Abstract

An optical see-through head-mounted display (OST-HMD), which enables optical superposition of digital information onto the direct view of the physical world and maintains see-through vision to the real world, is a vital component in an augmented reality (AR) system. A key limitation of the state-of-the-art OST-HMD technology is the well-known accommodation-convergence mismatch problem caused by the fact that the image source in most of the existing AR displays is a 2D flat surface located at a fixed distance from the eye. In this paper, we present an innovative approach to OST-HMD designs by combining the recent advancement of freeform optical technology and microscopic integral imaging (micro-InI) method. A micro-InI unit creates a 3D image source for HMD viewing optics, instead of a typical 2D display surface, by reconstructing a miniature 3D scene from a large number of perspective images of the scene. By taking advantage of the emerging freeform optical technology, our approach will result in compact, lightweight, goggle-style AR display that is potentially less vulnerable to the accommodation-convergence discrepancy problem and visual fatigue. A proof-of-concept prototype system is demonstrated, which offers a goggle-like compact form factor, non-obstructive see-through field of view, and true 3D virtual display.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2014 (3)

C. W. Chen, M. Cho, Y. P. Huang, B. Javidi, “Improved viewing zones for projection type integral imaging 3D display using adaptive liquid crystal prism array,” IEEE J. Disp. Technol. 10(3), 198–203 (2014).
[CrossRef]

H. Sasaki, K. Yamamoto, Y. Ichihashi, T. Senoh, “Image size scalable full-parallax coloured three-dimensional video by electronic holography,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4000 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Hu, H. Hua, “Design and assessment of a depth-fused multi-focal-plane display prototype,” J. Disp. Technol. 10(4), 308–316 (2014).
[CrossRef]

2013 (3)

2011 (3)

2010 (3)

P.-A. Blanche, A. Bablumian, R. Voorakaranam, C. Christenson, W. Lin, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, W.-Y. Hsieh, M. Kathaperumal, B. Rachwal, O. Siddiqui, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, N. Peyghambarian, “Holographic three-dimensional telepresence using large-area photorefractive polymer,” Nature 468(7320), 80–83 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Liu, H. Hua, D. Cheng, “A novel prototype for an optical see-through head-mounted display with addressable focus cues,” IEEE Trans. Vis. Comput. Graph. 16(3), 381–393 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Liu, H. Hua, “A systematic method for designing depth-fused multi-focal plane three-dimensional displays,” Opt. Express 18(11), 11562–11573 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

D. Cheng, Y. Wang, H. Hua, M. M. Talha, “Design of an optical see-through head-mounted display with a low f-number and large field of view using a freeform prism,” Appl. Opt. 48(14), 2655–2668 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Mukawa, K. Akutsu, I. Matsumura, S. Nakano, T. Yoshida, M. Kuwahara, K. Aiki, “A full-color eyewear display using planar waveguides with reflection volume holograms,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 17(3), 185–193 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

D. M. Hoffman, A. R. Girshick, K. Akeley, M. S. Banks, “Vergence-Accommodation Conflicts Hinder Visual Performance and Cause Visual Fatigue,” J. Vis. 8(3), 33 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

S. J. Watt, K. Akeley, M. O. Ernst, M. S. Banks, “Focus Cues Affect Perceived Depth,” J. Vis. 5(10), 834–862 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

2002 (2)

B. G. Blundell, A. J. Schwarz, “The classification of volumetric display systems: characteristics and predictability of the image space,” IEEE Trans. Vis. Comput. Graph. 8(1), 66–75 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Yano, M. Emoto, T. Mitsuhashi, H. Thwaites, “A study of visual fatigue and visual comfort for 3D HDTV/HDTV images,” Displays 23(4), 191–201 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

R. Azuma, Y. Baillot, R. Behringer, S. Feiber, S. Julier, B. MacIntyre, “Recent advances in augmented reality,” IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl. 21(6), 34–47 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

S. Yamazaki, K. Inoguchi, Y. Saito, H. Morishima, N. Taniguchi, “Thin widefield-of-view HMD with free-form-surface prism and applications,” Proc. SPIE 3639, 453–462 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1908 (1)

G. Lippmann, “Epreuves reversibles donnant la sensation du relief,” J. Phys. (Paris) 7, 821–825 (1908).

Aiki, K.

