Abstract

Here we present a method based on Rotating-Polarization Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering (RP-CARS) imaging to assess the myelin health status in mouse sciatic nerves. Differently from the existing techniques, our method is based on the readout of intrinsic molecular architecture rather than on the image analysis, relying on the fact that healthy myelin is characterized by a high degree of molecular order. We exploit RP-CARS imaging to demonstrate that the degree of spatial anisotropy of the CARS signal displays a strong correlation with the g-ratio (a well-known image-based index of myelin damage) in a chemical-damage model and therefore that the former is a good indicator for the local myelin health status.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  3. E. Bélanger, J. Crépeau, S. Laffray, R. Vallée, Y. De Koninck, D. Côté, “Live animal myelin histomorphometry of the spinal cord with video-rate multimodal nonlinear microendoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(2), 021107 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. Y. Fu, H. Wang, T. B. Huff, R. Shi, J. X. Cheng, “Coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering imaging of myelin degradation reveals a calcium-dependent pathway in lyso-PtdCho-induced demyelination,” J. Neurosci. Res. 85(13), 2870–2881 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. H. Ouyang, W. Sun, Y. Fu, J. Li, J. X. Cheng, E. Nauman, R. Shi, “Compression induces acute demyelination and potassium channel exposure in spinal cord,” J. Neurotrauma 27(6), 1109–1120 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. Y. Fu, T. J. Frederick, T. B. Huff, G. E. Goings, S. D. Miller, J. X. Cheng, “Paranodal myelin retraction in relapsing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis visualized by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(10), 106006 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. J. Imitola, D. Côté, S. Rasmussen, X. S. Xie, Y. Liu, T. Chitnis, R. L. Sidman, C. P. Lin, S. J. Khoury, “Multimodal coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy reveals microglia-associated myelin and axonal dysfunction in multiple sclerosis-like lesions in mice,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(2), 021109 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. Y. Shi, D. Zhang, T. B. Huff, X. Wang, R. Shi, X. M. Xu, J. X. Cheng, “Longitudinal in vivo coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering imaging of demyelination and remyelination in injured spinal cord,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(10), 106012 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. Y. Fu, T. M. Talavage, J. X. Cheng, “New imaging techniques in the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis,” Expert Opin Med Diagn 2(9), 1055–1065 (2008).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. S. Bégin, E. Bélanger, S. Laffray, B. Aubé, É. Chamma, J. Bélisle, S. Lacroix, Y. De Koninck, D. Côté, “Local assessment of myelin health in a multiple sclerosis mouse model using a 2D Fourier transform approach,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(10), 2003–2014 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. G. de Vito, A. Bifone, V. Piazza, “Rotating-polarization CARS microscopy: combining chemical and molecular orientation sensitivity,” Opt. Express 20(28), 29369–29377 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. H. Wang, Y. Fu, P. Zickmund, R. Shi, J. X. Cheng, “Coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering imaging of axonal myelin in live spinal tissues,” Biophys. J. 89(1), 581–591 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. E. Bélanger, S. Bégin, S. Laffray, Y. De Koninck, R. Vallée, D. Côté, “Quantitative myelin imaging with coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy: alleviating the excitation polarization dependence with circularly polarized laser beams,” Opt. Express 17(21), 18419–18432 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. G. de Vito, V. Piazza, “Fast signal analysis in Rotating-Polarization CARS microscopy,” Opt. Data Processing and Storage 1, 1–5 (2014).
    [CrossRef]
  20. T. L. Mazely, W. M. Hetherington, “Third-order susceptibility tensors of partially ordered systems,” J. Chem. Phys. 87(4), 1962 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  21. F. Z. Bioud, P. Gasecka, P. Ferrand, H. Rigneault, J. Duboisset, S. Brasselet, “Structure of molecular packing probed by polarization-resolved nonlinear four-wave mixing and coherent anti-Stokes Raman-scattering microscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 89(1), 013836 (2014).
    [CrossRef]
  22. S. M. Hall, N. A. Gregson, “The in vivo and ultrastructural effects of injection of lysophosphatidyl choline into myelinated peripheral nerve fibres of the adult mouse,” J. Cell Sci. 9(3), 769–789 (1971).
    [PubMed]
  23. T. Coetzee, N. Fujita, J. Dupree, R. Shi, A. Blight, K. Suzuki, K. Suzuki, B. Popko, “Myelination in the Absence of Galactocerebroside and Sulfatide: Normal Structure with Abnormal Function and Regional Instability,” Cell 86(2), 209–219 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. C. O. Hanemann, A. A. W. M. Gabreëls-Festen, P. De Jonghe, “Axon damage in CMT due to mutation in myelin protein P0,” Neuromuscul. Disord. 11(8), 753–756 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. S. P. J. Fancy, S. E. Baranzini, C. Zhao, D. I. Yuk, K. A. Irvine, S. Kaing, N. Sanai, R. J. M. Franklin, D. H. Rowitch, “Dysregulation of the Wnt pathway inhibits timely myelination and remyelination in the mammalian CNS,” Genes Dev. 23(13), 1571–1585 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. F. Munhoz, H. Rigneault, S. Brasselet, “Polarization-resolved four-wave mixing microscopy for structural imaging in thick tissues,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29(6), 1541–1550 (2012).
    [CrossRef]

2014 (2)

G. de Vito, V. Piazza, “Fast signal analysis in Rotating-Polarization CARS microscopy,” Opt. Data Processing and Storage 1, 1–5 (2014).
[CrossRef]

F. Z. Bioud, P. Gasecka, P. Ferrand, H. Rigneault, J. Duboisset, S. Brasselet, “Structure of molecular packing probed by polarization-resolved nonlinear four-wave mixing and coherent anti-Stokes Raman-scattering microscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 89(1), 013836 (2014).
[CrossRef]

2013 (2)

