Abstract

We present a picosecond supercontinuum light source designed for stroboscopic white-light interferometry. This source offers a potential for high-resolution characterization of vibrational fields in electromechanical components with frequencies up to the GHz range. The light source concept combines a gain-switched laser diode, the output of which is amplified in a two-stage fiber amplifier, with supercontinuum generation in a microstructured optical fiber. Implemented in our white-light interferometer setup, optical pulses with optimized spectral properties and below 310 ps duration are used for stroboscopic illumination at freely adjustable repetition rates. The performance of the source is demonstrated by characterizing the surface vibration field of a square-plate silicon MEMS resonator at 3.37 MHz. A minimum detectable vibration amplitude of less than 100 pm is reached.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]

2013 (5)

T. Schönau, T. Siebert, R. Härtel, D. Klemme, K. Lauritsen, R. Erdmann, “Picosecond supercontinuum laser with consistent emission parameters over variable repetition rates from 1 to 40 MHz,” Proc. SPIE 8601, 86012L (2013).
[CrossRef]

K. Hanhijärvi, I. Kassamakov, J. Aaltonen, V. Heikkinen, L. Sainiemi, S. Franssila, E. Hæggström, “Through-silicon stroboscopic characterization of an oscillating MEMS thermal actuator using supercontinuum interferometry,” Mechatronics, IEEE/ASME Transactions on 18, 1418–1420 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. Ryczkowski, A. Nolvi, I. Kassamakov, G. Genty, E. Hæggström, “High-speed stroboscopic imaging with frequency-doubled supercontinuum,” Opt. Lett. 38, 658–660 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Heidt, Z. Li, J. Sahu, P. C. Shardlow, M. Becker, M. Rothhardt, M. Ibsen, R. Phelan, B. Kelly, S. U. Alam, D. J. Richardson, “100 kW peak power picosecond thulium-doped fiber amplifier system seeded by a gain-switched diode laser at 2μm,” Opt. Lett. 38, 1615–1617 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Shavrin, L. Lipiäinen, K. Kokkonen, S. Novotny, M. Kaivola, H. Ludvigsen, “Stroboscopic white-light interferometry of vibrating microstructures,” Opt. Express 21, 16901–16907 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

L. Lipiäinen, A. Jaakkola, K. Kokkonen, M. Kaivola, “Frequency splitting of the main mode in a microelectromechanical resonator due to coupling with an anchor resonance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 013503 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

2010 (2)

2009 (2)

I. Kassamakov, K. Hanhijärvi, I. Abbadi, J. Aaltonen, H. Ludvigsen, E. Hæggström, “Scanning white-light interferometry with a supercontinuum source,” Opt. Lett. 34, 1582–1584 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L.-C. Chen, Y.-T. Huang, X.-L. Nguyen, J.-L. Chen, C.-C. Chang, “Dynamic out-of-plane profilometry for nano-scale full-field characterization of MEMS using stroboscopic interferometry with novel signal deconvolution algorithm,” Opt. Laser. Eng. 47, 237–251 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

J. Schmit, J. Reed, E. Novak, J. K. Gimzewski, “Performance advances in interferometric optical profilers for imaging and testing,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 10, 064001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

P. Dupriez, A. Piper, A. Malinowski, J. K. Sahu, M. Ibsen, B. C. Thomsen, Y. Jeong, L. M. B. Hickey, M. N. Zervas, J. Nilsson, D. J. Richardson, “High average power, high repetition rate, picosecond pulsed fiber master oscillator power amplifier source seeded by a gain-switched laser diode at 1060 nm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1013–1015 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Moon, D. Y. Kim, “Generation of octave-spanning supercontinuum with 1550-nm amplified diode-laser pulses and a dispersion-shifted fiber,” Opt. Express 14, 270–278 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Räikkönen, G. Genty, O. Kimmelma, K. P. Hansen, S. C. Buchter, M. Kaivola, “Supercontinuum generation by nanosecond dual-wavelength pumping in microstructured optical fibers,” Opt. Express 14, 7914–7923 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

2003 (3)

K. L. Telschow, V. A. Deason, D. L. Cottle, J. D. Larson, “Full-field imaging of gigahertz film bulk acoustic resonator motion,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason., Ferroelectr., Freq. Control 50, 1279–1285 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Bosseboeuf, S. Petitgrand, “Characterization of the static and dynamic behaviour of M(O)EMS by optical techniques: status and trends,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 13, S23–S33 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Petitgrand, A. Bosseboeuf, “Simultaneous mapping of phase and amplitude of MEMS vibrations by microscopic interferometry with stroboscopic illumination,” Proc. SPIE 5145, 33–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

