Abstract

Current demands in astrophotonics impose advancing optical functions in infrared domains within embedded refractive index designs. We demonstrate concepts for large-mode-area guiding in ultrafast laser photowritten waveguides in bulk Sulfur-based chalcogenide glasses. If positive index contrasts are weak in As2S3, Ge doping increases the matrix rigidity and allows for high contrast (10−3) positive refractive index changes. Guiding with variable mode diameter and large-mode-area light transport is demonstrated up to 10 μm spectral domain using transverse slit-shaped and evanescently-coupled multicore traces.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2013 (3)

2012 (6)

B. McMillen, B. Zhang, K. P. Chen, A. Benayas, D. Jaque, “Ultrafast laser fabrication of low-loss waveguides in chalcogenide glass with 0.65 dB/cm loss,” Opt. Lett. 37, 1418–1420 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Masselin, D. Le Coq, A. Cuisset, E. Bychkov, “Spatially resolved Raman analysis of laser induced refractive index variation in chalcogenide glass,” Opt. Mat. Express 2, 1768–1775 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Ródenas, G. Martin, B. Arezki, N. Psaila, G. Jose, A. Jha, L. Labadie, P. Kern, A. Kar, R. Thomson, “Three-dimensional mid-infrared photonic circuits in chalcogenide glass,” Opt. Lett. 37, 392–394 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Cvetojevic, N. Jovanovic, J. Lawrence, M. Withford, J. Bland-Hawthornn, “Developing arrayed waveguide grating spectrographs for multi-object astronomical spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2062–2072 (2012).

N. Jovanovic, P. G. Tuthill, B. Norris, S. Gross, P. Stewart, N. Charles, S. Lacour, M. Ams, J. S. Lawrence, A. Lehmann, C. Niel, J. G. Robertson, G. D. Marshall, M. Ireland, A. Fuerbach, M. J. Withford, “Starlight demonstration of the Dragonfly instrument: an integrated photonic pupil-remapping interferometer for high-contrast imaging,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 427, 806–815 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Birks, B. J. Mangan, A. Díez, J. L. Cruz, D. F. Murphy, “Photonic lantern spectral filters in multi-core fibre,” Opt. Express 20, 13996–14008 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

2010 (4)

2009 (4)

2008 (3)

A. Mermillod-Blondin, C. Mauclair, A. Rosenfeld, J. Bonse, I. V. Hertel, E. Audouard, R. Stoian, “Size correction in ultrafast laser processing of fused silica by temporal pulse shaping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 021921 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Sanghera, C. M. Florea, L. B. Shaw, P. Pureza, V.Q. Nguyen, M. Bashkansky, Z. Dutton, I. D. Aggarwal, “Non-linear properties of chalcogenide glasses and fibers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354, 462–467 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Sanghera, I. D. Aggarwal, “Active and passive chalcogenide glass optical fibers for IR applications: a review,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256–257, 462–467 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (5)

2006 (1)

2004 (3)

2003 (3)

A. Zakery, S. Elliott, “Optical properties and applications of chalcogenide glasses: a review,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 330, 1–12 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Chen, H. Jain, M. Vlcek, S. Khalid, J. Li, D. A. Drabold, S. R. Elliott, “Observation of light polarization-dependent structural changes in chalcogenide glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 606–608 (2003).

Y. Cheng, K. Sugioka, K. Midorikawa, M. Masuda, K. Toyoda, M. Kawachi, K. Shihoyama, “Control of the cross-sectional shape of a hollow microchannel embedded in photostructurable glass by use of a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett. 28, 55–57 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

A. M. Ljungström, T. M. Monro, “Light-Induced Self-Writing Effects in Bulk Chalcogenide Glass,” J. Light-waveTechnol. 20, 78–85 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

O. M. Efimov, L. B. Glebov, K. A. Richardson, E. Van Stryland, T. Cardinal, S. H. Park, M. Couzi, J. L. Bruneel, “Waveguide writing in chalcogenide glasses by a train of femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Mater. 17, 379–386 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Bindra, H. T. Bookey, A. K. Kar, B. S. Wherrett, X. Liu, A. Jha, “Nonlinear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses: Observation of multiphoton absorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 9, 1939–1941 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Boudebs, F. Sanchez, J. Troles, F. Smektala, “Nonlinear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses: comparison between MachZehnder interferometry and Z-scan techniques,” Opt. Commun. 199, 425–433 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

H. Jain, S. Krishnaswami, A. C. Miller, P. Krecmer, S. R. Elliott, M. Vlček, “In situ high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of light-induced changes in As-Se glasses,” J. Non-Crys. Solids 274, 115–123 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (4)

J.-F. Viens, C. Meneghini, A. Villeneuve, T. V. Galstian, E. J. Knystautas, M. A. Duguay, K. A. Richardson, T. Cardinal, “Fabrication and characterization of integrated optical waveguides in sulfide chalcogenide glasses,” J. LightwaveTech. 17, 1184–1991 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Cardinal, K. A. Richardson, H. Shim, A. Schulte, R. Beatty, K. Le Foulgoc, C. Meneghini, J. F. Viens, A. Villeneuve, “Non-linear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses in the system As-S-Se,” J. Non.Cryst Solids 256–257, 353–360 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Lucas, “Infrared glasses,” Cur. Op. Sol. St. Mat. Sci. 4, 181–187 (1999).

