Abstract

This paper presents the first proof-of-concept implementation and the principle that realizes a projection display whose contrast does not decrease even with existing inter-reflection of projection light or environmental light. We propose the use of photochromic compounds (PhC) to control reflectance of a projection surface. PhC changes color chemically when exposed to UV light. A PhC is applied to a surface to control its reflectance by radiating UV light from a UV-LED array. An image is projected from a visible projector onto the surface to boost the contrast. The proof-of-concept experiment shows that the prototype system achieves approximately three times higher contrast than a projection-only system under natural light.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. H. Seetzen, W. Heidrich, W. Stuerzlinger, G. Ward, L. Whitehead, M. Trentacoste, A. Ghosh, A. Vorozcovs, “High dynamic range display systems,” ACM Trans. Graphics 23(3), 760–768 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. Hoskinson, B. Stoeber, W. Heidrich, S. Fels, “Light reallocation for high contrast projection using an analog micromirror array,” ACM Trans. Graphics29(6), Article 165 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Y. Kusakabe, M. Kanazawa, Y. Nojiri, M. Furuya, M. Yoshimura, “A YC-separation-type projector: high dynamic range with double modulation,” J. Soc. Information Display 16(2), 383–391 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  4. O. Bimber, R. Raskar, Spatial augmented reality: merging real and virtual worlds (A. K. Peters Ltd., 2005).
  5. R. Raskar, G. Welch, K. L. Low, D. Bandyopadhyay, “Shader lamps: animating real objects with image-based illumination,” In Proceedings of the Eurographics Workshop on Rendering Techniques, 89–102 (2001).
  6. O. Bimber, A. Grundhöfer, T. Zeidler, D. Danch, P. Kapakos, “Compensating indirect scattering for immersive and semi-immersive projection displays,” In Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Virtual Reality, 151–158 (IEEE, 2006).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. Habe, N. Saeki, T. Matsuyama, “Inter-reflection compensation for immersive projection display,” In Proceedings of the IEEE International Workshop on Projector-Camera Systems, 2 pages (IEEE, 2007).
  8. O. Bimber, D. Iwai, “Superimposing dynamic range,” ACM Trans. Graphics27(5), Article 150 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. Shimazu, D. Iwai, K. Sato, “3D high dynamic range display system,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality, 235–236 (IEEE, 2011).
  10. O. Bimber, D. Iwai, G. Wetzstein, A. Grundhöfer, “The visual computing of projector-camera systems,” Computer Graphics Forum 27(8), 2219–2254 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Z. Wang, A. C. Bovik, H. R. Sheikh, E. P. Simoncelli, “Perceptual image quality assessment: from error visibility to structural similarity,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 13(4), 600–612 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. T. Hashida, Y. Kakehi, T. Naemura, “Photochromic sculpture: volumetric color-forming pixels,” In Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH Studio Talks, Article 11 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  13. P. Sen, B. Chen, G. Garg, S. R. Marschner, M. Horowitz, M. Levoy, H. Lensch, “Dual photography,” ACM Trans. Graphics 24(3), 745–755 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  14. S. Hirano, H. Takahashi, I. Kawashima, “Photon-mode full-color rewritable image media using photochromic compounds,” Ricoh Tech. Report 29, 79–83 (2003).
  15. Y. Kishimoto, J. Abe, “A fast photochromic molecule that colors only under UV light,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(12), 4227–4229 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

Y. Kishimoto, J. Abe, “A fast photochromic molecule that colors only under UV light,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(12), 4227–4229 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

Y. Kusakabe, M. Kanazawa, Y. Nojiri, M. Furuya, M. Yoshimura, “A YC-separation-type projector: high dynamic range with double modulation,” J. Soc. Information Display 16(2), 383–391 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. Bimber, D. Iwai, G. Wetzstein, A. Grundhöfer, “The visual computing of projector-camera systems,” Computer Graphics Forum 27(8), 2219–2254 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

P. Sen, B. Chen, G. Garg, S. R. Marschner, M. Horowitz, M. Levoy, H. Lensch, “Dual photography,” ACM Trans. Graphics 24(3), 745–755 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

Z. Wang, A. C. Bovik, H. R. Sheikh, E. P. Simoncelli, “Perceptual image quality assessment: from error visibility to structural similarity,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 13(4), 600–612 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Seetzen, W. Heidrich, W. Stuerzlinger, G. Ward, L. Whitehead, M. Trentacoste, A. Ghosh, A. Vorozcovs, “High dynamic range display systems,” ACM Trans. Graphics 23(3), 760–768 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

S. Hirano, H. Takahashi, I. Kawashima, “Photon-mode full-color rewritable image media using photochromic compounds,” Ricoh Tech. Report 29, 79–83 (2003).