T. Meyer, M. Chemnitz, M. Baumgartl, T. Gottschall, T. Pascher, C. Matthäus, B. F. M. Romeike, B. R. Brehm, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, M. Schmitt, B. Dietzek, J. Popp, “Expanding multimodal microscopy by high spectral resolution coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering imaging for clinical disease diagnostics,” Anal. Chem. 85(14), 6703–6715 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Bégin, E. Bélanger, S. Laffray, B. Aubé, É. Chamma, J. Bélisle, S. Lacroix, Y. De Koninck, D. Côté, “Local assessment of myelin health in a multiple sclerosis mouse model using a 2D Fourier transform approach,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(10), 2003–2014 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

2011 (4)

T. B. Huff, Y. Shi, W. Sun, W. Wu, R. Shi, J. X. Cheng, “Real-time CARS imaging reveals a calpain-dependent pathway for paranodal myelin retraction during high-frequency stimulation,” PLoS ONE 6(3), e17176 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Fu, T. J. Frederick, T. B. Huff, G. E. Goings, S. D. Miller, J. X. Cheng, “Paranodal myelin retraction in relapsing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis visualized by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(10), 106006 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Imitola, D. Côté, S. Rasmussen, X. S. Xie, Y. Liu, T. Chitnis, R. L. Sidman, C. P. Lin, S. J. Khoury, “Multimodal coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy reveals microglia-associated myelin and axonal dysfunction in multiple sclerosis-like lesions in mice,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(2), 021109 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Shi, D. Zhang, T. B. Huff, X. Wang, R. Shi, X. M. Xu, J. X. Cheng, “Longitudinal in vivo coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering imaging of demyelination and remyelination in injured spinal cord,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(10), 106012 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

H. Ouyang, W. Sun, Y. Fu, J. Li, J. X. Cheng, E. Nauman, R. Shi, “Compression induces acute demyelination and potassium channel exposure in spinal cord,” J. Neurotrauma 27(6), 1109–1120 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

E. Bélanger, S. Bégin, S. Laffray, Y. De Koninck, R. Vallée, D. Côté, “Quantitative myelin imaging with coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy: alleviating the excitation polarization dependence with circularly polarized laser beams,” Opt. Express 17(21), 18419–18432 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Fu, W. Sun, Y. Shi, R. Shi, J. X. Cheng, “Glutamate excitotoxicity inflicts paranodal myelin splitting and retraction,” PLoS ONE 4(8), e6705 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. P. J. Fancy, S. E. Baranzini, C. Zhao, D. I. Yuk, K. A. Irvine, S. Kaing, N. Sanai, R. J. M. Franklin, D. H. Rowitch, “Dysregulation of the Wnt pathway inhibits timely myelination and remyelination in the mammalian CNS,” Genes Dev. 23(13), 1571–1585 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

2007 (1)

Y. Fu, H. Wang, T. B. Huff, R. Shi, J. X. Cheng, “Coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering imaging of myelin degradation reveals a calcium-dependent pathway in lyso-PtdCho-induced demyelination,” J. Neurosci. Res. 85(13), 2870–2881 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

H. Wang, Y. Fu, P. Zickmund, R. Shi, J. X. Cheng, “Coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering imaging of axonal myelin in live spinal tissues,” Biophys. J. 89(1), 581–591 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Puoris’haag, D. Côté, C. P. Lin, X. S. Xie, “Chemical imaging of tissue in vivo with video-rate coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(46), 16807–16812 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

C. O. Hanemann, A. A. W. M. Gabreëls-Festen, P. De Jonghe, “Axon damage in CMT due to mutation in myelin protein P0,” Neuromuscul. Disord. 11(8), 753–756 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

T. Coetzee, N. Fujita, J. Dupree, R. Shi, A. Blight, K. Suzuki, K. Suzuki, B. Popko, “Myelination in the Absence of Galactocerebroside and Sulfatide: Normal Structure with Abnormal Function and Regional Instability,” Cell 86(2), 209–219 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

T. L. Mazely, W. M. Hetherington, “Third-order susceptibility tensors of partially ordered systems,” J. Chem. Phys. 87(4), 1962 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

S. M. Hall, N. A. Gregson, “The in vivo and ultrastructural effects of injection of lysophosphatidyl choline into myelinated peripheral nerve fibres of the adult mouse,” J. Cell Sci. 9(3), 769–789 (1971).
[PubMed]

1965 (1)

P. Maker, R. Terhune, “Study of optical effects due to an induced polarization third order in the electric field strength,” Phys. Rev. 137(3A), A801–A818 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Aubé, B.

Baranzini, S. E.

S. P. J. Fancy, S. E. Baranzini, C. Zhao, D. I. Yuk, K. A. Irvine, S. Kaing, N. Sanai, R. J. M. Franklin, D. H. Rowitch, “Dysregulation of the Wnt pathway inhibits timely myelination and remyelination in the mammalian CNS,” Genes Dev. 23(13), 1571–1585 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baumgartl, M.

T. Meyer, M. Chemnitz, M. Baumgartl, T. Gottschall, T. Pascher, C. Matthäus, B. F. M. Romeike, B. R. Brehm, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, M. Schmitt, B. Dietzek, J. Popp, “Expanding multimodal microscopy by high spectral resolution coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering imaging for clinical disease diagnostics,” Anal. Chem. 85(14), 6703–6715 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bégin, S.

Bélanger, E.

Bélisle, J.

Bifone, A.

Bioud, F. Z.

F. Z. Bioud, P. Gasecka, P. Ferrand, H. Rigneault, J. Duboisset, S. Brasselet, “Structure of molecular packing probed by polarization-resolved nonlinear four-wave mixing and coherent anti-Stokes Raman-scattering microscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 89(1), 013836 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Blight, A.

T. Coetzee, N. Fujita, J. Dupree, R. Shi, A. Blight, K. Suzuki, K. Suzuki, B. Popko, “Myelination in the Absence of Galactocerebroside and Sulfatide: Normal Structure with Abnormal Function and Regional Instability,” Cell 86(2), 209–219 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brasselet, S.

F. Z. Bioud, P. Gasecka, P. Ferrand, H. Rigneault, J. Duboisset, S. Brasselet, “Structure of molecular packing probed by polarization-resolved nonlinear four-wave mixing and coherent anti-Stokes Raman-scattering microscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 89(1), 013836 (2014).
[CrossRef]

F. Munhoz, H. Rigneault, S. Brasselet, “Polarization-resolved four-wave mixing microscopy for structural imaging in thick tissues,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29(6), 1541–1550 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Brehm, B. R.

