Abstract

We develop a one-dimensional model of THz emissions induced by laser-driven, time-asymmetric ionization and current oscillations in a hydrogen gas. Our model highlights complex scalings of the THz fields with respect to the laser and gas parameters, in particular, a non-monotonic behavior against the laser parameters. Analytical expressions of the transmitted and reflected fields are presented, explaining the THz spectra observed in particle-in-cell and forward-pulse propagation codes. The backward-propagating THz wave is mainly driven by the electron current oscillations at the plasma frequency, and its resulting spectrum operates below the plasma frequency. The transmitted THz wave is emitted from both plasma current oscillations and photo-ionization. Their respective signal presents a contribution below and around the plasma frequency, plus a contribution at higher frequencies associated to the photo-induced current. The interplay between these two mechanisms relies on the ratio between the propagation length and the plasma skin depth.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. F. Brunel, “Harmonic generation due to plasma effects in a gas undergoing multiphoton ionization in the high-intensity limit,” J. Opt. Soc.Am. B 7, 512–526 (1990).
  2. K. Y. Kim, A. J. Taylor, J. H. Glownia, G. Rodriguez, “Coherent control of terahertz supercontinuum generation in ultrafast laser-gas interactions,” Nat. Phys. 2, 605–609 (2008).
  3. K. Reimann, “Table-top sources of ultrashort THz pulses,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1597–1632 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  4. H. Roskos, M. Thomson, M. Kreß, T. Löffler, “Broadband THz emission from gas plasmas induced by femtosecond optical pulses: From fundamentals to applications,” Las. Phot. Rev. 1, 349–368 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Tonouchi, “Cutting-edge terahertz technology,” Nat. Photonics 1, 97–105 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Bio. 47, 3853–3863 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. N. Nagai, M. Sumitomo, M. Imaizumi, R. Fukasawa, “Characterization of electron- or proton-irradiated Si space solar cells by THz spectroscopy,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 21, 201–209 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. Liu, J. Dai, S. L. Chin, X.-C. Zhang, “Broadband terahertz wave remote sensing using coherent manipulation of fluorescence from asymmetrically ionized gases,” Nat. Photonics 4, 627–631 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. M. Saykally, G. A. Blake, “Molecular Interactions and Hydrogen Bond Tunneling Dynamics: Some New Perspectives,” Science 259, 1570–1575 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. B. M. Fischer, M. Walther, P. Uhd Jepsen, “Far-infrared vibrational modes of DNA components studied by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Bio. 47, 3807–3814 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. J. Cook, R. M. Hochstrasser, “Intense terahertz pulses by four-wave rectification in air,” Opt. Lett 25, 1210–1212 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  12. X. Xie, J. Dai, X.-C. Zhang, “Coherent Control of THz Wave Generation in Ambient Air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 075005 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. T. Bartel, P. Gaal, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, “Generation of single-cycle THz transients with high electric-field amplitudes,” Opt. Lett 30, 2805–2807 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. M. Kress, T. Löffler, S. Eden, M. Thomson, H. G. Roskos, “Terahertz-pulse generation by photoionization of air with laser pulses composed of both fundamental and second-harmonic waves,” Opt. Lett 29, 1120–1122 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. C. D’Amico, A. Houard, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Conical Forward THz Emission from Femtosecond-Laser-Beam Filamentation in Air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 235002 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. Peñano, P. Sprangle, B. Hafizi, D. Gordon, P. Serafim, “Terahertz generation in plasmas using two-color laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E 81, 026407 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  17. K.-Y. Kim, J. H. Glownia, A. J. Taylor, G. Rodriguez, “Terahertz emission from ultrafast ionizing air in symmetry-broken laser fields,” Opt. Express 15, 4577–4584 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. T.-J. Wang, Y. Chen, C. Marceau, F. Théberge, M. Châteauneuf, J. Dubois, S. L. Chin, “High energy terahertz emission from two-color laser-induced filamentation in air with pump pulse duration control,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 131108 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  19. T.-J. Wang, S. Yuan, Y. Chen, J.-F. Daigle, C. Marceau, F. Théberge, M. Châteauneuf, J. Dubois, S. L. Chin, “Toward remote high energy terahertz generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 111108 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  20. T.-J. Wang, J.-F. Daigle, S. Yuan, F. Théberge, M. Châteauneuf, J. Dubois, G. Roy, H. Zeng, S. L. Chin, “Remote generation of high-energy terahertz pulses from two-color femtosecond laser filamentation in air,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 053801 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  21. J.-F. Daigle, F. Théberge, M. Henriksson, T.-J. Wang, S. Yuan, M. Châteauneuf, J. Dubois, M. Piché, S. L. Chin, “Remote THz generation from two-color filamentation: long distance dependence,” Opt. Express 20, 6825–6834 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, R. V. Volkov, V. A. Andreeva, A. V. Borodin, M. N. Esaulkov, Y. Chen, C. Marceau, V. A. Makarov, A. P. Shkurinov, A. B. Savel’ev, S. L. Chin, “Analysis of Dual Frequency Interaction in the Filament with the Purpose of Efficiency Control of THz Pulse Generation,” J. Infrared Milli Terahz Waves 32, 1157–1167 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  23. L. Bergé, S. Skupin, C. Köhler, I. Babushkin, J. Herrmann, “3D Numerical Simulations of THz Generation by Two-Color Laser Filaments,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 073901 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  24. A. V. Borodin, N. A. Panov, O. G. Kosareva, V. A. Andreeva, M. N. Esaulkov, V. A. Makarov, A. P. Shkurinov, S. L. Chin, X.-C. Zhang, “Transformation of terahertz spectra emitted from dual-frequency femtosecond pulse interaction in gases,” Opt. Lett 38, 1906–1908 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. I. Babushkin, S. Skupin, A. Husakou, C. Köhler, E. Cabrera-Granado, L. Bergé, J. Herrmann, “Tailoring terahertz radiation by controlling tunnel photoionization events in gases,” New J. Phys. 13, 123029 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  26. W.-M. Wang, S. Kawata, Z.-M. Sheng, Y.-T. Li, L.-M. Chen, L.-J. Qian, J. Zhang, “Efficient terahertz emission by mid-infrared laser pulses from gas targets,” Opt. Lett 36, 2608–2610 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. T. I. Oh, Y. S. You, N. Jhajj, E. W. Rosenthal, H. M. Milchberg, K. Y. Kim, “Intense terahertz generation in two-color laser filamentation: energy scaling with terawatt laser systems,” New J. Phys. 15, 075002 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  28. M. Chen, A. Pukhov, X.-Y. Peng, O. Willi, “Theoretical analysis and simulations of strong terahertz radiation from the interaction of ultrashort laser pulses with gases,” Phys. Rev. E 78, 046406 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  29. V. B. Gildenburg, N. V. Vvedenskii, “Optical-to-THz Wave Conversion via Excitation of Plasma Oscillations in the Tunneling-Ionization Process,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 245002 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. W.-M. Wang, Z.-M. Sheng, H.-C. Wu, M. Chen, C. Li, J. Zhang, K. Mima, “Strong terahertz pulse generation by chirped laser pulses in tenuous gases,” Opt. Express 16, 16999–17006 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. I. Babushkin, W. Kuehn, C. Köhler, S. Skupin, L. Bergé, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, J. Herrmann, T. Elsaesser, “Ultrafast Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Terahertz Generation by Ionizing Two-Color Femtosecond Pulses in Gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 053903 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. C. Köhler, E. Cabrera-Granado, I. Babushkin, L. Bergé, J. Herrmann, S. Skupin, “Directionality of terahertz emission from photoinduced gas plasmas,” Opt. Lett 36, 3166–3168 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. A. Perelomov, V. Popov, M. Terent’ev, “Ionization of atoms in an alternating electric field,” Sov. Phys. JETP 23, 924–934 (1966).
  34. M. Ammosov, N. Delone, V. Krainov, “Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field,” Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191–1194 (1986).
  35. G. L. Yudin, M. Y. Ivanov, “Nonadiabatic tunnel ionization: Looking inside a laser cycle,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 013409 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  36. M. Abramowitz, I. A. Stegun, Handbook of Mathematical Functions with Formulas, Graphs, and Mathematical Tables (Dover, New York, 1964).
  37. B. Nodland, C. J. McKinstrie, “Propagation of a short laser pulse in a plasma,” Phys. Rev. E 56, 7174 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  38. E. Lefebvre, N. Cochet, S. Fritzler, V. Malka, M.-M. Aléonard, J.-F. Chemin, S. Darbon, L. Disdier, J. Faure, A. Fedotoff, O. Landoas, G. Malka, V. Méot, P. Morel, M. Rabec LeGloahec, A. Rouyer, C. Rubbelynck, V. Tikhonchuk, R. Wrobel, P. Audebert, C. Rousseaux, “Electron and photon production from relativistic laser plasma interactions,” Nucl. Fusion 43, 629–633 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  39. R. Nuter, L. Gremillet, E. Lefebvre, A. Lévy, T. Ceccotti, P. Martin, “Field ionization model implemented in Particle In Cell code and applied to laser-accelerated carbon ions,” Phys. Plasmas 18, 033107 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  40. I. Babushkin, S. Skupin, J. Herrmann, “Generation of terahertz radiation from ionizing two-color laser pulses in Ar filled metallic hollow waveguides,” Opt. Express 18, 9658–9663 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2013 (3)