H. Mukawa, K. Akutsu, I. Matsumura, S. Nakano, T. Yoshida, M. Kuwahara, K. Aiki, “A full-color eyewear display using planar waveguides with reflection volume holograms,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 17(3), 185–193 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Akeley, K.

D. M. Hoffman, A. R. Girshick, K. Akeley, M. S. Banks, “Vergence-Accommodation Conflicts Hinder Visual Performance and Cause Visual Fatigue,” J. Vis. 8(3), 33 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Watt, K. Akeley, M. O. Ernst, M. S. Banks, “Focus Cues Affect Perceived Depth,” J. Vis. 5(10), 834–862 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Akutsu, K.

H. Mukawa, K. Akutsu, I. Matsumura, S. Nakano, T. Yoshida, M. Kuwahara, K. Aiki, “A full-color eyewear display using planar waveguides with reflection volume holograms,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 17(3), 185–193 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ando, H.

Arai, J.

Azuma, R.

R. Azuma, Y. Baillot, R. Behringer, S. Feiber, S. Julier, B. MacIntyre, “Recent advances in augmented reality,” IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl. 21(6), 34–47 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bablumian, A.

P.-A. Blanche, A. Bablumian, R. Voorakaranam, C. Christenson, W. Lin, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, W.-Y. Hsieh, M. Kathaperumal, B. Rachwal, O. Siddiqui, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, N. Peyghambarian, “Holographic three-dimensional telepresence using large-area photorefractive polymer,” Nature 468(7320), 80–83 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baillot, Y.

R. Azuma, Y. Baillot, R. Behringer, S. Feiber, S. Julier, B. MacIntyre, “Recent advances in augmented reality,” IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl. 21(6), 34–47 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Banks, M. S.

D. M. Hoffman, A. R. Girshick, K. Akeley, M. S. Banks, “Vergence-Accommodation Conflicts Hinder Visual Performance and Cause Visual Fatigue,” J. Vis. 8(3), 33 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Watt, K. Akeley, M. O. Ernst, M. S. Banks, “Focus Cues Affect Perceived Depth,” J. Vis. 5(10), 834–862 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Behringer, R.

R. Azuma, Y. Baillot, R. Behringer, S. Feiber, S. Julier, B. MacIntyre, “Recent advances in augmented reality,” IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl. 21(6), 34–47 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Blanche, P.-A.

P.-A. Blanche, A. Bablumian, R. Voorakaranam, C. Christenson, W. Lin, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, W.-Y. Hsieh, M. Kathaperumal, B. Rachwal, O. Siddiqui, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, N. Peyghambarian, “Holographic three-dimensional telepresence using large-area photorefractive polymer,” Nature 468(7320), 80–83 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blundell, B. G.

B. G. Blundell, A. J. Schwarz, “The classification of volumetric display systems: characteristics and predictability of the image space,” IEEE Trans. Vis. Comput. Graph. 8(1), 66–75 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. W.

C. W. Chen, M. Cho, Y. P. Huang, B. Javidi, “Improved viewing zones for projection type integral imaging 3D display using adaptive liquid crystal prism array,” IEEE J. Disp. Technol. 10(3), 198–203 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, D.

Cho, M.

C. W. Chen, M. Cho, Y. P. Huang, B. Javidi, “Improved viewing zones for projection type integral imaging 3D display using adaptive liquid crystal prism array,” IEEE J. Disp. Technol. 10(3), 198–203 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Christenson, C.

P.-A. Blanche, A. Bablumian, R. Voorakaranam, C. Christenson, W. Lin, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, W.-Y. Hsieh, M. Kathaperumal, B. Rachwal, O. Siddiqui, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, N. Peyghambarian, “Holographic three-dimensional telepresence using large-area photorefractive polymer,” Nature 468(7320), 80–83 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Emoto, M.