T. Meyer, M. Chemnitz, M. Baumgartl, T. Gottschall, T. Pascher, C. Matthäus, B. F. M. Romeike, B. R. Brehm, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, M. Schmitt, B. Dietzek, J. Popp, “Expanding multimodal microscopy by high spectral resolution coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering imaging for clinical disease diagnostics,” Anal. Chem. 85(14), 6703–6715 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chamma, É.

Chemnitz, M.

T. Meyer, M. Chemnitz, M. Baumgartl, T. Gottschall, T. Pascher, C. Matthäus, B. F. M. Romeike, B. R. Brehm, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, M. Schmitt, B. Dietzek, J. Popp, “Expanding multimodal microscopy by high spectral resolution coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering imaging for clinical disease diagnostics,” Anal. Chem. 85(14), 6703–6715 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, J. X.

Y. Shi, D. Zhang, T. B. Huff, X. Wang, R. Shi, X. M. Xu, J. X. Cheng, “Longitudinal in vivo coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering imaging of demyelination and remyelination in injured spinal cord,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(10), 106012 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. B. Huff, Y. Shi, W. Sun, W. Wu, R. Shi, J. X. Cheng, “Real-time CARS imaging reveals a calpain-dependent pathway for paranodal myelin retraction during high-frequency stimulation,” PLoS ONE 6(3), e17176 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Fu, T. J. Frederick, T. B. Huff, G. E. Goings, S. D. Miller, J. X. Cheng, “Paranodal myelin retraction in relapsing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis visualized by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(10), 106006 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ouyang, W. Sun, Y. Fu, J. Li, J. X. Cheng, E. Nauman, R. Shi, “Compression induces acute demyelination and potassium channel exposure in spinal cord,” J. Neurotrauma 27(6), 1109–1120 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Fu, W. Sun, Y. Shi, R. Shi, J. X. Cheng, “Glutamate excitotoxicity inflicts paranodal myelin splitting and retraction,” PLoS ONE 4(8), e6705 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Fu, T. B. Huff, H. W. Wang, H. Wang, J. X. Cheng, “Ex vivo and in vivo imaging of myelin fibers in mouse brain by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Opt. Express 16(24), 19396–19409 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Fu, T. M. Talavage, J. X. Cheng, “New imaging techniques in the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis,” Expert Opin Med Diagn 2(9), 1055–1065 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Fu, H. Wang, T. B. Huff, R. Shi, J. X. Cheng, “Coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering imaging of myelin degradation reveals a calcium-dependent pathway in lyso-PtdCho-induced demyelination,” J. Neurosci. Res. 85(13), 2870–2881 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wang, Y. Fu, P. Zickmund, R. Shi, J. X. Cheng, “Coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering imaging of axonal myelin in live spinal tissues,” Biophys. J. 89(1), 581–591 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chitnis, T.

J. Imitola, D. Côté, S. Rasmussen, X. S. Xie, Y. Liu, T. Chitnis, R. L. Sidman, C. P. Lin, S. J. Khoury, “Multimodal coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy reveals microglia-associated myelin and axonal dysfunction in multiple sclerosis-like lesions in mice,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(2), 021109 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coetzee, T.

T. Coetzee, N. Fujita, J. Dupree, R. Shi, A. Blight, K. Suzuki, K. Suzuki, B. Popko, “Myelination in the Absence of Galactocerebroside and Sulfatide: Normal Structure with Abnormal Function and Regional Instability,” Cell 86(2), 209–219 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Côté, D.

S. Bégin, E. Bélanger, S. Laffray, B. Aubé, É. Chamma, J. Bélisle, S. Lacroix, Y. De Koninck, D. Côté, “Local assessment of myelin health in a multiple sclerosis mouse model using a 2D Fourier transform approach,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(10), 2003–2014 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Bélanger, J. Crépeau, S. Laffray, R. Vallée, Y. De Koninck, D. Côté, “Live animal myelin histomorphometry of the spinal cord with video-rate multimodal nonlinear microendoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(2), 021107 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Imitola, D. Côté, S. Rasmussen, X. S. Xie, Y. Liu, T. Chitnis, R. L. Sidman, C. P. Lin, S. J. Khoury, “Multimodal coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy reveals microglia-associated myelin and axonal dysfunction in multiple sclerosis-like lesions in mice,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(2), 021109 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Bélanger, S. Bégin, S. Laffray, Y. De Koninck, R. Vallée, D. Côté, “Quantitative myelin imaging with coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy: alleviating the excitation polarization dependence with circularly polarized laser beams,” Opt. Express 17(21), 18419–18432 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Puoris’haag, D. Côté, C. P. Lin, X. S. Xie, “Chemical imaging of tissue in vivo with video-rate coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(46), 16807–16812 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crépeau, J.

E. Bélanger, J. Crépeau, S. Laffray, R. Vallée, Y. De Koninck, D. Côté, “Live animal myelin histomorphometry of the spinal cord with video-rate multimodal nonlinear microendoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(2), 021107 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Jonghe, P.

C. O. Hanemann, A. A. W. M. Gabreëls-Festen, P. De Jonghe, “Axon damage in CMT due to mutation in myelin protein P0,” Neuromuscul. Disord. 11(8), 753–756 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

De Koninck, Y.

de Vito, G.

G. de Vito, V. Piazza, “Fast signal analysis in Rotating-Polarization CARS microscopy,” Opt. Data Processing and Storage 1, 1–5 (2014).
[CrossRef]

G. de Vito, A. Bifone, V. Piazza, “Rotating-polarization CARS microscopy: combining chemical and molecular orientation sensitivity,” Opt. Express 20(28), 29369–29377 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dietzek, B.

T. Meyer, M. Chemnitz, M. Baumgartl, T. Gottschall, T. Pascher, C. Matthäus, B. F. M. Romeike, B. R. Brehm, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, M. Schmitt, B. Dietzek, J. Popp, “Expanding multimodal microscopy by high spectral resolution coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering imaging for clinical disease diagnostics,” Anal. Chem. 85(14), 6703–6715 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duboisset, J.