Abe, J.

Y. Kishimoto, J. Abe, “A fast photochromic molecule that colors only under UV light,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(12), 4227–4229 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bandyopadhyay, D.

R. Raskar, G. Welch, K. L. Low, D. Bandyopadhyay, “Shader lamps: animating real objects with image-based illumination,” In Proceedings of the Eurographics Workshop on Rendering Techniques, 89–102 (2001).

Bimber, O.

O. Bimber, D. Iwai, G. Wetzstein, A. Grundhöfer, “The visual computing of projector-camera systems,” Computer Graphics Forum 27(8), 2219–2254 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. Bimber, A. Grundhöfer, T. Zeidler, D. Danch, P. Kapakos, “Compensating indirect scattering for immersive and semi-immersive projection displays,” In Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Virtual Reality, 151–158 (IEEE, 2006).
[CrossRef]

O. Bimber, D. Iwai, “Superimposing dynamic range,” ACM Trans. Graphics27(5), Article 150 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. Bimber, R. Raskar, Spatial augmented reality: merging real and virtual worlds (A. K. Peters Ltd., 2005).

Bovik, A. C.

Z. Wang, A. C. Bovik, H. R. Sheikh, E. P. Simoncelli, “Perceptual image quality assessment: from error visibility to structural similarity,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 13(4), 600–612 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, B.

P. Sen, B. Chen, G. Garg, S. R. Marschner, M. Horowitz, M. Levoy, H. Lensch, “Dual photography,” ACM Trans. Graphics 24(3), 745–755 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Danch, D.

O. Bimber, A. Grundhöfer, T. Zeidler, D. Danch, P. Kapakos, “Compensating indirect scattering for immersive and semi-immersive projection displays,” In Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Virtual Reality, 151–158 (IEEE, 2006).
[CrossRef]

Fels, S.

R. Hoskinson, B. Stoeber, W. Heidrich, S. Fels, “Light reallocation for high contrast projection using an analog micromirror array,” ACM Trans. Graphics29(6), Article 165 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Furuya, M.

Y. Kusakabe, M. Kanazawa, Y. Nojiri, M. Furuya, M. Yoshimura, “A YC-separation-type projector: high dynamic range with double modulation,” J. Soc. Information Display 16(2), 383–391 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Garg, G.

P. Sen, B. Chen, G. Garg, S. R. Marschner, M. Horowitz, M. Levoy, H. Lensch, “Dual photography,” ACM Trans. Graphics 24(3), 745–755 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ghosh, A.

H. Seetzen, W. Heidrich, W. Stuerzlinger, G. Ward, L. Whitehead, M. Trentacoste, A. Ghosh, A. Vorozcovs, “High dynamic range display systems,” ACM Trans. Graphics 23(3), 760–768 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Grundhöfer, A.

O. Bimber, D. Iwai, G. Wetzstein, A. Grundhöfer, “The visual computing of projector-camera systems,” Computer Graphics Forum 27(8), 2219–2254 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. Bimber, A. Grundhöfer, T. Zeidler, D. Danch, P. Kapakos, “Compensating indirect scattering for immersive and semi-immersive projection displays,” In Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Virtual Reality, 151–158 (IEEE, 2006).
[CrossRef]

Habe, H.

H. Habe, N. Saeki, T. Matsuyama, “Inter-reflection compensation for immersive projection display,” In Proceedings of the IEEE International Workshop on Projector-Camera Systems, 2 pages (IEEE, 2007).

Hashida, T.

T. Hashida, Y. Kakehi, T. Naemura, “Photochromic sculpture: volumetric color-forming pixels,” In Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH Studio Talks, Article 11 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Heidrich, W.

H. Seetzen, W. Heidrich, W. Stuerzlinger, G. Ward, L. Whitehead, M. Trentacoste, A. Ghosh, A. Vorozcovs, “High dynamic range display systems,” ACM Trans. Graphics 23(3), 760–768 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Hoskinson, B. Stoeber, W. Heidrich, S. Fels, “Light reallocation for high contrast projection using an analog micromirror array,” ACM Trans. Graphics29(6), Article 165 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hirano, S.

S. Hirano, H. Takahashi, I. Kawashima, “Photon-mode full-color rewritable image media using photochromic compounds,” Ricoh Tech. Report 29, 79–83 (2003).

Horowitz, M.

