Abstract

In this work we present for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, a stretched-pulse mode-locked fiber laser based on topological insulator. As a saturable absorber (SA) a ~0.5 mm thick lump of antimony telluride (Sb2Te3) deposited on a side-polished fiber was used. Such a SA introduced 6% modulation depth with 43% of non-saturable losses, which is sufficient for supporting stretched-pulse mode-locking. The ring laser resonator based on Er-doped active fiber with managed intracavity dispersion was capable of generating ultrashort optical pulses with full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 30 nm centered at 1565 nm. The pulses with duration of 128 fs were repeated with a frequency of 22.32 MHz.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  38. Q. Yuan, Q. Nie, D. Huo, “Preparation and characterization of the antimony telluride hexagonal nanoplates,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 9(1), 224–226 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  39. G. C. Sosso, S. Caravati, M. Bernasconi, “Vibrational properties of crystalline Sb2Te3 from first principles,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21(9), 095410 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2014

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, W. Macherzynski, K. M. Abramski, “Harmonically mode-locked Er-doped fiber laser based on a Sb2Te3 topological insulator saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(5), 055102 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Lin, C.-Y. Yang, S.-F. Lin, W.-H. Tseng, Q. Bao, C.-I. Wu, G.-R. Lin, “Soliton compression of the erbium-doped fiber laser weakly started mode-locking by nanoscale p-type Bi2Te3 topological insulator particles,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(5), 055107 (2014).
[CrossRef]

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, W. Macherzynski, P. Paletko, K. Grodecki, K. M. Abramski, “Mode-locking in Er-doped fiber laser based on mechanically exfoliated Sb2Te3 saturable absorber,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(1), 1–6 (2014).
[CrossRef]

S. Chen, C. Zhao, Y. Li, H. Huang, S. Lu, H. Zhang, S. Wen, “Broadband optical and microwave nonlinear response in topological insulator,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(4), 587–596 (2014).
[CrossRef]

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, J. Tarka, I. Pasternak, A. Krajewska, W. Strupinski, K. M. Abramski, “Passive synchronization of erbium and thulium doped fiber mode-locked lasers enhanced by common graphene saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 22(5), 5536–5543 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Tolstik, E. Sorokin, I. T. Sorokina, “Graphene mode-locked Cr:ZnS laser with 41 fs pulse duration,” Opt. Express 22(5), 5564–5571 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Lee, J. Koo, Y. M. Jhon, J. H. Lee, “A femtosecond pulse erbium fiber laser incorporating a saturable absorber based on bulk-structured Bi2Te3 topological insulator,” Opt. Express 22(5), 6165–6173 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Liu, X.-W. Zheng, M. Liu, N. Zhao, A.-P. Luo, Z.-C. Luo, W.-C. Xu, H. Zhang, C.-J. Zhao, S.-C. Wen, “Femtosecond pulse generation from a topological insulator mode-locked fiber laser,” Opt. Express 22(6), 6868–6873 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Jung, J. Lee, J. Koo, J. Park, Y.-W. Song, K. Lee, S. Lee, J. H. Lee, “A femtosecond pulse fiber laser at 1935 nm using a bulk-structured Bi2Te3 topological insulator,” Opt. Express 22(7), 7865–7874 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2013

2012

C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Wen, D. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211106 (2012).
[CrossRef]

I. H. Baek, H. W. Lee, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Ahn, D. I. Yeom, F. Rotermund, “Efficient mode-locking of sub-70-fs Ti: sapphire laser by graphene saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(3), 032701 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Zhao, Y. Zou, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Lu, H. Zhang, S. Wen, D. Tang, “Wavelength-tunable picosecond soliton fiber laser with Topological Insulator: Bi2Se3 as a mode locker,” Opt. Express 20(25), 27888–27895 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