S. Yano, M. Emoto, T. Mitsuhashi, H. Thwaites, “A study of visual fatigue and visual comfort for 3D HDTV/HDTV images,” Displays 23(4), 191–201 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ernst, M. O.

S. J. Watt, K. Akeley, M. O. Ernst, M. S. Banks, “Focus Cues Affect Perceived Depth,” J. Vis. 5(10), 834–862 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feiber, S.

R. Azuma, Y. Baillot, R. Behringer, S. Feiber, S. Julier, B. MacIntyre, “Recent advances in augmented reality,” IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl. 21(6), 34–47 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Flores, D.

P.-A. Blanche, A. Bablumian, R. Voorakaranam, C. Christenson, W. Lin, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, W.-Y. Hsieh, M. Kathaperumal, B. Rachwal, O. Siddiqui, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, N. Peyghambarian, “Holographic three-dimensional telepresence using large-area photorefractive polymer,” Nature 468(7320), 80–83 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fuchs, H.

A. Maimone, H. Fuchs, “Computational augmented reality eyeglasses,” Proc. of 2013 International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality (ISMAR), 29–38(2013).
[CrossRef]

Gao, C.

Girshick, A. R.

D. M. Hoffman, A. R. Girshick, K. Akeley, M. S. Banks, “Vergence-Accommodation Conflicts Hinder Visual Performance and Cause Visual Fatigue,” J. Vis. 8(3), 33 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gu, T.

P.-A. Blanche, A. Bablumian, R. Voorakaranam, C. Christenson, W. Lin, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, W.-Y. Hsieh, M. Kathaperumal, B. Rachwal, O. Siddiqui, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, N. Peyghambarian, “Holographic three-dimensional telepresence using large-area photorefractive polymer,” Nature 468(7320), 80–83 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hiura, H.

Hoffman, D. M.

D. M. Hoffman, A. R. Girshick, K. Akeley, M. S. Banks, “Vergence-Accommodation Conflicts Hinder Visual Performance and Cause Visual Fatigue,” J. Vis. 8(3), 33 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hsieh, W.-Y.

P.-A. Blanche, A. Bablumian, R. Voorakaranam, C. Christenson, W. Lin, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, W.-Y. Hsieh, M. Kathaperumal, B. Rachwal, O. Siddiqui, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, N. Peyghambarian, “Holographic three-dimensional telepresence using large-area photorefractive polymer,” Nature 468(7320), 80–83 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hu, X.

X. Hu, H. Hua, “Design and assessment of a depth-fused multi-focal-plane display prototype,” J. Disp. Technol. 10(4), 308–316 (2014).
[CrossRef]

H. Hua, X. Hu, C. Gao, “A high-resolution optical see-through head-mounted display with eyetracking capability,” Opt. Express 21(25), 30993–30998 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hua, H.

Huang, Y. P.

C. W. Chen, M. Cho, Y. P. Huang, B. Javidi, “Improved viewing zones for projection type integral imaging 3D display using adaptive liquid crystal prism array,” IEEE J. Disp. Technol. 10(3), 198–203 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Ichihashi, Y.

H. Sasaki, K. Yamamoto, Y. Ichihashi, T. Senoh, “Image size scalable full-parallax coloured three-dimensional video by electronic holography,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4000 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Inoguchi, K.

S. Yamazaki, K. Inoguchi, Y. Saito, H. Morishima, N. Taniguchi, “Thin widefield-of-view HMD with free-form-surface prism and applications,” Proc. SPIE 3639, 453–462 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jang, J. S.

Javidi, B.

