Abstract

Large-scale entanglement of nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond will require integration of NV centers with optical networks. Toward this goal, we present the fabrication of single-crystalline gallium phosphide (GaP) resonator-waveguide coupled structures on diamond. We demonstrate coupling between 1 μm diameter GaP disk resonators and waveguides with a loaded Q factor of 3,800, and evaluate their potential for efficient photon collection if integrated with single photon emitters. This work opens a path toward scalable NV entanglement in the hybrid GaP/diamond platform, with the potential to integrate on-chip photon collection, switching, and detection for applications in quantum information processing.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2014 (4)

B. J. M. Hausmann, I. Bulu, V. Venkataraman, P. Deotare, M. Lončar, “An on-chip diamond optical parametric oscillator,” Nat. Photonics 8, 369–374 (2014).
[CrossRef]

N. Thomas, R. Barbour, Y. Song, M. L. Lee, K.-M. C. Fu, “Fabrication of GaP disk resonator arrays coupled to nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond,” Proc. SPIE 8997, 899702 (2014).
[CrossRef]

M. Mitchell, A. C. Hryciw, P. E. Barclay, “Cavity optomechanics in gallium phosphide microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(14), 141104 (2014).
[CrossRef]

J. Michl, T. Teraji, S. Zaiser, I. Jakobi, G. Waldherr, F. Dolde, P. Neumann, M. W. Doherty, N. B. Manson, J. Isoya, J. Wrachtrup, “Perfect alignement and preferential orientation of nitrogen-vacancy centers during chemical vapor deposition diamond growth on (111) surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104(10), 102407 (2014).
[CrossRef]

2013 (5)

H. Bernien, B. Hensen, W. Pfaff, G. Koolstra, M. S. Blok, L. Robledo, T. H. Taminiau, M. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, L. Childress, R. Hanson, “Heralded entanglement between solid-state qubits separated by three metres,” Nature 497(7447), 86–90 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Faraon, C. Santori, Z. Huang, K.-M.-C. Fu, V. M. Acosta, D. Fattal, R. G. Beausoleil, “Quantum photonic devices in single-crystal diamond,” New J. Phys. 15(2), 025010 (2013).
[CrossRef]

B. J. M. Hausmann, I. B. Bulu, P. B. Deotare, M. McCutcheon, V. Venkataraman, M. L. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, M. Lončar, “Integrated High-Quality Factor Optical Resonators in Diamond,” Nano Lett. 13(5), 1898–1902 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Huang, A. Faraon, C. Santori, V. Acosta, R. G. Beausoleil, “Microring resonator-based diamond optothermal switch: a building block for a quantum computing network,” Proc. SPIE 8635, 86350E (2013).
[CrossRef]

N. Bar-Gill, L. M. Pham, A. Jarmola, D. Budker, R. L. Walsworth, “Solid-state electronic spin coherence time approaching one second,” Nat. Commun. 4, 1743 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (7)

P. C. Maurer, G. Kucsko, C. Latta, L. Jiang, N. Y. Yao, S. D. Bennett, F. Pastawski, D. Hunger, N. Chisholm, M. Markham, D. J. Twitchen, J. I. Cirac, M. D. Lukin, “Room-temperature Quantum Bit Memory Exceeding One Second,” Science 336(6086), 1283–1286 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. J. M. Hausmann, B. Shields, Q. Quan, P. Maletinsky, M. McCutcheon, J. T. Choy, T. M. Babinec, A. Kubanek, A. Yacoby, M. D. Lukin, M. Lončar, “Integrated diamond networks for quantum nanophotonics,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1578–1582 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Xiong, W. H. P. Pernice, X. Sun, C. Schuck, K. Y. Fong, H. X. Tang, “Aluminum Nitride as a New Material for Chip-Scale Optomechanics and Nonlinear Optics,” New J. Phys. 14(9), 095014 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Xiong, W. H. P. Pernice, H. X. Tang, “Low-loss, Silicon Integrated, Aluminum Nitride Photonic Circuits and Their Use for Electro-Optic Signal Processing,” Nano Lett. 12(7), 3562–3568 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Ohno, F. J. Heremans, L. C. Bassett, B. A. Myers, D. M. Toyli, A. C. Bleszynski Jayich, C. J. Palstrøm, D. D. Awschalom, “Engineering shallow spins in diamond with nitrogen delta-doping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(8), 082413 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Edmonds, U. F. S. D’Haenens-Johansson, R. J. Cruddace, M. E. Newton, K.-M. C. Fu, C. Santori, R. G. Beausoleil, D. J. Twitchen, M. L. Markham, “Production of oriented nitrogen-vacancy color centers in synthetic diamond,” Phys. Rev. B 86(3), 035201 (2012).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Acosta, C. Santori, A. Faraon, Z. Huang, K.-M. C. Fu, A. Stacey, D. A. Simpson, K. Ganesan, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, A. D. Greentree, S. Prawer, R. G. Beausoleil, “Dynamic Stabilization of the Optical Resonances of Single Nitrogen-Vacancy Centers in Diamond,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(20), 206401 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (4)