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, C. Köhler, I. Babushkin, J. Herrmann, “3D Numerical Simulations of THz Generation by Two-Color Laser Filaments,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 073901 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Borodin, N. A. Panov, O. G. Kosareva, V. A. Andreeva, M. N. Esaulkov, V. A. Makarov, A. P. Shkurinov, S. L. Chin, X.-C. Zhang, “Transformation of terahertz spectra emitted from dual-frequency femtosecond pulse interaction in gases,” Opt. Lett 38, 1906–1908 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. I. Oh, Y. S. You, N. Jhajj, E. W. Rosenthal, H. M. Milchberg, K. Y. Kim, “Intense terahertz generation in two-color laser filamentation: energy scaling with terawatt laser systems,” New J. Phys. 15, 075002 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (1)

2011 (6)

O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, R. V. Volkov, V. A. Andreeva, A. V. Borodin, M. N. Esaulkov, Y. Chen, C. Marceau, V. A. Makarov, A. P. Shkurinov, A. B. Savel’ev, S. L. Chin, “Analysis of Dual Frequency Interaction in the Filament with the Purpose of Efficiency Control of THz Pulse Generation,” J. Infrared Milli Terahz Waves 32, 1157–1167 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T.-J. Wang, J.-F. Daigle, S. Yuan, F. Théberge, M. Châteauneuf, J. Dubois, G. Roy, H. Zeng, S. L. Chin, “Remote generation of high-energy terahertz pulses from two-color femtosecond laser filamentation in air,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 053801 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. Babushkin, S. Skupin, A. Husakou, C. Köhler, E. Cabrera-Granado, L. Bergé, J. Herrmann, “Tailoring terahertz radiation by controlling tunnel photoionization events in gases,” New J. Phys. 13, 123029 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W.-M. Wang, S. Kawata, Z.-M. Sheng, Y.-T. Li, L.-M. Chen, L.-J. Qian, J. Zhang, “Efficient terahertz emission by mid-infrared laser pulses from gas targets,” Opt. Lett 36, 2608–2610 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Köhler, E. Cabrera-Granado, I. Babushkin, L. Bergé, J. Herrmann, S. Skupin, “Directionality of terahertz emission from photoinduced gas plasmas,” Opt. Lett 36, 3166–3168 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Nuter, L. Gremillet, E. Lefebvre, A. Lévy, T. Ceccotti, P. Martin, “Field ionization model implemented in Particle In Cell code and applied to laser-accelerated carbon ions,” Phys. Plasmas 18, 033107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (5)

I. Babushkin, S. Skupin, J. Herrmann, “Generation of terahertz radiation from ionizing two-color laser pulses in Ar filled metallic hollow waveguides,” Opt. Express 18, 9658–9663 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Babushkin, W. Kuehn, C. Köhler, S. Skupin, L. Bergé, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, J. Herrmann, T. Elsaesser, “Ultrafast Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Terahertz Generation by Ionizing Two-Color Femtosecond Pulses in Gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 053903 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T.-J. Wang, S. Yuan, Y. Chen, J.-F. Daigle, C. Marceau, F. Théberge, M. Châteauneuf, J. Dubois, S. L. Chin, “Toward remote high energy terahertz generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 111108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Liu, J. Dai, S. L. Chin, X.-C. Zhang, “Broadband terahertz wave remote sensing using coherent manipulation of fluorescence from asymmetrically ionized gases,” Nat. Photonics 4, 627–631 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Peñano, P. Sprangle, B. Hafizi, D. Gordon, P. Serafim, “Terahertz generation in plasmas using two-color laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E 81, 026407 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

T.-J. Wang, Y. Chen, C. Marceau, F. Théberge, M. Châteauneuf, J. Dubois, S. L. Chin, “High energy terahertz emission from two-color laser-induced filamentation in air with pump pulse duration control,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 131108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

K. Y. Kim, A. J. Taylor, J. H. Glownia, G. Rodriguez, “Coherent control of terahertz supercontinuum generation in ultrafast laser-gas interactions,” Nat. Phys. 2, 605–609 (2008).