C. W. Chen, M. Cho, Y. P. Huang, B. Javidi, “Improved viewing zones for projection type integral imaging 3D display using adaptive liquid crystal prism array,” IEEE J. Disp. Technol. 10(3), 198–203 (2014).
[CrossRef]

X. Xiao, B. Javidi, M. Martinez-Corral, A. Stern, “Advances in three-dimensional integral imaging: sensing, display, and applications [Invited],” Appl. Opt. 52(4), 546–560 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Martínez-Corral, H. Navarro, R. Martínez-Cuenca, G. Saavedra, B. Javidi, “Full parallax 3-D TV with programmable display parameters,” Opt. Photon. News 22(12), 50 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Jang, B. Javidi, “Large depth-of-focus time-multiplexed three-dimensional integral imaging by use of lenslets with nonuniform focal lengths and aperture sizes,” Opt. Lett. 28(20), 1924–1926 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Julier, S.

R. Azuma, Y. Baillot, R. Behringer, S. Feiber, S. Julier, B. MacIntyre, “Recent advances in augmented reality,” IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl. 21(6), 34–47 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kashiwada, S.

Kathaperumal, M.

P.-A. Blanche, A. Bablumian, R. Voorakaranam, C. Christenson, W. Lin, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, W.-Y. Hsieh, M. Kathaperumal, B. Rachwal, O. Siddiqui, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, N. Peyghambarian, “Holographic three-dimensional telepresence using large-area photorefractive polymer,” Nature 468(7320), 80–83 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kawakita, M.

Kuwahara, M.

H. Mukawa, K. Akutsu, I. Matsumura, S. Nakano, T. Yoshida, M. Kuwahara, K. Aiki, “A full-color eyewear display using planar waveguides with reflection volume holograms,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 17(3), 185–193 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lin, W.

P.-A. Blanche, A. Bablumian, R. Voorakaranam, C. Christenson, W. Lin, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, W.-Y. Hsieh, M. Kathaperumal, B. Rachwal, O. Siddiqui, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, N. Peyghambarian, “Holographic three-dimensional telepresence using large-area photorefractive polymer,” Nature 468(7320), 80–83 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lippmann, G.

G. Lippmann, “Epreuves reversibles donnant la sensation du relief,” J. Phys. (Paris) 7, 821–825 (1908).

Liu, S.

S. Liu, H. Hua, “A systematic method for designing depth-fused multi-focal plane three-dimensional displays,” Opt. Express 18(11), 11562–11573 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Liu, H. Hua, D. Cheng, “A novel prototype for an optical see-through head-mounted display with addressable focus cues,” IEEE Trans. Vis. Comput. Graph. 16(3), 381–393 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

MacIntyre, B.

R. Azuma, Y. Baillot, R. Behringer, S. Feiber, S. Julier, B. MacIntyre, “Recent advances in augmented reality,” IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl. 21(6), 34–47 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Maimone, A.

A. Maimone, H. Fuchs, “Computational augmented reality eyeglasses,” Proc. of 2013 International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality (ISMAR), 29–38(2013).
[CrossRef]

Martinez-Corral, M.

Martínez-Corral, M.

M. Martínez-Corral, H. Navarro, R. Martínez-Cuenca, G. Saavedra, B. Javidi, “Full parallax 3-D TV with programmable display parameters,” Opt. Photon. News 22(12), 50 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Martínez-Cuenca, R.

M. Martínez-Corral, H. Navarro, R. Martínez-Cuenca, G. Saavedra, B. Javidi, “Full parallax 3-D TV with programmable display parameters,” Opt. Photon. News 22(12), 50 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Matsumura, I.

H. Mukawa, K. Akutsu, I. Matsumura, S. Nakano, T. Yoshida, M. Kuwahara, K. Aiki, “A full-color eyewear display using planar waveguides with reflection volume holograms,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 17(3), 185–193 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mitsuhashi, T.

S. Yano, M. Emoto, T. Mitsuhashi, H. Thwaites, “A study of visual fatigue and visual comfort for 3D HDTV/HDTV images,” Displays 23(4), 191–201 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Miura, M.

Morishima, H.