P. Sen, B. Chen, G. Garg, S. R. Marschner, M. Horowitz, M. Levoy, H. Lensch, “Dual photography,” ACM Trans. Graphics 24(3), 745–755 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hoskinson, R.

R. Hoskinson, B. Stoeber, W. Heidrich, S. Fels, “Light reallocation for high contrast projection using an analog micromirror array,” ACM Trans. Graphics29(6), Article 165 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Iwai, D.

O. Bimber, D. Iwai, G. Wetzstein, A. Grundhöfer, “The visual computing of projector-camera systems,” Computer Graphics Forum 27(8), 2219–2254 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Shimazu, D. Iwai, K. Sato, “3D high dynamic range display system,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality, 235–236 (IEEE, 2011).

O. Bimber, D. Iwai, “Superimposing dynamic range,” ACM Trans. Graphics27(5), Article 150 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kakehi, Y.

T. Hashida, Y. Kakehi, T. Naemura, “Photochromic sculpture: volumetric color-forming pixels,” In Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH Studio Talks, Article 11 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kanazawa, M.

Y. Kusakabe, M. Kanazawa, Y. Nojiri, M. Furuya, M. Yoshimura, “A YC-separation-type projector: high dynamic range with double modulation,” J. Soc. Information Display 16(2), 383–391 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kapakos, P.

O. Bimber, A. Grundhöfer, T. Zeidler, D. Danch, P. Kapakos, “Compensating indirect scattering for immersive and semi-immersive projection displays,” In Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Virtual Reality, 151–158 (IEEE, 2006).
[CrossRef]

Kawashima, I.

S. Hirano, H. Takahashi, I. Kawashima, “Photon-mode full-color rewritable image media using photochromic compounds,” Ricoh Tech. Report 29, 79–83 (2003).

Kishimoto, Y.

Y. Kishimoto, J. Abe, “A fast photochromic molecule that colors only under UV light,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(12), 4227–4229 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kusakabe, Y.

Y. Kusakabe, M. Kanazawa, Y. Nojiri, M. Furuya, M. Yoshimura, “A YC-separation-type projector: high dynamic range with double modulation,” J. Soc. Information Display 16(2), 383–391 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lensch, H.

P. Sen, B. Chen, G. Garg, S. R. Marschner, M. Horowitz, M. Levoy, H. Lensch, “Dual photography,” ACM Trans. Graphics 24(3), 745–755 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Levoy, M.

P. Sen, B. Chen, G. Garg, S. R. Marschner, M. Horowitz, M. Levoy, H. Lensch, “Dual photography,” ACM Trans. Graphics 24(3), 745–755 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Low, K. L.

R. Raskar, G. Welch, K. L. Low, D. Bandyopadhyay, “Shader lamps: animating real objects with image-based illumination,” In Proceedings of the Eurographics Workshop on Rendering Techniques, 89–102 (2001).

Marschner, S. R.

P. Sen, B. Chen, G. Garg, S. R. Marschner, M. Horowitz, M. Levoy, H. Lensch, “Dual photography,” ACM Trans. Graphics 24(3), 745–755 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Matsuyama, T.

H. Habe, N. Saeki, T. Matsuyama, “Inter-reflection compensation for immersive projection display,” In Proceedings of the IEEE International Workshop on Projector-Camera Systems, 2 pages (IEEE, 2007).

Naemura, T.

T. Hashida, Y. Kakehi, T. Naemura, “Photochromic sculpture: volumetric color-forming pixels,” In Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH Studio Talks, Article 11 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nojiri, Y.

Y. Kusakabe, M. Kanazawa, Y. Nojiri, M. Furuya, M. Yoshimura, “A YC-separation-type projector: high dynamic range with double modulation,” J. Soc. Information Display 16(2), 383–391 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Raskar, R.

R. Raskar, G. Welch, K. L. Low, D. Bandyopadhyay, “Shader lamps: animating real objects with image-based illumination,” In Proceedings of the Eurographics Workshop on Rendering Techniques, 89–102 (2001).

O. Bimber, R. Raskar, Spatial augmented reality: merging real and virtual worlds (A. K. Peters Ltd., 2005).

Saeki, N.

H. Habe, N. Saeki, T. Matsuyama, “Inter-reflection compensation for immersive projection display,” In Proceedings of the IEEE International Workshop on Projector-Camera Systems, 2 pages (IEEE, 2007).

Sato, K.

S. Shimazu, D. Iwai, K. Sato, “3D high dynamic range display system,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality, 235–236 (IEEE, 2011).

Seetzen, H.