W.-M. Wang, Z.-M. Sheng, H.-C. Wu, M. Chen, C. Li, J. Zhang, K. Mima, “Strong terahertz pulse generation by chirped laser pulses in tenuous gases,” Opt. Express 16, 16999–17006 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Chen, A. Pukhov, X.-Y. Peng, O. Willi, “Theoretical analysis and simulations of strong terahertz radiation from the interaction of ultrashort laser pulses with gases,” Phys. Rev. E 78, 046406 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (6)

V. B. Gildenburg, N. V. Vvedenskii, “Optical-to-THz Wave Conversion via Excitation of Plasma Oscillations in the Tunneling-Ionization Process,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 245002 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Reimann, “Table-top sources of ultrashort THz pulses,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 70, 1597–1632 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Roskos, M. Thomson, M. Kreß, T. Löffler, “Broadband THz emission from gas plasmas induced by femtosecond optical pulses: From fundamentals to applications,” Las. Phot. Rev. 1, 349–368 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Tonouchi, “Cutting-edge terahertz technology,” Nat. Photonics 1, 97–105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. D’Amico, A. Houard, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Conical Forward THz Emission from Femtosecond-Laser-Beam Filamentation in Air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 235002 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K.-Y. Kim, J. H. Glownia, A. J. Taylor, G. Rodriguez, “Terahertz emission from ultrafast ionizing air in symmetry-broken laser fields,” Opt. Express 15, 4577–4584 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

X. Xie, J. Dai, X.-C. Zhang, “Coherent Control of THz Wave Generation in Ambient Air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 075005 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Nagai, M. Sumitomo, M. Imaizumi, R. Fukasawa, “Characterization of electron- or proton-irradiated Si space solar cells by THz spectroscopy,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 21, 201–209 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

T. Bartel, P. Gaal, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, “Generation of single-cycle THz transients with high electric-field amplitudes,” Opt. Lett 30, 2805–2807 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

M. Kress, T. Löffler, S. Eden, M. Thomson, H. G. Roskos, “Terahertz-pulse generation by photoionization of air with laser pulses composed of both fundamental and second-harmonic waves,” Opt. Lett 29, 1120–1122 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

E. Lefebvre, N. Cochet, S. Fritzler, V. Malka, M.-M. Aléonard, J.-F. Chemin, S. Darbon, L. Disdier, J. Faure, A. Fedotoff, O. Landoas, G. Malka, V. Méot, P. Morel, M. Rabec LeGloahec, A. Rouyer, C. Rubbelynck, V. Tikhonchuk, R. Wrobel, P. Audebert, C. Rousseaux, “Electron and photon production from relativistic laser plasma interactions,” Nucl. Fusion 43, 629–633 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

B. M. Fischer, M. Walther, P. Uhd Jepsen, “Far-infrared vibrational modes of DNA components studied by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Bio. 47, 3807–3814 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Bio. 47, 3853–3863 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

G. L. Yudin, M. Y. Ivanov, “Nonadiabatic tunnel ionization: Looking inside a laser cycle,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 013409 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

D. J. Cook, R. M. Hochstrasser, “Intense terahertz pulses by four-wave rectification in air,” Opt. Lett 25, 1210–1212 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

B. Nodland, C. J. McKinstrie, “Propagation of a short laser pulse in a plasma,” Phys. Rev. E 56, 7174 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

R. M. Saykally, G. A. Blake, “Molecular Interactions and Hydrogen Bond Tunneling Dynamics: Some New Perspectives,” Science 259, 1570–1575 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

F. Brunel, “Harmonic generation due to plasma effects in a gas undergoing multiphoton ionization in the high-intensity limit,” J. Opt. Soc.Am. B 7, 512–526 (1990).

1986 (1)

M. Ammosov, N. Delone, V. Krainov, “Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field,” Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191–1194 (1986).

1966 (1)

A. Perelomov, V. Popov, M. Terent’ev, “Ionization of atoms in an alternating electric field,” Sov. Phys. JETP 23, 924–934 (1966).

Abramowitz, M.

M. Abramowitz, I. A. Stegun, Handbook of Mathematical Functions with Formulas, Graphs, and Mathematical Tables (Dover, New York, 1964).

Aléonard, M.-M.

E. Lefebvre, N. Cochet, S. Fritzler, V. Malka, M.-M. Aléonard, J.-F. Chemin, S. Darbon, L. Disdier, J. Faure, A. Fedotoff, O. Landoas, G. Malka, V. Méot, P. Morel, M. Rabec LeGloahec, A. Rouyer, C. Rubbelynck, V. Tikhonchuk, R. Wrobel, P. Audebert, C. Rousseaux, “Electron and photon production from relativistic laser plasma interactions,” Nucl. Fusion 43, 629–633 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ammosov, M.

M. Ammosov, N. Delone, V. Krainov, “Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field,” Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191–1194 (1986).

Andreeva, V. A.

A. V. Borodin, N. A. Panov, O. G. Kosareva, V. A. Andreeva, M. N. Esaulkov, V. A. Makarov, A. P. Shkurinov, S. L. Chin, X.-C. Zhang, “Transformation of terahertz spectra emitted from dual-frequency femtosecond pulse interaction in gases,” Opt. Lett 38, 1906–1908 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, R. V. Volkov, V. A. Andreeva, A. V. Borodin, M. N. Esaulkov, Y. Chen, C. Marceau, V. A. Makarov, A. P. Shkurinov, A. B. Savel’ev, S. L. Chin, “Analysis of Dual Frequency Interaction in the Filament with the Purpose of Efficiency Control of THz Pulse Generation,” J. Infrared Milli Terahz Waves 32, 1157–1167 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Arnone, D. D.

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Bio. 47, 3853–3863 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Audebert, P.

E. Lefebvre, N. Cochet, S. Fritzler, V. Malka, M.-M. Aléonard, J.-F. Chemin, S. Darbon, L. Disdier, J. Faure, A. Fedotoff, O. Landoas, G. Malka, V. Méot, P. Morel, M. Rabec LeGloahec, A. Rouyer, C. Rubbelynck, V. Tikhonchuk, R. Wrobel, P. Audebert, C. Rousseaux, “Electron and photon production from relativistic laser plasma interactions,” Nucl. Fusion 43, 629–633 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Babushkin, I.

