Abstract

The availability and performance of laser-based adaptive optics (AO) systems are strongly dependent on the power and quality of the laser beam before being projected to the sky. Frequent and time-consuming alignment procedures are usually required in the laser systems with free-space optics to optimize the beam. Despite these procedures, significant distortions of the laser beam have been observed during the first two years of operation of the Gemini South multi-conjugate adaptive optics system (GeMS). A beam shaping concept with two deformable mirrors is investigated in order to provide automated optimization of the laser quality for astronomical AO. This study aims at demonstrating the correction of quasi-static aberrations of the laser, in both amplitude and phase, testing a prototype of this two-deformable mirror concept on GeMS. The paper presents the results of the preparatory study before the experimental phase. An algorithm to control amplitude and phase correction, based on phase retrieval techniques, is presented with a novel unwrapping method. Its performance is assessed via numerical simulations, using aberrations measured at GeMS as reference. The results predict effective amplitude and phase correction of the laser distortions with about 120 actuators per mirror and a separation of 1.4 m between the mirrors. The spot size is estimated to be reduced by up to 15% thanks to the correction. In terms of AO noise level, this has the same benefit as increasing the photon flux by 40%.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2014 (1)

F. Rigaut, B. Neichel, M. Boccas, C. d’Orgeville, F. Vidal, M. A. van Dam, G. Arriagada, V. Fesquet, R. L. Galvez, G. Gausachs, C. Cavedoni, A. W. Ebbers, S. Karewicz, E. James, J. Lührs, V. Montes, G. Perez, W. N. Rambold, R. Rojas, S. Walker, M. Bec, G. Trancho, M. Sheehan, B. Irarrazaval, C. Boyer, B. L. Ellerbroek, R. Flicker, D. Gratadour, A. Garcia-Rissmann, F. Daruich, “Gemini multiconjugate adaptive optics system review - I. Design, trade-offs and integration,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 437, 2361–2375 (2014).
[CrossRef]

2012 (3)

C. d’Orgeville, S. Diggs, V. Fesquet, B. Neichel, W. Rambold, F. Rigaut, A. Serio, C. Araya, G. Arriagada, R. Balladares, M. Bec, M. Boccas, C. Duran, A. Ebbers, A. Lopez, C. Marchant, E. Marin, V. Montes, C. Moreno, E. Petit Vega, C. Segura, G. Trancho, C. Trujillo, C. Urrutia, P. Veliz, T. Vucina, “Gemini South multi-conjugate adaptive optics (GeMS) laser guide star facility on-sky performance results,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84471Q (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Guesalaga, B. Neichel, M. Boccas, C. d’Orgeville, F. Rigaut, D. Guzman, J. Anguita, “Improving stability, robustness, and performance of laser systems,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84474M (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Lei, S. Wang, H. Yan, W. Liu, L. Dong, P. Yang, B. Xu, “Double-deformable-mirror adaptive optics system for laser beam cleanup using blind optimization,” Opt. Express 20, 22143–22157 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

2008 (4)

C. d’Orgeville, F. Daruich, G. Arriagada, M. Bec, M. Boccas, S. Bombino, C. Carter, C. Cavedoni, F. Collao, P. Collins, E. James, S. Karewicz, M. Lazo, D. Maltes, R. Mouser, G. Perez, F. Rigaut, R. Rojas, M. Sheehan, G. Trancho, V. Vergara, T. Vucina, “The Gemini South MCAO laser guide star facility: getting ready for first light,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70152P (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. Holzlöhner, D. Bonaccini Calia, W. Hackenberg, “Physical optics modeling and optimization of laser guide star propagation,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 701521 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Gavel, M. Ammons, B. Bauman, D. Dillon, E. Gates, B. Grigsby, J. Johnson, C. Lockwood, K. Morzinski, D. Palmer, M. Reinig, S. Severson, “Visible light laser guidestar experimental system (Villages): on-sky tests of new technologies for visible wavelength all-sky coverage adaptive optics systems,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150G (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Venema, J. D. Schmidt, “Optical phase unwrapping in the presence of branch points,” Opt. Express 16, 6985–6998 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

L. Pueyo, N. Kasdin, “Polychromatic compensation of propagated aberrations for high-contrast imaging,” Astrophys. J. 666, 609–625 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Beckner, D. W. Oesch, “Implementation of a projection-on-constraints algorithm for beam intensity redistribution,” Proc. SPIE 6711, 67110L (2007)

2005 (1)

2004 (2)

2003 (1)

O. Guyon, “Phase-induced amplitude apodization of telescope pupils for extrasolar terrestrial planet imaging,” Astron. Astrophys. 404, 379–387 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

2001 (2)

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

M. C. Roggemann, S. Deng, “Scintillation compensation for laser beam projection using segmented deformable mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 3763, 29–40 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

D. R. Neal, W. J. Alford, J. K. Gruetzner, M. E. Warren, “Amplitude and phase beam characterization using a two-dimensional wavefront sensor,” Proc. SPIE 2870, 72–82 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

F. Y. Kanev, V. P. Lukin, “Amplitude phase beam control with the help of a two-mirror adaptive system,” Atmos. Opt. 4, 878–881 (1991).

1990 (1)

A. E. Siegman, “New developments in laser resonators,” Proc. SPIE 1224, 2–14 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

1982 (2)

D. Shafer, “Gaussian to flat-top intensity distributing lens,” Optics & Laser Technology 14, 159–160 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Fienup, “Phase retrieval algorithms: a comparison,” Appl. Opt. 21, 2758–2769 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1980 (1)

1978 (2)

1976 (1)

1972 (1)

R. W. Gerchberg, W. O. Saxton, “A practical algorithm for the determination of the phase from image and diffraction plane pictures,” Optik 35, 237–246 (1972).

1965 (1)

Alford, W. J.

D. R. Neal, W. J. Alford, J. K. Gruetzner, M. E. Warren, “Amplitude and phase beam characterization using a two-dimensional wavefront sensor,” Proc. SPIE 2870, 72–82 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ammons, M.

D. Gavel, M. Ammons, B. Bauman, D. Dillon, E. Gates, B. Grigsby, J. Johnson, C. Lockwood, K. Morzinski, D. Palmer, M. Reinig, S. Severson, “Visible light laser guidestar experimental system (Villages): on-sky tests of new technologies for visible wavelength all-sky coverage adaptive optics systems,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150G (2008).
[CrossRef]

Anguita, J.

A. Guesalaga, B. Neichel, M. Boccas, C. d’Orgeville, F. Rigaut, D. Guzman, J. Anguita, “Improving stability, robustness, and performance of laser systems,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84474M (2012).
[CrossRef]

Araujo, C.

V. Fesquet, C. Araujo, V. Garrel, A. Serio, F. Vidal, G. Arriagada, M. Boccas, F. Collao, S. Diggs, J. Donahue, C. D’Orgeville, G. Gausachs, C. Marchant, V. Montes, C. Moreno, B. Neichel, R. Oram, P. Pessev, W. Rambold, C. Urrutia, T. Vucina, “Review of Gemini South Laser Guide Star Facility performance and upgrades,” in Proceedings of the Third AO4ELT Conference, S. Esposito, L. Fini, eds. (INAF - Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Firenze, Italy, 2013), 16120.

Araya, C.

C. d’Orgeville, S. Diggs, V. Fesquet, B. Neichel, W. Rambold, F. Rigaut, A. Serio, C. Araya, G. Arriagada, R. Balladares, M. Bec, M. Boccas, C. Duran, A. Ebbers, A. Lopez, C. Marchant, E. Marin, V. Montes, C. Moreno, E. Petit Vega, C. Segura, G. Trancho, C. Trujillo, C. Urrutia, P. Veliz, T. Vucina, “Gemini South multi-conjugate adaptive optics (GeMS) laser guide star facility on-sky performance results,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84471Q (2012).
[CrossRef]

Arriagada, G.

F. Rigaut, B. Neichel, M. Boccas, C. d’Orgeville, F. Vidal, M. A. van Dam, G. Arriagada, V. Fesquet, R. L. Galvez, G. Gausachs, C. Cavedoni, A. W. Ebbers, S. Karewicz, E. James, J. Lührs, V. Montes, G. Perez, W. N. Rambold, R. Rojas, S. Walker, M. Bec, G. Trancho, M. Sheehan, B. Irarrazaval, C. Boyer, B. L. Ellerbroek, R. Flicker, D. Gratadour, A. Garcia-Rissmann, F. Daruich, “Gemini multiconjugate adaptive optics system review - I. Design, trade-offs and integration,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 437, 2361–2375 (2014).
[CrossRef]

C. d’Orgeville, S. Diggs, V. Fesquet, B. Neichel, W. Rambold, F. Rigaut, A. Serio, C. Araya, G. Arriagada, R. Balladares, M. Bec, M. Boccas, C. Duran, A. Ebbers, A. Lopez, C. Marchant, E. Marin, V. Montes, C. Moreno, E. Petit Vega, C. Segura, G. Trancho, C. Trujillo, C. Urrutia, P. Veliz, T. Vucina, “Gemini South multi-conjugate adaptive optics (GeMS) laser guide star facility on-sky performance results,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84471Q (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. d’Orgeville, F. Daruich, G. Arriagada, M. Bec, M. Boccas, S. Bombino, C. Carter, C. Cavedoni, F. Collao, P. Collins, E. James, S. Karewicz, M. Lazo, D. Maltes, R. Mouser, G. Perez, F. Rigaut, R. Rojas, M. Sheehan, G. Trancho, V. Vergara, T. Vucina, “The Gemini South MCAO laser guide star facility: getting ready for first light,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70152P (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. Fesquet, C. Araujo, V. Garrel, A. Serio, F. Vidal, G. Arriagada, M. Boccas, F. Collao, S. Diggs, J. Donahue, C. D’Orgeville, G. Gausachs, C. Marchant, V. Montes, C. Moreno, B. Neichel, R. Oram, P. Pessev, W. Rambold, C. Urrutia, T. Vucina, “Review of Gemini South Laser Guide Star Facility performance and upgrades,” in Proceedings of the Third AO4ELT Conference, S. Esposito, L. Fini, eds. (INAF - Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Firenze, Italy, 2013), 16120.