H. Seetzen, W. Heidrich, W. Stuerzlinger, G. Ward, L. Whitehead, M. Trentacoste, A. Ghosh, A. Vorozcovs, “High dynamic range display systems,” ACM Trans. Graphics 23(3), 760–768 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sen, P.

P. Sen, B. Chen, G. Garg, S. R. Marschner, M. Horowitz, M. Levoy, H. Lensch, “Dual photography,” ACM Trans. Graphics 24(3), 745–755 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sheikh, H. R.

Z. Wang, A. C. Bovik, H. R. Sheikh, E. P. Simoncelli, “Perceptual image quality assessment: from error visibility to structural similarity,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 13(4), 600–612 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shimazu, S.

S. Shimazu, D. Iwai, K. Sato, “3D high dynamic range display system,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality, 235–236 (IEEE, 2011).

Simoncelli, E. P.

Z. Wang, A. C. Bovik, H. R. Sheikh, E. P. Simoncelli, “Perceptual image quality assessment: from error visibility to structural similarity,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 13(4), 600–612 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stoeber, B.

R. Hoskinson, B. Stoeber, W. Heidrich, S. Fels, “Light reallocation for high contrast projection using an analog micromirror array,” ACM Trans. Graphics29(6), Article 165 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Stuerzlinger, W.

H. Seetzen, W. Heidrich, W. Stuerzlinger, G. Ward, L. Whitehead, M. Trentacoste, A. Ghosh, A. Vorozcovs, “High dynamic range display systems,” ACM Trans. Graphics 23(3), 760–768 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, H.

S. Hirano, H. Takahashi, I. Kawashima, “Photon-mode full-color rewritable image media using photochromic compounds,” Ricoh Tech. Report 29, 79–83 (2003).

Trentacoste, M.

H. Seetzen, W. Heidrich, W. Stuerzlinger, G. Ward, L. Whitehead, M. Trentacoste, A. Ghosh, A. Vorozcovs, “High dynamic range display systems,” ACM Trans. Graphics 23(3), 760–768 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Vorozcovs, A.

H. Seetzen, W. Heidrich, W. Stuerzlinger, G. Ward, L. Whitehead, M. Trentacoste, A. Ghosh, A. Vorozcovs, “High dynamic range display systems,” ACM Trans. Graphics 23(3), 760–768 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z.

Z. Wang, A. C. Bovik, H. R. Sheikh, E. P. Simoncelli, “Perceptual image quality assessment: from error visibility to structural similarity,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 13(4), 600–612 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ward, G.

H. Seetzen, W. Heidrich, W. Stuerzlinger, G. Ward, L. Whitehead, M. Trentacoste, A. Ghosh, A. Vorozcovs, “High dynamic range display systems,” ACM Trans. Graphics 23(3), 760–768 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Welch, G.

R. Raskar, G. Welch, K. L. Low, D. Bandyopadhyay, “Shader lamps: animating real objects with image-based illumination,” In Proceedings of the Eurographics Workshop on Rendering Techniques, 89–102 (2001).

Wetzstein, G.

O. Bimber, D. Iwai, G. Wetzstein, A. Grundhöfer, “The visual computing of projector-camera systems,” Computer Graphics Forum 27(8), 2219–2254 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Whitehead, L.

H. Seetzen, W. Heidrich, W. Stuerzlinger, G. Ward, L. Whitehead, M. Trentacoste, A. Ghosh, A. Vorozcovs, “High dynamic range display systems,” ACM Trans. Graphics 23(3), 760–768 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yoshimura, M.

Y. Kusakabe, M. Kanazawa, Y. Nojiri, M. Furuya, M. Yoshimura, “A YC-separation-type projector: high dynamic range with double modulation,” J. Soc. Information Display 16(2), 383–391 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zeidler, T.

O. Bimber, A. Grundhöfer, T. Zeidler, D. Danch, P. Kapakos, “Compensating indirect scattering for immersive and semi-immersive projection displays,” In Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Virtual Reality, 151–158 (IEEE, 2006).
[CrossRef]

ACM Trans. Graphics (2)

H. Seetzen, W. Heidrich, W. Stuerzlinger, G. Ward, L. Whitehead, M. Trentacoste, A. Ghosh, A. Vorozcovs, “High dynamic range display systems,” ACM Trans. Graphics 23(3), 760–768 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Sen, B. Chen, G. Garg, S. R. Marschner, M. Horowitz, M. Levoy, H. Lensch, “Dual photography,” ACM Trans. Graphics 24(3), 745–755 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Computer Graphics Forum (1)