F. Malbet, P. Kern, I. Schanen-Duport, J. -P. Berger, K. Rousselet-Perraut, P. Benech, “Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry. I. Concept and astronomical applications,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser 138, 135–145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

1997 (1)

H. Kanbara, S. Fujiwara, K. Tanaka, H. Nasu, K. Hirao, “Third-order nonlinear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 925–927 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

H. Fritzche, “Photo-induced fluidity of chalcogenide glasses,” Solid State Commun. 99, 153–155 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

V. M. Lyubin, V. K. Tikhomirov, “Novel photo-induced effects in chalcogenide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 135, 37–48 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

K. Tanaka, “Structural phase transitions in chalcogenide glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 39, 1270–1279 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

J. A. Savage, “Optical properties of chalcogenide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 47, 101–116 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

J. P. De Neufville, S. C. Moss, S. R. Ovshinsky, “Photostructural transformations in amorphous As2Se3 and As2S3 films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 13, 191–223 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Abdou-Ahmed, M.

Adam, J.-L.

B. Bureau, X. H. Zhang, F. Smektala, J.-L. Adam, J. Troles, H.-li Ma, C. Boussard-Plédel, J. Lucas, P. Lucas, D. Le Coq, M. R. Riley, J. H. Simmons, “Recent advances in chalcogenide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 345–346, 276–283 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Agarwal, A.

T. Anderson, N. Carlie, L. Petit, J. Hu, A. Agarwal, J. J. Viens, J. Choi, L. C. Kimmerling, K. Richardson, M. Richardson, “Refractive index modifications in Chalcogenide films induced by sub-bandgap near-IR femtosecond pulses,” Paper CThS6 CLEO conference (2007).

Aggarwal, I. D.

J. S. Sanghera, C. M. Florea, L. B. Shaw, P. Pureza, V.Q. Nguyen, M. Bashkansky, Z. Dutton, I. D. Aggarwal, “Non-linear properties of chalcogenide glasses and fibers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354, 462–467 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Sanghera, I. D. Aggarwal, “Active and passive chalcogenide glass optical fibers for IR applications: a review,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256–257, 462–467 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Allington-Smith, J.

Ams, M.

N. Jovanovic, P. G. Tuthill, B. Norris, S. Gross, P. Stewart, N. Charles, S. Lacour, M. Ams, J. S. Lawrence, A. Lehmann, C. Niel, J. G. Robertson, G. D. Marshall, M. Ireland, A. Fuerbach, M. J. Withford, “Starlight demonstration of the Dragonfly instrument: an integrated photonic pupil-remapping interferometer for high-contrast imaging,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 427, 806–815 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, T.

T. Anderson, N. Carlie, L. Petit, J. Hu, A. Agarwal, J. J. Viens, J. Choi, L. C. Kimmerling, K. Richardson, M. Richardson, “Refractive index modifications in Chalcogenide films induced by sub-bandgap near-IR femtosecond pulses,” Paper CThS6 CLEO conference (2007).

Anheier, N. C.

L. Labadie, G. Martin, N. C. Anheier, B. Arezki, H. A. Qiao, B. Bernacki, P. Kern, “First fringes with an integrated-optics beam combiner at 10 μm. A new step towards instrument miniaturization for mid-infrared interferometry,” Astronomy and Astrophysics 531, A48 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Arezki, B.

A. Ródenas, G. Martin, B. Arezki, N. Psaila, G. Jose, A. Jha, L. Labadie, P. Kern, A. Kar, R. Thomson, “Three-dimensional mid-infrared photonic circuits in chalcogenide glass,” Opt. Lett. 37, 392–394 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Labadie, G. Martin, N. C. Anheier, B. Arezki, H. A. Qiao, B. Bernacki, P. Kern, “First fringes with an integrated-optics beam combiner at 10 μm. A new step towards instrument miniaturization for mid-infrared interferometry,” Astronomy and Astrophysics 531, A48 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Audouard, E.

A. Mermillod-Blondin, C. Mauclair, A. Rosenfeld, J. Bonse, I. V. Hertel, E. Audouard, R. Stoian, “Size correction in ultrafast laser processing of fused silica by temporal pulse shaping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 021921 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Baker, N. J.

