Abstract

Radiation patterns from plasmonic nano-antennas formed on a glass substrate were investigated using index-matching oils. It was confirmed that the pattern from single nano-antennas for various cases of index-mismatching between the substrate and the oil is explained well by the patterns of infinitesimal electric dipoles. We found that for an angular resolution of 2°, the index mismatch must be smaller than 0.001 to realize isotropic radiation. By using the appropriate condition, the radiation patterns of nano Yagi-Uda antennas in a quasi-homogeneous medium were obtained experimentally.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. O. L. Muskens, V. Giannini, J. A. Sanchez-Gil, J. Gómez Rivas, “Strong enhancement of the radiative decay rate of emitters by single plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 7(9), 2871–2875 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. R. M. Bakker, H.-K. Yuan, Z. Liu, V. P. Drachev, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, R. H. Pedersen, S. Gresillon, A. Boltasseva, “Enhanced localized fluorescence in plasmonic nanoantennae,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 043101 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. D. Dregely, R. Taubert, J. Dorfmüller, R. Vogelgesang, K. Kern, H. Giessen, “3D optical Yagi-Uda nanoantenna array,” Nat. Commun. 2, 267 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. W. Zhu, D. Wang, K. B. Crozier, “Direct observation of beamed raman scattering,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6235–6243 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. F. Bernal Arango, A. Kwadrin, A. F. Koenderink, “Plasmonic antennas hybridized with dielectric waveguides,” ACS Nano 6(11), 10156–10167 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. L. Tong, T. Pakizeh, L. Feuz, A. Dmitriev, “Highly directional bottom-up 3D nanoantenna for visible light,” Sci. Rep. 3, 2311 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  22. A. G. Nikitin, T. Nguyen, H. Dallaporta, “Narrow plasmon resonances in diffractive arrays of gold nanoparticles in asymmetric environment: Experimental studies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(22), 221116 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2014 (1)

I. M. Hancu, A. G. Curto, M. Castro-López, M. Kuttge, N. F. van Hulst, “Multipolar interference for directed light emission,” Nano Lett. 14(1), 166–171 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2013 (2)

L. Tong, T. Pakizeh, L. Feuz, A. Dmitriev, “Highly directional bottom-up 3D nanoantenna for visible light,” Sci. Rep. 3, 2311 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. G. Nikitin, T. Nguyen, H. Dallaporta, “Narrow plasmon resonances in diffractive arrays of gold nanoparticles in asymmetric environment: Experimental studies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(22), 221116 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (3)

T. Shegai, P. Johansson, C. Langhammer, M. Käll, “Directional scattering and hydrogen sensing by bimetallic Pd-Au nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 12(5), 2464–2469 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Zhu, D. Wang, K. B. Crozier, “Direct observation of beamed raman scattering,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6235–6243 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Bernal Arango, A. Kwadrin, A. F. Koenderink, “Plasmonic antennas hybridized with dielectric waveguides,” ACS Nano 6(11), 10156–10167 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

T. Coenen, E. J. R. Vesseur, A. Polman, A. F. Koenderink, “Directional emission from plasmonic Yagi-Uda antennas probed by angle-resolved cathodoluminescence spectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 11(9), 3779–3784 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Dregely, R. Taubert, J. Dorfmüller, R. Vogelgesang, K. Kern, H. Giessen, “3D optical Yagi-Uda nanoantenna array,” Nat. Commun. 2, 267 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. S. Maksymov, A. R. Davoyan, Y. S. Kivshar, “Enhanced emission and light control with tapered plasmonic nanoantennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(8), 083304 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (4)

T. Kosako, Y. Kadoya, H. F. Hofmann, “Directional control of light by a nano-optical Yagi-Uda antenna,” Nat. Photonics 4(5), 312–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, N. F. van Hulst, “Unidirectional emission of a quantum dot coupled to a nanoantenna,” Science 329(5994), 930–933 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Devilez, B. Stout, N. Bonod, “Compact metallo-dielectric optical antenna for ultra directional and enhanced radiative emission,” ACS Nano 4(6), 3390–3396 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Auguié, X. M. Bendaña, W. L. Barnes, F. J. García de Abajo, “Diffractive arrays of gold nanoparticles near an interface: Critical role of the substrate,” Phys. Rev. B 82(15), 155447 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