O. Bimber, D. Iwai, G. Wetzstein, A. Grundhöfer, “The visual computing of projector-camera systems,” Computer Graphics Forum 27(8), 2219–2254 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Image Process. (1)

Z. Wang, A. C. Bovik, H. R. Sheikh, E. P. Simoncelli, “Perceptual image quality assessment: from error visibility to structural similarity,” IEEE Trans. Image Process. 13(4), 600–612 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

Y. Kishimoto, J. Abe, “A fast photochromic molecule that colors only under UV light,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(12), 4227–4229 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Soc. Information Display (1)

Y. Kusakabe, M. Kanazawa, Y. Nojiri, M. Furuya, M. Yoshimura, “A YC-separation-type projector: high dynamic range with double modulation,” J. Soc. Information Display 16(2), 383–391 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ricoh Tech. Report (1)

S. Hirano, H. Takahashi, I. Kawashima, “Photon-mode full-color rewritable image media using photochromic compounds,” Ricoh Tech. Report 29, 79–83 (2003).

Other (8)

O. Bimber, R. Raskar, Spatial augmented reality: merging real and virtual worlds (A. K. Peters Ltd., 2005).

R. Raskar, G. Welch, K. L. Low, D. Bandyopadhyay, “Shader lamps: animating real objects with image-based illumination,” In Proceedings of the Eurographics Workshop on Rendering Techniques, 89–102 (2001).

O. Bimber, A. Grundhöfer, T. Zeidler, D. Danch, P. Kapakos, “Compensating indirect scattering for immersive and semi-immersive projection displays,” In Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Virtual Reality, 151–158 (IEEE, 2006).
[CrossRef]

H. Habe, N. Saeki, T. Matsuyama, “Inter-reflection compensation for immersive projection display,” In Proceedings of the IEEE International Workshop on Projector-Camera Systems, 2 pages (IEEE, 2007).

O. Bimber, D. Iwai, “Superimposing dynamic range,” ACM Trans. Graphics27(5), Article 150 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Shimazu, D. Iwai, K. Sato, “3D high dynamic range display system,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality, 235–236 (IEEE, 2011).

T. Hashida, Y. Kakehi, T. Naemura, “Photochromic sculpture: volumetric color-forming pixels,” In Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH Studio Talks, Article 11 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Hoskinson, B. Stoeber, W. Heidrich, S. Fels, “Light reallocation for high contrast projection using an analog micromirror array,” ACM Trans. Graphics29(6), Article 165 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Principle of the proposed method: (a) when visible lights are projected on a uniform white screen, the contrast of the reflected light is identical to that of projected light; (b) when PhC is applied to the screen and the screen reflectance is modulated by UV radiation, the contrast of the reflected light is the multiplication of the reflectance and projected light.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Overview of the proposed system.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

UV illuminance from LED array.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Flow for splitting high contrast image.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Experimental setup: (a) overview, (b) side view of the screen and UV LED array, and (c) front view of the UV LED array when the screen is removed.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Calibration of the function f′x (left: appearance of the surface when iall = 1.0, right: relationship between the measured reflectance value and input value for LEDs at A–E).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Captured reflectance maps of the projection screen under UV illumination of each LED in the system for the calibration of w′k(x).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Frequency response evaluation: (a) target fringe patterns, (b) contrast ratios achieved under conventional condition (dashed line) and under proposed condition (solid line), (c) contrast increase ratio.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Experimental result: (a) target luminance map, (b) projection results under conventional condition, (c) projection results under proposed condition; (d), (e), and (f) are false color representations of (a), (b), and (c), respectively.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Comparison of luminance values.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Evaluation of reflectance control: (a) target reflectance map, (b) simulated reflectance map, (c) captured actual reflectance map.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Front UV illumination: (a) principle, (b) prototype system.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Potential applications.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Contrast ratio comparison.

Tables Icon

Table 2 SSIM evaluation results.

Equations (12)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

r ( x ) = f x ( e ( x ) ) ,
e ( x ) = k = 1 n i k w k ( x ) .
E = x r ^ ( x ) f x ( e ( x ) ) 2 .
e ( x ) = i all k = 1 n w k ( x ) .
i all = e ( x ) k = 1 n w k ( x ) .
r ( x ) = f x ( e ( x ) ) .
E = x r ^ ( x ) f x ( e ( x ) ) 2 ,
e ( x ) = k = 1 n i k w k ( x ) ,
L ( x ) = l ( x ) l m l M l m .
R ( x ) = L ( x ) ,
r ^ ( x ) = R ( x ) ( r M r m ) + r m ,
p ^ ( x ) = l ( x ) r ˜ ( x ) .

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