2001 (2)

M. Fleischer, R. Windecker, H. J. Tiziani, “Theoretical limits of scanning white-light interferometry signal evaluation algorithms,” Appl. Opt. 40, 2815–2820 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Petitgrand, R. Yahiaoui, K. Danaie, A. Bosseboeuf, J. Gilles, “3D measurement of micromechanical devices vibration mode shapes with a stroboscopic interferometric microscope,” Opt. Laser. Eng. 36, 77–101 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1995 (1)

P. de Groot, L. L. Deck, “Surface profiling by analysis of white-light interferograms in the spatial frequency domain,” J. Mod. Opt. 42, 389–401 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

Aaltonen, J.

K. Hanhijärvi, I. Kassamakov, J. Aaltonen, V. Heikkinen, L. Sainiemi, S. Franssila, E. Hæggström, “Through-silicon stroboscopic characterization of an oscillating MEMS thermal actuator using supercontinuum interferometry,” Mechatronics, IEEE/ASME Transactions on 18, 1418–1420 (2013).
[CrossRef]

I. Kassamakov, K. Hanhijärvi, I. Abbadi, J. Aaltonen, H. Ludvigsen, E. Hæggström, “Scanning white-light interferometry with a supercontinuum source,” Opt. Lett. 34, 1582–1584 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Abbadi, I.

Alam, S. U.

Alam, S.-U.

Alastalo, A.

A. Jaakkola, P. Rosenberg, S. Asmala, A. Nurmela, T. Pensala, T. Riekkinen, J. Dekker, T. Mattila, A. Alastalo, O. Holmgren, K. Kokkonen, “Piezoelectrically transduced single-crystal-silicon plate resonators,” in “Proceedings of the IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium,” (IEEE, New York, 2008, Beijing, China, 2008), pp. 717–720.

Asmala, S.

A. Jaakkola, P. Rosenberg, S. Asmala, A. Nurmela, T. Pensala, T. Riekkinen, J. Dekker, T. Mattila, A. Alastalo, O. Holmgren, K. Kokkonen, “Piezoelectrically transduced single-crystal-silicon plate resonators,” in “Proceedings of the IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium,” (IEEE, New York, 2008, Beijing, China, 2008), pp. 717–720.

Becker, M.

Bhadra, S. K.

Bosseboeuf, A.

A. Bosseboeuf, S. Petitgrand, “Characterization of the static and dynamic behaviour of M(O)EMS by optical techniques: status and trends,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 13, S23–S33 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Petitgrand, A. Bosseboeuf, “Simultaneous mapping of phase and amplitude of MEMS vibrations by microscopic interferometry with stroboscopic illumination,” Proc. SPIE 5145, 33–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Petitgrand, R. Yahiaoui, K. Danaie, A. Bosseboeuf, J. Gilles, “3D measurement of micromechanical devices vibration mode shapes with a stroboscopic interferometric microscope,” Opt. Laser. Eng. 36, 77–101 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Buchter, S. C.

Champert, P.-A.

Chang, C.-C.

L.-C. Chen, Y.-T. Huang, X.-L. Nguyen, J.-L. Chen, C.-C. Chang, “Dynamic out-of-plane profilometry for nano-scale full-field characterization of MEMS using stroboscopic interferometry with novel signal deconvolution algorithm,” Opt. Laser. Eng. 47, 237–251 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.-L.

L.-C. Chen, Y.-T. Huang, X.-L. Nguyen, J.-L. Chen, C.-C. Chang, “Dynamic out-of-plane profilometry for nano-scale full-field characterization of MEMS using stroboscopic interferometry with novel signal deconvolution algorithm,” Opt. Laser. Eng. 47, 237–251 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, K. K.

Chen, L.-C.

L.-C. Chen, Y.-T. Huang, X.-L. Nguyen, J.-L. Chen, C.-C. Chang, “Dynamic out-of-plane profilometry for nano-scale full-field characterization of MEMS using stroboscopic interferometry with novel signal deconvolution algorithm,” Opt. Laser. Eng. 47, 237–251 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Codemard, C.

Cottle, D. L.

K. L. Telschow, V. A. Deason, D. L. Cottle, J. D. Larson, “Full-field imaging of gigahertz film bulk acoustic resonator motion,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason., Ferroelectr., Freq. Control 50, 1279–1285 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Couderc, V.

Danaie, K.