T. H. Taminiau, F. D. Stefani, N. F. van Hulst, “Enhanced directional excitation and emission of single emitters by a nano-optical Yagi-Uda antenna,” Opt. Express 16(14), 10858–10866 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Bakker, H.-K. Yuan, Z. Liu, V. P. Drachev, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, R. H. Pedersen, S. Gresillon, A. Boltasseva, “Enhanced localized fluorescence in plasmonic nanoantennae,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 043101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Taminiau, F. D. Stefani, F. B. Segerink, N. F. van Hulst, “Optical antennas direct single-molecule emission,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 234–237 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

O. L. Muskens, V. Giannini, J. A. Sanchez-Gil, J. Gómez Rivas, “Strong enhancement of the radiative decay rate of emitters by single plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 7(9), 2871–2875 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. F. Hofmann, T. Kosako, Y. Kadoya, “Design parameters for a nano-optical Yagi–Uda antenna,” New J. Phys. 9(7), 217 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Li, A. Salandrino, N. Engheta, “Shaping light beams in the nanometer scale: A Yagi-Uda nanoantenna in the optical domain,” Phys. Rev. B 76(24), 245403 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

S. Kühn, U. Håkanson, L. Rogobete, V. Sandoghdar, “Enhancement of single-molecule Fluorescence using a gold nanoparticle as an optical nanoantenna,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(1), 017402 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

J. N. Farahani, D. W. Pohl, H.-J. Eisler, B. Hecht, “Single quantum dot coupled to a scanning optical antenna: A tunable superemitter,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(1), 017402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1982 (1)

D. B. Rutledge, M. S. Muha, “Imaging antenna arrays,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 30(4), 535–540 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

1972 (1)

P. B. Johnson, R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Auguié, B.

B. Auguié, X. M. Bendaña, W. L. Barnes, F. J. García de Abajo, “Diffractive arrays of gold nanoparticles near an interface: Critical role of the substrate,” Phys. Rev. B 82(15), 155447 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bakker, R. M.

R. M. Bakker, H.-K. Yuan, Z. Liu, V. P. Drachev, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, R. H. Pedersen, S. Gresillon, A. Boltasseva, “Enhanced localized fluorescence in plasmonic nanoantennae,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 043101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, W. L.

B. Auguié, X. M. Bendaña, W. L. Barnes, F. J. García de Abajo, “Diffractive arrays of gold nanoparticles near an interface: Critical role of the substrate,” Phys. Rev. B 82(15), 155447 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bendaña, X. M.

B. Auguié, X. M. Bendaña, W. L. Barnes, F. J. García de Abajo, “Diffractive arrays of gold nanoparticles near an interface: Critical role of the substrate,” Phys. Rev. B 82(15), 155447 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bernal Arango, F.

F. Bernal Arango, A. Kwadrin, A. F. Koenderink, “Plasmonic antennas hybridized with dielectric waveguides,” ACS Nano 6(11), 10156–10167 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boltasseva, A.

R. M. Bakker, H.-K. Yuan, Z. Liu, V. P. Drachev, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, R. H. Pedersen, S. Gresillon, A. Boltasseva, “Enhanced localized fluorescence in plasmonic nanoantennae,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 043101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bonod, N.

A. Devilez, B. Stout, N. Bonod, “Compact metallo-dielectric optical antenna for ultra directional and enhanced radiative emission,” ACS Nano 4(6), 3390–3396 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Castro-López, M.

I. M. Hancu, A. G. Curto, M. Castro-López, M. Kuttge, N. F. van Hulst, “Multipolar interference for directed light emission,” Nano Lett. 14(1), 166–171 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson, R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Coenen, T.

T. Coenen, E. J. R. Vesseur, A. Polman, A. F. Koenderink, “Directional emission from plasmonic Yagi-Uda antennas probed by angle-resolved cathodoluminescence spectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 11(9), 3779–3784 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crozier, K. B.

W. Zhu, D. Wang, K. B. Crozier, “Direct observation of beamed raman scattering,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6235–6243 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Curto, A. G.

I. M. Hancu, A. G. Curto, M. Castro-López, M. Kuttge, N. F. van Hulst, “Multipolar interference for directed light emission,” Nano Lett. 14(1), 166–171 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, N. F. van Hulst, “Unidirectional emission of a quantum dot coupled to a nanoantenna,” Science 329(5994), 930–933 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dallaporta, H.