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, C. Köhler, I. Babushkin, J. Herrmann, “3D Numerical Simulations of THz Generation by Two-Color Laser Filaments,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 073901 (2013).
[CrossRef]

I. Babushkin, S. Skupin, A. Husakou, C. Köhler, E. Cabrera-Granado, L. Bergé, J. Herrmann, “Tailoring terahertz radiation by controlling tunnel photoionization events in gases,” New J. Phys. 13, 123029 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Köhler, E. Cabrera-Granado, I. Babushkin, L. Bergé, J. Herrmann, S. Skupin, “Directionality of terahertz emission from photoinduced gas plasmas,” Opt. Lett 36, 3166–3168 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Babushkin, S. Skupin, J. Herrmann, “Generation of terahertz radiation from ionizing two-color laser pulses in Ar filled metallic hollow waveguides,” Opt. Express 18, 9658–9663 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Babushkin, W. Kuehn, C. Köhler, S. Skupin, L. Bergé, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, J. Herrmann, T. Elsaesser, “Ultrafast Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Terahertz Generation by Ionizing Two-Color Femtosecond Pulses in Gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 053903 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartel, T.

T. Bartel, P. Gaal, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, “Generation of single-cycle THz transients with high electric-field amplitudes,” Opt. Lett 30, 2805–2807 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bergé, L.

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, C. Köhler, I. Babushkin, J. Herrmann, “3D Numerical Simulations of THz Generation by Two-Color Laser Filaments,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 073901 (2013).
[CrossRef]

I. Babushkin, S. Skupin, A. Husakou, C. Köhler, E. Cabrera-Granado, L. Bergé, J. Herrmann, “Tailoring terahertz radiation by controlling tunnel photoionization events in gases,” New J. Phys. 13, 123029 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Köhler, E. Cabrera-Granado, I. Babushkin, L. Bergé, J. Herrmann, S. Skupin, “Directionality of terahertz emission from photoinduced gas plasmas,” Opt. Lett 36, 3166–3168 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Babushkin, W. Kuehn, C. Köhler, S. Skupin, L. Bergé, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, J. Herrmann, T. Elsaesser, “Ultrafast Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Terahertz Generation by Ionizing Two-Color Femtosecond Pulses in Gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 053903 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blake, G. A.

R. M. Saykally, G. A. Blake, “Molecular Interactions and Hydrogen Bond Tunneling Dynamics: Some New Perspectives,” Science 259, 1570–1575 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Borodin, A. V.

A. V. Borodin, N. A. Panov, O. G. Kosareva, V. A. Andreeva, M. N. Esaulkov, V. A. Makarov, A. P. Shkurinov, S. L. Chin, X.-C. Zhang, “Transformation of terahertz spectra emitted from dual-frequency femtosecond pulse interaction in gases,” Opt. Lett 38, 1906–1908 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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T.-J. Wang, J.-F. Daigle, S. Yuan, F. Théberge, M. Châteauneuf, J. Dubois, G. Roy, H. Zeng, S. L. Chin, “Remote generation of high-energy terahertz pulses from two-color femtosecond laser filamentation in air,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 053801 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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E. Lefebvre, N. Cochet, S. Fritzler, V. Malka, M.-M. Aléonard, J.-F. Chemin, S. Darbon, L. Disdier, J. Faure, A. Fedotoff, O. Landoas, G. Malka, V. Méot, P. Morel, M. Rabec LeGloahec, A. Rouyer, C. Rubbelynck, V. Tikhonchuk, R. Wrobel, P. Audebert, C. Rousseaux, “Electron and photon production from relativistic laser plasma interactions,” Nucl. Fusion 43, 629–633 (2003).
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M. Ammosov, N. Delone, V. Krainov, “Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field,” Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191–1194 (1986).

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E. Lefebvre, N. Cochet, S. Fritzler, V. Malka, M.-M. Aléonard, J.-F. Chemin, S. Darbon, L. Disdier, J. Faure, A. Fedotoff, O. Landoas, G. Malka, V. Méot, P. Morel, M. Rabec LeGloahec, A. Rouyer, C. Rubbelynck, V. Tikhonchuk, R. Wrobel, P. Audebert, C. Rousseaux, “Electron and photon production from relativistic laser plasma interactions,” Nucl. Fusion 43, 629–633 (2003).
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[CrossRef]

T.-J. Wang, S. Yuan, Y. Chen, J.-F. Daigle, C. Marceau, F. Théberge, M. Châteauneuf, J. Dubois, S. L. Chin, “Toward remote high energy terahertz generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 111108 (2010).
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T.-J. Wang, Y. Chen, C. Marceau, F. Théberge, M. Châteauneuf, J. Dubois, S. L. Chin, “High energy terahertz emission from two-color laser-induced filamentation in air with pump pulse duration control,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 131108 (2009).
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O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, R. V. Volkov, V. A. Andreeva, A. V. Borodin, M. N. Esaulkov, Y. Chen, C. Marceau, V. A. Makarov, A. P. Shkurinov, A. B. Savel’ev, S. L. Chin, “Analysis of Dual Frequency Interaction in the Filament with the Purpose of Efficiency Control of THz Pulse Generation,” J. Infrared Milli Terahz Waves 32, 1157–1167 (2011).
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E. Lefebvre, N. Cochet, S. Fritzler, V. Malka, M.-M. Aléonard, J.-F. Chemin, S. Darbon, L. Disdier, J. Faure, A. Fedotoff, O. Landoas, G. Malka, V. Méot, P. Morel, M. Rabec LeGloahec, A. Rouyer, C. Rubbelynck, V. Tikhonchuk, R. Wrobel, P. Audebert, C. Rousseaux, “Electron and photon production from relativistic laser plasma interactions,” Nucl. Fusion 43, 629–633 (2003).
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E. Lefebvre, N. Cochet, S. Fritzler, V. Malka, M.-M. Aléonard, J.-F. Chemin, S. Darbon, L. Disdier, J. Faure, A. Fedotoff, O. Landoas, G. Malka, V. Méot, P. Morel, M. Rabec LeGloahec, A. Rouyer, C. Rubbelynck, V. Tikhonchuk, R. Wrobel, P. Audebert, C. Rousseaux, “Electron and photon production from relativistic laser plasma interactions,” Nucl. Fusion 43, 629–633 (2003).
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E. Lefebvre, N. Cochet, S. Fritzler, V. Malka, M.-M. Aléonard, J.-F. Chemin, S. Darbon, L. Disdier, J. Faure, A. Fedotoff, O. Landoas, G. Malka, V. Méot, P. Morel, M. Rabec LeGloahec, A. Rouyer, C. Rubbelynck, V. Tikhonchuk, R. Wrobel, P. Audebert, C. Rousseaux, “Electron and photon production from relativistic laser plasma interactions,” Nucl. Fusion 43, 629–633 (2003).
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N. Nagai, M. Sumitomo, M. Imaizumi, R. Fukasawa, “Characterization of electron- or proton-irradiated Si space solar cells by THz spectroscopy,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 21, 201–209 (2006).
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T. Bartel, P. Gaal, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, “Generation of single-cycle THz transients with high electric-field amplitudes,” Opt. Lett 30, 2805–2807 (2005).
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K. Y. Kim, A. J. Taylor, J. H. Glownia, G. Rodriguez, “Coherent control of terahertz supercontinuum generation in ultrafast laser-gas interactions,” Nat. Phys. 2, 605–609 (2008).