L. C. Bassett, F. J. Heremans, C. G. Yale, B. B. Buckley, D. D. Awschalom, “Electrical Tuning of Single Nitrogen-Vacancy Center Optical Transitions Enhanced by Photoinduced Fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(26), 266403 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. E. Barclay, K.-M. C. Fu, C. Santori, A. Faraon, R. G. Beausoleil, “Hybrid nanocavity resonance enhancement of color center emission in diamond,” Phys. Rev. X 1, 011007 (2011).

J. P. Sprengers, A. Gaggero, D. Sahin, S. Jahanmirinejad, G. Frucci, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, J. Beetz, M. Lermer, M. Kamp, S. Höfling, R. Sanjines, A. Fiore, “Waveguide superconducting single-photon detectors for integrated quantum photonic circuits,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(18), 181110 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Robledo, L. Childress, H. Bernien, B. Hensen, P. F. A. Alkemade, R. Hanson, “High-fidelity projective read-out of a solid-state spin quantum register,” Nature 477(7366), 574–578 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (4)

C. Santori, P. E. Barclay, K.-M. C. Fu, R. G. Beausoleil, S. Spillane, M. Fisch, “Nanophotonics for quantum optics using nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond,” Nanotechnology 21(27), 274008 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. M. Toyli, C. D. Weis, G. D. Fuchs, T. Schenkel, D. D. Awschalom, “Chip-Scale Nanofabrication of Single Spins and Spin Arrays in Diamond,” Nano Lett. 10(8), 3168–3172 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, S. G. Johnson, “MEEP: A flexible free-software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181(3), 687–702 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K.-M. C. Fu, C. Santori, P. E. Barclay, R. G. Beausoleil, “Conversion of neutral nitrogen-vacancy centers to negatively charged nitrogen-vacancy centers through selective oxidation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(12), 121907 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (5)

P. E. Barclay, K.-M. C. Fu, C. Santori, R. G. Beausoleil, “Chip-based microcavities coupled to nitrogen-vacancy centers in single crystal diamond,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(19), 191115 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Siyushev, V. Jacques, I. Aharonovich, F. Kaiser, T. Müller, L. Lombez, M. Atatüre, S. Castelletto, S. Prawer, F. Jelezko, J. Wrachtrup, “Low-temperature optical characterization of a near-infrared single-photon emitter in nanodiamonds,” New J. Phys. 11(11), 113029 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Balasubramanian, P. Neumann, D. Twitchen, M. Markham, R. Kolesov, N. Mizuochi, J. Isoya, J. Achard, J. Beck, J. Tissler, V. Jacques, P. R. Hemmer, F. Jelezko, J. Wrachtrup, “Ultralong spin coherence time in isotopically engineered diamond,” Nat. Mater. 8(5), 383–387 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. J. Briegel, D. E. Browne, W. Dür, R. Raussendorf, M. van den Nest, “Measurement-based quantum computation,” Nat. Phys. 5, 19–26 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Benjamin, B. W. Lovett, J. M. Smith, “Prospects for measurement-based quantum computing with solid state spins,” Laser Photon. Rev. 3(6), 556–574 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

K.-M. C. Fu, C. Santori, P. E. Barcley, I. Aharonovich, S. Prawer, N. Meyer, A. M. Holm, R. G. Beausoleil, “Coupling of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond to a GaP waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(23), 234107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