S. Petitgrand, R. Yahiaoui, K. Danaie, A. Bosseboeuf, J. Gilles, “3D measurement of micromechanical devices vibration mode shapes with a stroboscopic interferometric microscope,” Opt. Laser. Eng. 36, 77–101 (2001).
[CrossRef]

de Groot, P.

P. de Groot, X. C. de Lega, J. Kramer, M. Turzhitsky, “Determination of fringe order in white-light interference microscopy,” Appl. Opt. 41, 4571–4578 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. de Groot, L. L. Deck, “Surface profiling by analysis of white-light interferograms in the spatial frequency domain,” J. Mod. Opt. 42, 389–401 (1995).
[CrossRef]

de Lega, X. C.

Deason, V. A.

K. L. Telschow, V. A. Deason, D. L. Cottle, J. D. Larson, “Full-field imaging of gigahertz film bulk acoustic resonator motion,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason., Ferroelectr., Freq. Control 50, 1279–1285 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Deck, L. L.

P. de Groot, L. L. Deck, “Surface profiling by analysis of white-light interferograms in the spatial frequency domain,” J. Mod. Opt. 42, 389–401 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Dekker, J.

A. Jaakkola, P. Rosenberg, S. Asmala, A. Nurmela, T. Pensala, T. Riekkinen, J. Dekker, T. Mattila, A. Alastalo, O. Holmgren, K. Kokkonen, “Piezoelectrically transduced single-crystal-silicon plate resonators,” in “Proceedings of the IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium,” (IEEE, New York, 2008, Beijing, China, 2008), pp. 717–720.

Dupriez, P.

P. Dupriez, A. Piper, A. Malinowski, J. K. Sahu, M. Ibsen, B. C. Thomsen, Y. Jeong, L. M. B. Hickey, M. N. Zervas, J. Nilsson, D. J. Richardson, “High average power, high repetition rate, picosecond pulsed fiber master oscillator power amplifier source seeded by a gain-switched laser diode at 1060 nm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1013–1015 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Erdmann, R.

T. Schönau, T. Siebert, R. Härtel, D. Klemme, K. Lauritsen, R. Erdmann, “Picosecond supercontinuum laser with consistent emission parameters over variable repetition rates from 1 to 40 MHz,” Proc. SPIE 8601, 86012L (2013).
[CrossRef]

Février, S.

Fleischer, M.

Franssila, S.

K. Hanhijärvi, I. Kassamakov, J. Aaltonen, V. Heikkinen, L. Sainiemi, S. Franssila, E. Hæggström, “Through-silicon stroboscopic characterization of an oscillating MEMS thermal actuator using supercontinuum interferometry,” Mechatronics, IEEE/ASME Transactions on 18, 1418–1420 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Frede, M.

Froehly, C.

Genty, G.

Ghosh, D.

Gilles, J.

S. Petitgrand, R. Yahiaoui, K. Danaie, A. Bosseboeuf, J. Gilles, “3D measurement of micromechanical devices vibration mode shapes with a stroboscopic interferometric microscope,” Opt. Laser. Eng. 36, 77–101 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gimzewski, J. K.

J. Schmit, J. Reed, E. Novak, J. K. Gimzewski, “Performance advances in interferometric optical profilers for imaging and testing,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 10, 064001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hæggström, E.

K. Hanhijärvi, I. Kassamakov, J. Aaltonen, V. Heikkinen, L. Sainiemi, S. Franssila, E. Hæggström, “Through-silicon stroboscopic characterization of an oscillating MEMS thermal actuator using supercontinuum interferometry,” Mechatronics, IEEE/ASME Transactions on 18, 1418–1420 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. Ryczkowski, A. Nolvi, I. Kassamakov, G. Genty, E. Hæggström, “High-speed stroboscopic imaging with frequency-doubled supercontinuum,” Opt. Lett. 38, 658–660 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Kassamakov, K. Hanhijärvi, I. Abbadi, J. Aaltonen, H. Ludvigsen, E. Hæggström, “Scanning white-light interferometry with a supercontinuum source,” Opt. Lett. 34, 1582–1584 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hanhijärvi, K.

K. Hanhijärvi, I. Kassamakov, J. Aaltonen, V. Heikkinen, L. Sainiemi, S. Franssila, E. Hæggström, “Through-silicon stroboscopic characterization of an oscillating MEMS thermal actuator using supercontinuum interferometry,” Mechatronics, IEEE/ASME Transactions on 18, 1418–1420 (2013).
[CrossRef]

I. Kassamakov, K. Hanhijärvi, I. Abbadi, J. Aaltonen, H. Ludvigsen, E. Hæggström, “Scanning white-light interferometry with a supercontinuum source,” Opt. Lett. 34, 1582–1584 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hansen, K. P.