A. G. Nikitin, T. Nguyen, H. Dallaporta, “Narrow plasmon resonances in diffractive arrays of gold nanoparticles in asymmetric environment: Experimental studies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(22), 221116 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Davoyan, A. R.

I. S. Maksymov, A. R. Davoyan, Y. S. Kivshar, “Enhanced emission and light control with tapered plasmonic nanoantennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(8), 083304 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Devilez, A.

A. Devilez, B. Stout, N. Bonod, “Compact metallo-dielectric optical antenna for ultra directional and enhanced radiative emission,” ACS Nano 4(6), 3390–3396 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dmitriev, A.

L. Tong, T. Pakizeh, L. Feuz, A. Dmitriev, “Highly directional bottom-up 3D nanoantenna for visible light,” Sci. Rep. 3, 2311 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dorfmüller, J.

D. Dregely, R. Taubert, J. Dorfmüller, R. Vogelgesang, K. Kern, H. Giessen, “3D optical Yagi-Uda nanoantenna array,” Nat. Commun. 2, 267 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drachev, V. P.

R. M. Bakker, H.-K. Yuan, Z. Liu, V. P. Drachev, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, R. H. Pedersen, S. Gresillon, A. Boltasseva, “Enhanced localized fluorescence in plasmonic nanoantennae,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 043101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dregely, D.

D. Dregely, R. Taubert, J. Dorfmüller, R. Vogelgesang, K. Kern, H. Giessen, “3D optical Yagi-Uda nanoantenna array,” Nat. Commun. 2, 267 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eisler, H.-J.

J. N. Farahani, D. W. Pohl, H.-J. Eisler, B. Hecht, “Single quantum dot coupled to a scanning optical antenna: A tunable superemitter,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(1), 017402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Engheta, N.

J. Li, A. Salandrino, N. Engheta, “Shaping light beams in the nanometer scale: A Yagi-Uda nanoantenna in the optical domain,” Phys. Rev. B 76(24), 245403 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Farahani, J. N.

J. N. Farahani, D. W. Pohl, H.-J. Eisler, B. Hecht, “Single quantum dot coupled to a scanning optical antenna: A tunable superemitter,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(1), 017402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feuz, L.

L. Tong, T. Pakizeh, L. Feuz, A. Dmitriev, “Highly directional bottom-up 3D nanoantenna for visible light,” Sci. Rep. 3, 2311 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

García de Abajo, F. J.

B. Auguié, X. M. Bendaña, W. L. Barnes, F. J. García de Abajo, “Diffractive arrays of gold nanoparticles near an interface: Critical role of the substrate,” Phys. Rev. B 82(15), 155447 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Giannini, V.

O. L. Muskens, V. Giannini, J. A. Sanchez-Gil, J. Gómez Rivas, “Strong enhancement of the radiative decay rate of emitters by single plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 7(9), 2871–2875 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Giessen, H.

D. Dregely, R. Taubert, J. Dorfmüller, R. Vogelgesang, K. Kern, H. Giessen, “3D optical Yagi-Uda nanoantenna array,” Nat. Commun. 2, 267 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gómez Rivas, J.

O. L. Muskens, V. Giannini, J. A. Sanchez-Gil, J. Gómez Rivas, “Strong enhancement of the radiative decay rate of emitters by single plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 7(9), 2871–2875 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gresillon, S.

R. M. Bakker, H.-K. Yuan, Z. Liu, V. P. Drachev, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, R. H. Pedersen, S. Gresillon, A. Boltasseva, “Enhanced localized fluorescence in plasmonic nanoantennae,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 043101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Håkanson, U.

S. Kühn, U. Håkanson, L. Rogobete, V. Sandoghdar, “Enhancement of single-molecule Fluorescence using a gold nanoparticle as an optical nanoantenna,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(1), 017402 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hancu, I. M.

I. M. Hancu, A. G. Curto, M. Castro-López, M. Kuttge, N. F. van Hulst, “Multipolar interference for directed light emission,” Nano Lett. 14(1), 166–171 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hecht, B.

J. N. Farahani, D. W. Pohl, H.-J. Eisler, B. Hecht, “Single quantum dot coupled to a scanning optical antenna: A tunable superemitter,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(1), 017402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hofmann, H. F.

