Abstract

As the integration packaging density of high-power LED (Light Emitting Diode) chip modules become higher and higher, the accuracy and speed of visual inspection require higher demands correspondingly. The accurate position matching of substrates and flip-chip LEDs is one of the key technologies in the automatic eutectic welding process. In this paper we propose a method based on image features to complete the matching of the substrates and the flip-chip LEDs. Firstly, the substrate images and the flip-chip images are pre-processed respectively to obtain binary images. Then we apply Hough transformation to detect straight lines on the binary images, and find out the main linear directions to trigger the mechanical arms to adjust the positions of the substrate and the chip initially. Thirdly, we use eight neighbors interconnected domain algorithm for the first time to locate notable features of the substrate, and pass the located information to the control system to trigger the mechanical arm to adjust the substrate for the second time. At the same time, projection algorithm is applied to locate the anode of the flip-chip to drive the mechanical arm to adjust the position of the flip-chip again. Finally, the position information is used to trigger the mechanical arm to accomplish the matching of the substrate and the flip-chip. The proposed method improves the speed of matching on the basis of the accuracy of matching, which achieves these requirements of real-time and high accuracy applications.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 180–182 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. J. Wierer, D. A. Steigerwald, M. R. Krames, J. J. O’Shea, M. J. Ludowise, G. Christenson, Y.-C. Shen, C. Lowery, P. S. Martin, S. Subramanya, W. Götz, N. F. Gardner, R. S. Kern, S. A. Stockman, “High-power AlGaInN flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(22), 3379–3381 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  3. O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 071109(2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. J. Chang, W. S. Chen, S. C. Shei, C. T. Kuo, T. K. Ko, C. F. Shen, J. M. Tsai, W. C. Lai, J. K. Sheu, A. J. Lin, “High-brightness InGaN–GaN power flip-chip LEDs,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(12), 1985–1989 (2009).
  5. T. X. Lee, K. F. Gao, W. T. Chien, C. C. Sun, “Light extraction analysis of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with surface texture and/or patterned substrate,” Opt. Express 15(11), 6670–6676 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. C. C. Wang, W. R. Yang, J. J. Chen, W. W. Shih, I. J. Wang, T. Y. Guo, and K. L. Huang, Optical and Thermal Analysis for a Modified Flip-Chip Light Emitting Diode,” in Asia Optical Fiber Communication and Optoelectronic Exposition and Conference (Shanghai China,2008), SAK4.
  7. ASM, AD838L, http://www.asmpacific.com/asmpt/products_diebond_ad838l.htm
  8. ASM, AD211, http://www.asmpacific.com/asmpt/products_diebond_ad211.html
  9. B. Pan, K. Li, “A fast digital image correlation method for deformation measurement,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 49(7), 841–847 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  10. B. S. Reddy, B. N. Chatterji, “An FFT-based technique for translation, rotation, and scale-invariant image registration,” IEEE T Imag. Process. 5(8), 1266–1271 (1996).
  11. B. Zitová, J. Flusser, “Image registration methods: a survey,” Image Vis. Comput. 21(11), 977–1000 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. G. Lowe, “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints,” Int. J. Comput. Vis. 60(2), 91–110 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  13. K. Jung, K. I. Kim, A. K. Jain, “Text information extraction in images and video: a survey,” Pattern Recognit. 37(5), 977–997 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  14. C. N. E. Anagnostopoulos, I. E. Anagnostopoulos, I. D. Psoroulas, V. Loumos, E. Kayafas, “License plate recognition from still images and video sequences: A survey,” IEEE T. Intell. Transp. 9(9), 377–391 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. O. Duda, P. E. Hart, “Use of the Hough transformation to detect lines and curves in pictures,” Commun. ACM 15(1), 11–15 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. Canny, “A computational approach to edge detection,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 8(6), 679–698 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

B. Pan, K. Li, “A fast digital image correlation method for deformation measurement,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 49(7), 841–847 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

2008 (1)

C. N. E. Anagnostopoulos, I. E. Anagnostopoulos, I. D. Psoroulas, V. Loumos, E. Kayafas, “License plate recognition from still images and video sequences: A survey,” IEEE T. Intell. Transp. 9(9), 377–391 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 071109(2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

D. G. Lowe, “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints,” Int. J. Comput. Vis. 60(2), 91–110 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Jung, K. I. Kim, A. K. Jain, “Text information extraction in images and video: a survey,” Pattern Recognit. 37(5), 977–997 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

B. Zitová, J. Flusser, “Image registration methods: a survey,” Image Vis. Comput. 21(11), 977–1000 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

J. J. Wierer, D. A. Steigerwald, M. R. Krames, J. J. O’Shea, M. J. Ludowise, G. Christenson, Y.-C. Shen, C. Lowery, P. S. Martin, S. Subramanya, W. Götz, N. F. Gardner, R. S. Kern, S. A. Stockman, “High-power AlGaInN flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(22), 3379–3381 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

B. S. Reddy, B. N. Chatterji, “An FFT-based technique for translation, rotation, and scale-invariant image registration,” IEEE T Imag. Process. 5(8), 1266–1271 (1996).