Harasaki, A.

Härtel, R.

T. Schönau, T. Siebert, R. Härtel, D. Klemme, K. Lauritsen, R. Erdmann, “Picosecond supercontinuum laser with consistent emission parameters over variable repetition rates from 1 to 40 MHz,” Proc. SPIE 8601, 86012L (2013).
[CrossRef]

Hayes, J. R.

Heidt, A. M.

Heikkinen, V.

K. Hanhijärvi, I. Kassamakov, J. Aaltonen, V. Heikkinen, L. Sainiemi, S. Franssila, E. Hæggström, “Through-silicon stroboscopic characterization of an oscillating MEMS thermal actuator using supercontinuum interferometry,” Mechatronics, IEEE/ASME Transactions on 18, 1418–1420 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Hickey, L. M. B.

P. Dupriez, A. Piper, A. Malinowski, J. K. Sahu, M. Ibsen, B. C. Thomsen, Y. Jeong, L. M. B. Hickey, M. N. Zervas, J. Nilsson, D. J. Richardson, “High average power, high repetition rate, picosecond pulsed fiber master oscillator power amplifier source seeded by a gain-switched laser diode at 1060 nm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1013–1015 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Holmgren, O.

A. Jaakkola, P. Rosenberg, S. Asmala, A. Nurmela, T. Pensala, T. Riekkinen, J. Dekker, T. Mattila, A. Alastalo, O. Holmgren, K. Kokkonen, “Piezoelectrically transduced single-crystal-silicon plate resonators,” in “Proceedings of the IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium,” (IEEE, New York, 2008, Beijing, China, 2008), pp. 717–720.

Huang, Y.-T.

L.-C. Chen, Y.-T. Huang, X.-L. Nguyen, J.-L. Chen, C.-C. Chang, “Dynamic out-of-plane profilometry for nano-scale full-field characterization of MEMS using stroboscopic interferometry with novel signal deconvolution algorithm,” Opt. Laser. Eng. 47, 237–251 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ibsen, M.

A. M. Heidt, Z. Li, J. Sahu, P. C. Shardlow, M. Becker, M. Rothhardt, M. Ibsen, R. Phelan, B. Kelly, S. U. Alam, D. J. Richardson, “100 kW peak power picosecond thulium-doped fiber amplifier system seeded by a gain-switched diode laser at 2μm,” Opt. Lett. 38, 1615–1617 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Dupriez, A. Piper, A. Malinowski, J. K. Sahu, M. Ibsen, B. C. Thomsen, Y. Jeong, L. M. B. Hickey, M. N. Zervas, J. Nilsson, D. J. Richardson, “High average power, high repetition rate, picosecond pulsed fiber master oscillator power amplifier source seeded by a gain-switched laser diode at 1060 nm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1013–1015 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jaakkola, A.

L. Lipiäinen, A. Jaakkola, K. Kokkonen, M. Kaivola, “Frequency splitting of the main mode in a microelectromechanical resonator due to coupling with an anchor resonance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 013503 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Jaakkola, P. Rosenberg, S. Asmala, A. Nurmela, T. Pensala, T. Riekkinen, J. Dekker, T. Mattila, A. Alastalo, O. Holmgren, K. Kokkonen, “Piezoelectrically transduced single-crystal-silicon plate resonators,” in “Proceedings of the IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium,” (IEEE, New York, 2008, Beijing, China, 2008), pp. 717–720.

Jeong, Y.

P. Dupriez, A. Piper, A. Malinowski, J. K. Sahu, M. Ibsen, B. C. Thomsen, Y. Jeong, L. M. B. Hickey, M. N. Zervas, J. Nilsson, D. J. Richardson, “High average power, high repetition rate, picosecond pulsed fiber master oscillator power amplifier source seeded by a gain-switched laser diode at 1060 nm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1013–1015 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kaivola, M.

Kanzelmeyer, S.

Kassamakov, I.