Bashkansky, M.

J. S. Sanghera, C. M. Florea, L. B. Shaw, P. Pureza, V.Q. Nguyen, M. Bashkansky, Z. Dutton, I. D. Aggarwal, “Non-linear properties of chalcogenide glasses and fibers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354, 462–467 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Beatty, R.

T. Cardinal, K. A. Richardson, H. Shim, A. Schulte, R. Beatty, K. Le Foulgoc, C. Meneghini, J. F. Viens, A. Villeneuve, “Non-linear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses in the system As-S-Se,” J. Non.Cryst Solids 256–257, 353–360 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Benayas, A.

Benech, P.

E. le Coarer, S. Blaize, P. Benech, I. Stefanon, A. Morand, G. Léronde, G. Leblond, P. Kern, J. M. Fedeli, P. Royer, “Wavelength-scale stationary-wave integrated Fourier transform spectrometry,” Nat. Phot. 1, 473–478 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Malbet, P. Kern, I. Schanen-Duport, J. -P. Berger, K. Rousselet-Perraut, P. Benech, “Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry. I. Concept and astronomical applications,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser 138, 135–145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Berger, J. -P.

F. Malbet, P. Kern, I. Schanen-Duport, J. -P. Berger, K. Rousselet-Perraut, P. Benech, “Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry. I. Concept and astronomical applications,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser 138, 135–145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bernacki, B.

L. Labadie, G. Martin, N. C. Anheier, B. Arezki, H. A. Qiao, B. Bernacki, P. Kern, “First fringes with an integrated-optics beam combiner at 10 μm. A new step towards instrument miniaturization for mid-infrared interferometry,” Astronomy and Astrophysics 531, A48 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bindra, K. S.

K. S. Bindra, H. T. Bookey, A. K. Kar, B. S. Wherrett, X. Liu, A. Jha, “Nonlinear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses: Observation of multiphoton absorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 9, 1939–1941 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Birks, T. A.

Blaize, S.

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F. Malbet, P. Kern, I. Schanen-Duport, J. -P. Berger, K. Rousselet-Perraut, P. Benech, “Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry. I. Concept and astronomical applications,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser 138, 135–145 (1999).
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Marshall, G. D.

N. Jovanovic, P. G. Tuthill, B. Norris, S. Gross, P. Stewart, N. Charles, S. Lacour, M. Ams, J. S. Lawrence, A. Lehmann, C. Niel, J. G. Robertson, G. D. Marshall, M. Ireland, A. Fuerbach, M. J. Withford, “Starlight demonstration of the Dragonfly instrument: an integrated photonic pupil-remapping interferometer for high-contrast imaging,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 427, 806–815 (2012).
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A. Ródenas, G. Martin, B. Arezki, N. Psaila, G. Jose, A. Jha, L. Labadie, P. Kern, A. Kar, R. Thomson, “Three-dimensional mid-infrared photonic circuits in chalcogenide glass,” Opt. Lett. 37, 392–394 (2012).
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Masselin, P.

Masuda, M.

Mauclair, C.

A. Mermillod-Blondin, C. Mauclair, A. Rosenfeld, J. Bonse, I. V. Hertel, E. Audouard, R. Stoian, “Size correction in ultrafast laser processing of fused silica by temporal pulse shaping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 021921 (2008).
[CrossRef]

McMillen, B.

Meneghini, C.

J.-F. Viens, C. Meneghini, A. Villeneuve, T. V. Galstian, E. J. Knystautas, M. A. Duguay, K. A. Richardson, T. Cardinal, “Fabrication and characterization of integrated optical waveguides in sulfide chalcogenide glasses,” J. LightwaveTech. 17, 1184–1991 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Cardinal, K. A. Richardson, H. Shim, A. Schulte, R. Beatty, K. Le Foulgoc, C. Meneghini, J. F. Viens, A. Villeneuve, “Non-linear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses in the system As-S-Se,” J. Non.Cryst Solids 256–257, 353–360 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Meneghini, A. Villeneuve, “As2S3 photosensitivity by two-photon absorption: holographic gratings and self-written channel waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 2946–2950 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mermillod-Blondin, A.

A. Mermillod-Blondin, C. Mauclair, A. Rosenfeld, J. Bonse, I. V. Hertel, E. Audouard, R. Stoian, “Size correction in ultrafast laser processing of fused silica by temporal pulse shaping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 021921 (2008).
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J. Hu, J. Meyer, K. Richardson, L. Shah, “Feature issue introduction: mid-IR photonic materials,” Opt. Mat. Express 3, 1571–1575 (2013).
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Miller, A. C.

H. Jain, S. Krishnaswami, A. C. Miller, P. Krecmer, S. R. Elliott, M. Vlček, “In situ high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of light-induced changes in As-Se glasses,” J. Non-Crys. Solids 274, 115–123 (2000).
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Monro, T. M.