1986 (1)

J. Canny, “A computational approach to edge detection,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 8(6), 679–698 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1972 (1)

R. O. Duda, P. E. Hart, “Use of the Hough transformation to detect lines and curves in pictures,” Commun. ACM 15(1), 11–15 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Anagnostopoulos, C. N. E.

C. N. E. Anagnostopoulos, I. E. Anagnostopoulos, I. D. Psoroulas, V. Loumos, E. Kayafas, “License plate recognition from still images and video sequences: A survey,” IEEE T. Intell. Transp. 9(9), 377–391 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Anagnostopoulos, I. E.

C. N. E. Anagnostopoulos, I. E. Anagnostopoulos, I. D. Psoroulas, V. Loumos, E. Kayafas, “License plate recognition from still images and video sequences: A survey,” IEEE T. Intell. Transp. 9(9), 377–391 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Canny, J.

J. Canny, “A computational approach to edge detection,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 8(6), 679–698 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, S. J.

Chatterji, B. N.

B. S. Reddy, B. N. Chatterji, “An FFT-based technique for translation, rotation, and scale-invariant image registration,” IEEE T Imag. Process. 5(8), 1266–1271 (1996).

Chen, W. S.

Chien, W. T.

Christenson, G.

J. J. Wierer, D. A. Steigerwald, M. R. Krames, J. J. O’Shea, M. J. Ludowise, G. Christenson, Y.-C. Shen, C. Lowery, P. S. Martin, S. Subramanya, W. Götz, N. F. Gardner, R. S. Kern, S. A. Stockman, “High-power AlGaInN flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(22), 3379–3381 (2001).
[CrossRef]

DenBaars, S. P.

S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 180–182 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Duda, R. O.

R. O. Duda, P. E. Hart, “Use of the Hough transformation to detect lines and curves in pictures,” Commun. ACM 15(1), 11–15 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Epler, J. E.

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 071109(2006).
[CrossRef]

Flusser, J.

B. Zitová, J. Flusser, “Image registration methods: a survey,” Image Vis. Comput. 21(11), 977–1000 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gao, K. F.

Gardner, N. F.

J. J. Wierer, D. A. Steigerwald, M. R. Krames, J. J. O’Shea, M. J. Ludowise, G. Christenson, Y.-C. Shen, C. Lowery, P. S. Martin, S. Subramanya, W. Götz, N. F. Gardner, R. S. Kern, S. A. Stockman, “High-power AlGaInN flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(22), 3379–3381 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Götz, W.

J. J. Wierer, D. A. Steigerwald, M. R. Krames, J. J. O’Shea, M. J. Ludowise, G. Christenson, Y.-C. Shen, C. Lowery, P. S. Martin, S. Subramanya, W. Götz, N. F. Gardner, R. S. Kern, S. A. Stockman, “High-power AlGaInN flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(22), 3379–3381 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hart, P. E.

R. O. Duda, P. E. Hart, “Use of the Hough transformation to detect lines and curves in pictures,” Commun. ACM 15(1), 11–15 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Holcomb, M. O.

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 071109(2006).
[CrossRef]

Jain, A. K.

K. Jung, K. I. Kim, A. K. Jain, “Text information extraction in images and video: a survey,” Pattern Recognit. 37(5), 977–997 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jung, K.

K. Jung, K. I. Kim, A. K. Jain, “Text information extraction in images and video: a survey,” Pattern Recognit. 37(5), 977–997 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kayafas, E.

C. N. E. Anagnostopoulos, I. E. Anagnostopoulos, I. D. Psoroulas, V. Loumos, E. Kayafas, “License plate recognition from still images and video sequences: A survey,” IEEE T. Intell. Transp. 9(9), 377–391 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kern, R. S.

J. J. Wierer, D. A. Steigerwald, M. R. Krames, J. J. O’Shea, M. J. Ludowise, G. Christenson, Y.-C. Shen, C. Lowery, P. S. Martin, S. Subramanya, W. Götz, N. F. Gardner, R. S. Kern, S. A. Stockman, “High-power AlGaInN flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(22), 3379–3381 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K. I.

K. Jung, K. I. Kim, A. K. Jain, “Text information extraction in images and video: a survey,” Pattern Recognit. 37(5), 977–997 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ko, T. K.