P. Ryczkowski, A. Nolvi, I. Kassamakov, G. Genty, E. Hæggström, “High-speed stroboscopic imaging with frequency-doubled supercontinuum,” Opt. Lett. 38, 658–660 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Hanhijärvi, I. Kassamakov, J. Aaltonen, V. Heikkinen, L. Sainiemi, S. Franssila, E. Hæggström, “Through-silicon stroboscopic characterization of an oscillating MEMS thermal actuator using supercontinuum interferometry,” Mechatronics, IEEE/ASME Transactions on 18, 1418–1420 (2013).
[CrossRef]

I. Kassamakov, K. Hanhijärvi, I. Abbadi, J. Aaltonen, H. Ludvigsen, E. Hæggström, “Scanning white-light interferometry with a supercontinuum source,” Opt. Lett. 34, 1582–1584 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kelly, B.

Kim, D. Y.

Kimmelma, O.

Klemme, D.

T. Schönau, T. Siebert, R. Härtel, D. Klemme, K. Lauritsen, R. Erdmann, “Picosecond supercontinuum laser with consistent emission parameters over variable repetition rates from 1 to 40 MHz,” Proc. SPIE 8601, 86012L (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kokkonen, K.

I. Shavrin, L. Lipiäinen, K. Kokkonen, S. Novotny, M. Kaivola, H. Ludvigsen, “Stroboscopic white-light interferometry of vibrating microstructures,” Opt. Express 21, 16901–16907 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Lipiäinen, A. Jaakkola, K. Kokkonen, M. Kaivola, “Frequency splitting of the main mode in a microelectromechanical resonator due to coupling with an anchor resonance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 013503 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Jaakkola, P. Rosenberg, S. Asmala, A. Nurmela, T. Pensala, T. Riekkinen, J. Dekker, T. Mattila, A. Alastalo, O. Holmgren, K. Kokkonen, “Piezoelectrically transduced single-crystal-silicon plate resonators,” in “Proceedings of the IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium,” (IEEE, New York, 2008, Beijing, China, 2008), pp. 717–720.

Kracht, D.

Kramer, J.

Labonté, L.

Larson, J. D.

K. L. Telschow, V. A. Deason, D. L. Cottle, J. D. Larson, “Full-field imaging of gigahertz film bulk acoustic resonator motion,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason., Ferroelectr., Freq. Control 50, 1279–1285 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lauritsen, K.

T. Schönau, T. Siebert, R. Härtel, D. Klemme, K. Lauritsen, R. Erdmann, “Picosecond supercontinuum laser with consistent emission parameters over variable repetition rates from 1 to 40 MHz,” Proc. SPIE 8601, 86012L (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lee, B. S.

Leproux, P.

Li, Z.

Lin, D.

Lipiäinen, L.

I. Shavrin, L. Lipiäinen, K. Kokkonen, S. Novotny, M. Kaivola, H. Ludvigsen, “Stroboscopic white-light interferometry of vibrating microstructures,” Opt. Express 21, 16901–16907 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Lipiäinen, A. Jaakkola, K. Kokkonen, M. Kaivola, “Frequency splitting of the main mode in a microelectromechanical resonator due to coupling with an anchor resonance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 013503 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ludvigsen, H.

Malinowski, A.

Mattila, T.

A. Jaakkola, P. Rosenberg, S. Asmala, A. Nurmela, T. Pensala, T. Riekkinen, J. Dekker, T. Mattila, A. Alastalo, O. Holmgren, K. Kokkonen, “Piezoelectrically transduced single-crystal-silicon plate resonators,” in “Proceedings of the IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium,” (IEEE, New York, 2008, Beijing, China, 2008), pp. 717–720.

Moon, S.

Nérin, P.

Neumann, J.

Nguyen, X.-L.

L.-C. Chen, Y.-T. Huang, X.-L. Nguyen, J.-L. Chen, C.-C. Chang, “Dynamic out-of-plane profilometry for nano-scale full-field characterization of MEMS using stroboscopic interferometry with novel signal deconvolution algorithm,” Opt. Laser. Eng. 47, 237–251 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nilsson, J.

P. Dupriez, A. Piper, A. Malinowski, J. K. Sahu, M. Ibsen, B. C. Thomsen, Y. Jeong, L. M. B. Hickey, M. N. Zervas, J. Nilsson, D. J. Richardson, “High average power, high repetition rate, picosecond pulsed fiber master oscillator power amplifier source seeded by a gain-switched laser diode at 1060 nm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1013–1015 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nolvi, A.

Novak, E.

J. Schmit, J. Reed, E. Novak, J. K. Gimzewski, “Performance advances in interferometric optical profilers for imaging and testing,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 10, 064001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Novotny, S.

Nurmela, A.