B. Neichel, F. Rigaut, F. Vidal, M. A. van Dam, V. Garrel, E. Rodrigo Carrasco, P. Pessev, C. Winge, M. Boccas, C. d’Orgeville, G. Arriagada, A. Serio, V. Fesquet, W. N. Rambold, J. Lührs, C. Moreno, G. Gausachs, R. L. Galvez, V. Montes, T. B. Vucina, E. Marin, C. Urrutia, A. Lopez, S. J. Diggs, C. Marchant, A. W. Ebbers, C. Trujillo, M. Bec, G. Trancho, P. McGregor, P. J. Young, F. Colazo, M. L. Edwards, “Gemini multi-conjugate adaptive optics system review II: Commissioning, operation and overall performance,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., in press (2014).
[CrossRef]

Azucena, O.

Baker, K. L.

Balladares, R.

C. d’Orgeville, S. Diggs, V. Fesquet, B. Neichel, W. Rambold, F. Rigaut, A. Serio, C. Araya, G. Arriagada, R. Balladares, M. Bec, M. Boccas, C. Duran, A. Ebbers, A. Lopez, C. Marchant, E. Marin, V. Montes, C. Moreno, E. Petit Vega, C. Segura, G. Trancho, C. Trujillo, C. Urrutia, P. Veliz, T. Vucina, “Gemini South multi-conjugate adaptive optics (GeMS) laser guide star facility on-sky performance results,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84471Q (2012).
[CrossRef]

Barchers, J. D.

Bauman, B.

D. Gavel, M. Ammons, B. Bauman, D. Dillon, E. Gates, B. Grigsby, J. Johnson, C. Lockwood, K. Morzinski, D. Palmer, M. Reinig, S. Severson, “Visible light laser guidestar experimental system (Villages): on-sky tests of new technologies for visible wavelength all-sky coverage adaptive optics systems,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150G (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bec, M.

F. Rigaut, B. Neichel, M. Boccas, C. d’Orgeville, F. Vidal, M. A. van Dam, G. Arriagada, V. Fesquet, R. L. Galvez, G. Gausachs, C. Cavedoni, A. W. Ebbers, S. Karewicz, E. James, J. Lührs, V. Montes, G. Perez, W. N. Rambold, R. Rojas, S. Walker, M. Bec, G. Trancho, M. Sheehan, B. Irarrazaval, C. Boyer, B. L. Ellerbroek, R. Flicker, D. Gratadour, A. Garcia-Rissmann, F. Daruich, “Gemini multiconjugate adaptive optics system review - I. Design, trade-offs and integration,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 437, 2361–2375 (2014).
[CrossRef]

C. d’Orgeville, S. Diggs, V. Fesquet, B. Neichel, W. Rambold, F. Rigaut, A. Serio, C. Araya, G. Arriagada, R. Balladares, M. Bec, M. Boccas, C. Duran, A. Ebbers, A. Lopez, C. Marchant, E. Marin, V. Montes, C. Moreno, E. Petit Vega, C. Segura, G. Trancho, C. Trujillo, C. Urrutia, P. Veliz, T. Vucina, “Gemini South multi-conjugate adaptive optics (GeMS) laser guide star facility on-sky performance results,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84471Q (2012).
[CrossRef]

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F. Rigaut, B. Neichel, M. Boccas, C. d’Orgeville, F. Vidal, M. A. van Dam, G. Arriagada, V. Fesquet, R. L. Galvez, G. Gausachs, C. Cavedoni, A. W. Ebbers, S. Karewicz, E. James, J. Lührs, V. Montes, G. Perez, W. N. Rambold, R. Rojas, S. Walker, M. Bec, G. Trancho, M. Sheehan, B. Irarrazaval, C. Boyer, B. L. Ellerbroek, R. Flicker, D. Gratadour, A. Garcia-Rissmann, F. Daruich, “Gemini multiconjugate adaptive optics system review - I. Design, trade-offs and integration,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 437, 2361–2375 (2014).
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C. d’Orgeville, F. Daruich, G. Arriagada, M. Bec, M. Boccas, S. Bombino, C. Carter, C. Cavedoni, F. Collao, P. Collins, E. James, S. Karewicz, M. Lazo, D. Maltes, R. Mouser, G. Perez, F. Rigaut, R. Rojas, M. Sheehan, G. Trancho, V. Vergara, T. Vucina, “The Gemini South MCAO laser guide star facility: getting ready for first light,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70152P (2008).
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Boyer, C.

F. Rigaut, B. Neichel, M. Boccas, C. d’Orgeville, F. Vidal, M. A. van Dam, G. Arriagada, V. Fesquet, R. L. Galvez, G. Gausachs, C. Cavedoni, A. W. Ebbers, S. Karewicz, E. James, J. Lührs, V. Montes, G. Perez, W. N. Rambold, R. Rojas, S. Walker, M. Bec, G. Trancho, M. Sheehan, B. Irarrazaval, C. Boyer, B. L. Ellerbroek, R. Flicker, D. Gratadour, A. Garcia-Rissmann, F. Daruich, “Gemini multiconjugate adaptive optics system review - I. Design, trade-offs and integration,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 437, 2361–2375 (2014).
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Carter, C.

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F. Rigaut, B. Neichel, M. Boccas, C. d’Orgeville, F. Vidal, M. A. van Dam, G. Arriagada, V. Fesquet, R. L. Galvez, G. Gausachs, C. Cavedoni, A. W. Ebbers, S. Karewicz, E. James, J. Lührs, V. Montes, G. Perez, W. N. Rambold, R. Rojas, S. Walker, M. Bec, G. Trancho, M. Sheehan, B. Irarrazaval, C. Boyer, B. L. Ellerbroek, R. Flicker, D. Gratadour, A. Garcia-Rissmann, F. Daruich, “Gemini multiconjugate adaptive optics system review - I. Design, trade-offs and integration,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 437, 2361–2375 (2014).
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Chloros, K.

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Colazo, F.

B. Neichel, F. Rigaut, F. Vidal, M. A. van Dam, V. Garrel, E. Rodrigo Carrasco, P. Pessev, C. Winge, M. Boccas, C. d’Orgeville, G. Arriagada, A. Serio, V. Fesquet, W. N. Rambold, J. Lührs, C. Moreno, G. Gausachs, R. L. Galvez, V. Montes, T. B. Vucina, E. Marin, C. Urrutia, A. Lopez, S. J. Diggs, C. Marchant, A. W. Ebbers, C. Trujillo, M. Bec, G. Trancho, P. McGregor, P. J. Young, F. Colazo, M. L. Edwards, “Gemini multi-conjugate adaptive optics system review II: Commissioning, operation and overall performance,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., in press (2014).
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C. d’Orgeville, S. Diggs, V. Fesquet, B. Neichel, W. Rambold, F. Rigaut, A. Serio, C. Araya, G. Arriagada, R. Balladares, M. Bec, M. Boccas, C. Duran, A. Ebbers, A. Lopez, C. Marchant, E. Marin, V. Montes, C. Moreno, E. Petit Vega, C. Segura, G. Trancho, C. Trujillo, C. Urrutia, P. Veliz, T. Vucina, “Gemini South multi-conjugate adaptive optics (GeMS) laser guide star facility on-sky performance results,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84471Q (2012).
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B. Neichel, F. Rigaut, F. Vidal, M. A. van Dam, V. Garrel, E. Rodrigo Carrasco, P. Pessev, C. Winge, M. Boccas, C. d’Orgeville, G. Arriagada, A. Serio, V. Fesquet, W. N. Rambold, J. Lührs, C. Moreno, G. Gausachs, R. L. Galvez, V. Montes, T. B. Vucina, E. Marin, C. Urrutia, A. Lopez, S. J. Diggs, C. Marchant, A. W. Ebbers, C. Trujillo, M. Bec, G. Trancho, P. McGregor, P. J. Young, F. Colazo, M. L. Edwards, “Gemini multi-conjugate adaptive optics system review II: Commissioning, operation and overall performance,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., in press (2014).
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V. Fesquet, C. Araujo, V. Garrel, A. Serio, F. Vidal, G. Arriagada, M. Boccas, F. Collao, S. Diggs, J. Donahue, C. D’Orgeville, G. Gausachs, C. Marchant, V. Montes, C. Moreno, B. Neichel, R. Oram, P. Pessev, W. Rambold, C. Urrutia, T. Vucina, “Review of Gemini South Laser Guide Star Facility performance and upgrades,” in Proceedings of the Third AO4ELT Conference, S. Esposito, L. Fini, eds. (INAF - Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Firenze, Italy, 2013), 16120.

Diggs, S. J.

B. Neichel, F. Rigaut, F. Vidal, M. A. van Dam, V. Garrel, E. Rodrigo Carrasco, P. Pessev, C. Winge, M. Boccas, C. d’Orgeville, G. Arriagada, A. Serio, V. Fesquet, W. N. Rambold, J. Lührs, C. Moreno, G. Gausachs, R. L. Galvez, V. Montes, T. B. Vucina, E. Marin, C. Urrutia, A. Lopez, S. J. Diggs, C. Marchant, A. W. Ebbers, C. Trujillo, M. Bec, G. Trancho, P. McGregor, P. J. Young, F. Colazo, M. L. Edwards, “Gemini multi-conjugate adaptive optics system review II: Commissioning, operation and overall performance,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., in press (2014).
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V. Fesquet, C. Araujo, V. Garrel, A. Serio, F. Vidal, G. Arriagada, M. Boccas, F. Collao, S. Diggs, J. Donahue, C. D’Orgeville, G. Gausachs, C. Marchant, V. Montes, C. Moreno, B. Neichel, R. Oram, P. Pessev, W. Rambold, C. Urrutia, T. Vucina, “Review of Gemini South Laser Guide Star Facility performance and upgrades,” in Proceedings of the Third AO4ELT Conference, S. Esposito, L. Fini, eds. (INAF - Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Firenze, Italy, 2013), 16120.