F. Z. Bioud, P. Gasecka, P. Ferrand, H. Rigneault, J. Duboisset, S. Brasselet, “Structure of molecular packing probed by polarization-resolved nonlinear four-wave mixing and coherent anti-Stokes Raman-scattering microscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 89(1), 013836 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Dupree, J.

T. Coetzee, N. Fujita, J. Dupree, R. Shi, A. Blight, K. Suzuki, K. Suzuki, B. Popko, “Myelination in the Absence of Galactocerebroside and Sulfatide: Normal Structure with Abnormal Function and Regional Instability,” Cell 86(2), 209–219 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Evans, C. L.

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Puoris’haag, D. Côté, C. P. Lin, X. S. Xie, “Chemical imaging of tissue in vivo with video-rate coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(46), 16807–16812 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fancy, S. P. J.

S. P. J. Fancy, S. E. Baranzini, C. Zhao, D. I. Yuk, K. A. Irvine, S. Kaing, N. Sanai, R. J. M. Franklin, D. H. Rowitch, “Dysregulation of the Wnt pathway inhibits timely myelination and remyelination in the mammalian CNS,” Genes Dev. 23(13), 1571–1585 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ferrand, P.

F. Z. Bioud, P. Gasecka, P. Ferrand, H. Rigneault, J. Duboisset, S. Brasselet, “Structure of molecular packing probed by polarization-resolved nonlinear four-wave mixing and coherent anti-Stokes Raman-scattering microscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 89(1), 013836 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Franklin, R. J. M.

S. P. J. Fancy, S. E. Baranzini, C. Zhao, D. I. Yuk, K. A. Irvine, S. Kaing, N. Sanai, R. J. M. Franklin, D. H. Rowitch, “Dysregulation of the Wnt pathway inhibits timely myelination and remyelination in the mammalian CNS,” Genes Dev. 23(13), 1571–1585 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frederick, T. J.

Y. Fu, T. J. Frederick, T. B. Huff, G. E. Goings, S. D. Miller, J. X. Cheng, “Paranodal myelin retraction in relapsing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis visualized by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(10), 106006 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fu, Y.

Y. Fu, T. J. Frederick, T. B. Huff, G. E. Goings, S. D. Miller, J. X. Cheng, “Paranodal myelin retraction in relapsing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis visualized by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(10), 106006 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ouyang, W. Sun, Y. Fu, J. Li, J. X. Cheng, E. Nauman, R. Shi, “Compression induces acute demyelination and potassium channel exposure in spinal cord,” J. Neurotrauma 27(6), 1109–1120 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Fu, W. Sun, Y. Shi, R. Shi, J. X. Cheng, “Glutamate excitotoxicity inflicts paranodal myelin splitting and retraction,” PLoS ONE 4(8), e6705 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Fu, T. B. Huff, H. W. Wang, H. Wang, J. X. Cheng, “Ex vivo and in vivo imaging of myelin fibers in mouse brain by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Opt. Express 16(24), 19396–19409 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Fu, T. M. Talavage, J. X. Cheng, “New imaging techniques in the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis,” Expert Opin Med Diagn 2(9), 1055–1065 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Fu, H. Wang, T. B. Huff, R. Shi, J. X. Cheng, “Coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering imaging of myelin degradation reveals a calcium-dependent pathway in lyso-PtdCho-induced demyelination,” J. Neurosci. Res. 85(13), 2870–2881 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wang, Y. Fu, P. Zickmund, R. Shi, J. X. Cheng, “Coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering imaging of axonal myelin in live spinal tissues,” Biophys. J. 89(1), 581–591 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujita, N.

T. Coetzee, N. Fujita, J. Dupree, R. Shi, A. Blight, K. Suzuki, K. Suzuki, B. Popko, “Myelination in the Absence of Galactocerebroside and Sulfatide: Normal Structure with Abnormal Function and Regional Instability,” Cell 86(2), 209–219 (1996).
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F. Z. Bioud, P. Gasecka, P. Ferrand, H. Rigneault, J. Duboisset, S. Brasselet, “Structure of molecular packing probed by polarization-resolved nonlinear four-wave mixing and coherent anti-Stokes Raman-scattering microscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 89(1), 013836 (2014).
[CrossRef]

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Y. Fu, T. J. Frederick, T. B. Huff, G. E. Goings, S. D. Miller, J. X. Cheng, “Paranodal myelin retraction in relapsing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis visualized by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(10), 106006 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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T. Meyer, M. Chemnitz, M. Baumgartl, T. Gottschall, T. Pascher, C. Matthäus, B. F. M. Romeike, B. R. Brehm, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, M. Schmitt, B. Dietzek, J. Popp, “Expanding multimodal microscopy by high spectral resolution coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering imaging for clinical disease diagnostics,” Anal. Chem. 85(14), 6703–6715 (2013).
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S. M. Hall, N. A. Gregson, “The in vivo and ultrastructural effects of injection of lysophosphatidyl choline into myelinated peripheral nerve fibres of the adult mouse,” J. Cell Sci. 9(3), 769–789 (1971).
[PubMed]

Hanemann, C. O.

C. O. Hanemann, A. A. W. M. Gabreëls-Festen, P. De Jonghe, “Axon damage in CMT due to mutation in myelin protein P0,” Neuromuscul. Disord. 11(8), 753–756 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hetherington, W. M.

T. L. Mazely, W. M. Hetherington, “Third-order susceptibility tensors of partially ordered systems,” J. Chem. Phys. 87(4), 1962 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Huff, T. B.