A. Jaakkola, P. Rosenberg, S. Asmala, A. Nurmela, T. Pensala, T. Riekkinen, J. Dekker, T. Mattila, A. Alastalo, O. Holmgren, K. Kokkonen, “Piezoelectrically transduced single-crystal-silicon plate resonators,” in “Proceedings of the IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium,” (IEEE, New York, 2008, Beijing, China, 2008), pp. 717–720.

Pal, M.

Pensala, T.

A. Jaakkola, P. Rosenberg, S. Asmala, A. Nurmela, T. Pensala, T. Riekkinen, J. Dekker, T. Mattila, A. Alastalo, O. Holmgren, K. Kokkonen, “Piezoelectrically transduced single-crystal-silicon plate resonators,” in “Proceedings of the IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium,” (IEEE, New York, 2008, Beijing, China, 2008), pp. 717–720.

Petitgrand, S.

A. Bosseboeuf, S. Petitgrand, “Characterization of the static and dynamic behaviour of M(O)EMS by optical techniques: status and trends,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 13, S23–S33 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Petitgrand, A. Bosseboeuf, “Simultaneous mapping of phase and amplitude of MEMS vibrations by microscopic interferometry with stroboscopic illumination,” Proc. SPIE 5145, 33–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Petitgrand, R. Yahiaoui, K. Danaie, A. Bosseboeuf, J. Gilles, “3D measurement of micromechanical devices vibration mode shapes with a stroboscopic interferometric microscope,” Opt. Laser. Eng. 36, 77–101 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Phelan, R.

Piper, A.

P. Dupriez, A. Piper, A. Malinowski, J. K. Sahu, M. Ibsen, B. C. Thomsen, Y. Jeong, L. M. B. Hickey, M. N. Zervas, J. Nilsson, D. J. Richardson, “High average power, high repetition rate, picosecond pulsed fiber master oscillator power amplifier source seeded by a gain-switched laser diode at 1060 nm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1013–1015 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Price, J. H. V.

Räikkönen, E.

Reed, J.

J. Schmit, J. Reed, E. Novak, J. K. Gimzewski, “Performance advances in interferometric optical profilers for imaging and testing,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 10, 064001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, D. J.

Riekkinen, T.

A. Jaakkola, P. Rosenberg, S. Asmala, A. Nurmela, T. Pensala, T. Riekkinen, J. Dekker, T. Mattila, A. Alastalo, O. Holmgren, K. Kokkonen, “Piezoelectrically transduced single-crystal-silicon plate resonators,” in “Proceedings of the IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium,” (IEEE, New York, 2008, Beijing, China, 2008), pp. 717–720.

Rosenberg, P.

A. Jaakkola, P. Rosenberg, S. Asmala, A. Nurmela, T. Pensala, T. Riekkinen, J. Dekker, T. Mattila, A. Alastalo, O. Holmgren, K. Kokkonen, “Piezoelectrically transduced single-crystal-silicon plate resonators,” in “Proceedings of the IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium,” (IEEE, New York, 2008, Beijing, China, 2008), pp. 717–720.

Rothhardt, M.

Roy, P.

Ryczkowski, P.

Sahu, J.

Sahu, J. K.

P. Dupriez, A. Piper, A. Malinowski, J. K. Sahu, M. Ibsen, B. C. Thomsen, Y. Jeong, L. M. B. Hickey, M. N. Zervas, J. Nilsson, D. J. Richardson, “High average power, high repetition rate, picosecond pulsed fiber master oscillator power amplifier source seeded by a gain-switched laser diode at 1060 nm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1013–1015 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sainiemi, L.

K. Hanhijärvi, I. Kassamakov, J. Aaltonen, V. Heikkinen, L. Sainiemi, S. Franssila, E. Hæggström, “Through-silicon stroboscopic characterization of an oscillating MEMS thermal actuator using supercontinuum interferometry,” Mechatronics, IEEE/ASME Transactions on 18, 1418–1420 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Sayinc, H.

Schmit, J.

J. Schmit, J. Reed, E. Novak, J. K. Gimzewski, “Performance advances in interferometric optical profilers for imaging and testing,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 10, 064001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Harasaki, J. Schmit, J. C. Wyant, “Improved vertical-scanning interferometry,” Appl. Opt. 39, 2107–2115 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schönau, T.

T. Schönau, T. Siebert, R. Härtel, D. Klemme, K. Lauritsen, R. Erdmann, “Picosecond supercontinuum laser with consistent emission parameters over variable repetition rates from 1 to 40 MHz,” Proc. SPIE 8601, 86012L (2013).
[CrossRef]

Shardlow, P. C.