A. M. Ljungström, T. M. Monro, “Light-Induced Self-Writing Effects in Bulk Chalcogenide Glass,” J. Light-waveTechnol. 20, 78–85 (2002).
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E. le Coarer, S. Blaize, P. Benech, I. Stefanon, A. Morand, G. Léronde, G. Leblond, P. Kern, J. M. Fedeli, P. Royer, “Wavelength-scale stationary-wave integrated Fourier transform spectrometry,” Nat. Phot. 1, 473–478 (2007).
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Moss, S. C.

J. P. De Neufville, S. C. Moss, S. R. Ovshinsky, “Photostructural transformations in amorphous As2Se3 and As2S3 films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 13, 191–223 (1974).
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Nguyen, V.Q.

J. S. Sanghera, C. M. Florea, L. B. Shaw, P. Pureza, V.Q. Nguyen, M. Bashkansky, Z. Dutton, I. D. Aggarwal, “Non-linear properties of chalcogenide glasses and fibers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354, 462–467 (2008).
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N. Jovanovic, P. G. Tuthill, B. Norris, S. Gross, P. Stewart, N. Charles, S. Lacour, M. Ams, J. S. Lawrence, A. Lehmann, C. Niel, J. G. Robertson, G. D. Marshall, M. Ireland, A. Fuerbach, M. J. Withford, “Starlight demonstration of the Dragonfly instrument: an integrated photonic pupil-remapping interferometer for high-contrast imaging,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 427, 806–815 (2012).
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Noordegraaf, D.

Norris, B.

N. Jovanovic, P. G. Tuthill, B. Norris, S. Gross, P. Stewart, N. Charles, S. Lacour, M. Ams, J. S. Lawrence, A. Lehmann, C. Niel, J. G. Robertson, G. D. Marshall, M. Ireland, A. Fuerbach, M. J. Withford, “Starlight demonstration of the Dragonfly instrument: an integrated photonic pupil-remapping interferometer for high-contrast imaging,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 427, 806–815 (2012).
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Ovshinsky, S. R.

J. P. De Neufville, S. C. Moss, S. R. Ovshinsky, “Photostructural transformations in amorphous As2Se3 and As2S3 films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 13, 191–223 (1974).
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O. M. Efimov, L. B. Glebov, K. A. Richardson, E. Van Stryland, T. Cardinal, S. H. Park, M. Couzi, J. L. Bruneel, “Waveguide writing in chalcogenide glasses by a train of femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Mater. 17, 379–386 (2001).
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Pereira do Carmo, J.

Petit, L.

T. Anderson, N. Carlie, L. Petit, J. Hu, A. Agarwal, J. J. Viens, J. Choi, L. C. Kimmerling, K. Richardson, M. Richardson, “Refractive index modifications in Chalcogenide films induced by sub-bandgap near-IR femtosecond pulses,” Paper CThS6 CLEO conference (2007).

Prasad, A.

Psaila, N.

Psaila, N. D.

Pureza, P.

J. S. Sanghera, C. M. Florea, L. B. Shaw, P. Pureza, V.Q. Nguyen, M. Bashkansky, Z. Dutton, I. D. Aggarwal, “Non-linear properties of chalcogenide glasses and fibers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354, 462–467 (2008).
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Qiao, H. A.

L. Labadie, G. Martin, N. C. Anheier, B. Arezki, H. A. Qiao, B. Bernacki, P. Kern, “First fringes with an integrated-optics beam combiner at 10 μm. A new step towards instrument miniaturization for mid-infrared interferometry,” Astronomy and Astrophysics 531, A48 (2011).
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J. Hu, J. Meyer, K. Richardson, L. Shah, “Feature issue introduction: mid-IR photonic materials,” Opt. Mat. Express 3, 1571–1575 (2013).
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A. Zoubir, M. Richardson, C. Rivero, A. Schulte, C. Lopez, K. Richardson, N. Ho, R. Vallée, “Direct femtosecond laser writing of waveguides in As2S3 thin films,” Opt. Lett. 29, 748–750 (2004).
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T. Anderson, N. Carlie, L. Petit, J. Hu, A. Agarwal, J. J. Viens, J. Choi, L. C. Kimmerling, K. Richardson, M. Richardson, “Refractive index modifications in Chalcogenide films induced by sub-bandgap near-IR femtosecond pulses,” Paper CThS6 CLEO conference (2007).

Richardson, K. A.

