in Area 1 and the latter for oil pollution detected in Area 3. (e) and (f) show Rrc for the five bands against the pixel number along the two transects shown in (a) for areas 1 and 3, respectively. The oil slicks have been verified by in situ survey conducted by Essa et al. (2005).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) MERIS RGB image collected on October 21 2007 (10:46:57 LT). (b) MODIS/Terra RGB image collected on October 21 2007 (11:05 local time). Oil slicks are outlined with red polylines. The green line in (b) shows the transect where the MODIS Rrc spectra at 16 bands from 412 to 2130 were plotted in (c). (d), (e), and (f) show the representative Rrc at MODIS bands 1-7 along the transect annotated in (b). The spatial resolution is 250 m.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Landsat 8 (a) and MODIS/Aqua (b) images for August 17 2013 when oil slicks were detected as annotated with red arrows. The other dark features found in panel (a) were probably caused by internal wave, ship wake, natural slick, etc., and they cannot be observed in panel (b). The faint appearance in the MODIS/Aqua image is due to the coarser resolution of the sensor compared with Landsat. The red and green ellipses denote areas with different movement patterns of oil slicks. The area outlined with the red ellipse moved south while the area outlined with the green ellipse moved southwest.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

MODIS/Terra FAI image for October 21 2007 when oil slicks were detected as outlined with red lines.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Landsat 8 RGB image collected on August 26 2013 (10:54:24 LT). In order to enhance the contrast between oiled and unoiled areas, the image was enhanced with a Gaussian method. Dark features can be differentiated and a small patch with bright features close to the oil platform can also be seen clearly. The corresponding FAI image is shown in (b). The potential oiled area presents low FAI values. The position of an oil platform is annotated. Based on the spatial texture and the existence of a neighboring oil platform, the features can be probably due to oil slicks.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

HYCOM surface ocean current data for October 21 2007 (a) and August 17 2013 (b) in the Arabian Gulf, corresponding to the overpass of MERIS (10:46:57 LT) and Landsat 8 (10:00:00 LT), respectively. The arrows indicate surface current directions. Panels (c) and (d) are the corresponding wind maps with a spatial resolution of 25 km. The arrows show the wind direction and the colors show the wind speed. The areas outlined by the red boxes correspond to those shown in Figs. 3 and 4, respectively, where oil was found.

Tables (5)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Summary of satellite data used in this study

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Table 2 Center wavelengths and spatial resolution (SR) of MODIS. Bands 1-7 were designed for studies of land/cloud/aerosol while bands 8-16 were designed for ocean color

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Table 5 Center wavelengths and spatial resolution (SR) of Landsat 8. Band 1 was designed for coastal and aerosol studies, bands 2- 9 were designed for studies of land and clouds while bands 10-11 were designed for surface temperature

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Table 4 Center wavelengths and spatial resolution (SR) of Landsat 7 ETM + . Bands 1-8 (expect band 6) were designed for studies of land cover and land use. Band 6 was designed for surface temperature

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Table 3 Center wavelengths and spatial resolution (SR) of MERIS. All bands were designed for ocean color measurements

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