K.-Y. Kim, J. H. Glownia, A. J. Taylor, G. Rodriguez, “Terahertz emission from ultrafast ionizing air in symmetry-broken laser fields,” Opt. Express 15, 4577–4584 (2007).
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R. Nuter, L. Gremillet, E. Lefebvre, A. Lévy, T. Ceccotti, P. Martin, “Field ionization model implemented in Particle In Cell code and applied to laser-accelerated carbon ions,” Phys. Plasmas 18, 033107 (2011).
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J. Peñano, P. Sprangle, B. Hafizi, D. Gordon, P. Serafim, “Terahertz generation in plasmas using two-color laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E 81, 026407 (2010).
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Herrmann, J.

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, C. Köhler, I. Babushkin, J. Herrmann, “3D Numerical Simulations of THz Generation by Two-Color Laser Filaments,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 073901 (2013).
[CrossRef]

I. Babushkin, S. Skupin, A. Husakou, C. Köhler, E. Cabrera-Granado, L. Bergé, J. Herrmann, “Tailoring terahertz radiation by controlling tunnel photoionization events in gases,” New J. Phys. 13, 123029 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Köhler, E. Cabrera-Granado, I. Babushkin, L. Bergé, J. Herrmann, S. Skupin, “Directionality of terahertz emission from photoinduced gas plasmas,” Opt. Lett 36, 3166–3168 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Babushkin, W. Kuehn, C. Köhler, S. Skupin, L. Bergé, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, J. Herrmann, T. Elsaesser, “Ultrafast Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Terahertz Generation by Ionizing Two-Color Femtosecond Pulses in Gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 053903 (2010).
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I. Babushkin, S. Skupin, J. Herrmann, “Generation of terahertz radiation from ionizing two-color laser pulses in Ar filled metallic hollow waveguides,” Opt. Express 18, 9658–9663 (2010).
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D. J. Cook, R. M. Hochstrasser, “Intense terahertz pulses by four-wave rectification in air,” Opt. Lett 25, 1210–1212 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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C. D’Amico, A. Houard, M. Franco, B. Prade, A. Mysyrowicz, A. Couairon, V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Conical Forward THz Emission from Femtosecond-Laser-Beam Filamentation in Air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 235002 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Husakou, A.

I. Babushkin, S. Skupin, A. Husakou, C. Köhler, E. Cabrera-Granado, L. Bergé, J. Herrmann, “Tailoring terahertz radiation by controlling tunnel photoionization events in gases,” New J. Phys. 13, 123029 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Imaizumi, M.

N. Nagai, M. Sumitomo, M. Imaizumi, R. Fukasawa, “Characterization of electron- or proton-irradiated Si space solar cells by THz spectroscopy,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 21, 201–209 (2006).
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G. L. Yudin, M. Y. Ivanov, “Nonadiabatic tunnel ionization: Looking inside a laser cycle,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 013409 (2001).
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T. I. Oh, Y. S. You, N. Jhajj, E. W. Rosenthal, H. M. Milchberg, K. Y. Kim, “Intense terahertz generation in two-color laser filamentation: energy scaling with terawatt laser systems,” New J. Phys. 15, 075002 (2013).
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W.-M. Wang, S. Kawata, Z.-M. Sheng, Y.-T. Li, L.-M. Chen, L.-J. Qian, J. Zhang, “Efficient terahertz emission by mid-infrared laser pulses from gas targets,” Opt. Lett 36, 2608–2610 (2011).
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T. I. Oh, Y. S. You, N. Jhajj, E. W. Rosenthal, H. M. Milchberg, K. Y. Kim, “Intense terahertz generation in two-color laser filamentation: energy scaling with terawatt laser systems,” New J. Phys. 15, 075002 (2013).
[CrossRef]

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Kim, K.-Y.

Köhler, C.

L. Bergé, S. Skupin, C. Köhler, I. Babushkin, J. Herrmann, “3D Numerical Simulations of THz Generation by Two-Color Laser Filaments,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 073901 (2013).
[CrossRef]

I. Babushkin, S. Skupin, A. Husakou, C. Köhler, E. Cabrera-Granado, L. Bergé, J. Herrmann, “Tailoring terahertz radiation by controlling tunnel photoionization events in gases,” New J. Phys. 13, 123029 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Köhler, E. Cabrera-Granado, I. Babushkin, L. Bergé, J. Herrmann, S. Skupin, “Directionality of terahertz emission from photoinduced gas plasmas,” Opt. Lett 36, 3166–3168 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Babushkin, W. Kuehn, C. Köhler, S. Skupin, L. Bergé, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, J. Herrmann, T. Elsaesser, “Ultrafast Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Terahertz Generation by Ionizing Two-Color Femtosecond Pulses in Gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 053903 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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A. V. Borodin, N. A. Panov, O. G. Kosareva, V. A. Andreeva, M. N. Esaulkov, V. A. Makarov, A. P. Shkurinov, S. L. Chin, X.-C. Zhang, “Transformation of terahertz spectra emitted from dual-frequency femtosecond pulse interaction in gases,” Opt. Lett 38, 1906–1908 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. G. Kosareva, N. A. Panov, R. V. Volkov, V. A. Andreeva, A. V. Borodin, M. N. Esaulkov, Y. Chen, C. Marceau, V. A. Makarov, A. P. Shkurinov, A. B. Savel’ev, S. L. Chin, “Analysis of Dual Frequency Interaction in the Filament with the Purpose of Efficiency Control of THz Pulse Generation,” J. Infrared Milli Terahz Waves 32, 1157–1167 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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M. Ammosov, N. Delone, V. Krainov, “Tunnel ionization of complex atoms and of atomic ions in an alternating electromagnetic field,” Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191–1194 (1986).