T. Kosako, Y. Kadoya, H. F. Hofmann, “Directional control of light by a nano-optical Yagi-Uda antenna,” Nat. Photonics 4(5), 312–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Hofmann, T. Kosako, Y. Kadoya, “Design parameters for a nano-optical Yagi–Uda antenna,” New J. Phys. 9(7), 217 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Johansson, P.

T. Shegai, P. Johansson, C. Langhammer, M. Käll, “Directional scattering and hydrogen sensing by bimetallic Pd-Au nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 12(5), 2464–2469 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, P. B.

P. B. Johnson, R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Kadoya, Y.

T. Kosako, Y. Kadoya, H. F. Hofmann, “Directional control of light by a nano-optical Yagi-Uda antenna,” Nat. Photonics 4(5), 312–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Hofmann, T. Kosako, Y. Kadoya, “Design parameters for a nano-optical Yagi–Uda antenna,” New J. Phys. 9(7), 217 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Käll, M.

T. Shegai, P. Johansson, C. Langhammer, M. Käll, “Directional scattering and hydrogen sensing by bimetallic Pd-Au nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 12(5), 2464–2469 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kern, K.

D. Dregely, R. Taubert, J. Dorfmüller, R. Vogelgesang, K. Kern, H. Giessen, “3D optical Yagi-Uda nanoantenna array,” Nat. Commun. 2, 267 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kildishev, A. V.

R. M. Bakker, H.-K. Yuan, Z. Liu, V. P. Drachev, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, R. H. Pedersen, S. Gresillon, A. Boltasseva, “Enhanced localized fluorescence in plasmonic nanoantennae,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 043101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kivshar, Y. S.

I. S. Maksymov, A. R. Davoyan, Y. S. Kivshar, “Enhanced emission and light control with tapered plasmonic nanoantennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(8), 083304 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Koenderink, A. F.

F. Bernal Arango, A. Kwadrin, A. F. Koenderink, “Plasmonic antennas hybridized with dielectric waveguides,” ACS Nano 6(11), 10156–10167 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Coenen, E. J. R. Vesseur, A. Polman, A. F. Koenderink, “Directional emission from plasmonic Yagi-Uda antennas probed by angle-resolved cathodoluminescence spectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 11(9), 3779–3784 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kosako, T.

T. Kosako, Y. Kadoya, H. F. Hofmann, “Directional control of light by a nano-optical Yagi-Uda antenna,” Nat. Photonics 4(5), 312–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Hofmann, T. Kosako, Y. Kadoya, “Design parameters for a nano-optical Yagi–Uda antenna,” New J. Phys. 9(7), 217 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kreuzer, M. P.

A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, N. F. van Hulst, “Unidirectional emission of a quantum dot coupled to a nanoantenna,” Science 329(5994), 930–933 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kühn, S.

S. Kühn, U. Håkanson, L. Rogobete, V. Sandoghdar, “Enhancement of single-molecule Fluorescence using a gold nanoparticle as an optical nanoantenna,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(1), 017402 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuttge, M.

I. M. Hancu, A. G. Curto, M. Castro-López, M. Kuttge, N. F. van Hulst, “Multipolar interference for directed light emission,” Nano Lett. 14(1), 166–171 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kwadrin, A.

F. Bernal Arango, A. Kwadrin, A. F. Koenderink, “Plasmonic antennas hybridized with dielectric waveguides,” ACS Nano 6(11), 10156–10167 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Langhammer, C.

T. Shegai, P. Johansson, C. Langhammer, M. Käll, “Directional scattering and hydrogen sensing by bimetallic Pd-Au nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 12(5), 2464–2469 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, J.

J. Li, A. Salandrino, N. Engheta, “Shaping light beams in the nanometer scale: A Yagi-Uda nanoantenna in the optical domain,” Phys. Rev. B 76(24), 245403 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z.

R. M. Bakker, H.-K. Yuan, Z. Liu, V. P. Drachev, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, R. H. Pedersen, S. Gresillon, A. Boltasseva, “Enhanced localized fluorescence in plasmonic nanoantennae,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 043101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lukosz, W.

Maksymov, I. S.