O. M. Efimov, L. B. Glebov, K. A. Richardson, E. Van Stryland, T. Cardinal, S. H. Park, M. Couzi, J. L. Bruneel, “Waveguide writing in chalcogenide glasses by a train of femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Mater. 17, 379–386 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Cardinal, K. A. Richardson, H. Shim, A. Schulte, R. Beatty, K. Le Foulgoc, C. Meneghini, J. F. Viens, A. Villeneuve, “Non-linear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses in the system As-S-Se,” J. Non.Cryst Solids 256–257, 353–360 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J.-F. Viens, C. Meneghini, A. Villeneuve, T. V. Galstian, E. J. Knystautas, M. A. Duguay, K. A. Richardson, T. Cardinal, “Fabrication and characterization of integrated optical waveguides in sulfide chalcogenide glasses,” J. LightwaveTech. 17, 1184–1991 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, M.

A. Zoubir, M. Richardson, C. Rivero, A. Schulte, C. Lopez, K. Richardson, N. Ho, R. Vallée, “Direct femtosecond laser writing of waveguides in As2S3 thin films,” Opt. Lett. 29, 748–750 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Anderson, N. Carlie, L. Petit, J. Hu, A. Agarwal, J. J. Viens, J. Choi, L. C. Kimmerling, K. Richardson, M. Richardson, “Refractive index modifications in Chalcogenide films induced by sub-bandgap near-IR femtosecond pulses,” Paper CThS6 CLEO conference (2007).

Riley, M. R.

B. Bureau, X. H. Zhang, F. Smektala, J.-L. Adam, J. Troles, H.-li Ma, C. Boussard-Plédel, J. Lucas, P. Lucas, D. Le Coq, M. R. Riley, J. H. Simmons, “Recent advances in chalcogenide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 345–346, 276–283 (2004).
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Robertson, J. G.

N. Jovanovic, P. G. Tuthill, B. Norris, S. Gross, P. Stewart, N. Charles, S. Lacour, M. Ams, J. S. Lawrence, A. Lehmann, C. Niel, J. G. Robertson, G. D. Marshall, M. Ireland, A. Fuerbach, M. J. Withford, “Starlight demonstration of the Dragonfly instrument: an integrated photonic pupil-remapping interferometer for high-contrast imaging,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 427, 806–815 (2012).
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Ródenas, A.

Rosenfeld, A.

A. Mermillod-Blondin, C. Mauclair, A. Rosenfeld, J. Bonse, I. V. Hertel, E. Audouard, R. Stoian, “Size correction in ultrafast laser processing of fused silica by temporal pulse shaping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 021921 (2008).
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F. Malbet, P. Kern, I. Schanen-Duport, J. -P. Berger, K. Rousselet-Perraut, P. Benech, “Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry. I. Concept and astronomical applications,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser 138, 135–145 (1999).
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E. le Coarer, S. Blaize, P. Benech, I. Stefanon, A. Morand, G. Léronde, G. Leblond, P. Kern, J. M. Fedeli, P. Royer, “Wavelength-scale stationary-wave integrated Fourier transform spectrometry,” Nat. Phot. 1, 473–478 (2007).
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Sanchez, F.

G. Boudebs, F. Sanchez, J. Troles, F. Smektala, “Nonlinear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses: comparison between MachZehnder interferometry and Z-scan techniques,” Opt. Commun. 199, 425–433 (2001).
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J. S. Sanghera, I. D. Aggarwal, “Active and passive chalcogenide glass optical fibers for IR applications: a review,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 256–257, 462–467 (2008).
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J. S. Sanghera, C. M. Florea, L. B. Shaw, P. Pureza, V.Q. Nguyen, M. Bashkansky, Z. Dutton, I. D. Aggarwal, “Non-linear properties of chalcogenide glasses and fibers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354, 462–467 (2008).
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J. A. Savage, “Optical properties of chalcogenide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 47, 101–116 (1982).
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F. Malbet, P. Kern, I. Schanen-Duport, J. -P. Berger, K. Rousselet-Perraut, P. Benech, “Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry. I. Concept and astronomical applications,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser 138, 135–145 (1999).
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Schulte, A.

A. Zoubir, M. Richardson, C. Rivero, A. Schulte, C. Lopez, K. Richardson, N. Ho, R. Vallée, “Direct femtosecond laser writing of waveguides in As2S3 thin films,” Opt. Lett. 29, 748–750 (2004).
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T. Cardinal, K. A. Richardson, H. Shim, A. Schulte, R. Beatty, K. Le Foulgoc, C. Meneghini, J. F. Viens, A. Villeneuve, “Non-linear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses in the system As-S-Se,” J. Non.Cryst Solids 256–257, 353–360 (1999).
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J. Hu, J. Meyer, K. Richardson, L. Shah, “Feature issue introduction: mid-IR photonic materials,” Opt. Mat. Express 3, 1571–1575 (2013).
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J. S. Sanghera, C. M. Florea, L. B. Shaw, P. Pureza, V.Q. Nguyen, M. Bashkansky, Z. Dutton, I. D. Aggarwal, “Non-linear properties of chalcogenide glasses and fibers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354, 462–467 (2008).
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Shihoyama, K.