Y. Shi, D. Zhang, T. B. Huff, X. Wang, R. Shi, X. M. Xu, J. X. Cheng, “Longitudinal in vivo coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering imaging of demyelination and remyelination in injured spinal cord,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(10), 106012 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Fu, T. J. Frederick, T. B. Huff, G. E. Goings, S. D. Miller, J. X. Cheng, “Paranodal myelin retraction in relapsing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis visualized by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(10), 106006 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. B. Huff, Y. Shi, W. Sun, W. Wu, R. Shi, J. X. Cheng, “Real-time CARS imaging reveals a calpain-dependent pathway for paranodal myelin retraction during high-frequency stimulation,” PLoS ONE 6(3), e17176 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Fu, T. B. Huff, H. W. Wang, H. Wang, J. X. Cheng, “Ex vivo and in vivo imaging of myelin fibers in mouse brain by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Opt. Express 16(24), 19396–19409 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Fu, H. Wang, T. B. Huff, R. Shi, J. X. Cheng, “Coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering imaging of myelin degradation reveals a calcium-dependent pathway in lyso-PtdCho-induced demyelination,” J. Neurosci. Res. 85(13), 2870–2881 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Imitola, J.

J. Imitola, D. Côté, S. Rasmussen, X. S. Xie, Y. Liu, T. Chitnis, R. L. Sidman, C. P. Lin, S. J. Khoury, “Multimodal coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy reveals microglia-associated myelin and axonal dysfunction in multiple sclerosis-like lesions in mice,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(2), 021109 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Irvine, K. A.

S. P. J. Fancy, S. E. Baranzini, C. Zhao, D. I. Yuk, K. A. Irvine, S. Kaing, N. Sanai, R. J. M. Franklin, D. H. Rowitch, “Dysregulation of the Wnt pathway inhibits timely myelination and remyelination in the mammalian CNS,” Genes Dev. 23(13), 1571–1585 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaing, S.

S. P. J. Fancy, S. E. Baranzini, C. Zhao, D. I. Yuk, K. A. Irvine, S. Kaing, N. Sanai, R. J. M. Franklin, D. H. Rowitch, “Dysregulation of the Wnt pathway inhibits timely myelination and remyelination in the mammalian CNS,” Genes Dev. 23(13), 1571–1585 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khoury, S. J.

J. Imitola, D. Côté, S. Rasmussen, X. S. Xie, Y. Liu, T. Chitnis, R. L. Sidman, C. P. Lin, S. J. Khoury, “Multimodal coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy reveals microglia-associated myelin and axonal dysfunction in multiple sclerosis-like lesions in mice,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(2), 021109 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lacroix, S.

Laffray, S.

Li, J.

H. Ouyang, W. Sun, Y. Fu, J. Li, J. X. Cheng, E. Nauman, R. Shi, “Compression induces acute demyelination and potassium channel exposure in spinal cord,” J. Neurotrauma 27(6), 1109–1120 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Limpert, J.

T. Meyer, M. Chemnitz, M. Baumgartl, T. Gottschall, T. Pascher, C. Matthäus, B. F. M. Romeike, B. R. Brehm, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, M. Schmitt, B. Dietzek, J. Popp, “Expanding multimodal microscopy by high spectral resolution coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering imaging for clinical disease diagnostics,” Anal. Chem. 85(14), 6703–6715 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, C. P.

J. Imitola, D. Côté, S. Rasmussen, X. S. Xie, Y. Liu, T. Chitnis, R. L. Sidman, C. P. Lin, S. J. Khoury, “Multimodal coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy reveals microglia-associated myelin and axonal dysfunction in multiple sclerosis-like lesions in mice,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(2), 021109 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Puoris’haag, D. Côté, C. P. Lin, X. S. Xie, “Chemical imaging of tissue in vivo with video-rate coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(46), 16807–16812 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Y.

J. Imitola, D. Côté, S. Rasmussen, X. S. Xie, Y. Liu, T. Chitnis, R. L. Sidman, C. P. Lin, S. J. Khoury, “Multimodal coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy reveals microglia-associated myelin and axonal dysfunction in multiple sclerosis-like lesions in mice,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(2), 021109 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maker, P.

P. Maker, R. Terhune, “Study of optical effects due to an induced polarization third order in the electric field strength,” Phys. Rev. 137(3A), A801–A818 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Matthäus, C.

T. Meyer, M. Chemnitz, M. Baumgartl, T. Gottschall, T. Pascher, C. Matthäus, B. F. M. Romeike, B. R. Brehm, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, M. Schmitt, B. Dietzek, J. Popp, “Expanding multimodal microscopy by high spectral resolution coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering imaging for clinical disease diagnostics,” Anal. Chem. 85(14), 6703–6715 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mazely, T. L.

T. L. Mazely, W. M. Hetherington, “Third-order susceptibility tensors of partially ordered systems,” J. Chem. Phys. 87(4), 1962 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Meyer, T.

T. Meyer, M. Chemnitz, M. Baumgartl, T. Gottschall, T. Pascher, C. Matthäus, B. F. M. Romeike, B. R. Brehm, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, M. Schmitt, B. Dietzek, J. Popp, “Expanding multimodal microscopy by high spectral resolution coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering imaging for clinical disease diagnostics,” Anal. Chem. 85(14), 6703–6715 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miller, S. D.

Y. Fu, T. J. Frederick, T. B. Huff, G. E. Goings, S. D. Miller, J. X. Cheng, “Paranodal myelin retraction in relapsing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis visualized by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(10), 106006 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Munhoz, F.

Nauman, E.

H. Ouyang, W. Sun, Y. Fu, J. Li, J. X. Cheng, E. Nauman, R. Shi, “Compression induces acute demyelination and potassium channel exposure in spinal cord,” J. Neurotrauma 27(6), 1109–1120 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ouyang, H.

H. Ouyang, W. Sun, Y. Fu, J. Li, J. X. Cheng, E. Nauman, R. Shi, “Compression induces acute demyelination and potassium channel exposure in spinal cord,” J. Neurotrauma 27(6), 1109–1120 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pascher, T.

T. Meyer, M. Chemnitz, M. Baumgartl, T. Gottschall, T. Pascher, C. Matthäus, B. F. M. Romeike, B. R. Brehm, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, M. Schmitt, B. Dietzek, J. Popp, “Expanding multimodal microscopy by high spectral resolution coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering imaging for clinical disease diagnostics,” Anal. Chem. 85(14), 6703–6715 (2013).
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G. de Vito, V. Piazza, “Fast signal analysis in Rotating-Polarization CARS microscopy,” Opt. Data Processing and Storage 1, 1–5 (2014).
[CrossRef]

G. de Vito, A. Bifone, V. Piazza, “Rotating-polarization CARS microscopy: combining chemical and molecular orientation sensitivity,” Opt. Express 20(28), 29369–29377 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Popko, B.