I. S. Maksymov, A. R. Davoyan, Y. S. Kivshar, “Enhanced emission and light control with tapered plasmonic nanoantennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(8), 083304 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Muha, M. S.

D. B. Rutledge, M. S. Muha, “Imaging antenna arrays,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 30(4), 535–540 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Muskens, O. L.

O. L. Muskens, V. Giannini, J. A. Sanchez-Gil, J. Gómez Rivas, “Strong enhancement of the radiative decay rate of emitters by single plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 7(9), 2871–2875 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nguyen, T.

A. G. Nikitin, T. Nguyen, H. Dallaporta, “Narrow plasmon resonances in diffractive arrays of gold nanoparticles in asymmetric environment: Experimental studies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(22), 221116 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Nikitin, A. G.

A. G. Nikitin, T. Nguyen, H. Dallaporta, “Narrow plasmon resonances in diffractive arrays of gold nanoparticles in asymmetric environment: Experimental studies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(22), 221116 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Pakizeh, T.

L. Tong, T. Pakizeh, L. Feuz, A. Dmitriev, “Highly directional bottom-up 3D nanoantenna for visible light,” Sci. Rep. 3, 2311 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pedersen, R. H.

R. M. Bakker, H.-K. Yuan, Z. Liu, V. P. Drachev, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, R. H. Pedersen, S. Gresillon, A. Boltasseva, “Enhanced localized fluorescence in plasmonic nanoantennae,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 043101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pohl, D. W.

J. N. Farahani, D. W. Pohl, H.-J. Eisler, B. Hecht, “Single quantum dot coupled to a scanning optical antenna: A tunable superemitter,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(1), 017402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Polman, A.

T. Coenen, E. J. R. Vesseur, A. Polman, A. F. Koenderink, “Directional emission from plasmonic Yagi-Uda antennas probed by angle-resolved cathodoluminescence spectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 11(9), 3779–3784 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Quidant, R.

A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, N. F. van Hulst, “Unidirectional emission of a quantum dot coupled to a nanoantenna,” Science 329(5994), 930–933 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rogobete, L.

S. Kühn, U. Håkanson, L. Rogobete, V. Sandoghdar, “Enhancement of single-molecule Fluorescence using a gold nanoparticle as an optical nanoantenna,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(1), 017402 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rutledge, D. B.

D. B. Rutledge, M. S. Muha, “Imaging antenna arrays,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 30(4), 535–540 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Salandrino, A.

J. Li, A. Salandrino, N. Engheta, “Shaping light beams in the nanometer scale: A Yagi-Uda nanoantenna in the optical domain,” Phys. Rev. B 76(24), 245403 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sanchez-Gil, J. A.

O. L. Muskens, V. Giannini, J. A. Sanchez-Gil, J. Gómez Rivas, “Strong enhancement of the radiative decay rate of emitters by single plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 7(9), 2871–2875 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sandoghdar, V.

S. Kühn, U. Håkanson, L. Rogobete, V. Sandoghdar, “Enhancement of single-molecule Fluorescence using a gold nanoparticle as an optical nanoantenna,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(1), 017402 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Segerink, F. B.

T. H. Taminiau, F. D. Stefani, F. B. Segerink, N. F. van Hulst, “Optical antennas direct single-molecule emission,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 234–237 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shalaev, V. M.

R. M. Bakker, H.-K. Yuan, Z. Liu, V. P. Drachev, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, R. H. Pedersen, S. Gresillon, A. Boltasseva, “Enhanced localized fluorescence in plasmonic nanoantennae,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 043101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shegai, T.

T. Shegai, P. Johansson, C. Langhammer, M. Käll, “Directional scattering and hydrogen sensing by bimetallic Pd-Au nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 12(5), 2464–2469 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stefani, F. D.

T. H. Taminiau, F. D. Stefani, N. F. van Hulst, “Enhanced directional excitation and emission of single emitters by a nano-optical Yagi-Uda antenna,” Opt. Express 16(14), 10858–10866 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. H. Taminiau, F. D. Stefani, F. B. Segerink, N. F. van Hulst, “Optical antennas direct single-molecule emission,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 234–237 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Stout, B.

A. Devilez, B. Stout, N. Bonod, “Compact metallo-dielectric optical antenna for ultra directional and enhanced radiative emission,” ACS Nano 4(6), 3390–3396 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taminiau, T. H.