Shim, H.

T. Cardinal, K. A. Richardson, H. Shim, A. Schulte, R. Beatty, K. Le Foulgoc, C. Meneghini, J. F. Viens, A. Villeneuve, “Non-linear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses in the system As-S-Se,” J. Non.Cryst Solids 256–257, 353–360 (1999).
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B. Bureau, X. H. Zhang, F. Smektala, J.-L. Adam, J. Troles, H.-li Ma, C. Boussard-Plédel, J. Lucas, P. Lucas, D. Le Coq, M. R. Riley, J. H. Simmons, “Recent advances in chalcogenide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 345–346, 276–283 (2004).
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Smektala, F.

B. Bureau, X. H. Zhang, F. Smektala, J.-L. Adam, J. Troles, H.-li Ma, C. Boussard-Plédel, J. Lucas, P. Lucas, D. Le Coq, M. R. Riley, J. H. Simmons, “Recent advances in chalcogenide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 345–346, 276–283 (2004).
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G. Boudebs, F. Sanchez, J. Troles, F. Smektala, “Nonlinear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses: comparison between MachZehnder interferometry and Z-scan techniques,” Opt. Commun. 199, 425–433 (2001).
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E. le Coarer, S. Blaize, P. Benech, I. Stefanon, A. Morand, G. Léronde, G. Leblond, P. Kern, J. M. Fedeli, P. Royer, “Wavelength-scale stationary-wave integrated Fourier transform spectrometry,” Nat. Phot. 1, 473–478 (2007).
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N. Jovanovic, P. G. Tuthill, B. Norris, S. Gross, P. Stewart, N. Charles, S. Lacour, M. Ams, J. S. Lawrence, A. Lehmann, C. Niel, J. G. Robertson, G. D. Marshall, M. Ireland, A. Fuerbach, M. J. Withford, “Starlight demonstration of the Dragonfly instrument: an integrated photonic pupil-remapping interferometer for high-contrast imaging,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 427, 806–815 (2012).
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B. Bureau, X. H. Zhang, F. Smektala, J.-L. Adam, J. Troles, H.-li Ma, C. Boussard-Plédel, J. Lucas, P. Lucas, D. Le Coq, M. R. Riley, J. H. Simmons, “Recent advances in chalcogenide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 345–346, 276–283 (2004).
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G. Boudebs, F. Sanchez, J. Troles, F. Smektala, “Nonlinear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses: comparison between MachZehnder interferometry and Z-scan techniques,” Opt. Commun. 199, 425–433 (2001).
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N. Jovanovic, P. G. Tuthill, B. Norris, S. Gross, P. Stewart, N. Charles, S. Lacour, M. Ams, J. S. Lawrence, A. Lehmann, C. Niel, J. G. Robertson, G. D. Marshall, M. Ireland, A. Fuerbach, M. J. Withford, “Starlight demonstration of the Dragonfly instrument: an integrated photonic pupil-remapping interferometer for high-contrast imaging,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 427, 806–815 (2012).
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Van Nijnatten, P. A.

Van Stryland, E.

O. M. Efimov, L. B. Glebov, K. A. Richardson, E. Van Stryland, T. Cardinal, S. H. Park, M. Couzi, J. L. Bruneel, “Waveguide writing in chalcogenide glasses by a train of femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Mater. 17, 379–386 (2001).
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T. Cardinal, K. A. Richardson, H. Shim, A. Schulte, R. Beatty, K. Le Foulgoc, C. Meneghini, J. F. Viens, A. Villeneuve, “Non-linear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses in the system As-S-Se,” J. Non.Cryst Solids 256–257, 353–360 (1999).
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Viens, J. J.

T. Anderson, N. Carlie, L. Petit, J. Hu, A. Agarwal, J. J. Viens, J. Choi, L. C. Kimmerling, K. Richardson, M. Richardson, “Refractive index modifications in Chalcogenide films induced by sub-bandgap near-IR femtosecond pulses,” Paper CThS6 CLEO conference (2007).

Viens, J.-F.

J.-F. Viens, C. Meneghini, A. Villeneuve, T. V. Galstian, E. J. Knystautas, M. A. Duguay, K. A. Richardson, T. Cardinal, “Fabrication and characterization of integrated optical waveguides in sulfide chalcogenide glasses,” J. LightwaveTech. 17, 1184–1991 (1999).
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Villeneuve, A.