Shavrin, I.

Siebert, T.

T. Schönau, T. Siebert, R. Härtel, D. Klemme, K. Lauritsen, R. Erdmann, “Picosecond supercontinuum laser with consistent emission parameters over variable repetition rates from 1 to 40 MHz,” Proc. SPIE 8601, 86012L (2013).
[CrossRef]

Strand, T. C.

Telschow, K. L.

K. L. Telschow, V. A. Deason, D. L. Cottle, J. D. Larson, “Full-field imaging of gigahertz film bulk acoustic resonator motion,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason., Ferroelectr., Freq. Control 50, 1279–1285 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Theeg, T.

Thomsen, B. C.

P. Dupriez, A. Piper, A. Malinowski, J. K. Sahu, M. Ibsen, B. C. Thomsen, Y. Jeong, L. M. B. Hickey, M. N. Zervas, J. Nilsson, D. J. Richardson, “High average power, high repetition rate, picosecond pulsed fiber master oscillator power amplifier source seeded by a gain-switched laser diode at 1060 nm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1013–1015 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tiziani, H. J.

Tombelaine, V.

Turzhitsky, M.

Windecker, R.

Wyant, J. C.

Yahiaoui, R.

S. Petitgrand, R. Yahiaoui, K. Danaie, A. Bosseboeuf, J. Gilles, “3D measurement of micromechanical devices vibration mode shapes with a stroboscopic interferometric microscope,” Opt. Laser. Eng. 36, 77–101 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zervas, M. N.

P. Dupriez, A. Piper, A. Malinowski, J. K. Sahu, M. Ibsen, B. C. Thomsen, Y. Jeong, L. M. B. Hickey, M. N. Zervas, J. Nilsson, D. J. Richardson, “High average power, high repetition rate, picosecond pulsed fiber master oscillator power amplifier source seeded by a gain-switched laser diode at 1060 nm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1013–1015 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (4)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

L. Lipiäinen, A. Jaakkola, K. Kokkonen, M. Kaivola, “Frequency splitting of the main mode in a microelectromechanical resonator due to coupling with an anchor resonance,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 013503 (2012).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

P. Dupriez, A. Piper, A. Malinowski, J. K. Sahu, M. Ibsen, B. C. Thomsen, Y. Jeong, L. M. B. Hickey, M. N. Zervas, J. Nilsson, D. J. Richardson, “High average power, high repetition rate, picosecond pulsed fiber master oscillator power amplifier source seeded by a gain-switched laser diode at 1060 nm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18, 1013–1015 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Ultrason., Ferroelectr., Freq. Control (1)

K. L. Telschow, V. A. Deason, D. L. Cottle, J. D. Larson, “Full-field imaging of gigahertz film bulk acoustic resonator motion,” IEEE Trans. Ultrason., Ferroelectr., Freq. Control 50, 1279–1285 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Micromech. Microeng. (1)

A. Bosseboeuf, S. Petitgrand, “Characterization of the static and dynamic behaviour of M(O)EMS by optical techniques: status and trends,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 13, S23–S33 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

P. de Groot, L. L. Deck, “Surface profiling by analysis of white-light interferograms in the spatial frequency domain,” J. Mod. Opt. 42, 389–401 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Schmit, J. Reed, E. Novak, J. K. Gimzewski, “Performance advances in interferometric optical profilers for imaging and testing,” J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 10, 064001 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mechatronics, IEEE/ASME Transactions on (1)

K. Hanhijärvi, I. Kassamakov, J. Aaltonen, V. Heikkinen, L. Sainiemi, S. Franssila, E. Hæggström, “Through-silicon stroboscopic characterization of an oscillating MEMS thermal actuator using supercontinuum interferometry,” Mechatronics, IEEE/ASME Transactions on 18, 1418–1420 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (7)