T. Coetzee, N. Fujita, J. Dupree, R. Shi, A. Blight, K. Suzuki, K. Suzuki, B. Popko, “Myelination in the Absence of Galactocerebroside and Sulfatide: Normal Structure with Abnormal Function and Regional Instability,” Cell 86(2), 209–219 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Popp, J.

T. Meyer, M. Chemnitz, M. Baumgartl, T. Gottschall, T. Pascher, C. Matthäus, B. F. M. Romeike, B. R. Brehm, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, M. Schmitt, B. Dietzek, J. Popp, “Expanding multimodal microscopy by high spectral resolution coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering imaging for clinical disease diagnostics,” Anal. Chem. 85(14), 6703–6715 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Potma, E. O.

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Puoris’haag, D. Côté, C. P. Lin, X. S. Xie, “Chemical imaging of tissue in vivo with video-rate coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(46), 16807–16812 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Puoris’haag, M.

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Puoris’haag, D. Côté, C. P. Lin, X. S. Xie, “Chemical imaging of tissue in vivo with video-rate coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(46), 16807–16812 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rasmussen, S.

J. Imitola, D. Côté, S. Rasmussen, X. S. Xie, Y. Liu, T. Chitnis, R. L. Sidman, C. P. Lin, S. J. Khoury, “Multimodal coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy reveals microglia-associated myelin and axonal dysfunction in multiple sclerosis-like lesions in mice,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(2), 021109 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rigneault, H.

F. Z. Bioud, P. Gasecka, P. Ferrand, H. Rigneault, J. Duboisset, S. Brasselet, “Structure of molecular packing probed by polarization-resolved nonlinear four-wave mixing and coherent anti-Stokes Raman-scattering microscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 89(1), 013836 (2014).
[CrossRef]

F. Munhoz, H. Rigneault, S. Brasselet, “Polarization-resolved four-wave mixing microscopy for structural imaging in thick tissues,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 29(6), 1541–1550 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Romeike, B. F. M.

T. Meyer, M. Chemnitz, M. Baumgartl, T. Gottschall, T. Pascher, C. Matthäus, B. F. M. Romeike, B. R. Brehm, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, M. Schmitt, B. Dietzek, J. Popp, “Expanding multimodal microscopy by high spectral resolution coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering imaging for clinical disease diagnostics,” Anal. Chem. 85(14), 6703–6715 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rowitch, D. H.

S. P. J. Fancy, S. E. Baranzini, C. Zhao, D. I. Yuk, K. A. Irvine, S. Kaing, N. Sanai, R. J. M. Franklin, D. H. Rowitch, “Dysregulation of the Wnt pathway inhibits timely myelination and remyelination in the mammalian CNS,” Genes Dev. 23(13), 1571–1585 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sanai, N.

S. P. J. Fancy, S. E. Baranzini, C. Zhao, D. I. Yuk, K. A. Irvine, S. Kaing, N. Sanai, R. J. M. Franklin, D. H. Rowitch, “Dysregulation of the Wnt pathway inhibits timely myelination and remyelination in the mammalian CNS,” Genes Dev. 23(13), 1571–1585 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmitt, M.

T. Meyer, M. Chemnitz, M. Baumgartl, T. Gottschall, T. Pascher, C. Matthäus, B. F. M. Romeike, B. R. Brehm, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, M. Schmitt, B. Dietzek, J. Popp, “Expanding multimodal microscopy by high spectral resolution coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering imaging for clinical disease diagnostics,” Anal. Chem. 85(14), 6703–6715 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shi, R.

Y. Shi, D. Zhang, T. B. Huff, X. Wang, R. Shi, X. M. Xu, J. X. Cheng, “Longitudinal in vivo coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering imaging of demyelination and remyelination in injured spinal cord,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(10), 106012 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. B. Huff, Y. Shi, W. Sun, W. Wu, R. Shi, J. X. Cheng, “Real-time CARS imaging reveals a calpain-dependent pathway for paranodal myelin retraction during high-frequency stimulation,” PLoS ONE 6(3), e17176 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ouyang, W. Sun, Y. Fu, J. Li, J. X. Cheng, E. Nauman, R. Shi, “Compression induces acute demyelination and potassium channel exposure in spinal cord,” J. Neurotrauma 27(6), 1109–1120 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Fu, W. Sun, Y. Shi, R. Shi, J. X. Cheng, “Glutamate excitotoxicity inflicts paranodal myelin splitting and retraction,” PLoS ONE 4(8), e6705 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Fu, H. Wang, T. B. Huff, R. Shi, J. X. Cheng, “Coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering imaging of myelin degradation reveals a calcium-dependent pathway in lyso-PtdCho-induced demyelination,” J. Neurosci. Res. 85(13), 2870–2881 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wang, Y. Fu, P. Zickmund, R. Shi, J. X. Cheng, “Coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering imaging of axonal myelin in live spinal tissues,” Biophys. J. 89(1), 581–591 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Coetzee, N. Fujita, J. Dupree, R. Shi, A. Blight, K. Suzuki, K. Suzuki, B. Popko, “Myelination in the Absence of Galactocerebroside and Sulfatide: Normal Structure with Abnormal Function and Regional Instability,” Cell 86(2), 209–219 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shi, Y.

T. B. Huff, Y. Shi, W. Sun, W. Wu, R. Shi, J. X. Cheng, “Real-time CARS imaging reveals a calpain-dependent pathway for paranodal myelin retraction during high-frequency stimulation,” PLoS ONE 6(3), e17176 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Shi, D. Zhang, T. B. Huff, X. Wang, R. Shi, X. M. Xu, J. X. Cheng, “Longitudinal in vivo coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering imaging of demyelination and remyelination in injured spinal cord,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(10), 106012 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Fu, W. Sun, Y. Shi, R. Shi, J. X. Cheng, “Glutamate excitotoxicity inflicts paranodal myelin splitting and retraction,” PLoS ONE 4(8), e6705 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sidman, R. L.