J.-F. Viens, C. Meneghini, A. Villeneuve, T. V. Galstian, E. J. Knystautas, M. A. Duguay, K. A. Richardson, T. Cardinal, “Fabrication and characterization of integrated optical waveguides in sulfide chalcogenide glasses,” J. LightwaveTech. 17, 1184–1991 (1999).
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T. Cardinal, K. A. Richardson, H. Shim, A. Schulte, R. Beatty, K. Le Foulgoc, C. Meneghini, J. F. Viens, A. Villeneuve, “Non-linear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses in the system As-S-Se,” J. Non.Cryst Solids 256–257, 353–360 (1999).
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C. Meneghini, A. Villeneuve, “As2S3 photosensitivity by two-photon absorption: holographic gratings and self-written channel waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 2946–2950 (1998).
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Vlcek, M.

G. Chen, H. Jain, M. Vlcek, S. Khalid, J. Li, D. A. Drabold, S. R. Elliott, “Observation of light polarization-dependent structural changes in chalcogenide glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 606–608 (2003).

H. Jain, S. Krishnaswami, A. C. Miller, P. Krecmer, S. R. Elliott, M. Vlček, “In situ high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of light-induced changes in As-Se glasses,” J. Non-Crys. Solids 274, 115–123 (2000).
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Vogel, M. M.

Voss, A.

Wang, R.

Wherrett, B. S.

K. S. Bindra, H. T. Bookey, A. K. Kar, B. S. Wherrett, X. Liu, A. Jha, “Nonlinear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses: Observation of multiphoton absorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 9, 1939–1941 (2001).
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N. Cvetojevic, N. Jovanovic, J. Lawrence, M. Withford, J. Bland-Hawthornn, “Developing arrayed waveguide grating spectrographs for multi-object astronomical spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2062–2072 (2012).

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N. Jovanovic, P. G. Tuthill, B. Norris, S. Gross, P. Stewart, N. Charles, S. Lacour, M. Ams, J. S. Lawrence, A. Lehmann, C. Niel, J. G. Robertson, G. D. Marshall, M. Ireland, A. Fuerbach, M. J. Withford, “Starlight demonstration of the Dragonfly instrument: an integrated photonic pupil-remapping interferometer for high-contrast imaging,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 427, 806–815 (2012).
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M. A. Hughes, W. Yang, D. W. Hewak, “Spectral broadening in femtosecond laser written waveguides in chalcogenide glass,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 26, 1370–1378 (2010).
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M. Hughes, W. Yang, D. Hewak, “Fabrication and characterization of femtosecond laser written waveguides in chalcogenide glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 131113 (2007).
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A. Zakery, S. Elliott, “Optical properties and applications of chalcogenide glasses: a review,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 330, 1–12 (2003).
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Zhang, X. H.

B. Bureau, X. H. Zhang, F. Smektala, J.-L. Adam, J. Troles, H.-li Ma, C. Boussard-Plédel, J. Lucas, P. Lucas, D. Le Coq, M. R. Riley, J. H. Simmons, “Recent advances in chalcogenide glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 345–346, 276–283 (2004).
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Zoubir, A.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

H. Kanbara, S. Fujiwara, K. Tanaka, H. Nasu, K. Hirao, “Third-order nonlinear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 925–927 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Bindra, H. T. Bookey, A. K. Kar, B. S. Wherrett, X. Liu, A. Jha, “Nonlinear optical properties of chalcogenide glasses: Observation of multiphoton absorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 9, 1939–1941 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Chen, H. Jain, M. Vlcek, S. Khalid, J. Li, D. A. Drabold, S. R. Elliott, “Observation of light polarization-dependent structural changes in chalcogenide glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 606–608 (2003).

M. Hughes, W. Yang, D. Hewak, “Fabrication and characterization of femtosecond laser written waveguides in chalcogenide glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90, 131113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Mermillod-Blondin, C. Mauclair, A. Rosenfeld, J. Bonse, I. V. Hertel, E. Audouard, R. Stoian, “Size correction in ultrafast laser processing of fused silica by temporal pulse shaping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 021921 (2008).
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Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser (1)

F. Malbet, P. Kern, I. Schanen-Duport, J. -P. Berger, K. Rousselet-Perraut, P. Benech, “Integrated optics for astronomical interferometry. I. Concept and astronomical applications,” Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser 138, 135–145 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Astronomy and Astrophysics (1)

L. Labadie, G. Martin, N. C. Anheier, B. Arezki, H. A. Qiao, B. Bernacki, P. Kern, “First fringes with an integrated-optics beam combiner at 10 μm. A new step towards instrument miniaturization for mid-infrared interferometry,” Astronomy and Astrophysics 531, A48 (2011).
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Cur. Op. Sol. St. Mat. Sci. (1)

J. Lucas, “Infrared glasses,” Cur. Op. Sol. St. Mat. Sci. 4, 181–187 (1999).

J. Light-waveTechnol. (1)

A. M. Ljungström, T. M. Monro, “Light-Induced Self-Writing Effects in Bulk Chalcogenide Glass,” J. Light-waveTechnol. 20, 78–85 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. LightwaveTech. (1)