Ph. Tamarat, T. Gaebel, J. R. Rabeau, M. Khan, A. D. Greentree, H. Wilson, L. C. L. Hollenberg, S. Prawer, P. Hemmer, F. Jelezko, J. Wrachtrup, “Stark Shift Control of Single Optical Centers in Diamond,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(8), 083002 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Benjamin, D. E. Browne, J. Fitzsimons, J. J. L. Morton, “Brokered graph-state quantum computation,” New J. Phys. 8(8), 141 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Childress, J. M. Taylor, A. S. Sørensen, M. D. Lukin, “Fault-Tolerant Quantum Communication Based on Solid-State Photon Emitters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(7), 070504 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

L. Childress, J. M. Taylor, A. S. Sørensen, M. D. Lukin, “Fault-Tolerant Quantum Repeaters With Minimal Physical Resources and Implementations Based on Single-Photon Emitters,” Phys. Rev. A 72(5), 052330 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Borselli, T. J. Johnson, O. Painter, “Beyond the Rayleigh scattering limit in high-Q silicon microdisks: theory and experiment,” Opt. Express 13(5), 1515–1530 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

L. M. Duan, M. D. Lukin, J. I. Cirac, P. Zoller, “Long-distance quantum communication with atomic ensembles and linear optics,” Nature 414(6862), 413–418 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

1995 (1)

1990 (1)

E. Yablonovitch, D. M. Hwang, T. J. Gmitter, L. T. Florez, J. P. Harbison, “Van der Waals bonding of GaAs epitaxial liftoff films onto arbitrary substrates,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56(24), 2419–2421 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

E. Yablonovitch, T. Gmitter, J. P. Harbison, R. Bhat, “Extreme selectivity in the liftoff of epitaxial GaAs films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(26), 2222–2224 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

G. Davies, “Vibronic spectra in diamond,” J. Phys. Chem. 7, 3797–3809 (1974).

1968 (1)

D. F. Nelson, E. H. Turner, “Electrooptic and Piezoelectric Coefficients and Refractive Index of Gallium Phosphide,” J. Appl. Phys. 39(7), 3337–3343 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1946 (1)

E. M. Purcell, “Spontaneous emission probabilities at radio frequencies,” Phys. Rev. 69, 681 (1946).

Achard, J.

G. Balasubramanian, P. Neumann, D. Twitchen, M. Markham, R. Kolesov, N. Mizuochi, J. Isoya, J. Achard, J. Beck, J. Tissler, V. Jacques, P. R. Hemmer, F. Jelezko, J. Wrachtrup, “Ultralong spin coherence time in isotopically engineered diamond,” Nat. Mater. 8(5), 383–387 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Acosta, V.

Z. Huang, A. Faraon, C. Santori, V. Acosta, R. G. Beausoleil, “Microring resonator-based diamond optothermal switch: a building block for a quantum computing network,” Proc. SPIE 8635, 86350E (2013).
[CrossRef]

Acosta, V. M.

A. Faraon, C. Santori, Z. Huang, K.-M.-C. Fu, V. M. Acosta, D. Fattal, R. G. Beausoleil, “Quantum photonic devices in single-crystal diamond,” New J. Phys. 15(2), 025010 (2013).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Acosta, C. Santori, A. Faraon, Z. Huang, K.-M. C. Fu, A. Stacey, D. A. Simpson, K. Ganesan, S. Tomljenovic-Hanic, A. D. Greentree, S. Prawer, R. G. Beausoleil, “Dynamic Stabilization of the Optical Resonances of Single Nitrogen-Vacancy Centers in Diamond,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(20), 206401 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aharonovich, I.

P. Siyushev, V. Jacques, I. Aharonovich, F. Kaiser, T. Müller, L. Lombez, M. Atatüre, S. Castelletto, S. Prawer, F. Jelezko, J. Wrachtrup, “Low-temperature optical characterization of a near-infrared single-photon emitter in nanodiamonds,” New J. Phys. 11(11), 113029 (2009).
[CrossRef]

K.-M. C. Fu, C. Santori, P. E. Barcley, I. Aharonovich, S. Prawer, N. Meyer, A. M. Holm, R. G. Beausoleil, “Coupling of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond to a GaP waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(23), 234107 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Alkemade, P. F. A.