K. K. Chen, S.-U. Alam, J. H. V. Price, J. R. Hayes, D. Lin, A. Malinowski, C. Codemard, D. Ghosh, M. Pal, S. K. Bhadra, D. J. Richardson, “Picosecond fiber MOPA pumped supercontinuum source with 39 W output power,” Opt. Express 18, 5426–5432 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. K. Chen, J. H. V. Price, S.-U. Alam, J. R. Hayes, D. Lin, A. Malinowski, D. J. Richardson, “Polarisation maintaining 100W Yb-fiber MOPA producing μJ pulses tunable in duration from 1 to 21 ps,” Opt. Express 18, 14385–14394 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kanzelmeyer, H. Sayinc, T. Theeg, M. Frede, J. Neumann, D. Kracht, “All-fiber based amplification of 40 ps pulses from a gain-switched laser diode,” Opt. Express 19, 1854–1859 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Shavrin, L. Lipiäinen, K. Kokkonen, S. Novotny, M. Kaivola, H. Ludvigsen, “Stroboscopic white-light interferometry of vibrating microstructures,” Opt. Express 21, 16901–16907 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P.-A. Champert, V. Couderc, P. Leproux, S. Février, V. Tombelaine, L. Labonté, P. Roy, C. Froehly, P. Nérin, “White-light supercontinuum generation in normally dispersive optical fiber using original multi-wavelength pumping system,” Opt. Express 12, 4366–4371 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Moon, D. Y. Kim, “Generation of octave-spanning supercontinuum with 1550-nm amplified diode-laser pulses and a dispersion-shifted fiber,” Opt. Express 14, 270–278 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Räikkönen, G. Genty, O. Kimmelma, K. P. Hansen, S. C. Buchter, M. Kaivola, “Supercontinuum generation by nanosecond dual-wavelength pumping in microstructured optical fibers,” Opt. Express 14, 7914–7923 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Laser. Eng. (2)

S. Petitgrand, R. Yahiaoui, K. Danaie, A. Bosseboeuf, J. Gilles, “3D measurement of micromechanical devices vibration mode shapes with a stroboscopic interferometric microscope,” Opt. Laser. Eng. 36, 77–101 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L.-C. Chen, Y.-T. Huang, X.-L. Nguyen, J.-L. Chen, C.-C. Chang, “Dynamic out-of-plane profilometry for nano-scale full-field characterization of MEMS using stroboscopic interferometry with novel signal deconvolution algorithm,” Opt. Laser. Eng. 47, 237–251 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Proc. SPIE (2)

S. Petitgrand, A. Bosseboeuf, “Simultaneous mapping of phase and amplitude of MEMS vibrations by microscopic interferometry with stroboscopic illumination,” Proc. SPIE 5145, 33–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Schönau, T. Siebert, R. Härtel, D. Klemme, K. Lauritsen, R. Erdmann, “Picosecond supercontinuum laser with consistent emission parameters over variable repetition rates from 1 to 40 MHz,” Proc. SPIE 8601, 86012L (2013).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

A. Jaakkola, P. Rosenberg, S. Asmala, A. Nurmela, T. Pensala, T. Riekkinen, J. Dekker, T. Mattila, A. Alastalo, O. Holmgren, K. Kokkonen, “Piezoelectrically transduced single-crystal-silicon plate resonators,” in “Proceedings of the IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium,” (IEEE, New York, 2008, Beijing, China, 2008), pp. 717–720.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the picosecond supercontinuum light source. Picosecond optical pulses emitted by a gain-switched laser diode are amplified in a two-stage YDPMF amplifier. A part of the amplified optical pulse is frequency doubled in a KTP nonlinear crystal before both the 1064 nm and 532 nm wavelengths are coupled into a microstructured optical fiber (MOF). OI - optical isolator; BPF - 1064 nm bandpass filter; CPS - cladding power stripper; SM - single-mode; MM - multi-mode.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Measured average and (b) corresponding estimated peak signal output power as a function of the coupled second stage pump power for different pulse repetition rates. (c) The optical spectra of the pulses emitted from the gain-switched laser diode (solid line, 400 mW peak power) and of amplified optical pulses with 10 kW peak power (dashed line) are shown for a pulse repetition rate of 1 MHz.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Supercontinuum spectra measured for (a) different coupled peak powers at a pulse repetition rate of 1 MHz and (b) different pulse repetition rates at a coupled peak power of P532 = 60 W and P1064 = 420 W, showing that the shape of the spectra remain constant.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The supercontinuum optical pulses emitted by the source are first spectrally filtered by a bandpass filter (BPF) and guided through a multi-mode fiber (MM-fiber) before illuminating the sample in our stroboscopic white-light interferometer setup. A function generator drives the MEMS sample and provides the synchronization signal for the light source. The insets show the measured average (a) temporal and (b) spectral properties of the optical pulses at the interferometer input at 1 MHz repetition rate.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The measured (a) amplitude and (b) phase data for the 3.37 MHz vibration mode are presented. In (c) a schematic view of the square-plate silicon MEMS resonator is shown together with a 3D view of the instantaneous surface deformation obtained by combining amplitude and phase data at maximum deflection of the plate center.

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