Dong, L.

Duran, C.

C. d’Orgeville, S. Diggs, V. Fesquet, B. Neichel, W. Rambold, F. Rigaut, A. Serio, C. Araya, G. Arriagada, R. Balladares, M. Bec, M. Boccas, C. Duran, A. Ebbers, A. Lopez, C. Marchant, E. Marin, V. Montes, C. Moreno, E. Petit Vega, C. Segura, G. Trancho, C. Trujillo, C. Urrutia, P. Veliz, T. Vucina, “Gemini South multi-conjugate adaptive optics (GeMS) laser guide star facility on-sky performance results,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84471Q (2012).
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Ebbers, A.

C. d’Orgeville, S. Diggs, V. Fesquet, B. Neichel, W. Rambold, F. Rigaut, A. Serio, C. Araya, G. Arriagada, R. Balladares, M. Bec, M. Boccas, C. Duran, A. Ebbers, A. Lopez, C. Marchant, E. Marin, V. Montes, C. Moreno, E. Petit Vega, C. Segura, G. Trancho, C. Trujillo, C. Urrutia, P. Veliz, T. Vucina, “Gemini South multi-conjugate adaptive optics (GeMS) laser guide star facility on-sky performance results,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84471Q (2012).
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F. Rigaut, B. Neichel, M. Boccas, C. d’Orgeville, F. Vidal, M. A. van Dam, G. Arriagada, V. Fesquet, R. L. Galvez, G. Gausachs, C. Cavedoni, A. W. Ebbers, S. Karewicz, E. James, J. Lührs, V. Montes, G. Perez, W. N. Rambold, R. Rojas, S. Walker, M. Bec, G. Trancho, M. Sheehan, B. Irarrazaval, C. Boyer, B. L. Ellerbroek, R. Flicker, D. Gratadour, A. Garcia-Rissmann, F. Daruich, “Gemini multiconjugate adaptive optics system review - I. Design, trade-offs and integration,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 437, 2361–2375 (2014).
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Edwards, M. L.

B. Neichel, F. Rigaut, F. Vidal, M. A. van Dam, V. Garrel, E. Rodrigo Carrasco, P. Pessev, C. Winge, M. Boccas, C. d’Orgeville, G. Arriagada, A. Serio, V. Fesquet, W. N. Rambold, J. Lührs, C. Moreno, G. Gausachs, R. L. Galvez, V. Montes, T. B. Vucina, E. Marin, C. Urrutia, A. Lopez, S. J. Diggs, C. Marchant, A. W. Ebbers, C. Trujillo, M. Bec, G. Trancho, P. McGregor, P. J. Young, F. Colazo, M. L. Edwards, “Gemini multi-conjugate adaptive optics system review II: Commissioning, operation and overall performance,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., in press (2014).
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Ellerbroek, B. L.

F. Rigaut, B. Neichel, M. Boccas, C. d’Orgeville, F. Vidal, M. A. van Dam, G. Arriagada, V. Fesquet, R. L. Galvez, G. Gausachs, C. Cavedoni, A. W. Ebbers, S. Karewicz, E. James, J. Lührs, V. Montes, G. Perez, W. N. Rambold, R. Rojas, S. Walker, M. Bec, G. Trancho, M. Sheehan, B. Irarrazaval, C. Boyer, B. L. Ellerbroek, R. Flicker, D. Gratadour, A. Garcia-Rissmann, F. Daruich, “Gemini multiconjugate adaptive optics system review - I. Design, trade-offs and integration,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 437, 2361–2375 (2014).
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Feng, Y.

Fesquet, V.

F. Rigaut, B. Neichel, M. Boccas, C. d’Orgeville, F. Vidal, M. A. van Dam, G. Arriagada, V. Fesquet, R. L. Galvez, G. Gausachs, C. Cavedoni, A. W. Ebbers, S. Karewicz, E. James, J. Lührs, V. Montes, G. Perez, W. N. Rambold, R. Rojas, S. Walker, M. Bec, G. Trancho, M. Sheehan, B. Irarrazaval, C. Boyer, B. L. Ellerbroek, R. Flicker, D. Gratadour, A. Garcia-Rissmann, F. Daruich, “Gemini multiconjugate adaptive optics system review - I. Design, trade-offs and integration,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 437, 2361–2375 (2014).
[CrossRef]

C. d’Orgeville, S. Diggs, V. Fesquet, B. Neichel, W. Rambold, F. Rigaut, A. Serio, C. Araya, G. Arriagada, R. Balladares, M. Bec, M. Boccas, C. Duran, A. Ebbers, A. Lopez, C. Marchant, E. Marin, V. Montes, C. Moreno, E. Petit Vega, C. Segura, G. Trancho, C. Trujillo, C. Urrutia, P. Veliz, T. Vucina, “Gemini South multi-conjugate adaptive optics (GeMS) laser guide star facility on-sky performance results,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84471Q (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Neichel, F. Rigaut, F. Vidal, M. A. van Dam, V. Garrel, E. Rodrigo Carrasco, P. Pessev, C. Winge, M. Boccas, C. d’Orgeville, G. Arriagada, A. Serio, V. Fesquet, W. N. Rambold, J. Lührs, C. Moreno, G. Gausachs, R. L. Galvez, V. Montes, T. B. Vucina, E. Marin, C. Urrutia, A. Lopez, S. J. Diggs, C. Marchant, A. W. Ebbers, C. Trujillo, M. Bec, G. Trancho, P. McGregor, P. J. Young, F. Colazo, M. L. Edwards, “Gemini multi-conjugate adaptive optics system review II: Commissioning, operation and overall performance,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., in press (2014).
[CrossRef]

C. Béchet, A. Guesalaga, B. Neichel, V. Fesquet, D. Guzman, “A two deformable-mirror concept to improve the laser efficiency of Gemini South MCAO,”, in Proceedings of the Third AO4ELT Conference, S. Esposito, L. Fini, eds. (INAF - Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Firenze, Italy, 2013), 13344.

V. Fesquet, C. Araujo, V. Garrel, A. Serio, F. Vidal, G. Arriagada, M. Boccas, F. Collao, S. Diggs, J. Donahue, C. D’Orgeville, G. Gausachs, C. Marchant, V. Montes, C. Moreno, B. Neichel, R. Oram, P. Pessev, W. Rambold, C. Urrutia, T. Vucina, “Review of Gemini South Laser Guide Star Facility performance and upgrades,” in Proceedings of the Third AO4ELT Conference, S. Esposito, L. Fini, eds. (INAF - Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Firenze, Italy, 2013), 16120.

Fienup, J. R.

Flath, L. M.

Flicker, R.

F. Rigaut, B. Neichel, M. Boccas, C. d’Orgeville, F. Vidal, M. A. van Dam, G. Arriagada, V. Fesquet, R. L. Galvez, G. Gausachs, C. Cavedoni, A. W. Ebbers, S. Karewicz, E. James, J. Lührs, V. Montes, G. Perez, W. N. Rambold, R. Rojas, S. Walker, M. Bec, G. Trancho, M. Sheehan, B. Irarrazaval, C. Boyer, B. L. Ellerbroek, R. Flicker, D. Gratadour, A. Garcia-Rissmann, F. Daruich, “Gemini multiconjugate adaptive optics system review - I. Design, trade-offs and integration,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 437, 2361–2375 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Fried, D. L.

Frieden, B. R.

Galvez, R. L.

F. Rigaut, B. Neichel, M. Boccas, C. d’Orgeville, F. Vidal, M. A. van Dam, G. Arriagada, V. Fesquet, R. L. Galvez, G. Gausachs, C. Cavedoni, A. W. Ebbers, S. Karewicz, E. James, J. Lührs, V. Montes, G. Perez, W. N. Rambold, R. Rojas, S. Walker, M. Bec, G. Trancho, M. Sheehan, B. Irarrazaval, C. Boyer, B. L. Ellerbroek, R. Flicker, D. Gratadour, A. Garcia-Rissmann, F. Daruich, “Gemini multiconjugate adaptive optics system review - I. Design, trade-offs and integration,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 437, 2361–2375 (2014).
[CrossRef]

B. Neichel, F. Rigaut, F. Vidal, M. A. van Dam, V. Garrel, E. Rodrigo Carrasco, P. Pessev, C. Winge, M. Boccas, C. d’Orgeville, G. Arriagada, A. Serio, V. Fesquet, W. N. Rambold, J. Lührs, C. Moreno, G. Gausachs, R. L. Galvez, V. Montes, T. B. Vucina, E. Marin, C. Urrutia, A. Lopez, S. J. Diggs, C. Marchant, A. W. Ebbers, C. Trujillo, M. Bec, G. Trancho, P. McGregor, P. J. Young, F. Colazo, M. L. Edwards, “Gemini multi-conjugate adaptive optics system review II: Commissioning, operation and overall performance,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., in press (2014).
[CrossRef]

Garcia-Rissmann, A.

F. Rigaut, B. Neichel, M. Boccas, C. d’Orgeville, F. Vidal, M. A. van Dam, G. Arriagada, V. Fesquet, R. L. Galvez, G. Gausachs, C. Cavedoni, A. W. Ebbers, S. Karewicz, E. James, J. Lührs, V. Montes, G. Perez, W. N. Rambold, R. Rojas, S. Walker, M. Bec, G. Trancho, M. Sheehan, B. Irarrazaval, C. Boyer, B. L. Ellerbroek, R. Flicker, D. Gratadour, A. Garcia-Rissmann, F. Daruich, “Gemini multiconjugate adaptive optics system review - I. Design, trade-offs and integration,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 437, 2361–2375 (2014).
[CrossRef]

Garrel, V.