A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, N. F. van Hulst, “Unidirectional emission of a quantum dot coupled to a nanoantenna,” Science 329(5994), 930–933 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. H. Taminiau, F. D. Stefani, F. B. Segerink, N. F. van Hulst, “Optical antennas direct single-molecule emission,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 234–237 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Taminiau, F. D. Stefani, N. F. van Hulst, “Enhanced directional excitation and emission of single emitters by a nano-optical Yagi-Uda antenna,” Opt. Express 16(14), 10858–10866 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taubert, R.

D. Dregely, R. Taubert, J. Dorfmüller, R. Vogelgesang, K. Kern, H. Giessen, “3D optical Yagi-Uda nanoantenna array,” Nat. Commun. 2, 267 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tong, L.

L. Tong, T. Pakizeh, L. Feuz, A. Dmitriev, “Highly directional bottom-up 3D nanoantenna for visible light,” Sci. Rep. 3, 2311 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Hulst, N. F.

I. M. Hancu, A. G. Curto, M. Castro-López, M. Kuttge, N. F. van Hulst, “Multipolar interference for directed light emission,” Nano Lett. 14(1), 166–171 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, N. F. van Hulst, “Unidirectional emission of a quantum dot coupled to a nanoantenna,” Science 329(5994), 930–933 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. H. Taminiau, F. D. Stefani, N. F. van Hulst, “Enhanced directional excitation and emission of single emitters by a nano-optical Yagi-Uda antenna,” Opt. Express 16(14), 10858–10866 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. H. Taminiau, F. D. Stefani, F. B. Segerink, N. F. van Hulst, “Optical antennas direct single-molecule emission,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 234–237 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Vesseur, E. J. R.

T. Coenen, E. J. R. Vesseur, A. Polman, A. F. Koenderink, “Directional emission from plasmonic Yagi-Uda antennas probed by angle-resolved cathodoluminescence spectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 11(9), 3779–3784 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vogelgesang, R.

D. Dregely, R. Taubert, J. Dorfmüller, R. Vogelgesang, K. Kern, H. Giessen, “3D optical Yagi-Uda nanoantenna array,” Nat. Commun. 2, 267 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Volpe, G.

A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, N. F. van Hulst, “Unidirectional emission of a quantum dot coupled to a nanoantenna,” Science 329(5994), 930–933 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, D.

W. Zhu, D. Wang, K. B. Crozier, “Direct observation of beamed raman scattering,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6235–6243 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yuan, H.-K.

R. M. Bakker, H.-K. Yuan, Z. Liu, V. P. Drachev, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, R. H. Pedersen, S. Gresillon, A. Boltasseva, “Enhanced localized fluorescence in plasmonic nanoantennae,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 043101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, W.

W. Zhu, D. Wang, K. B. Crozier, “Direct observation of beamed raman scattering,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6235–6243 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

ACS Nano (2)

A. Devilez, B. Stout, N. Bonod, “Compact metallo-dielectric optical antenna for ultra directional and enhanced radiative emission,” ACS Nano 4(6), 3390–3396 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Bernal Arango, A. Kwadrin, A. F. Koenderink, “Plasmonic antennas hybridized with dielectric waveguides,” ACS Nano 6(11), 10156–10167 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

I. S. Maksymov, A. R. Davoyan, Y. S. Kivshar, “Enhanced emission and light control with tapered plasmonic nanoantennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(8), 083304 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Bakker, H.-K. Yuan, Z. Liu, V. P. Drachev, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, R. H. Pedersen, S. Gresillon, A. Boltasseva, “Enhanced localized fluorescence in plasmonic nanoantennae,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 043101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Nikitin, T. Nguyen, H. Dallaporta, “Narrow plasmon resonances in diffractive arrays of gold nanoparticles in asymmetric environment: Experimental studies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(22), 221116 (2013).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. (1)

D. B. Rutledge, M. S. Muha, “Imaging antenna arrays,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 30(4), 535–540 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Nano Lett. (5)