S. Yamazaki, K. Inoguchi, Y. Saito, H. Morishima, N. Taniguchi, “Thin widefield-of-view HMD with free-form-surface prism and applications,” Proc. SPIE 3639, 453–462 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mukawa, H.

H. Mukawa, K. Akutsu, I. Matsumura, S. Nakano, T. Yoshida, M. Kuwahara, K. Aiki, “A full-color eyewear display using planar waveguides with reflection volume holograms,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 17(3), 185–193 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, K.

Nakano, S.

H. Mukawa, K. Akutsu, I. Matsumura, S. Nakano, T. Yoshida, M. Kuwahara, K. Aiki, “A full-color eyewear display using planar waveguides with reflection volume holograms,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 17(3), 185–193 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Navarro, H.

M. Martínez-Corral, H. Navarro, R. Martínez-Cuenca, G. Saavedra, B. Javidi, “Full parallax 3-D TV with programmable display parameters,” Opt. Photon. News 22(12), 50 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Norwood, R. A.

P.-A. Blanche, A. Bablumian, R. Voorakaranam, C. Christenson, W. Lin, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, W.-Y. Hsieh, M. Kathaperumal, B. Rachwal, O. Siddiqui, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, N. Peyghambarian, “Holographic three-dimensional telepresence using large-area photorefractive polymer,” Nature 468(7320), 80–83 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Okano, F.

Okui, M.

Peyghambarian, N.

P.-A. Blanche, A. Bablumian, R. Voorakaranam, C. Christenson, W. Lin, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, W.-Y. Hsieh, M. Kathaperumal, B. Rachwal, O. Siddiqui, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, N. Peyghambarian, “Holographic three-dimensional telepresence using large-area photorefractive polymer,” Nature 468(7320), 80–83 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rachwal, B.

P.-A. Blanche, A. Bablumian, R. Voorakaranam, C. Christenson, W. Lin, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, W.-Y. Hsieh, M. Kathaperumal, B. Rachwal, O. Siddiqui, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, N. Peyghambarian, “Holographic three-dimensional telepresence using large-area photorefractive polymer,” Nature 468(7320), 80–83 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saavedra, G.

M. Martínez-Corral, H. Navarro, R. Martínez-Cuenca, G. Saavedra, B. Javidi, “Full parallax 3-D TV with programmable display parameters,” Opt. Photon. News 22(12), 50 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Saito, Y.

S. Yamazaki, K. Inoguchi, Y. Saito, H. Morishima, N. Taniguchi, “Thin widefield-of-view HMD with free-form-surface prism and applications,” Proc. SPIE 3639, 453–462 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, H.

H. Sasaki, K. Yamamoto, Y. Ichihashi, T. Senoh, “Image size scalable full-parallax coloured three-dimensional video by electronic holography,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4000 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Arai, M. Kawakita, T. Yamashita, H. Sasaki, M. Miura, H. Hiura, M. Okui, F. Okano, “Integral three-dimensional television with video system using pixel-offset method,” Opt. Express 21(3), 3474–3485 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sasian, J.

Schwarz, A. J.

B. G. Blundell, A. J. Schwarz, “The classification of volumetric display systems: characteristics and predictability of the image space,” IEEE Trans. Vis. Comput. Graph. 8(1), 66–75 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Senoh, T.

H. Sasaki, K. Yamamoto, Y. Ichihashi, T. Senoh, “Image size scalable full-parallax coloured three-dimensional video by electronic holography,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4000 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Siddiqui, O.

P.-A. Blanche, A. Bablumian, R. Voorakaranam, C. Christenson, W. Lin, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, W.-Y. Hsieh, M. Kathaperumal, B. Rachwal, O. Siddiqui, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, N. Peyghambarian, “Holographic three-dimensional telepresence using large-area photorefractive polymer,” Nature 468(7320), 80–83 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stern, A.

Takaki, Y.

Talha, M. M.

Taniguchi, N.