Krames, M. R.

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 071109(2006).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Wierer, D. A. Steigerwald, M. R. Krames, J. J. O’Shea, M. J. Ludowise, G. Christenson, Y.-C. Shen, C. Lowery, P. S. Martin, S. Subramanya, W. Götz, N. F. Gardner, R. S. Kern, S. A. Stockman, “High-power AlGaInN flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(22), 3379–3381 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, C. T.

Lai, W. C.

Lee, T. X.

Li, K.

B. Pan, K. Li, “A fast digital image correlation method for deformation measurement,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 49(7), 841–847 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lin, A. J.

Loumos, V.

C. N. E. Anagnostopoulos, I. E. Anagnostopoulos, I. D. Psoroulas, V. Loumos, E. Kayafas, “License plate recognition from still images and video sequences: A survey,” IEEE T. Intell. Transp. 9(9), 377–391 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lowe, D. G.

D. G. Lowe, “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints,” Int. J. Comput. Vis. 60(2), 91–110 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lowery, C.

J. J. Wierer, D. A. Steigerwald, M. R. Krames, J. J. O’Shea, M. J. Ludowise, G. Christenson, Y.-C. Shen, C. Lowery, P. S. Martin, S. Subramanya, W. Götz, N. F. Gardner, R. S. Kern, S. A. Stockman, “High-power AlGaInN flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(22), 3379–3381 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ludowise, M. J.

J. J. Wierer, D. A. Steigerwald, M. R. Krames, J. J. O’Shea, M. J. Ludowise, G. Christenson, Y.-C. Shen, C. Lowery, P. S. Martin, S. Subramanya, W. Götz, N. F. Gardner, R. S. Kern, S. A. Stockman, “High-power AlGaInN flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(22), 3379–3381 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Margalith, T.

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 071109(2006).
[CrossRef]

Martin, P. S.

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 071109(2006).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Wierer, D. A. Steigerwald, M. R. Krames, J. J. O’Shea, M. J. Ludowise, G. Christenson, Y.-C. Shen, C. Lowery, P. S. Martin, S. Subramanya, W. Götz, N. F. Gardner, R. S. Kern, S. A. Stockman, “High-power AlGaInN flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(22), 3379–3381 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 180–182 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O’Shea, J. J.

J. J. Wierer, D. A. Steigerwald, M. R. Krames, J. J. O’Shea, M. J. Ludowise, G. Christenson, Y.-C. Shen, C. Lowery, P. S. Martin, S. Subramanya, W. Götz, N. F. Gardner, R. S. Kern, S. A. Stockman, “High-power AlGaInN flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(22), 3379–3381 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pan, B.

B. Pan, K. Li, “A fast digital image correlation method for deformation measurement,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 49(7), 841–847 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pimputkar, S.

S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 180–182 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Psoroulas, I. D.

C. N. E. Anagnostopoulos, I. E. Anagnostopoulos, I. D. Psoroulas, V. Loumos, E. Kayafas, “License plate recognition from still images and video sequences: A survey,” IEEE T. Intell. Transp. 9(9), 377–391 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Reddy, B. S.

B. S. Reddy, B. N. Chatterji, “An FFT-based technique for translation, rotation, and scale-invariant image registration,” IEEE T Imag. Process. 5(8), 1266–1271 (1996).

Shchekin, O. B.

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 071109(2006).
[CrossRef]

Shei, S. C.

Shen, C. F.

Shen, Y.-C.

J. J. Wierer, D. A. Steigerwald, M. R. Krames, J. J. O’Shea, M. J. Ludowise, G. Christenson, Y.-C. Shen, C. Lowery, P. S. Martin, S. Subramanya, W. Götz, N. F. Gardner, R. S. Kern, S. A. Stockman, “High-power AlGaInN flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(22), 3379–3381 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sheu, J. K.

Speck, J. S.

S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 180–182 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Steigerwald, D. A.

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 071109(2006).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Wierer, D. A. Steigerwald, M. R. Krames, J. J. O’Shea, M. J. Ludowise, G. Christenson, Y.-C. Shen, C. Lowery, P. S. Martin, S. Subramanya, W. Götz, N. F. Gardner, R. S. Kern, S. A. Stockman, “High-power AlGaInN flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(22), 3379–3381 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Stockman, S. A.

J. J. Wierer, D. A. Steigerwald, M. R. Krames, J. J. O’Shea, M. J. Ludowise, G. Christenson, Y.-C. Shen, C. Lowery, P. S. Martin, S. Subramanya, W. Götz, N. F. Gardner, R. S. Kern, S. A. Stockman, “High-power AlGaInN flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(22), 3379–3381 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Subramanya, S.