I. M. Hancu, A. G. Curto, M. Castro-López, M. Kuttge, N. F. van Hulst, “Multipolar interference for directed light emission,” Nano Lett. 14(1), 166–171 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. L. Muskens, V. Giannini, J. A. Sanchez-Gil, J. Gómez Rivas, “Strong enhancement of the radiative decay rate of emitters by single plasmonic nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 7(9), 2871–2875 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Shegai, P. Johansson, C. Langhammer, M. Käll, “Directional scattering and hydrogen sensing by bimetallic Pd-Au nanoantennas,” Nano Lett. 12(5), 2464–2469 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Zhu, D. Wang, K. B. Crozier, “Direct observation of beamed raman scattering,” Nano Lett. 12(12), 6235–6243 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Coenen, E. J. R. Vesseur, A. Polman, A. F. Koenderink, “Directional emission from plasmonic Yagi-Uda antennas probed by angle-resolved cathodoluminescence spectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 11(9), 3779–3784 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Commun. (1)

D. Dregely, R. Taubert, J. Dorfmüller, R. Vogelgesang, K. Kern, H. Giessen, “3D optical Yagi-Uda nanoantenna array,” Nat. Commun. 2, 267 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (2)

T. Kosako, Y. Kadoya, H. F. Hofmann, “Directional control of light by a nano-optical Yagi-Uda antenna,” Nat. Photonics 4(5), 312–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Taminiau, F. D. Stefani, F. B. Segerink, N. F. van Hulst, “Optical antennas direct single-molecule emission,” Nat. Photonics 2(4), 234–237 (2008).
[CrossRef]

New J. Phys. (1)

H. F. Hofmann, T. Kosako, Y. Kadoya, “Design parameters for a nano-optical Yagi–Uda antenna,” New J. Phys. 9(7), 217 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Rev. B (3)

J. Li, A. Salandrino, N. Engheta, “Shaping light beams in the nanometer scale: A Yagi-Uda nanoantenna in the optical domain,” Phys. Rev. B 76(24), 245403 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Auguié, X. M. Bendaña, W. L. Barnes, F. J. García de Abajo, “Diffractive arrays of gold nanoparticles near an interface: Critical role of the substrate,” Phys. Rev. B 82(15), 155447 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Johnson, R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

J. N. Farahani, D. W. Pohl, H.-J. Eisler, B. Hecht, “Single quantum dot coupled to a scanning optical antenna: A tunable superemitter,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95(1), 017402 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kühn, U. Håkanson, L. Rogobete, V. Sandoghdar, “Enhancement of single-molecule Fluorescence using a gold nanoparticle as an optical nanoantenna,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(1), 017402 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sci. Rep. (1)

L. Tong, T. Pakizeh, L. Feuz, A. Dmitriev, “Highly directional bottom-up 3D nanoantenna for visible light,” Sci. Rep. 3, 2311 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, N. F. van Hulst, “Unidirectional emission of a quantum dot coupled to a nanoantenna,” Science 329(5994), 930–933 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) The SEM image of the 5-element Yagi-Uda antenna. (b) The layout of the antenna array for the measurement of the radiation patterns. (c) The extinction spectra of the elements. The shaded area indicates the range out of the CCD detector. (d) The scattering spectra obtained by the FDTD simulation.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) The schematic diagram of the measurement setup. (b) The structure of the detection unit. (c) The CCD images taken at various angle of detection during the alignment. The scattering from the longer (120 μm) edges of the rectangular test pattern is seen as the pair of bright rods.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Radiation patterns from single dipoles for various value of noil; (a) noil = 1.510, (b) noil = 1.530, (c) noil = 1.523, (d) noil = 1.522, (e) noil = 1.524, and (f) theoretical prediction of radiation pattern for small index mismatch. The intensity was normalized by the value at 90° in each plot. The angle range 0°<θ <180° (θ <0° and θ >180°) corresponds to the oil (substrate) side. In (a)-(c), the red symbols and the blue lines are the experimental results and the theoretical prediction, respectively. The shaded area indicates the range where the detection is not possible in our setup. In the simulation, the angle resolution of 2° was taken into account.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Radiation patterns of the Yagi-Uda antennas; (a) experimental result with noil = 1.523, (b) FDTD simulation for homogeneous medium, (c) experimental result with noil = 1.521, (d) magnified plot of (c) only in the rage 0°<θ <180° for clarity. The green, blue and red symbols or lines represent the results in the feed-only, 2-element (feed + reflector) and 5-element (feed + reflector + 3 directors) antennas, respectively.

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