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H. Roskos, M. Thomson, M. Kreß, T. Löffler, “Broadband THz emission from gas plasmas induced by femtosecond optical pulses: From fundamentals to applications,” Las. Phot. Rev. 1, 349–368 (2007).
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M. Kress, T. Löffler, S. Eden, M. Thomson, H. G. Roskos, “Terahertz-pulse generation by photoionization of air with laser pulses composed of both fundamental and second-harmonic waves,” Opt. Lett 29, 1120–1122 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuehn, W.

I. Babushkin, W. Kuehn, C. Köhler, S. Skupin, L. Bergé, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, J. Herrmann, T. Elsaesser, “Ultrafast Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Terahertz Generation by Ionizing Two-Color Femtosecond Pulses in Gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 053903 (2010).
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[CrossRef]

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R. Nuter, L. Gremillet, E. Lefebvre, A. Lévy, T. Ceccotti, P. Martin, “Field ionization model implemented in Particle In Cell code and applied to laser-accelerated carbon ions,” Phys. Plasmas 18, 033107 (2011).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Bio. 47, 3853–3863 (2002).
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[CrossRef]

M. Kress, T. Löffler, S. Eden, M. Thomson, H. G. Roskos, “Terahertz-pulse generation by photoionization of air with laser pulses composed of both fundamental and second-harmonic waves,” Opt. Lett 29, 1120–1122 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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A. V. Borodin, N. A. Panov, O. G. Kosareva, V. A. Andreeva, M. N. Esaulkov, V. A. Makarov, A. P. Shkurinov, S. L. Chin, X.-C. Zhang, “Transformation of terahertz spectra emitted from dual-frequency femtosecond pulse interaction in gases,” Opt. Lett 38, 1906–1908 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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R. Nuter, L. Gremillet, E. Lefebvre, A. Lévy, T. Ceccotti, P. Martin, “Field ionization model implemented in Particle In Cell code and applied to laser-accelerated carbon ions,” Phys. Plasmas 18, 033107 (2011).
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R. Nuter, L. Gremillet, E. Lefebvre, A. Lévy, T. Ceccotti, P. Martin, “Field ionization model implemented in Particle In Cell code and applied to laser-accelerated carbon ions,” Phys. Plasmas 18, 033107 (2011).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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J. Peñano, P. Sprangle, B. Hafizi, D. Gordon, P. Serafim, “Terahertz generation in plasmas using two-color laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. E 81, 026407 (2010).
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K.-Y. Kim, J. H. Glownia, A. J. Taylor, G. Rodriguez, “Terahertz emission from ultrafast ionizing air in symmetry-broken laser fields,” Opt. Express 15, 4577–4584 (2007).
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M. Kress, T. Löffler, S. Eden, M. Thomson, H. G. Roskos, “Terahertz-pulse generation by photoionization of air with laser pulses composed of both fundamental and second-harmonic waves,” Opt. Lett 29, 1120–1122 (2004).
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W.-M. Wang, S. Kawata, Z.-M. Sheng, Y.-T. Li, L.-M. Chen, L.-J. Qian, J. Zhang, “Efficient terahertz emission by mid-infrared laser pulses from gas targets,” Opt. Lett 36, 2608–2610 (2011).
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K. Y. Kim, A. J. Taylor, J. H. Glownia, G. Rodriguez, “Coherent control of terahertz supercontinuum generation in ultrafast laser-gas interactions,” Nat. Phys. 2, 605–609 (2008).

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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J.-F. Daigle, F. Théberge, M. Henriksson, T.-J. Wang, S. Yuan, M. Châteauneuf, J. Dubois, M. Piché, S. L. Chin, “Remote THz generation from two-color filamentation: long distance dependence,” Opt. Express 20, 6825–6834 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T.-J. Wang, J.-F. Daigle, S. Yuan, F. Théberge, M. Châteauneuf, J. Dubois, G. Roy, H. Zeng, S. L. Chin, “Remote generation of high-energy terahertz pulses from two-color femtosecond laser filamentation in air,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 053801 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T.-J. Wang, S. Yuan, Y. Chen, J.-F. Daigle, C. Marceau, F. Théberge, M. Châteauneuf, J. Dubois, S. L. Chin, “Toward remote high energy terahertz generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 111108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T.-J. Wang, Y. Chen, C. Marceau, F. Théberge, M. Châteauneuf, J. Dubois, S. L. Chin, “High energy terahertz emission from two-color laser-induced filamentation in air with pump pulse duration control,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 131108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, W.-M.

W.-M. Wang, S. Kawata, Z.-M. Sheng, Y.-T. Li, L.-M. Chen, L.-J. Qian, J. Zhang, “Efficient terahertz emission by mid-infrared laser pulses from gas targets,” Opt. Lett 36, 2608–2610 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W.-M. Wang, Z.-M. Sheng, H.-C. Wu, M. Chen, C. Li, J. Zhang, K. Mima, “Strong terahertz pulse generation by chirped laser pulses in tenuous gases,” Opt. Express 16, 16999–17006 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Willi, O.

M. Chen, A. Pukhov, X.-Y. Peng, O. Willi, “Theoretical analysis and simulations of strong terahertz radiation from the interaction of ultrashort laser pulses with gases,” Phys. Rev. E 78, 046406 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Woerner, M.

I. Babushkin, W. Kuehn, C. Köhler, S. Skupin, L. Bergé, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, J. Herrmann, T. Elsaesser, “Ultrafast Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Terahertz Generation by Ionizing Two-Color Femtosecond Pulses in Gases,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 053903 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Bartel, P. Gaal, K. Reimann, M. Woerner, T. Elsaesser, “Generation of single-cycle THz transients with high electric-field amplitudes,” Opt. Lett 30, 2805–2807 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Woodward, R. M.

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Bio. 47, 3853–3863 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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E. Lefebvre, N. Cochet, S. Fritzler, V. Malka, M.-M. Aléonard, J.-F. Chemin, S. Darbon, L. Disdier, J. Faure, A. Fedotoff, O. Landoas, G. Malka, V. Méot, P. Morel, M. Rabec LeGloahec, A. Rouyer, C. Rubbelynck, V. Tikhonchuk, R. Wrobel, P. Audebert, C. Rousseaux, “Electron and photon production from relativistic laser plasma interactions,” Nucl. Fusion 43, 629–633 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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X. Xie, J. Dai, X.-C. Zhang, “Coherent Control of THz Wave Generation in Ambient Air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 075005 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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T. I. Oh, Y. S. You, N. Jhajj, E. W. Rosenthal, H. M. Milchberg, K. Y. Kim, “Intense terahertz generation in two-color laser filamentation: energy scaling with terawatt laser systems,” New J. Phys. 15, 075002 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, S.