J. J. Wierer, D. A. Steigerwald, M. R. Krames, J. J. O’Shea, M. J. Ludowise, G. Christenson, Y.-C. Shen, C. Lowery, P. S. Martin, S. Subramanya, W. Götz, N. F. Gardner, R. S. Kern, S. A. Stockman, “High-power AlGaInN flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(22), 3379–3381 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sun, C. C.

Trottier, T. A.

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 071109(2006).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, J. M.

Wierer, J. J.

J. J. Wierer, D. A. Steigerwald, M. R. Krames, J. J. O’Shea, M. J. Ludowise, G. Christenson, Y.-C. Shen, C. Lowery, P. S. Martin, S. Subramanya, W. Götz, N. F. Gardner, R. S. Kern, S. A. Stockman, “High-power AlGaInN flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(22), 3379–3381 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zitová, B.

B. Zitová, J. Flusser, “Image registration methods: a survey,” Image Vis. Comput. 21(11), 977–1000 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

J. J. Wierer, D. A. Steigerwald, M. R. Krames, J. J. O’Shea, M. J. Ludowise, G. Christenson, Y.-C. Shen, C. Lowery, P. S. Martin, S. Subramanya, W. Götz, N. F. Gardner, R. S. Kern, S. A. Stockman, “High-power AlGaInN flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(22), 3379–3381 (2001).
[CrossRef]

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(7), 071109(2006).
[CrossRef]

Commun. ACM (1)

R. O. Duda, P. E. Hart, “Use of the Hough transformation to detect lines and curves in pictures,” Commun. ACM 15(1), 11–15 (1972).
[CrossRef]

IEEE T Imag. Process. (1)

B. S. Reddy, B. N. Chatterji, “An FFT-based technique for translation, rotation, and scale-invariant image registration,” IEEE T Imag. Process. 5(8), 1266–1271 (1996).

IEEE T. Intell. Transp. (1)

C. N. E. Anagnostopoulos, I. E. Anagnostopoulos, I. D. Psoroulas, V. Loumos, E. Kayafas, “License plate recognition from still images and video sequences: A survey,” IEEE T. Intell. Transp. 9(9), 377–391 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. (1)

J. Canny, “A computational approach to edge detection,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 8(6), 679–698 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Image Vis. Comput. (1)

B. Zitová, J. Flusser, “Image registration methods: a survey,” Image Vis. Comput. 21(11), 977–1000 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Comput. Vis. (1)

D. G. Lowe, “Distinctive image features from scale-invariant keypoints,” Int. J. Comput. Vis. 60(2), 91–110 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Nat. Photonics (1)

S. Pimputkar, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, “Prospects for LED lighting,” Nat. Photonics 3(4), 180–182 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lasers Eng. (1)

B. Pan, K. Li, “A fast digital image correlation method for deformation measurement,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 49(7), 841–847 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pattern Recognit. (1)

K. Jung, K. I. Kim, A. K. Jain, “Text information extraction in images and video: a survey,” Pattern Recognit. 37(5), 977–997 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

C. C. Wang, W. R. Yang, J. J. Chen, W. W. Shih, I. J. Wang, T. Y. Guo, and K. L. Huang, Optical and Thermal Analysis for a Modified Flip-Chip Light Emitting Diode,” in Asia Optical Fiber Communication and Optoelectronic Exposition and Conference (Shanghai China,2008), SAK4.

ASM, AD838L, http://www.asmpacific.com/asmpt/products_diebond_ad838l.htm

ASM, AD211, http://www.asmpacific.com/asmpt/products_diebond_ad211.html

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Top surface of the LED chip; (b) Bottom surface of the LED chip; and (c) the physical size of the LED chip.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The matching flow of the substrate and the flip-chip LED.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Eight neighbors; (b) Eight connected domain.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The flow chart of preprocessing.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Color image of the input substrate.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Gray images of (a) the substrate; (b)LED chip.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Filtered results of gray images of (a) the substrate; (b) LED chip.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Binarization image of (a) the substrate;(b) the LED chip.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Hough Transformation of (a) binary image of the substrate; (b) binary image of the LED chip.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

First rotation correction of (a) the substrate and (b) the LED chip.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

External rectangle of connected domain in the substrate image.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

The projection images of binaryzation of Fig. 10(b): (a) horizontal projection; (b) vertical projection image.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

The matching result of the substrate and the flip-chip LED.

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I(x,y)={ 1,if (x,y) is a white point 0,if (x,y) is a black point .
H(x)= y=1 H I(x,y) ,(0xW).
V(y)= x=1 W I(x,y) ,(0yH)

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