V. Fesquet, C. Araujo, V. Garrel, A. Serio, F. Vidal, G. Arriagada, M. Boccas, F. Collao, S. Diggs, J. Donahue, C. D’Orgeville, G. Gausachs, C. Marchant, V. Montes, C. Moreno, B. Neichel, R. Oram, P. Pessev, W. Rambold, C. Urrutia, T. Vucina, “Review of Gemini South Laser Guide Star Facility performance and upgrades,” in Proceedings of the Third AO4ELT Conference, S. Esposito, L. Fini, eds. (INAF - Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Firenze, Italy, 2013), 16120.

B. Neichel, F. Rigaut, F. Vidal, M. A. van Dam, V. Garrel, E. Rodrigo Carrasco, P. Pessev, C. Winge, M. Boccas, C. d’Orgeville, G. Arriagada, A. Serio, V. Fesquet, W. N. Rambold, J. Lührs, C. Moreno, G. Gausachs, R. L. Galvez, V. Montes, T. B. Vucina, E. Marin, C. Urrutia, A. Lopez, S. J. Diggs, C. Marchant, A. W. Ebbers, C. Trujillo, M. Bec, G. Trancho, P. McGregor, P. J. Young, F. Colazo, M. L. Edwards, “Gemini multi-conjugate adaptive optics system review II: Commissioning, operation and overall performance,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., in press (2014).
[CrossRef]

Gates, E.

D. Gavel, M. Ammons, B. Bauman, D. Dillon, E. Gates, B. Grigsby, J. Johnson, C. Lockwood, K. Morzinski, D. Palmer, M. Reinig, S. Severson, “Visible light laser guidestar experimental system (Villages): on-sky tests of new technologies for visible wavelength all-sky coverage adaptive optics systems,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150G (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gates, E. L.

A. P. Norton, D. Gavel, M. Helmbrecht, C. J. Kempf, E. L. Gates, K. Chloros, D. Redel, D. Dillon, “Laser guidestar uplink correction using a MEMS deformable mirror: on-sky test results and implications for future AO systems,” accepted for Proc. SPIE (2014).

Gausachs, G.

F. Rigaut, B. Neichel, M. Boccas, C. d’Orgeville, F. Vidal, M. A. van Dam, G. Arriagada, V. Fesquet, R. L. Galvez, G. Gausachs, C. Cavedoni, A. W. Ebbers, S. Karewicz, E. James, J. Lührs, V. Montes, G. Perez, W. N. Rambold, R. Rojas, S. Walker, M. Bec, G. Trancho, M. Sheehan, B. Irarrazaval, C. Boyer, B. L. Ellerbroek, R. Flicker, D. Gratadour, A. Garcia-Rissmann, F. Daruich, “Gemini multiconjugate adaptive optics system review - I. Design, trade-offs and integration,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 437, 2361–2375 (2014).
[CrossRef]

V. Fesquet, C. Araujo, V. Garrel, A. Serio, F. Vidal, G. Arriagada, M. Boccas, F. Collao, S. Diggs, J. Donahue, C. D’Orgeville, G. Gausachs, C. Marchant, V. Montes, C. Moreno, B. Neichel, R. Oram, P. Pessev, W. Rambold, C. Urrutia, T. Vucina, “Review of Gemini South Laser Guide Star Facility performance and upgrades,” in Proceedings of the Third AO4ELT Conference, S. Esposito, L. Fini, eds. (INAF - Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Firenze, Italy, 2013), 16120.

B. Neichel, F. Rigaut, F. Vidal, M. A. van Dam, V. Garrel, E. Rodrigo Carrasco, P. Pessev, C. Winge, M. Boccas, C. d’Orgeville, G. Arriagada, A. Serio, V. Fesquet, W. N. Rambold, J. Lührs, C. Moreno, G. Gausachs, R. L. Galvez, V. Montes, T. B. Vucina, E. Marin, C. Urrutia, A. Lopez, S. J. Diggs, C. Marchant, A. W. Ebbers, C. Trujillo, M. Bec, G. Trancho, P. McGregor, P. J. Young, F. Colazo, M. L. Edwards, “Gemini multi-conjugate adaptive optics system review II: Commissioning, operation and overall performance,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., in press (2014).
[CrossRef]

Gavel, D.

D. Gavel, M. Ammons, B. Bauman, D. Dillon, E. Gates, B. Grigsby, J. Johnson, C. Lockwood, K. Morzinski, D. Palmer, M. Reinig, S. Severson, “Visible light laser guidestar experimental system (Villages): on-sky tests of new technologies for visible wavelength all-sky coverage adaptive optics systems,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150G (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Baker, E. A. Stappaerts, D. Gavel, S. C. Wilks, J. Tucker, D. A. Silva, J. Olsen, S. S. Olivier, P. E. Young, M. W. Kartz, L. M. Flath, P. Kruelevitch, J. Crawford, O. Azucena, “High-speed horizontal-path atmospheric turbulence correction with a large-actuator-number microelectromechanical system spatial light modulator in an interferometric phase-conjugation engine,” Opt. Lett. 29(15), 1781–1783 (2004).
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A. P. Norton, D. Gavel, M. Helmbrecht, C. J. Kempf, E. L. Gates, K. Chloros, D. Redel, D. Dillon, “Laser guidestar uplink correction using a MEMS deformable mirror: on-sky test results and implications for future AO systems,” accepted for Proc. SPIE (2014).

Gerchberg, R. W.

R. W. Gerchberg, W. O. Saxton, “A practical algorithm for the determination of the phase from image and diffraction plane pictures,” Optik 35, 237–246 (1972).

Give’on, A.

Gonsalves, R. A.

Gratadour, D.

F. Rigaut, B. Neichel, M. Boccas, C. d’Orgeville, F. Vidal, M. A. van Dam, G. Arriagada, V. Fesquet, R. L. Galvez, G. Gausachs, C. Cavedoni, A. W. Ebbers, S. Karewicz, E. James, J. Lührs, V. Montes, G. Perez, W. N. Rambold, R. Rojas, S. Walker, M. Bec, G. Trancho, M. Sheehan, B. Irarrazaval, C. Boyer, B. L. Ellerbroek, R. Flicker, D. Gratadour, A. Garcia-Rissmann, F. Daruich, “Gemini multiconjugate adaptive optics system review - I. Design, trade-offs and integration,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 437, 2361–2375 (2014).
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Grigsby, B.

D. Gavel, M. Ammons, B. Bauman, D. Dillon, E. Gates, B. Grigsby, J. Johnson, C. Lockwood, K. Morzinski, D. Palmer, M. Reinig, S. Severson, “Visible light laser guidestar experimental system (Villages): on-sky tests of new technologies for visible wavelength all-sky coverage adaptive optics systems,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150G (2008).
[CrossRef]

Groff, T.

Gruetzner, J. K.

D. R. Neal, W. J. Alford, J. K. Gruetzner, M. E. Warren, “Amplitude and phase beam characterization using a two-dimensional wavefront sensor,” Proc. SPIE 2870, 72–82 (1996).
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Guesalaga, A.

A. Guesalaga, B. Neichel, M. Boccas, C. d’Orgeville, F. Rigaut, D. Guzman, J. Anguita, “Improving stability, robustness, and performance of laser systems,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84474M (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Béchet, A. Guesalaga, B. Neichel, V. Fesquet, D. Guzman, “A two deformable-mirror concept to improve the laser efficiency of Gemini South MCAO,”, in Proceedings of the Third AO4ELT Conference, S. Esposito, L. Fini, eds. (INAF - Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Firenze, Italy, 2013), 13344.

Guyon, O.

O. Guyon, “Phase-induced amplitude apodization of telescope pupils for extrasolar terrestrial planet imaging,” Astron. Astrophys. 404, 379–387 (2003).
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Guzman, D.

A. Guesalaga, B. Neichel, M. Boccas, C. d’Orgeville, F. Rigaut, D. Guzman, J. Anguita, “Improving stability, robustness, and performance of laser systems,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84474M (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Béchet, A. Guesalaga, B. Neichel, V. Fesquet, D. Guzman, “A two deformable-mirror concept to improve the laser efficiency of Gemini South MCAO,”, in Proceedings of the Third AO4ELT Conference, S. Esposito, L. Fini, eds. (INAF - Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Firenze, Italy, 2013), 13344.

Hackenberg, W.

R. Holzlöhner, D. Bonaccini Calia, W. Hackenberg, “Physical optics modeling and optimization of laser guide star propagation,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 701521 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Helmbrecht, M.

A. P. Norton, D. Gavel, M. Helmbrecht, C. J. Kempf, E. L. Gates, K. Chloros, D. Redel, D. Dillon, “Laser guidestar uplink correction using a MEMS deformable mirror: on-sky test results and implications for future AO systems,” accepted for Proc. SPIE (2014).

Holzlöhner, R.

R. Holzlöhner, D. Bonaccini Calia, W. Hackenberg, “Physical optics modeling and optimization of laser guide star propagation,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 701521 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Irarrazaval, B.

F. Rigaut, B. Neichel, M. Boccas, C. d’Orgeville, F. Vidal, M. A. van Dam, G. Arriagada, V. Fesquet, R. L. Galvez, G. Gausachs, C. Cavedoni, A. W. Ebbers, S. Karewicz, E. James, J. Lührs, V. Montes, G. Perez, W. N. Rambold, R. Rojas, S. Walker, M. Bec, G. Trancho, M. Sheehan, B. Irarrazaval, C. Boyer, B. L. Ellerbroek, R. Flicker, D. Gratadour, A. Garcia-Rissmann, F. Daruich, “Gemini multiconjugate adaptive optics system review - I. Design, trade-offs and integration,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 437, 2361–2375 (2014).
[CrossRef]

James, E.