A. Martinez, K. Fuse, B. Xu, S. Yamashita, “Optical deposition of graphene and carbon nanotubes in a fiber ferrule for passive mode-locked lasing,” Opt. Express 18(22), 23054–23061 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Moore, “The birth of topological insulators,” Nature 464(7286), 194–198 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Z. Hasan, C. Kane, “Colloquium: topological insulators,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82(4), 3045–3067 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, A. C. Ferrari, “Sub 200 fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 203106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, K. P. Loh, B. Lin, S. C. Tjin, “Compact graphene modelocked wavelength-tunable erbium-doped fiber lasers: from all anomalous dispersion to all normal dispersion,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7(8), 591–596 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Nikodem, K. M. Abramski, “169 MHz repetition frequency all-fiber passively mode-locked erbium doped fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 283(1), 109–112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube–Polymer Composites for Ultrafast Photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21(38-39), 3874–3899 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, D. Y. Tang, “Atomic layer graphene as saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed laser,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Zhang, C. X. Liu, X. L. Qi, X. Dai, Z. Fang, S. C. Zhang, “Topological insulators in Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 with a single Dirac cone on the surface,” Nat. Phys. 5(6), 438–442 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. Yuan, Q. Nie, D. Huo, “Preparation and characterization of the antimony telluride hexagonal nanoplates,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 9(1), 224–226 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Sosso, S. Caravati, M. Bernasconi, “Vibrational properties of crystalline Sb2Te3 from first principles,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21(9), 095410 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

D. Hsieh, D. Qian, L. Wray, Y. Xia, Y. S. Hor, R. J. Cava, M. Z. Hasan, “A topological Dirac insulator in a quantum spin Hall phase,” Nature 452(7190), 970–974 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

2003

U. Keller, “Recent developments in compact ultrafast lasers,” Nature 424(6950), 831–838 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

G. Steinmeyer, D. H. Sutter, L. Gallmann, N. Matuschek, U. Keller, “Frontiers in Ultrashort Pulse Generation: Pushing the Limits in Linear and Nonlinear Optics,” Science 286(5444), 1507–1512 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997

L. E. Nelson, D. J. Jones, K. Tamura, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, “Ultrashort-pulse fiber ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 65(2), 277–294 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1993

Abramski, K. M.

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, W. Macherzynski, P. Paletko, K. Grodecki, K. M. Abramski, “Mode-locking in Er-doped fiber laser based on mechanically exfoliated Sb2Te3 saturable absorber,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(1), 1–6 (2014).
[CrossRef]

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, W. Macherzynski, K. M. Abramski, “Harmonically mode-locked Er-doped fiber laser based on a Sb2Te3 topological insulator saturable absorber,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(5), 055102 (2014).
[CrossRef]

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, J. Tarka, I. Pasternak, A. Krajewska, W. Strupinski, K. M. Abramski, “Passive synchronization of erbium and thulium doped fiber mode-locked lasers enhanced by common graphene saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 22(5), 5536–5543 (2014).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Sobon, J. Sotor, I. Pasternak, A. Krajewska, W. Strupinski, K. M. Abramski, “Thulium-doped all-fiber laser mode-locked by CVD-graphene/PMMA saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 21(10), 12797–12802 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Krzempek, G. Sobon, P. Kaczmarek, K. M. Abramski, “A sub-100 fs stretched-pulse 205 MHz repetition rate passively mode-locked Er-doped all-fiber laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(10), 105103 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, I. Pasternak, A. Krajewska, W. Strupinski, K. M. Abramski, “Simultaneous mode-locking at 1565 nm and 1944 nm in fiber laser based on common graphene saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 21(16), 18994–19002 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Nikodem, K. M. Abramski, “169 MHz repetition frequency all-fiber passively mode-locked erbium doped fiber laser,” Opt. Commun. 283(1), 109–112 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, Y. H.

I. H. Baek, H. W. Lee, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Ahn, D. I. Yeom, F. Rotermund, “Efficient mode-locking of sub-70-fs Ti: sapphire laser by graphene saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(3), 032701 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Andrejco, M. J.

Bae, S.

M. N. Cizmeciyan, J. W. Kim, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, F. Rotermund, A. Sennaroglu, “Graphene mode-locked femtosecond Cr:ZnSe laser at 2500 nm,” Opt. Lett. 38(3), 341–343 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. H. Baek, H. W. Lee, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Ahn, D. I. Yeom, F. Rotermund, “Efficient mode-locking of sub-70-fs Ti: sapphire laser by graphene saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(3), 032701 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Baek, I. H.

I. H. Baek, H. W. Lee, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Ahn, D. I. Yeom, F. Rotermund, “Efficient mode-locking of sub-70-fs Ti: sapphire laser by graphene saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(3), 032701 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bao, Q.

Y.-H. Lin, C.-Y. Yang, S.-F. Lin, W.-H. Tseng, Q. Bao, C.-I. Wu, G.-R. Lin, “Soliton compression of the erbium-doped fiber laser weakly started mode-locking by nanoscale p-type Bi2Te3 topological insulator particles,” Laser Phys. Lett. 11(5), 055107 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Bao, Q. L.