S. Yamazaki, K. Inoguchi, Y. Saito, H. Morishima, N. Taniguchi, “Thin widefield-of-view HMD with free-form-surface prism and applications,” Proc. SPIE 3639, 453–462 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, J.

P.-A. Blanche, A. Bablumian, R. Voorakaranam, C. Christenson, W. Lin, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, W.-Y. Hsieh, M. Kathaperumal, B. Rachwal, O. Siddiqui, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, N. Peyghambarian, “Holographic three-dimensional telepresence using large-area photorefractive polymer,” Nature 468(7320), 80–83 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thwaites, H.

S. Yano, M. Emoto, T. Mitsuhashi, H. Thwaites, “A study of visual fatigue and visual comfort for 3D HDTV/HDTV images,” Displays 23(4), 191–201 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Urano, Y.

Voorakaranam, R.

P.-A. Blanche, A. Bablumian, R. Voorakaranam, C. Christenson, W. Lin, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, W.-Y. Hsieh, M. Kathaperumal, B. Rachwal, O. Siddiqui, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, N. Peyghambarian, “Holographic three-dimensional telepresence using large-area photorefractive polymer,” Nature 468(7320), 80–83 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, P.

P.-A. Blanche, A. Bablumian, R. Voorakaranam, C. Christenson, W. Lin, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, W.-Y. Hsieh, M. Kathaperumal, B. Rachwal, O. Siddiqui, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, N. Peyghambarian, “Holographic three-dimensional telepresence using large-area photorefractive polymer,” Nature 468(7320), 80–83 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

Watt, S. J.

S. J. Watt, K. Akeley, M. O. Ernst, M. S. Banks, “Focus Cues Affect Perceived Depth,” J. Vis. 5(10), 834–862 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xiao, X.

Yamamoto, K.

H. Sasaki, K. Yamamoto, Y. Ichihashi, T. Senoh, “Image size scalable full-parallax coloured three-dimensional video by electronic holography,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4000 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamamoto, M.

P.-A. Blanche, A. Bablumian, R. Voorakaranam, C. Christenson, W. Lin, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, W.-Y. Hsieh, M. Kathaperumal, B. Rachwal, O. Siddiqui, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, N. Peyghambarian, “Holographic three-dimensional telepresence using large-area photorefractive polymer,” Nature 468(7320), 80–83 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamashita, T.

Yamazaki, S.

S. Yamazaki, K. Inoguchi, Y. Saito, H. Morishima, N. Taniguchi, “Thin widefield-of-view HMD with free-form-surface prism and applications,” Proc. SPIE 3639, 453–462 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yano, S.

S. Yano, M. Emoto, T. Mitsuhashi, H. Thwaites, “A study of visual fatigue and visual comfort for 3D HDTV/HDTV images,” Displays 23(4), 191–201 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yoshida, T.

H. Mukawa, K. Akutsu, I. Matsumura, S. Nakano, T. Yoshida, M. Kuwahara, K. Aiki, “A full-color eyewear display using planar waveguides with reflection volume holograms,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 17(3), 185–193 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Displays (1)

S. Yano, M. Emoto, T. Mitsuhashi, H. Thwaites, “A study of visual fatigue and visual comfort for 3D HDTV/HDTV images,” Displays 23(4), 191–201 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl. (1)

R. Azuma, Y. Baillot, R. Behringer, S. Feiber, S. Julier, B. MacIntyre, “Recent advances in augmented reality,” IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl. 21(6), 34–47 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Disp. Technol. (1)

C. W. Chen, M. Cho, Y. P. Huang, B. Javidi, “Improved viewing zones for projection type integral imaging 3D display using adaptive liquid crystal prism array,” IEEE J. Disp. Technol. 10(3), 198–203 (2014).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Vis. Comput. Graph. (2)

B. G. Blundell, A. J. Schwarz, “The classification of volumetric display systems: characteristics and predictability of the image space,” IEEE Trans. Vis. Comput. Graph. 8(1), 66–75 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Liu, H. Hua, D. Cheng, “A novel prototype for an optical see-through head-mounted display with addressable focus cues,” IEEE Trans. Vis. Comput. Graph. 16(3), 381–393 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Disp. Technol. (1)