F. Rigaut, B. Neichel, M. Boccas, C. d’Orgeville, F. Vidal, M. A. van Dam, G. Arriagada, V. Fesquet, R. L. Galvez, G. Gausachs, C. Cavedoni, A. W. Ebbers, S. Karewicz, E. James, J. Lührs, V. Montes, G. Perez, W. N. Rambold, R. Rojas, S. Walker, M. Bec, G. Trancho, M. Sheehan, B. Irarrazaval, C. Boyer, B. L. Ellerbroek, R. Flicker, D. Gratadour, A. Garcia-Rissmann, F. Daruich, “Gemini multiconjugate adaptive optics system review - I. Design, trade-offs and integration,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 437, 2361–2375 (2014).
[CrossRef]

C. d’Orgeville, F. Daruich, G. Arriagada, M. Bec, M. Boccas, S. Bombino, C. Carter, C. Cavedoni, F. Collao, P. Collins, E. James, S. Karewicz, M. Lazo, D. Maltes, R. Mouser, G. Perez, F. Rigaut, R. Rojas, M. Sheehan, G. Trancho, V. Vergara, T. Vucina, “The Gemini South MCAO laser guide star facility: getting ready for first light,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70152P (2008).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, J.

D. Gavel, M. Ammons, B. Bauman, D. Dillon, E. Gates, B. Grigsby, J. Johnson, C. Lockwood, K. Morzinski, D. Palmer, M. Reinig, S. Severson, “Visible light laser guidestar experimental system (Villages): on-sky tests of new technologies for visible wavelength all-sky coverage adaptive optics systems,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150G (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kanev, F. Y.

F. Y. Kanev, V. P. Lukin, “Amplitude phase beam control with the help of a two-mirror adaptive system,” Atmos. Opt. 4, 878–881 (1991).

Karewicz, S.

F. Rigaut, B. Neichel, M. Boccas, C. d’Orgeville, F. Vidal, M. A. van Dam, G. Arriagada, V. Fesquet, R. L. Galvez, G. Gausachs, C. Cavedoni, A. W. Ebbers, S. Karewicz, E. James, J. Lührs, V. Montes, G. Perez, W. N. Rambold, R. Rojas, S. Walker, M. Bec, G. Trancho, M. Sheehan, B. Irarrazaval, C. Boyer, B. L. Ellerbroek, R. Flicker, D. Gratadour, A. Garcia-Rissmann, F. Daruich, “Gemini multiconjugate adaptive optics system review - I. Design, trade-offs and integration,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 437, 2361–2375 (2014).
[CrossRef]

C. d’Orgeville, F. Daruich, G. Arriagada, M. Bec, M. Boccas, S. Bombino, C. Carter, C. Cavedoni, F. Collao, P. Collins, E. James, S. Karewicz, M. Lazo, D. Maltes, R. Mouser, G. Perez, F. Rigaut, R. Rojas, M. Sheehan, G. Trancho, V. Vergara, T. Vucina, “The Gemini South MCAO laser guide star facility: getting ready for first light,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70152P (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kartz, M. W.

Kasdin, N.

L. Pueyo, N. Kasdin, “Polychromatic compensation of propagated aberrations for high-contrast imaging,” Astrophys. J. 666, 609–625 (2007).
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Kasdin, N. J.

Kay, J.

Kempf, C. J.

A. P. Norton, D. Gavel, M. Helmbrecht, C. J. Kempf, E. L. Gates, K. Chloros, D. Redel, D. Dillon, “Laser guidestar uplink correction using a MEMS deformable mirror: on-sky test results and implications for future AO systems,” accepted for Proc. SPIE (2014).

Kizito, R.

R. Kizito, M. C. Roggemann, T. J. Schulz, Y. Zhang, “Image sharpness metric-based deformable mirror control for beam projection systems operating in strong scintillation,” Proc. SPIE 5160, 406–416 (2004).
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Koivunen, A. C.

Kolosov, V.

Kruelevitch, P.

Lazo, M.

C. d’Orgeville, F. Daruich, G. Arriagada, M. Bec, M. Boccas, S. Bombino, C. Carter, C. Cavedoni, F. Collao, P. Collins, E. James, S. Karewicz, M. Lazo, D. Maltes, R. Mouser, G. Perez, F. Rigaut, R. Rojas, M. Sheehan, G. Trancho, V. Vergara, T. Vucina, “The Gemini South MCAO laser guide star facility: getting ready for first light,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70152P (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lee, D. J.

Lei, X.

Liu, W.

Lockwood, C.

D. Gavel, M. Ammons, B. Bauman, D. Dillon, E. Gates, B. Grigsby, J. Johnson, C. Lockwood, K. Morzinski, D. Palmer, M. Reinig, S. Severson, “Visible light laser guidestar experimental system (Villages): on-sky tests of new technologies for visible wavelength all-sky coverage adaptive optics systems,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150G (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lopez, A.

C. d’Orgeville, S. Diggs, V. Fesquet, B. Neichel, W. Rambold, F. Rigaut, A. Serio, C. Araya, G. Arriagada, R. Balladares, M. Bec, M. Boccas, C. Duran, A. Ebbers, A. Lopez, C. Marchant, E. Marin, V. Montes, C. Moreno, E. Petit Vega, C. Segura, G. Trancho, C. Trujillo, C. Urrutia, P. Veliz, T. Vucina, “Gemini South multi-conjugate adaptive optics (GeMS) laser guide star facility on-sky performance results,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84471Q (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Neichel, F. Rigaut, F. Vidal, M. A. van Dam, V. Garrel, E. Rodrigo Carrasco, P. Pessev, C. Winge, M. Boccas, C. d’Orgeville, G. Arriagada, A. Serio, V. Fesquet, W. N. Rambold, J. Lührs, C. Moreno, G. Gausachs, R. L. Galvez, V. Montes, T. B. Vucina, E. Marin, C. Urrutia, A. Lopez, S. J. Diggs, C. Marchant, A. W. Ebbers, C. Trujillo, M. Bec, G. Trancho, P. McGregor, P. J. Young, F. Colazo, M. L. Edwards, “Gemini multi-conjugate adaptive optics system review II: Commissioning, operation and overall performance,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., in press (2014).
[CrossRef]

Lührs, J.

F. Rigaut, B. Neichel, M. Boccas, C. d’Orgeville, F. Vidal, M. A. van Dam, G. Arriagada, V. Fesquet, R. L. Galvez, G. Gausachs, C. Cavedoni, A. W. Ebbers, S. Karewicz, E. James, J. Lührs, V. Montes, G. Perez, W. N. Rambold, R. Rojas, S. Walker, M. Bec, G. Trancho, M. Sheehan, B. Irarrazaval, C. Boyer, B. L. Ellerbroek, R. Flicker, D. Gratadour, A. Garcia-Rissmann, F. Daruich, “Gemini multiconjugate adaptive optics system review - I. Design, trade-offs and integration,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 437, 2361–2375 (2014).
[CrossRef]

B. Neichel, F. Rigaut, F. Vidal, M. A. van Dam, V. Garrel, E. Rodrigo Carrasco, P. Pessev, C. Winge, M. Boccas, C. d’Orgeville, G. Arriagada, A. Serio, V. Fesquet, W. N. Rambold, J. Lührs, C. Moreno, G. Gausachs, R. L. Galvez, V. Montes, T. B. Vucina, E. Marin, C. Urrutia, A. Lopez, S. J. Diggs, C. Marchant, A. W. Ebbers, C. Trujillo, M. Bec, G. Trancho, P. McGregor, P. J. Young, F. Colazo, M. L. Edwards, “Gemini multi-conjugate adaptive optics system review II: Commissioning, operation and overall performance,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., in press (2014).
[CrossRef]

Lukin, V. P.

F. Y. Kanev, V. P. Lukin, “Amplitude phase beam control with the help of a two-mirror adaptive system,” Atmos. Opt. 4, 878–881 (1991).

Lyke, S. D.

Z. Zhao, S. D. Lyke, M. C. Roggemann, “Adaptive Optical Communication through Turbulent Atmospheric Channels,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Communications, 2008. ICC ’08 (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2008), 5432–5436.

Maltes, D.

C. d’Orgeville, F. Daruich, G. Arriagada, M. Bec, M. Boccas, S. Bombino, C. Carter, C. Cavedoni, F. Collao, P. Collins, E. James, S. Karewicz, M. Lazo, D. Maltes, R. Mouser, G. Perez, F. Rigaut, R. Rojas, M. Sheehan, G. Trancho, V. Vergara, T. Vucina, “The Gemini South MCAO laser guide star facility: getting ready for first light,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70152P (2008).
[CrossRef]

Marchant, C.

C. d’Orgeville, S. Diggs, V. Fesquet, B. Neichel, W. Rambold, F. Rigaut, A. Serio, C. Araya, G. Arriagada, R. Balladares, M. Bec, M. Boccas, C. Duran, A. Ebbers, A. Lopez, C. Marchant, E. Marin, V. Montes, C. Moreno, E. Petit Vega, C. Segura, G. Trancho, C. Trujillo, C. Urrutia, P. Veliz, T. Vucina, “Gemini South multi-conjugate adaptive optics (GeMS) laser guide star facility on-sky performance results,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84471Q (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Neichel, F. Rigaut, F. Vidal, M. A. van Dam, V. Garrel, E. Rodrigo Carrasco, P. Pessev, C. Winge, M. Boccas, C. d’Orgeville, G. Arriagada, A. Serio, V. Fesquet, W. N. Rambold, J. Lührs, C. Moreno, G. Gausachs, R. L. Galvez, V. Montes, T. B. Vucina, E. Marin, C. Urrutia, A. Lopez, S. J. Diggs, C. Marchant, A. W. Ebbers, C. Trujillo, M. Bec, G. Trancho, P. McGregor, P. J. Young, F. Colazo, M. L. Edwards, “Gemini multi-conjugate adaptive optics system review II: Commissioning, operation and overall performance,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., in press (2014).
[CrossRef]

V. Fesquet, C. Araujo, V. Garrel, A. Serio, F. Vidal, G. Arriagada, M. Boccas, F. Collao, S. Diggs, J. Donahue, C. D’Orgeville, G. Gausachs, C. Marchant, V. Montes, C. Moreno, B. Neichel, R. Oram, P. Pessev, W. Rambold, C. Urrutia, T. Vucina, “Review of Gemini South Laser Guide Star Facility performance and upgrades,” in Proceedings of the Third AO4ELT Conference, S. Esposito, L. Fini, eds. (INAF - Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Firenze, Italy, 2013), 16120.