J. Imitola, D. Côté, S. Rasmussen, X. S. Xie, Y. Liu, T. Chitnis, R. L. Sidman, C. P. Lin, S. J. Khoury, “Multimodal coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy reveals microglia-associated myelin and axonal dysfunction in multiple sclerosis-like lesions in mice,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(2), 021109 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, W.

T. B. Huff, Y. Shi, W. Sun, W. Wu, R. Shi, J. X. Cheng, “Real-time CARS imaging reveals a calpain-dependent pathway for paranodal myelin retraction during high-frequency stimulation,” PLoS ONE 6(3), e17176 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ouyang, W. Sun, Y. Fu, J. Li, J. X. Cheng, E. Nauman, R. Shi, “Compression induces acute demyelination and potassium channel exposure in spinal cord,” J. Neurotrauma 27(6), 1109–1120 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Fu, W. Sun, Y. Shi, R. Shi, J. X. Cheng, “Glutamate excitotoxicity inflicts paranodal myelin splitting and retraction,” PLoS ONE 4(8), e6705 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suzuki, K.

T. Coetzee, N. Fujita, J. Dupree, R. Shi, A. Blight, K. Suzuki, K. Suzuki, B. Popko, “Myelination in the Absence of Galactocerebroside and Sulfatide: Normal Structure with Abnormal Function and Regional Instability,” Cell 86(2), 209–219 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Coetzee, N. Fujita, J. Dupree, R. Shi, A. Blight, K. Suzuki, K. Suzuki, B. Popko, “Myelination in the Absence of Galactocerebroside and Sulfatide: Normal Structure with Abnormal Function and Regional Instability,” Cell 86(2), 209–219 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Talavage, T. M.

Y. Fu, T. M. Talavage, J. X. Cheng, “New imaging techniques in the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis,” Expert Opin Med Diagn 2(9), 1055–1065 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Terhune, R.

P. Maker, R. Terhune, “Study of optical effects due to an induced polarization third order in the electric field strength,” Phys. Rev. 137(3A), A801–A818 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Tünnermann, A.

T. Meyer, M. Chemnitz, M. Baumgartl, T. Gottschall, T. Pascher, C. Matthäus, B. F. M. Romeike, B. R. Brehm, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, M. Schmitt, B. Dietzek, J. Popp, “Expanding multimodal microscopy by high spectral resolution coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering imaging for clinical disease diagnostics,” Anal. Chem. 85(14), 6703–6715 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vallée, R.

E. Bélanger, J. Crépeau, S. Laffray, R. Vallée, Y. De Koninck, D. Côté, “Live animal myelin histomorphometry of the spinal cord with video-rate multimodal nonlinear microendoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(2), 021107 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Bélanger, S. Bégin, S. Laffray, Y. De Koninck, R. Vallée, D. Côté, “Quantitative myelin imaging with coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy: alleviating the excitation polarization dependence with circularly polarized laser beams,” Opt. Express 17(21), 18419–18432 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, H.

Y. Fu, T. B. Huff, H. W. Wang, H. Wang, J. X. Cheng, “Ex vivo and in vivo imaging of myelin fibers in mouse brain by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Opt. Express 16(24), 19396–19409 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Fu, H. Wang, T. B. Huff, R. Shi, J. X. Cheng, “Coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering imaging of myelin degradation reveals a calcium-dependent pathway in lyso-PtdCho-induced demyelination,” J. Neurosci. Res. 85(13), 2870–2881 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Wang, Y. Fu, P. Zickmund, R. Shi, J. X. Cheng, “Coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering imaging of axonal myelin in live spinal tissues,” Biophys. J. 89(1), 581–591 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, H. W.

Wang, X.

Y. Shi, D. Zhang, T. B. Huff, X. Wang, R. Shi, X. M. Xu, J. X. Cheng, “Longitudinal in vivo coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering imaging of demyelination and remyelination in injured spinal cord,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(10), 106012 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, W.

T. B. Huff, Y. Shi, W. Sun, W. Wu, R. Shi, J. X. Cheng, “Real-time CARS imaging reveals a calpain-dependent pathway for paranodal myelin retraction during high-frequency stimulation,” PLoS ONE 6(3), e17176 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xie, X. S.

J. Imitola, D. Côté, S. Rasmussen, X. S. Xie, Y. Liu, T. Chitnis, R. L. Sidman, C. P. Lin, S. J. Khoury, “Multimodal coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy reveals microglia-associated myelin and axonal dysfunction in multiple sclerosis-like lesions in mice,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(2), 021109 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Evans, E. O. Potma, M. Puoris’haag, D. Côté, C. P. Lin, X. S. Xie, “Chemical imaging of tissue in vivo with video-rate coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102(46), 16807–16812 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, X. M.

Y. Shi, D. Zhang, T. B. Huff, X. Wang, R. Shi, X. M. Xu, J. X. Cheng, “Longitudinal in vivo coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering imaging of demyelination and remyelination in injured spinal cord,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(10), 106012 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yuk, D. I.

S. P. J. Fancy, S. E. Baranzini, C. Zhao, D. I. Yuk, K. A. Irvine, S. Kaing, N. Sanai, R. J. M. Franklin, D. H. Rowitch, “Dysregulation of the Wnt pathway inhibits timely myelination and remyelination in the mammalian CNS,” Genes Dev. 23(13), 1571–1585 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, D.

Y. Shi, D. Zhang, T. B. Huff, X. Wang, R. Shi, X. M. Xu, J. X. Cheng, “Longitudinal in vivo coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering imaging of demyelination and remyelination in injured spinal cord,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(10), 106012 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, C.

S. P. J. Fancy, S. E. Baranzini, C. Zhao, D. I. Yuk, K. A. Irvine, S. Kaing, N. Sanai, R. J. M. Franklin, D. H. Rowitch, “Dysregulation of the Wnt pathway inhibits timely myelination and remyelination in the mammalian CNS,” Genes Dev. 23(13), 1571–1585 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zickmund, P.