J.-F. Daigle, F. Théberge, M. Henriksson, T.-J. Wang, S. Yuan, M. Châteauneuf, J. Dubois, M. Piché, S. L. Chin, “Remote THz generation from two-color filamentation: long distance dependence,” Opt. Express 20, 6825–6834 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T.-J. Wang, J.-F. Daigle, S. Yuan, F. Théberge, M. Châteauneuf, J. Dubois, G. Roy, H. Zeng, S. L. Chin, “Remote generation of high-energy terahertz pulses from two-color femtosecond laser filamentation in air,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 053801 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T.-J. Wang, S. Yuan, Y. Chen, J.-F. Daigle, C. Marceau, F. Théberge, M. Châteauneuf, J. Dubois, S. L. Chin, “Toward remote high energy terahertz generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 111108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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G. L. Yudin, M. Y. Ivanov, “Nonadiabatic tunnel ionization: Looking inside a laser cycle,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 013409 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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T.-J. Wang, J.-F. Daigle, S. Yuan, F. Théberge, M. Châteauneuf, J. Dubois, G. Roy, H. Zeng, S. L. Chin, “Remote generation of high-energy terahertz pulses from two-color femtosecond laser filamentation in air,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 053801 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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W.-M. Wang, S. Kawata, Z.-M. Sheng, Y.-T. Li, L.-M. Chen, L.-J. Qian, J. Zhang, “Efficient terahertz emission by mid-infrared laser pulses from gas targets,” Opt. Lett 36, 2608–2610 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W.-M. Wang, Z.-M. Sheng, H.-C. Wu, M. Chen, C. Li, J. Zhang, K. Mima, “Strong terahertz pulse generation by chirped laser pulses in tenuous gases,” Opt. Express 16, 16999–17006 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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A. V. Borodin, N. A. Panov, O. G. Kosareva, V. A. Andreeva, M. N. Esaulkov, V. A. Makarov, A. P. Shkurinov, S. L. Chin, X.-C. Zhang, “Transformation of terahertz spectra emitted from dual-frequency femtosecond pulse interaction in gases,” Opt. Lett 38, 1906–1908 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef]

X. Xie, J. Dai, X.-C. Zhang, “Coherent Control of THz Wave Generation in Ambient Air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 075005 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

T.-J. Wang, Y. Chen, C. Marceau, F. Théberge, M. Châteauneuf, J. Dubois, S. L. Chin, “High energy terahertz emission from two-color laser-induced filamentation in air with pump pulse duration control,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 131108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T.-J. Wang, S. Yuan, Y. Chen, J.-F. Daigle, C. Marceau, F. Théberge, M. Châteauneuf, J. Dubois, S. L. Chin, “Toward remote high energy terahertz generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 111108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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New J. Phys. (2)

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[CrossRef]

T. I. Oh, Y. S. You, N. Jhajj, E. W. Rosenthal, H. M. Milchberg, K. Y. Kim, “Intense terahertz generation in two-color laser filamentation: energy scaling with terawatt laser systems,” New J. Phys. 15, 075002 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Fusion (1)

E. Lefebvre, N. Cochet, S. Fritzler, V. Malka, M.-M. Aléonard, J.-F. Chemin, S. Darbon, L. Disdier, J. Faure, A. Fedotoff, O. Landoas, G. Malka, V. Méot, P. Morel, M. Rabec LeGloahec, A. Rouyer, C. Rubbelynck, V. Tikhonchuk, R. Wrobel, P. Audebert, C. Rousseaux, “Electron and photon production from relativistic laser plasma interactions,” Nucl. Fusion 43, 629–633 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett (6)

C. Köhler, E. Cabrera-Granado, I. Babushkin, L. Bergé, J. Herrmann, S. Skupin, “Directionality of terahertz emission from photoinduced gas plasmas,” Opt. Lett 36, 3166–3168 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Borodin, N. A. Panov, O. G. Kosareva, V. A. Andreeva, M. N. Esaulkov, V. A. Makarov, A. P. Shkurinov, S. L. Chin, X.-C. Zhang, “Transformation of terahertz spectra emitted from dual-frequency femtosecond pulse interaction in gases,” Opt. Lett 38, 1906–1908 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W.-M. Wang, S. Kawata, Z.-M. Sheng, Y.-T. Li, L.-M. Chen, L.-J. Qian, J. Zhang, “Efficient terahertz emission by mid-infrared laser pulses from gas targets,” Opt. Lett 36, 2608–2610 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Phys. Med. Bio. (2)

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[CrossRef]

R. M. Woodward, B. E. Cole, V. P. Wallace, R. J. Pye, D. D. Arnone, E. H. Linfield, M. Pepper, “Terahertz pulse imaging in reflection geometry of human skin cancer and skin tissue,” Phys. Med. Bio. 47, 3853–3863 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (2)

T.-J. Wang, J.-F. Daigle, S. Yuan, F. Théberge, M. Châteauneuf, J. Dubois, G. Roy, H. Zeng, S. L. Chin, “Remote generation of high-energy terahertz pulses from two-color femtosecond laser filamentation in air,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 053801 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

X. Xie, J. Dai, X.-C. Zhang, “Coherent Control of THz Wave Generation in Ambient Air,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 075005 (2006).
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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Unfiltered (black line) and filtered (red dotted line) electric field δEy for the parameters ν = 0, a0 = 0.02, τ = 10, λ0 = 1μm (one pump pulse), na = 1.1×10−3, r = 0, and ϕ = 0. (b) Electric field spectrum (black line), and the filtered spectrum (red dotted line) of panel (a) for ω < 0.3 (normalized to ω0). Note the pump’s trace left in the evaluation of δEy and its spectrum.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Maximum of the filtered electric field versus laser intensity in unit of 1018 W/cm2 for a single pulse. Parameters are displayed in the inset, while all others remain equal to those of Fig. 1. (b) Same figure for another set of parameters.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Maximum of the filtered electric field versus the phase shift ϕ for one laser color (black solid curve) with I = 1016 W/cm−2, τ = 10, λ0 = 1 μm and na = 0.0011, and for two colors (red dashed curve) versus ϕ2 with r2 = 0.2 and ϕ = 0.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Maximum of the filtered electric field for a two-color pulse versus laser intensity in unit of 1018 W/cm2 for different phases ϕ2, and r2 = 0.2. (b) Maximum of the filtered electric field versus phase ϕ2 and amplitude field ratio r for I = 1016 W/cm2. The other parameters are ν = 0, τ = 10, λ0 = 1μm, na = 1.1 × 10−3, and ϕ = 0.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