Marin, E.

C. d’Orgeville, S. Diggs, V. Fesquet, B. Neichel, W. Rambold, F. Rigaut, A. Serio, C. Araya, G. Arriagada, R. Balladares, M. Bec, M. Boccas, C. Duran, A. Ebbers, A. Lopez, C. Marchant, E. Marin, V. Montes, C. Moreno, E. Petit Vega, C. Segura, G. Trancho, C. Trujillo, C. Urrutia, P. Veliz, T. Vucina, “Gemini South multi-conjugate adaptive optics (GeMS) laser guide star facility on-sky performance results,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84471Q (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Neichel, F. Rigaut, F. Vidal, M. A. van Dam, V. Garrel, E. Rodrigo Carrasco, P. Pessev, C. Winge, M. Boccas, C. d’Orgeville, G. Arriagada, A. Serio, V. Fesquet, W. N. Rambold, J. Lührs, C. Moreno, G. Gausachs, R. L. Galvez, V. Montes, T. B. Vucina, E. Marin, C. Urrutia, A. Lopez, S. J. Diggs, C. Marchant, A. W. Ebbers, C. Trujillo, M. Bec, G. Trancho, P. McGregor, P. J. Young, F. Colazo, M. L. Edwards, “Gemini multi-conjugate adaptive optics system review II: Commissioning, operation and overall performance,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., in press (2014).
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McElwain, M.

McGregor, P.

B. Neichel, F. Rigaut, F. Vidal, M. A. van Dam, V. Garrel, E. Rodrigo Carrasco, P. Pessev, C. Winge, M. Boccas, C. d’Orgeville, G. Arriagada, A. Serio, V. Fesquet, W. N. Rambold, J. Lührs, C. Moreno, G. Gausachs, R. L. Galvez, V. Montes, T. B. Vucina, E. Marin, C. Urrutia, A. Lopez, S. J. Diggs, C. Marchant, A. W. Ebbers, C. Trujillo, M. Bec, G. Trancho, P. McGregor, P. J. Young, F. Colazo, M. L. Edwards, “Gemini multi-conjugate adaptive optics system review II: Commissioning, operation and overall performance,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., in press (2014).
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Montes, V.

F. Rigaut, B. Neichel, M. Boccas, C. d’Orgeville, F. Vidal, M. A. van Dam, G. Arriagada, V. Fesquet, R. L. Galvez, G. Gausachs, C. Cavedoni, A. W. Ebbers, S. Karewicz, E. James, J. Lührs, V. Montes, G. Perez, W. N. Rambold, R. Rojas, S. Walker, M. Bec, G. Trancho, M. Sheehan, B. Irarrazaval, C. Boyer, B. L. Ellerbroek, R. Flicker, D. Gratadour, A. Garcia-Rissmann, F. Daruich, “Gemini multiconjugate adaptive optics system review - I. Design, trade-offs and integration,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 437, 2361–2375 (2014).
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C. d’Orgeville, S. Diggs, V. Fesquet, B. Neichel, W. Rambold, F. Rigaut, A. Serio, C. Araya, G. Arriagada, R. Balladares, M. Bec, M. Boccas, C. Duran, A. Ebbers, A. Lopez, C. Marchant, E. Marin, V. Montes, C. Moreno, E. Petit Vega, C. Segura, G. Trancho, C. Trujillo, C. Urrutia, P. Veliz, T. Vucina, “Gemini South multi-conjugate adaptive optics (GeMS) laser guide star facility on-sky performance results,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84471Q (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Neichel, F. Rigaut, F. Vidal, M. A. van Dam, V. Garrel, E. Rodrigo Carrasco, P. Pessev, C. Winge, M. Boccas, C. d’Orgeville, G. Arriagada, A. Serio, V. Fesquet, W. N. Rambold, J. Lührs, C. Moreno, G. Gausachs, R. L. Galvez, V. Montes, T. B. Vucina, E. Marin, C. Urrutia, A. Lopez, S. J. Diggs, C. Marchant, A. W. Ebbers, C. Trujillo, M. Bec, G. Trancho, P. McGregor, P. J. Young, F. Colazo, M. L. Edwards, “Gemini multi-conjugate adaptive optics system review II: Commissioning, operation and overall performance,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., in press (2014).
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V. Fesquet, C. Araujo, V. Garrel, A. Serio, F. Vidal, G. Arriagada, M. Boccas, F. Collao, S. Diggs, J. Donahue, C. D’Orgeville, G. Gausachs, C. Marchant, V. Montes, C. Moreno, B. Neichel, R. Oram, P. Pessev, W. Rambold, C. Urrutia, T. Vucina, “Review of Gemini South Laser Guide Star Facility performance and upgrades,” in Proceedings of the Third AO4ELT Conference, S. Esposito, L. Fini, eds. (INAF - Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Firenze, Italy, 2013), 16120.

Moreno, C.

C. d’Orgeville, S. Diggs, V. Fesquet, B. Neichel, W. Rambold, F. Rigaut, A. Serio, C. Araya, G. Arriagada, R. Balladares, M. Bec, M. Boccas, C. Duran, A. Ebbers, A. Lopez, C. Marchant, E. Marin, V. Montes, C. Moreno, E. Petit Vega, C. Segura, G. Trancho, C. Trujillo, C. Urrutia, P. Veliz, T. Vucina, “Gemini South multi-conjugate adaptive optics (GeMS) laser guide star facility on-sky performance results,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84471Q (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Neichel, F. Rigaut, F. Vidal, M. A. van Dam, V. Garrel, E. Rodrigo Carrasco, P. Pessev, C. Winge, M. Boccas, C. d’Orgeville, G. Arriagada, A. Serio, V. Fesquet, W. N. Rambold, J. Lührs, C. Moreno, G. Gausachs, R. L. Galvez, V. Montes, T. B. Vucina, E. Marin, C. Urrutia, A. Lopez, S. J. Diggs, C. Marchant, A. W. Ebbers, C. Trujillo, M. Bec, G. Trancho, P. McGregor, P. J. Young, F. Colazo, M. L. Edwards, “Gemini multi-conjugate adaptive optics system review II: Commissioning, operation and overall performance,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., in press (2014).
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V. Fesquet, C. Araujo, V. Garrel, A. Serio, F. Vidal, G. Arriagada, M. Boccas, F. Collao, S. Diggs, J. Donahue, C. D’Orgeville, G. Gausachs, C. Marchant, V. Montes, C. Moreno, B. Neichel, R. Oram, P. Pessev, W. Rambold, C. Urrutia, T. Vucina, “Review of Gemini South Laser Guide Star Facility performance and upgrades,” in Proceedings of the Third AO4ELT Conference, S. Esposito, L. Fini, eds. (INAF - Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Firenze, Italy, 2013), 16120.

Morzinski, K.

D. Gavel, M. Ammons, B. Bauman, D. Dillon, E. Gates, B. Grigsby, J. Johnson, C. Lockwood, K. Morzinski, D. Palmer, M. Reinig, S. Severson, “Visible light laser guidestar experimental system (Villages): on-sky tests of new technologies for visible wavelength all-sky coverage adaptive optics systems,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150G (2008).
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Mouser, R.

C. d’Orgeville, F. Daruich, G. Arriagada, M. Bec, M. Boccas, S. Bombino, C. Carter, C. Cavedoni, F. Collao, P. Collins, E. James, S. Karewicz, M. Lazo, D. Maltes, R. Mouser, G. Perez, F. Rigaut, R. Rojas, M. Sheehan, G. Trancho, V. Vergara, T. Vucina, “The Gemini South MCAO laser guide star facility: getting ready for first light,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70152P (2008).
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Neal, D. R.

D. R. Neal, W. J. Alford, J. K. Gruetzner, M. E. Warren, “Amplitude and phase beam characterization using a two-dimensional wavefront sensor,” Proc. SPIE 2870, 72–82 (1996).
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Neichel, B.

F. Rigaut, B. Neichel, M. Boccas, C. d’Orgeville, F. Vidal, M. A. van Dam, G. Arriagada, V. Fesquet, R. L. Galvez, G. Gausachs, C. Cavedoni, A. W. Ebbers, S. Karewicz, E. James, J. Lührs, V. Montes, G. Perez, W. N. Rambold, R. Rojas, S. Walker, M. Bec, G. Trancho, M. Sheehan, B. Irarrazaval, C. Boyer, B. L. Ellerbroek, R. Flicker, D. Gratadour, A. Garcia-Rissmann, F. Daruich, “Gemini multiconjugate adaptive optics system review - I. Design, trade-offs and integration,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 437, 2361–2375 (2014).
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C. d’Orgeville, S. Diggs, V. Fesquet, B. Neichel, W. Rambold, F. Rigaut, A. Serio, C. Araya, G. Arriagada, R. Balladares, M. Bec, M. Boccas, C. Duran, A. Ebbers, A. Lopez, C. Marchant, E. Marin, V. Montes, C. Moreno, E. Petit Vega, C. Segura, G. Trancho, C. Trujillo, C. Urrutia, P. Veliz, T. Vucina, “Gemini South multi-conjugate adaptive optics (GeMS) laser guide star facility on-sky performance results,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84471Q (2012).
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A. Guesalaga, B. Neichel, M. Boccas, C. d’Orgeville, F. Rigaut, D. Guzman, J. Anguita, “Improving stability, robustness, and performance of laser systems,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84474M (2012).
[CrossRef]

B. Neichel, F. Rigaut, F. Vidal, M. A. van Dam, V. Garrel, E. Rodrigo Carrasco, P. Pessev, C. Winge, M. Boccas, C. d’Orgeville, G. Arriagada, A. Serio, V. Fesquet, W. N. Rambold, J. Lührs, C. Moreno, G. Gausachs, R. L. Galvez, V. Montes, T. B. Vucina, E. Marin, C. Urrutia, A. Lopez, S. J. Diggs, C. Marchant, A. W. Ebbers, C. Trujillo, M. Bec, G. Trancho, P. McGregor, P. J. Young, F. Colazo, M. L. Edwards, “Gemini multi-conjugate adaptive optics system review II: Commissioning, operation and overall performance,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., in press (2014).
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C. Béchet, A. Guesalaga, B. Neichel, V. Fesquet, D. Guzman, “A two deformable-mirror concept to improve the laser efficiency of Gemini South MCAO,”, in Proceedings of the Third AO4ELT Conference, S. Esposito, L. Fini, eds. (INAF - Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Firenze, Italy, 2013), 13344.