H. Wang, Y. Fu, P. Zickmund, R. Shi, J. X. Cheng, “Coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering imaging of axonal myelin in live spinal tissues,” Biophys. J. 89(1), 581–591 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anal. Chem. (1)

T. Meyer, M. Chemnitz, M. Baumgartl, T. Gottschall, T. Pascher, C. Matthäus, B. F. M. Romeike, B. R. Brehm, J. Limpert, A. Tünnermann, M. Schmitt, B. Dietzek, J. Popp, “Expanding multimodal microscopy by high spectral resolution coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering imaging for clinical disease diagnostics,” Anal. Chem. 85(14), 6703–6715 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

Biophys. J. (1)

H. Wang, Y. Fu, P. Zickmund, R. Shi, J. X. Cheng, “Coherent anti-stokes Raman scattering imaging of axonal myelin in live spinal tissues,” Biophys. J. 89(1), 581–591 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cell (1)

T. Coetzee, N. Fujita, J. Dupree, R. Shi, A. Blight, K. Suzuki, K. Suzuki, B. Popko, “Myelination in the Absence of Galactocerebroside and Sulfatide: Normal Structure with Abnormal Function and Regional Instability,” Cell 86(2), 209–219 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Expert Opin Med Diagn (1)

Y. Fu, T. M. Talavage, J. X. Cheng, “New imaging techniques in the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis,” Expert Opin Med Diagn 2(9), 1055–1065 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Genes Dev. (1)

S. P. J. Fancy, S. E. Baranzini, C. Zhao, D. I. Yuk, K. A. Irvine, S. Kaing, N. Sanai, R. J. M. Franklin, D. H. Rowitch, “Dysregulation of the Wnt pathway inhibits timely myelination and remyelination in the mammalian CNS,” Genes Dev. 23(13), 1571–1585 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (4)

Y. Fu, T. J. Frederick, T. B. Huff, G. E. Goings, S. D. Miller, J. X. Cheng, “Paranodal myelin retraction in relapsing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis visualized by coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 16(10), 106006 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Myelin structure scheme at increasing magnifications: myelin (in green) is composed of alternated layers of lipids and proteins enrolled around the nerve axon. In the scheme, for the sake of clarity, only the phospholipid moiety is depicted. All the acyl chains of phospholipid bilayers are aligned in radial symmetry. The CH2 groups that form the acyl chains are, in turn, aligned in an azimuthal symmetry, therefore their average direction is always tangential to the surface of the nerve fiber.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Top graph: inverse tangent of A dc / A 2ω as a function of the disorder parameter t. Bottom graph: dc and ac amplitudes (in arbitrary units) of the squared modulus of the third-order polarizability (|P|2) of the system when excited with linearly polarized pump-and probe photons and circularly polarized Stokes photons as a function of t. (b) |P|2 at different values of the disorder parameter as a function of the angle η between the polarization plane of the pump-and-probe beam and the X-Y plane.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Correlation plot between the g-ratio and the effective angle <α>. Different colors denote different nervous fiber, while different shapes (squares, triangles) denote experiments on different nerves (different mice). The ellipse describes the 95% confidence interval. The correlation coefficient (ρ2) is 0.85 and the p-value is <0.001 (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient). Inset: In the lyso-PtdCho damage model the chemical demyelinating agent induces myelin damage (in red) and swelling from the outside to the inside of the fiber. The swelling induces both a reduction of the internal lumen and a growth of the global nerve fiber diameter. Therefore, since the inner diameter is reduced and the outer diameter is enlarged, the ratio between the two (g-ratio) is greatly reduced.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Explanted sciatic nerve myelinated fibers imaged by RP-CARS. Top row (a, b, and c panels): grayscale images of the Adc signal. Bottom row (d, e, and f panels): color maps of α. In the HSV color representation, the hue ranges from red to yellow to green at increasing values of α, as depicted in the color bar at the bottom-right, while the value is proportional to Adc and the saturation is kept at maximum. Columns represent acquisitions after 0 minutes (first column), 30 minutes (second column) and 50 minutes (third column) from the initial exposure to the lyso-PtdCho. Scale bar: 10 μm.

Equations (8)

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P i ( ω 3 )= χ ijkl ( ω 3 ω 1 , ω 2 , ω 1 ) E j ( ω 1 ) E k * ( ω 2 ) E l ( ω 1 ),
c 11 = χ xxxx = χ yyyy , c 18 = χ xxyy = χ yxyx = χ yxxy = χ xyyx = χ xyxy = χ yyxx , c 16 = χ xxzz = χ yyzz = χ zxzx = χ zxxz = χ xzzx = χ xzxz = χ zyzy = χ zyyz = χ yzzy = χ yzyz = χ zzxx = χ zzyy , c 33 = χ zzzz .
χ IJKL = C Ii C Jj C Kk C Ll χ ijkl ,
Χ IJKL = 1 2π( 1cos ϑ 0 ) π π dφ 0 ϑ 0 dϑsinϑ C Ii C Jj C Kk C Ll χ ijkl .
c ˜ 11 = c 11 q 1 t+( q 0 2 + q 1 3 ) t 2 3 q 0 8 t 3 ( 1+ t 5 ), c ˜ 16 = c 16 + 1 2 ( q 0 + q 1 3 )t 1 6 ( 5 q 0 + q 1 3 ) t 2 + q 0 2 t 3 q 0 10 t 4 , c ˜ 33 = c 33 2( q 0 q 1 )t+2( q 0 q 1 3 ) t 2 q 0 t 3 + q 0 5 t 4 ,
A dc =3 c ˜ 11 2 +2 c ˜ 11 c ˜ 16 +14 c ˜ 16 2 +2 c ˜ 33 c ˜ 16 +3 c ˜ 33 2 , A 2ω =4( c ˜ 11 2 c ˜ 33 2 ), A 4ω = c ˜ 11 2 2 c ˜ 11 c ˜ 16 6 c ˜ 16 2 2 c ˜ 33 c ˜ 16 + c ˜ 33 2 .
α= tan 1 ( A 2ω A dc )
<α>= tan 1 ( i A 2ω,i i A dc,i )

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