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, Q. L. Bao, K. P. Loh, B. Lin, S. C. Tjin, “Compact graphene modelocked wavelength-tunable erbium-doped fiber lasers: from all anomalous dispersion to all normal dispersion,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7(8), 591–596 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Q. L. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, D. Y. Tang, “Atomic layer graphene as saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed laser,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Basko, D. M.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bernasconi, M.

G. C. Sosso, S. Caravati, M. Bernasconi, “Vibrational properties of crystalline Sb2Te3 from first principles,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21(9), 095410 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bonaccorso, F.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube–Polymer Composites for Ultrafast Photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21(38-39), 3874–3899 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Caravati, S.

G. C. Sosso, S. Caravati, M. Bernasconi, “Vibrational properties of crystalline Sb2Te3 from first principles,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 21(9), 095410 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cava, R. J.

D. Hsieh, D. Qian, L. Wray, Y. Xia, Y. S. Hor, R. J. Cava, M. Z. Hasan, “A topological Dirac insulator in a quantum spin Hall phase,” Nature 452(7190), 970–974 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, K. P.

Q. Wang, T. Chen, B. Zhang, M. Li, Y. Lu, K. P. Chen, “All-fiber passively mode-locked thulium-doped fiber ring laser using optically deposited graphene saturable absorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(13), 131117 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S.

Chen, T.

Q. Wang, T. Chen, B. Zhang, M. Li, Y. Lu, K. P. Chen, “All-fiber passively mode-locked thulium-doped fiber ring laser using optically deposited graphene saturable absorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(13), 131117 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

Cizmeciyan, M. N.

Dai, X.

H. Zhang, C. X. Liu, X. L. Qi, X. Dai, Z. Fang, S. C. Zhang, “Topological insulators in Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 with a single Dirac cone on the surface,” Nat. Phys. 5(6), 438–442 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fang, Z.

H. Zhang, C. X. Liu, X. L. Qi, X. Dai, Z. Fang, S. C. Zhang, “Topological insulators in Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 with a single Dirac cone on the surface,” Nat. Phys. 5(6), 438–442 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fermann, M. E.

Ferrari, A. C.

D. Popa, Z. Sun, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, F. Wang, A. C. Ferrari, “Sub 200 fs pulse generation from a graphene mode-locked fiber laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(20), 203106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube–Polymer Composites for Ultrafast Photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21(38-39), 3874–3899 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fuse, K.

Gallmann, L.

G. Steinmeyer, D. H. Sutter, L. Gallmann, N. Matuschek, U. Keller, “Frontiers in Ultrashort Pulse Generation: Pushing the Limits in Linear and Nonlinear Optics,” Science 286(5444), 1507–1512 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grodecki, K.

Hasan, M. Z.

M. Z. Hasan, C. Kane, “Colloquium: topological insulators,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82(4), 3045–3067 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. Hsieh, D. Qian, L. Wray, Y. Xia, Y. S. Hor, R. J. Cava, M. Z. Hasan, “A topological Dirac insulator in a quantum spin Hall phase,” Nature 452(7190), 970–974 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hasan, T.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Appl. Phys. B

L. E. Nelson, D. J. Jones, K. Tamura, H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, “Ultrashort-pulse fiber ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 65(2), 277–294 (1997).
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Appl. Phys. Express

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Nat. Photonics

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Other

F. Bernard, H. Zhang, S. P. Gorza, and P. Emplit, “Towards mode-locked fiber laser using topological insulators,” in Nonlinear Photonics, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper NTh1A.5.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Prepared Sb2Te3 and side-polished fiber based SA: a) photograph, b) cross-section. c) EDS spectrum taken from the Sb2Te3 lump placed onto the side-polished fiber containing typical lines characteristics for Sb2Te3 (inset graph: the Raman spectrum measured at 532 nm).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Prepared Sb2Te3 based SA absorption measured for: a) low intensities (linear absorption at the level of 50%), b) high intensities (nonlinear absorption with modulation depth and non-saturable loses of 6% and 43%, respectively).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental setup of the stretched-pulse fiber mode-locked laser based on Sb2Te3 SA.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

a) Optical spectrum of the generated pulses, b) autocorrelation trace measured after the 140 cm long SMF-28 fiber.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

a) RF spectrum of the mode-locked laser output measured with 2 MHz frequency span and 100 Hz RBW. Inset: spectrum in 3 GHz span, b) corresponding pulse train.

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