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Ultrafast laser (150 fs) photoinscription results in As2S3 glass in terms of PCM phase retardation maps for static and longitudinally scanned conditions. (a) PCM images of static traces at different accumulation doses: N=100 and 20 nJ, and N=50000 and 2 nJ at 100 kHz, illustrating positive and negative index change domains. (b) PCM images of longitudinally scanned photoinscription domains with positive and negative index changes, depending on scan velocity and input energy (10 kHz laser repetition rate). Laser parameters are given on the figure for NA=0.45 focusing. Insert: Refractive index qualitative profiles from Abel inverse transformation of retardation charts. (c) Depressed cladding guide made by partly overlapping type II traces and the corresponding mode at 800 nm. Experimental conditions: 20 nJ per pulse, 100 kHz repetition rate, 0.5 mm/s scan speed.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Ultrafast laser (150 fs) photoinscription results in terms of PCM phase retardation maps in Ge15As15S70 glass as a function of the input energy for two different scan velocities. Longitudinal scan geometries are used with NA=0.5 aspheric focusing. Dominantly positive index increase is obtained in the laser-modified regions, with an observable onset of negative changes in the center region at large accumulation doses. The inserts represent characteristic qualitative index change profiles from inverse Abel transform of the retardation maps. (b) Cumulative behavior and dose-dependent index increase as a function of input power and scan velocity, amounting to high index contrast.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Transverse slit-shaping photoinscribed traces in Ge15As15S70 glass as a function of the pulse duration and accumulation dose (scan speed). Incident power of 30 mW at 100 kHz was delivered via a 100 μm slit and focused by NA=0.42 objective. (a) Ultrafast irradiation: ultrashort pulse irradiation determines extended damage around the core (WL transillumination image). (b) Irradiation results with elongated linearly chirped pulses. Durations of 20 ps can limit the collateral damage and create symmetric core traces. (c) The guided mode at 800 nm is given for the latter case, illustrating examples with decreasing index contrast.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Multicore waveguiding results in Ge15As15S70 glass for ultrashort pulse irradiation. (a,b,c) Multicore cross-sectional profiles in PCM with increasing index contrast and respective guiding behavior at 800 nm. Visible mode confinement appears for higher index contrast. Experimental conditions: (a) 0.4 mW at 0.4 mm/s, (b) 0.4 mW at 0.3 mm/s and (c) 0.8 mW at 0.4 mm/s and 100 kHz via NA=0.42. The transverse size is 30 μm. (d,e,f) Multicore cross-sectional profiles in PCM with increasing intertrace distances and corresponding mode behavior at 800 nm injection. Experimental conditions: 1.8 mW at 1 mm/s and 100 kHz via NA=0.5 aspherical lens. Transverse dimensions (d) 36 μm, (e) 42 μm, (f) 48 μm. (g) Mode dimensions as a function of the multicore spacing at 800 nm. (h) Continuous large section structure obtained by overlapping traces in cross-section and in a side-view PCM perspective. A higher 800 nm mode LP21 is obtained. (i) Large section (100 μm) multicore (WL) with individual slit-shaped traces.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) MIR large band guiding in multicore structures in Ge15As15S70 glass (10 mm length). The guided MIR spectrum is compared to the spectrum of the input radiation traversing an equivalent path of non-modified glass (marked as non-guiding). (b) Single mode guiding in a multicore assembly with 5 μm spacing at 3.39 μm injection, detected via a FLIR camera (right). The corresponding structure (also indicated – left) was written at 2.4 mW, 100 kHz input laser conditions via a NA 0.5 aspherical lens at 0.5 mm/s. (c) Finite element analysis for a guided mode at 3.39 μm in a multicore hexagonal structure with 5 μm-spaced, 4 μm thick individual traces of NA=0.08.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Spectral dependencies of the laser-induced structures in Ge15As15S70 glass at 100 kHz as a function of the index contrast (inserts: representative structures). (a) Power-dependent spectral behavior in multicore traces. Two input powers at 2 mW and 6 mW are compared for similar scan velocities of 0.1 mm/s. Higher contrast leads to better guiding in the large wavelength spectral domain. (b) Dose dependent spectral behavior in multicore traces. Two scan velocities of 0.1 mm/s and 0.5 mm/s are compared at similar input power of 6 mW. Higher contrast leads to better guiding in the large wavelength spectral domain. (c) Dose dependent spectral behavior in slit-shaped traces via two scan velocities (0.1 and 0.2 mm/s) at similar input power of 380 mW. Higher contrast leads to better guide transparency, however overall performances lay below those of the multicore. The observable spectral gaps are related to atmosphere absorption.

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