V. Fesquet, C. Araujo, V. Garrel, A. Serio, F. Vidal, G. Arriagada, M. Boccas, F. Collao, S. Diggs, J. Donahue, C. D’Orgeville, G. Gausachs, C. Marchant, V. Montes, C. Moreno, B. Neichel, R. Oram, P. Pessev, W. Rambold, C. Urrutia, T. Vucina, “Review of Gemini South Laser Guide Star Facility performance and upgrades,” in Proceedings of the Third AO4ELT Conference, S. Esposito, L. Fini, eds. (INAF - Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Firenze, Italy, 2013), 16120.

Norton, A. P.

A. P. Norton, D. Gavel, M. Helmbrecht, C. J. Kempf, E. L. Gates, K. Chloros, D. Redel, D. Dillon, “Laser guidestar uplink correction using a MEMS deformable mirror: on-sky test results and implications for future AO systems,” accepted for Proc. SPIE (2014).

Oesch, D. W.

C. C. Beckner, D. W. Oesch, “Implementation of a projection-on-constraints algorithm for beam intensity redistribution,” Proc. SPIE 6711, 67110L (2007)

Ogland, J. W.

Olivier, S. S.

Olsen, J.

Oram, R.

V. Fesquet, C. Araujo, V. Garrel, A. Serio, F. Vidal, G. Arriagada, M. Boccas, F. Collao, S. Diggs, J. Donahue, C. D’Orgeville, G. Gausachs, C. Marchant, V. Montes, C. Moreno, B. Neichel, R. Oram, P. Pessev, W. Rambold, C. Urrutia, T. Vucina, “Review of Gemini South Laser Guide Star Facility performance and upgrades,” in Proceedings of the Third AO4ELT Conference, S. Esposito, L. Fini, eds. (INAF - Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Firenze, Italy, 2013), 16120.

Palmer, D.

D. Gavel, M. Ammons, B. Bauman, D. Dillon, E. Gates, B. Grigsby, J. Johnson, C. Lockwood, K. Morzinski, D. Palmer, M. Reinig, S. Severson, “Visible light laser guidestar experimental system (Villages): on-sky tests of new technologies for visible wavelength all-sky coverage adaptive optics systems,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150G (2008).
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Perez, G.

F. Rigaut, B. Neichel, M. Boccas, C. d’Orgeville, F. Vidal, M. A. van Dam, G. Arriagada, V. Fesquet, R. L. Galvez, G. Gausachs, C. Cavedoni, A. W. Ebbers, S. Karewicz, E. James, J. Lührs, V. Montes, G. Perez, W. N. Rambold, R. Rojas, S. Walker, M. Bec, G. Trancho, M. Sheehan, B. Irarrazaval, C. Boyer, B. L. Ellerbroek, R. Flicker, D. Gratadour, A. Garcia-Rissmann, F. Daruich, “Gemini multiconjugate adaptive optics system review - I. Design, trade-offs and integration,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 437, 2361–2375 (2014).
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C. d’Orgeville, F. Daruich, G. Arriagada, M. Bec, M. Boccas, S. Bombino, C. Carter, C. Cavedoni, F. Collao, P. Collins, E. James, S. Karewicz, M. Lazo, D. Maltes, R. Mouser, G. Perez, F. Rigaut, R. Rojas, M. Sheehan, G. Trancho, V. Vergara, T. Vucina, “The Gemini South MCAO laser guide star facility: getting ready for first light,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70152P (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pessev, P.

V. Fesquet, C. Araujo, V. Garrel, A. Serio, F. Vidal, G. Arriagada, M. Boccas, F. Collao, S. Diggs, J. Donahue, C. D’Orgeville, G. Gausachs, C. Marchant, V. Montes, C. Moreno, B. Neichel, R. Oram, P. Pessev, W. Rambold, C. Urrutia, T. Vucina, “Review of Gemini South Laser Guide Star Facility performance and upgrades,” in Proceedings of the Third AO4ELT Conference, S. Esposito, L. Fini, eds. (INAF - Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Firenze, Italy, 2013), 16120.

B. Neichel, F. Rigaut, F. Vidal, M. A. van Dam, V. Garrel, E. Rodrigo Carrasco, P. Pessev, C. Winge, M. Boccas, C. d’Orgeville, G. Arriagada, A. Serio, V. Fesquet, W. N. Rambold, J. Lührs, C. Moreno, G. Gausachs, R. L. Galvez, V. Montes, T. B. Vucina, E. Marin, C. Urrutia, A. Lopez, S. J. Diggs, C. Marchant, A. W. Ebbers, C. Trujillo, M. Bec, G. Trancho, P. McGregor, P. J. Young, F. Colazo, M. L. Edwards, “Gemini multi-conjugate adaptive optics system review II: Commissioning, operation and overall performance,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., in press (2014).
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Petit Vega, E.

C. d’Orgeville, S. Diggs, V. Fesquet, B. Neichel, W. Rambold, F. Rigaut, A. Serio, C. Araya, G. Arriagada, R. Balladares, M. Bec, M. Boccas, C. Duran, A. Ebbers, A. Lopez, C. Marchant, E. Marin, V. Montes, C. Moreno, E. Petit Vega, C. Segura, G. Trancho, C. Trujillo, C. Urrutia, P. Veliz, T. Vucina, “Gemini South multi-conjugate adaptive optics (GeMS) laser guide star facility on-sky performance results,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84471Q (2012).
[CrossRef]

Pueyo, L.

Rambold, W.

C. d’Orgeville, S. Diggs, V. Fesquet, B. Neichel, W. Rambold, F. Rigaut, A. Serio, C. Araya, G. Arriagada, R. Balladares, M. Bec, M. Boccas, C. Duran, A. Ebbers, A. Lopez, C. Marchant, E. Marin, V. Montes, C. Moreno, E. Petit Vega, C. Segura, G. Trancho, C. Trujillo, C. Urrutia, P. Veliz, T. Vucina, “Gemini South multi-conjugate adaptive optics (GeMS) laser guide star facility on-sky performance results,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84471Q (2012).
[CrossRef]

V. Fesquet, C. Araujo, V. Garrel, A. Serio, F. Vidal, G. Arriagada, M. Boccas, F. Collao, S. Diggs, J. Donahue, C. D’Orgeville, G. Gausachs, C. Marchant, V. Montes, C. Moreno, B. Neichel, R. Oram, P. Pessev, W. Rambold, C. Urrutia, T. Vucina, “Review of Gemini South Laser Guide Star Facility performance and upgrades,” in Proceedings of the Third AO4ELT Conference, S. Esposito, L. Fini, eds. (INAF - Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Firenze, Italy, 2013), 16120.

Rambold, W. N.

F. Rigaut, B. Neichel, M. Boccas, C. d’Orgeville, F. Vidal, M. A. van Dam, G. Arriagada, V. Fesquet, R. L. Galvez, G. Gausachs, C. Cavedoni, A. W. Ebbers, S. Karewicz, E. James, J. Lührs, V. Montes, G. Perez, W. N. Rambold, R. Rojas, S. Walker, M. Bec, G. Trancho, M. Sheehan, B. Irarrazaval, C. Boyer, B. L. Ellerbroek, R. Flicker, D. Gratadour, A. Garcia-Rissmann, F. Daruich, “Gemini multiconjugate adaptive optics system review - I. Design, trade-offs and integration,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 437, 2361–2375 (2014).
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B. Neichel, F. Rigaut, F. Vidal, M. A. van Dam, V. Garrel, E. Rodrigo Carrasco, P. Pessev, C. Winge, M. Boccas, C. d’Orgeville, G. Arriagada, A. Serio, V. Fesquet, W. N. Rambold, J. Lührs, C. Moreno, G. Gausachs, R. L. Galvez, V. Montes, T. B. Vucina, E. Marin, C. Urrutia, A. Lopez, S. J. Diggs, C. Marchant, A. W. Ebbers, C. Trujillo, M. Bec, G. Trancho, P. McGregor, P. J. Young, F. Colazo, M. L. Edwards, “Gemini multi-conjugate adaptive optics system review II: Commissioning, operation and overall performance,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., in press (2014).
[CrossRef]

Redel, D.

A. P. Norton, D. Gavel, M. Helmbrecht, C. J. Kempf, E. L. Gates, K. Chloros, D. Redel, D. Dillon, “Laser guidestar uplink correction using a MEMS deformable mirror: on-sky test results and implications for future AO systems,” accepted for Proc. SPIE (2014).

Reinig, M.

D. Gavel, M. Ammons, B. Bauman, D. Dillon, E. Gates, B. Grigsby, J. Johnson, C. Lockwood, K. Morzinski, D. Palmer, M. Reinig, S. Severson, “Visible light laser guidestar experimental system (Villages): on-sky tests of new technologies for visible wavelength all-sky coverage adaptive optics systems,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70150G (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rhodes, P. W.

Rigaut, F.