X. Hu, H. Hua, “Design and assessment of a depth-fused multi-focal-plane display prototype,” J. Disp. Technol. 10(4), 308–316 (2014).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. (Paris) (1)

G. Lippmann, “Epreuves reversibles donnant la sensation du relief,” J. Phys. (Paris) 7, 821–825 (1908).

J. Soc. Inf. Disp. (1)

H. Mukawa, K. Akutsu, I. Matsumura, S. Nakano, T. Yoshida, M. Kuwahara, K. Aiki, “A full-color eyewear display using planar waveguides with reflection volume holograms,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 17(3), 185–193 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Vis. (2)

S. J. Watt, K. Akeley, M. O. Ernst, M. S. Banks, “Focus Cues Affect Perceived Depth,” J. Vis. 5(10), 834–862 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. M. Hoffman, A. R. Girshick, K. Akeley, M. S. Banks, “Vergence-Accommodation Conflicts Hinder Visual Performance and Cause Visual Fatigue,” J. Vis. 8(3), 33 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature (1)

P.-A. Blanche, A. Bablumian, R. Voorakaranam, C. Christenson, W. Lin, T. Gu, D. Flores, P. Wang, W.-Y. Hsieh, M. Kathaperumal, B. Rachwal, O. Siddiqui, J. Thomas, R. A. Norwood, M. Yamamoto, N. Peyghambarian, “Holographic three-dimensional telepresence using large-area photorefractive polymer,” Nature 468(7320), 80–83 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opt. Photon. News (1)

M. Martínez-Corral, H. Navarro, R. Martínez-Cuenca, G. Saavedra, B. Javidi, “Full parallax 3-D TV with programmable display parameters,” Opt. Photon. News 22(12), 50 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

S. Yamazaki, K. Inoguchi, Y. Saito, H. Morishima, N. Taniguchi, “Thin widefield-of-view HMD with free-form-surface prism and applications,” Proc. SPIE 3639, 453–462 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sci. Rep. (1)

H. Sasaki, K. Yamamoto, Y. Ichihashi, T. Senoh, “Image size scalable full-parallax coloured three-dimensional video by electronic holography,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4000 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (6)

A. Jones, I. McDowall, H. Yamada, M. Bolas, and P. Debevec, “Rendering for an interactive 360° light field display,” ACM Transactions on Graphics (TOG) –Proceedings of ACM SIGGRAPH 2007 26(3), (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Zhou, H. B.-L. Duh, and M. Billinghurst, “Trends in augmented reality tracking, interaction and display: a review of ten years of ISMAR,” Proc. of 7th IEEE/ACM International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality 193–202 (2008).

http://www.google.com/glass/start/

http://www.innovega-inc.com

A. Maimone, H. Fuchs, “Computational augmented reality eyeglasses,” Proc. of 2013 International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality (ISMAR), 29–38(2013).
[CrossRef]

http://www.lumus-optical.com/

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Illustration of accommodation-convergence cues in (a) monocular AR display; (b) stereoscopic viewing in a binocular display; and (c) viewing a real object.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic design of a 3D integral imaging optical see-through HMD using freeform optical technology: (a) Integrated optical layout and raytracing of the virtual display and see-through paths; (b) Schematics of microscopic integral imaging unit, in which the reference plane corresponds to the image conjugate plane of the microdisplay image by the MLA; (c) Schematic raytracing for visualizing 3D lightfield through a freeform prism, in which the virtual reference plane corresponds to the image conjugate plane imaged by the eyepiece.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Prototype demonstration and experimental results for the proposed InI OST-HMD system: (a) Setup; (b) Elemental images; (c) and (d) Reconstructed image captured by the camera focused at 4m and 30cm, respectively; (e) and (f) Reconstructed image captured by the camera shifted to left and right side of the exit pupil.

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