δEy for a two-color pulse vs x at time t = 780, (a) zoomed around the laser position and (b) full solution. The numerical solution is shown in black solid line, the numerical solution without dispersion between xt ∈ [−2πτ, 0] is represented in black dashed line, and the analytical solution is plotted in red solid line. The parameters are a0 = 0.02, λ0 = 1μm, ν = 0, τ = 10, r2 = 0.2, ϕ2 = 0.5 and na = 0.0011.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Numerical solution of the field δEy(x, t) saturated to the value ±10−4, for the same parameters as in Fig. 5.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Intensity spectra of the transmitted field (black lines) and the reflected field (red lines) calculated numerically (solid lines) and according to formula (24), (28) and (30) (dashed lines). The parameters are similar to Fig. 5, but the plasma length is limited to L = 40π. The green dashed line and green solid line correspond to the transmitted field calculated numerically and according to Eqs. (24) and (28) for a plasma length of L = 100π.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Spectra of the reflected (solid lines) and transmitted (dashed lines) electric field, normalized to the total energy Utot, produced by a single pump wave in hydrogen (I = 1017 W/cm2, λ0 = 2μm). The red curves correspond to PIC simulations and black lines to δEy calculated numerically according to Eq. (7). (b) Resulting THz fields for the frequency window < 0.2 (f < 30 THz), using the same plotstyle as in (a).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Intensity spectra of the transmitted electric field, normalized to the total energy Utot, produced by a two-color pulse in hydrogen for (a) I = 1014 W/cm2, λ0 = 1μm and (b) I = 1015 W/cm2, λ0 = 1μm. The red and green curves correspond to PIC and uppe1d simulations, respectively, while the black lines refer to δEy calculated numerically according to Eq. (7). The blue curves show the on-axis intensity spectra obtained from the uppe3d model under similar conditions.

Equations (39)

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E y L = a 0 sin 2 [ ( β + + 2 π τ ) / 2 τ ] [ sin ( β + + 2 π τ + ϕ ) + r sin [ 2 ( β + + 2 π τ ) + ϕ 2 ] ] H ( β + + 2 π τ ) H ( β + ) .
E y = E y L t δ a y ,
t n e = ν E ( E y L ) ( n a n e )
t J y + ν J y = n e ( E y L t δ a y )
x 2 δ a y t 2 δ a y = J y ,
ν E ( E y L ) = 4 ω a ω 0 | E a . u . E y L | exp ( 2 3 | E a . u . E y L | ) .
( ν + t ) ( x 2 t 2 ) δ a y n e t δ a y = n e E y L .
t 2 δ E y + ν t δ E y + n e δ E y = n e E y L ,
n e ( 0 ) = δ E y ( 0 ) = t δ E y ( 0 ) = 0
δ E y ~ n a a 0 ,
δ E y ~ n a a 0 / τ .
δ E y exp ( ν t / 2 ) n ef ν 2 / 4 sin ( n ef ν 2 / 4 t ) 0 min ( 2 π τ , t ) n e E y L d t ,
G ( 2 π τ ) = 0 2 π τ n e E y L d t .
n ef = i = 1 N f δ n e , i H ( t t i ) ,
δ n e , i = ν E ( E m , i ) ( n a k = 0 i 1 δ n e , k ) π g i 3 ,
G = i = 1 N f δ n e , i A y , i L ,
4 π g k 3 ω a ω 0 | E a . u . E m , k | exp ( 2 3 | E a . u . E m , k | ) = A y , k A y , k A y , k 1 .
2 k + 1 2 π + ϕ = τ g 1 [ 2 E a . u . 3 a 0 W 1 ( K ) ] ,
K = 3 / π g k ω 0 4 ω a A y , k A y , k A y , k 1 1 / λ 0 .
E y L ( t ) = a 0 g ( t / τ ) [ sin t + r sin ( 2 t ϕ 2 ) ] ,
x 2 δ E y t 2 δ E y = ( E y L + δ E y ) n e H ( x ) .
n e ( β + ) = [ 1 exp ( 0 max ( β + , 2 π τ ) ν E ( E y L ) d β + ) ] n a .
2 β + s 2 δ E y s 2 δ E y = ( E y L + δ E y ) n e H ( β + + s ) .
2 β + s 2 δ E y s 2 δ E y = n e E y L H ( β + + s ) .
δ E y = 1 4 F ( x t ) + x 2 G ( x t ) ,
2 β + s 2 δ E y s 2 δ E y = n ef δ E y H [ β + + s ] .
β + δ E y ^ = ( p 2 + n ef 2 p ) δ E y ^ .
δ E y ^ = [ 1 2 p 2 G ( π τ G + F / 4 ) 1 p ] exp [ ( p 2 + n ef 2 p ) ( β + + 2 π τ ) ] .
δ E y = G 2 n ef [ t + x + 2 π τ t x 2 π τ ] 1 / 2 J 1 [ n ef ( t 2 ( x + 2 π τ ) 2 ) ] ( π τ G + F 4 ) J 0 [ n ef ( t 2 ( x + 2 π τ ) 2 ) ] ,
δ E y ref = F ( x t ) 4 .
δ E y ref = G 2 n ef [ t + x + 2 π τ t + x 2 π τ ] 1 / 2 J 1 [ n ef ( ( x + t ) 2 4 π 2 τ 2 ) ] ( π τ G + F 4 ) J 0 [ n ef ( ( x + t ) 2 4 π 2 τ 2 ) ] .
δ E y 2 π 1 n ef 1 / 4 t [ 2 G n ef ( 1 + x + 2 π τ t ) sin ( n ef t π 4 ) ( 4 π τ G + F ) cos ( n ef t π 4 ) ] ,
δ E y Gt 1 / 4 / ( n ef β + ) 3 / 4
2 β + B s B = n e E y L H [ β + + s ] .
B ( s , β + ) = β 0 + β + n e E y L 2 H [ β + + β 0 + ] d β + .
δ E y ( s , β + ) = 0 s d s β min + β max + n e E y L 2 d β + ,
δ E y = β + / 2 β + d s 0 β 0 + n e E y 2 d β + + β + s d s 0 β + n e E y 2 d β + .
δ E y G 2 n ef 2 t + β + β + J 1 [ n ef β + ( β + + 2 t ) ] .
δ E y ~ Gt 1 / 4 2 1 / 4 π ( n ef β + ) 3 / 4 .

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