F. Rigaut, B. Neichel, M. Boccas, C. d’Orgeville, F. Vidal, M. A. van Dam, G. Arriagada, V. Fesquet, R. L. Galvez, G. Gausachs, C. Cavedoni, A. W. Ebbers, S. Karewicz, E. James, J. Lührs, V. Montes, G. Perez, W. N. Rambold, R. Rojas, S. Walker, M. Bec, G. Trancho, M. Sheehan, B. Irarrazaval, C. Boyer, B. L. Ellerbroek, R. Flicker, D. Gratadour, A. Garcia-Rissmann, F. Daruich, “Gemini multiconjugate adaptive optics system review - I. Design, trade-offs and integration,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 437, 2361–2375 (2014).
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C. d’Orgeville, S. Diggs, V. Fesquet, B. Neichel, W. Rambold, F. Rigaut, A. Serio, C. Araya, G. Arriagada, R. Balladares, M. Bec, M. Boccas, C. Duran, A. Ebbers, A. Lopez, C. Marchant, E. Marin, V. Montes, C. Moreno, E. Petit Vega, C. Segura, G. Trancho, C. Trujillo, C. Urrutia, P. Veliz, T. Vucina, “Gemini South multi-conjugate adaptive optics (GeMS) laser guide star facility on-sky performance results,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84471Q (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Guesalaga, B. Neichel, M. Boccas, C. d’Orgeville, F. Rigaut, D. Guzman, J. Anguita, “Improving stability, robustness, and performance of laser systems,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84474M (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. d’Orgeville, F. Daruich, G. Arriagada, M. Bec, M. Boccas, S. Bombino, C. Carter, C. Cavedoni, F. Collao, P. Collins, E. James, S. Karewicz, M. Lazo, D. Maltes, R. Mouser, G. Perez, F. Rigaut, R. Rojas, M. Sheehan, G. Trancho, V. Vergara, T. Vucina, “The Gemini South MCAO laser guide star facility: getting ready for first light,” Proc. SPIE 7015, 70152P (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Neichel, F. Rigaut, F. Vidal, M. A. van Dam, V. Garrel, E. Rodrigo Carrasco, P. Pessev, C. Winge, M. Boccas, C. d’Orgeville, G. Arriagada, A. Serio, V. Fesquet, W. N. Rambold, J. Lührs, C. Moreno, G. Gausachs, R. L. Galvez, V. Montes, T. B. Vucina, E. Marin, C. Urrutia, A. Lopez, S. J. Diggs, C. Marchant, A. W. Ebbers, C. Trujillo, M. Bec, G. Trancho, P. McGregor, P. J. Young, F. Colazo, M. L. Edwards, “Gemini multi-conjugate adaptive optics system review II: Commissioning, operation and overall performance,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., in press (2014).
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Roddier, F.

F. Roddier, Adaptive Optics in Astronomy (Cambridge University, 1999).
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Rodrigo Carrasco, E.

B. Neichel, F. Rigaut, F. Vidal, M. A. van Dam, V. Garrel, E. Rodrigo Carrasco, P. Pessev, C. Winge, M. Boccas, C. d’Orgeville, G. Arriagada, A. Serio, V. Fesquet, W. N. Rambold, J. Lührs, C. Moreno, G. Gausachs, R. L. Galvez, V. Montes, T. B. Vucina, E. Marin, C. Urrutia, A. Lopez, S. J. Diggs, C. Marchant, A. W. Ebbers, C. Trujillo, M. Bec, G. Trancho, P. McGregor, P. J. Young, F. Colazo, M. L. Edwards, “Gemini multi-conjugate adaptive optics system review II: Commissioning, operation and overall performance,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., in press (2014).
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F. Rigaut, B. Neichel, M. Boccas, C. d’Orgeville, F. Vidal, M. A. van Dam, G. Arriagada, V. Fesquet, R. L. Galvez, G. Gausachs, C. Cavedoni, A. W. Ebbers, S. Karewicz, E. James, J. Lührs, V. Montes, G. Perez, W. N. Rambold, R. Rojas, S. Walker, M. Bec, G. Trancho, M. Sheehan, B. Irarrazaval, C. Boyer, B. L. Ellerbroek, R. Flicker, D. Gratadour, A. Garcia-Rissmann, F. Daruich, “Gemini multiconjugate adaptive optics system review - I. Design, trade-offs and integration,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 437, 2361–2375 (2014).
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A. Guesalaga, B. Neichel, M. Boccas, C. d’Orgeville, F. Rigaut, D. Guzman, J. Anguita, “Improving stability, robustness, and performance of laser systems,” Proc. SPIE 8447, 84474M (2012).
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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Average irradiance map over 20 frames obtained from a 37 × 37 Shack-Hartmann sensor located at the output of the laser, during a run in April 2013 (top) and a run in October 2013 (bottom). Left: Irradiance map, with orthogonal lines of cuts through the maximum. Right: Cuts along x (dashed) and y-axis (solid) of the irradiance map above. The dotted horizontal line marks the half of the maximum.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematics of 2-DM correcting systems. (a): Mono-static system with DM2 in the far-field of DM1 [20]. The FTM box represents a Fourier transforming mirror. (b): 2-DM correcting system in the near-field proposed in this paper. DM1 is located in the near field of DM2, at a distance z. The configuration is named bistatic for having different receiving and projecting apertures.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Amplitudes of the output field at DM2, without correction ((a) and (b)) and with correction ((c) and (d)). Graphics (a) and (c) represent the 2D amplitude over the 1 cm aperture of DM2. Corresponding central cuts along x and y axis are presented as solid curves on the associated graphics on the right, (b) without correction and (d) with correction. The dotted curve in (b) stands for the Gaussian desired output amplitude. In (b) and (d), the vertical dashed lines stand for the diameter of DM2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Estimated phase of the output field after DM2 with correction. Graphics (a) represents the 2D phase as estimated over the 1 cm aperture of DM2. The central cuts along x and y axis are shown with solid curves in (b). The dotted curve in (b) stands for the cuts of the desired output phase (defocus), which coincides with the achieved output in areas of non-negligible amplitude (see (d) in Fig. 3). The vertical dashed lines in (b) delimit diameter of DM2.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Convergence of the criteria ε ampl 2 (solid) and S (dashed) defined in Eqs. (16) and (17). The iteration counter in abscissae is presented in logarithmic scale from 1 to 400.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Phase corrections ϕ1 (left) and ϕ2 (right) to be applied to DM1 and DM2 respectively, after 400 iterations.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Central cut along y for the final wrapped (dotted curve) and unwrapped (solid curve) ϕ1 estimate shown in Fig. 6. The horizontal dots represent the ] − π;π] interval of the wrapped phase estimation. The vertical dashed lines stand for the diameter of DM2.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Impact of the separation distance between the DMs on the M2 factor of the output laser beam after 400 iterations. Solid line: M x 2. Dashed line : M y 2. M x 2 and M y 2 of the input laser beam are represented by the horizontal dotted lines ( M x 2: top; M y 2: bottom).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Left: Evolution of ε ampl 2 along with the iterations, for various DMs separations z = 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4 and 5 meters. The slowest convergence is for z = 1 m. Right: Central cut along y of the final ϕ1 deformation to be applied for the same DMs separations z = 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4 and 5 meters. The largest phase amplitude is required for z = 1 m and the smallest for z = 5 m.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

ε ampl 2 after 400 iterations as a function of the separation z between DMs, and for different number of samples n across the pupil diameter. Amplitude distortions of input are taken from available measurements on GeMS laser in April 2013 (left) and October 2013 (right). No phase distortions are assumed at input.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Same as in Fig. 10 but the error is presented as an absolute value, not relatively to ε ampl 2 ( 0 ). The dashed lines represent ε ampl 2 ( 0 ) as a function of z.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Equivalent increase of photons corresponding to the laser spot size reduction when launching (i) a Gaussian beam, (ii) the beam corrected with 17 × 17 devices separated by 80 cm and (iii) the beam corrected with 11 × 11 devices separated by 1.4 m. The reference laser spot size is the one produced by the laser aberrations measured at GeMS: Left: aberrations of April 2013. Right: aberrations of October 2013.

Equations (17)

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σ meas θ image N ph ,
M x 2 = π D x θ x 4 3 λ
U l ( x ) = u l ( x ) exp ( j ϕ l ( x ) ) ,
U 1 ( x ) = U l ( x ) m 1 ( x ) exp ( j ϕ 1 ( x ) ) ,
U z ( x ) = T z [ U 1 ( x ) ] = 1 [ ( U 1 ) exp ( j π λ z | f x | 2 ) exp ( j 2 π z / λ ) ] ,
U 2 ( x ) = U z ( x ) m 2 ( x ) exp ( j ϕ 2 ( x ) ) ,
U t ( x ) = u t ( x ) exp ( j ϕ t ( x ) ) ,
U z ( x ) = T z { u l ( x ) m 1 ( x ) exp [ j ( ϕ l ( x ) + ϕ 1 ( x ) ) ] } .
ϕ 2 ( x ) = arg [ U t * ( x ) U z ( x ) m 2 ( x ) ] .
α = E 2 E t = | U z ( x ) m 2 ( x ) | 2 d x | U t ( x ) m 2 ( x ) | 2 d x .
U z ( x ) = α U t ( x ) m 2 ( x ) exp ( j ϕ 2 ( x ) ) ,
U 1 ( x ) = T z [ U z ( x ) ] = T z * [ U z * ( x ) ] .
ϕ 1 ( x ) = arg [ U l * ( x ) m 1 ( x ) U 1 ( x ) ] .
( G T W g G + μ C T C ) ϕ ^ = G T W g 𝒫 𝒱 [ G ϕ ] ,
W g x ( i , j ) = log ( u ( x i + 1 , y j ) u ( x i , y j ) + ε ) log ( ε )
ε ampl 2 ( i ) = [ | U t ( x ) | | U 2 ( i ) ( x ) | ] 2 d x [ | U t ( x ) | | U 2 ( 0 ) ( x ) | ] 2 d x
S ( i ) = | U t * ( x ) U 2 ( i ) ( x ) d x | 2 | U t ( x ) U t * ( x ) d x | | U 2 ( i ) ( x ) U 2 ( i ) * ( x ) d x | ,

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