L. Robledo, L. Childress, H. Bernien, B. Hensen, P. F. A. Alkemade, R. Hanson, “High-fidelity projective read-out of a solid-state spin quantum register,” Nature 477(7366), 574–578 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Atatüre, M.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Transfer of single-crystalline GaP sheets onto diamond. (a) Schematic process flow. (b) Optical micrograph of mm2-sized transferred GaP sheet on diamond.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

GaP waveguide-integrated resonators with out-of-plane grating couplers on diamond. (a) Scanning electron micrograph of GaP resonator array on the etched diamond substrate. We fabricate ring and disk resonators with 1 μm, 2 μm, and 5 μm diameter, respectively. The waveguides are typically 100 nm wide, typical resonator-waveguide spacings are 80 nm. The gratings were designed for free-space coupling of 637 nm light with a periodicity of 280 nm and a duty cycle of 0.45. Their overall size is 2 μm by 2 μm. Two-dimensional (2-D) FDTD simulations of the grating structure on a 600 nm etched diamond substrate indicate an output coupling efficiency of ~70%. The actual efficiencies in the fabricated devices are assumed to be much lower; testing was performed with a broadband LED focused to a 3 micron spot. (b) Schematic of setup for resonator-waveguide coupling testing. We record the transmission spectrum from a broadband source used to excite the structure.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Coupling between 2 μm diameter GaP disk and 100 nm GaP waveguide on diamond. (a) Transmission spectrum showing resonance dips at 618.5 nm (I), 636.4 nm (II), and 655.8 nm (III) with a maximum loaded Ql of 3,700. The broadband spectrum (left) is taken with a 300 lines/mm grating. The transmission spectra at the resonance wavelengths (right) is taken using a 1800 lines/mm grating. The inset shows an SEM image of a typical device. (b) Cylindrical quasi 2-D FDTD simulation of 2 μm diameter GaP disk on diamond showing a TE resonance at 640.2 nm with a Qi of 6,650, respectively. (c) FDTD simulation of 2 μm GaP disk on etched diamond pedestal. The TE resonance moved to 636.9 nm with a significantly increased Qi factor > 29 ∙ 109. Shown are the cross-sections of the resonators along y = 0. All devices are simulated with a 40 nm SiO2 top cladding.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Transmission spectrum for 1 μm diameter GaP disk resonator on etched diamond substrate. (a) SEM image of device with a waveguide-resonator separation of ~75 nm. (b) Broadband transmission spectrum showing a resonance dip at 643.5 nm with a Ql of 3,800. (c) Quasi 2-D FDTD simulation of a 1 μm GaP disk resonator on a diamond pedestal (cross-sectional view along y = 0) with a quality factor Qi of 3.2∙106.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Coupling characteristics in waveguide-integrated resonator-system. (a) Calculated ZPL collection efficiency in bus waveguide as function of intrinsic quality factor Qi and coupling quality factor Qc. (b) 3D-FDTD simulation of loaded quality factor of a 1 μm diameter GaP disk on a diamond pedestal as function of the waveguide-resonator gap and waveguide width. The GaP device with a diameter of 1 μm and height of 200 nm sits on a 550 nm deep etched diamond substrate. Qi of the simulated resonator is > 3.2∙106. The simulated loaded Ql are therefore mainly determined by the coupling Qc. The inset shows phase-matched coupling between the GaP resonator and a 100 nm wide GaP waveguide with a gap of 100 nm, with the source located in the resonator.

Equations (6)

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η NVWG = η ZPL × β ZPL × η cavWG
η ZPL = γ ZPL ( F ZPL +1 ) γ PSB + γ ZPL ( F ZPL +1 ) ,
F ZPL =  3 4 π 2 ( λ ZPL n GaP ) 3 n GaP n diamond Q l V ( | μ ^ E NV | | E max | ) 2
β ZPL = F ZPL F ZPL +1 .
η cavWG = γ waveguide γ total = Q c Q l = Q i Q i + Q c ,
η NVWG = γ ZPL γ PSB + γ ZPL ( F ZPL +1 )  ×  F ZPL  ×  Q i Q c + Q i .

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