Abstract

We report a miniaturized probe-based combined two-photon microscopy (TPM) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) system. This system is to study the colorectal cancer in mouse models by visualizing both cellular and structural information of the colon in 3D with TPM and OCT respectively. The probe consisted of gradient index (GRIN) lenses and a 90° reflecting prism at its distal end for side-viewing, and it was added onto an objective lens-based TPM and OCT system. The probe was 2.2 mm in diameter and 60 mm in length. TPM imaging was performed by raster scanning of the excitation focus at the imaging speed of 15.4 frames/s. OCT imaging was performed by combining the linear sample translation and probe rotation along its axis. This miniaturized probe based dual-modal system was characterized with tissue phantoms containing fluorescent microspheres, and applied to image mouse colonic tissues ex vivo as a demonstration. As OCT and TPM provided structural and cellular information of the tissues respectively, this probe based multi-modal imaging system can be helpful for in vivo studies of preclinical animal models such as mouse colonic tumorigenesis.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2013 (4)

I. S. Ryu, S. H. Choi, H. Kim, M. W. Han, J. L. Roh, S. Y. Kim, S. Y. Nam, “Detection of the primary lesion in patients with cervical metastases from unknown primary tumors with narrow band imaging endoscopy: preliminary report,” Head Neck 35(1), 10–14 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. Zavaleta, E. Garai, J. T. C. Liu, S. Sensarn, M. J. Mandella, D. Van de Sompel, S. Friedland, J. Van Dam, C. H. Contag, S. S. Gambhir, “A Raman-based endoscopic strategy for multiplexed molecular imaging,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(25), E2288–E2297 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Dobbs, H. Ding, A. P. Benveniste, H. M. Kuerer, S. Krishnamurthy, W. Yang, R. Richards-Kortum, “Feasibility of confocal fluorescence microscopy for real-time evaluation of neoplasia in fresh human breast tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(10), 106016 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. N. Papadopoulos, S. Farahi, C. Moser, D. Psaltis, “High-resolution, lensless endoscope based on digital scanning through a multimode optical fiber,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(2), 260–270 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (8)

N. Iftimia, A. K. Iyer, D. X. Hammer, N. Lue, M. Mujat, M. Pitman, R. D. Ferguson, M. Amiji, “Fluorescence-guided optical coherence tomography imaging for colon cancer screening: a preliminary mouse study,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(1), 178–191 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. D. Saunter, S. Semprini, C. Buckley, J. Mullins, J. M. Girkin, “Micro-endoscope for in vivo widefield high spatial resolution fluorescent imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(6), 1274–1278 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Wang, N. Ji, “Pupil-segmentation-based adaptive optical correction of a high-numerical-aperture gradient refractive index lens for two-photon fluorescence endoscopy,” Opt. Lett. 37(11), 2001–2003 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Mavadia, J. Xi, Y. Chen, X. Li, “An all-fiber-optic endoscopy platform for simultaneous OCT and fluorescence imaging,” Biomed. Opt. Express 3(11), 2851–2859 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Makino, M. Jain, D. C. Montrose, A. Aggarwal, J. Sterling, B. P. Bosworth, J. W. Milsom, B. D. Robinson, M. M. Shevchuk, K. Kawaguchi, N. Zhang, C. M. Brown, D. R. Rivera, W. O. Williams, C. Xu, A. J. Dannenberg, S. Mukherjee, “Multiphoton tomographic imaging: a potential optical biopsy tool for detecting gastrointestinal inflammation and neoplasia,” Cancer Prev. Res. 5(11), 1280–1290 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. K. Kim, W. M. Lee, P. Kim, M. Choi, K. Jung, S. Kim, S. H. Yun, “Fabrication and operation of GRIN probes for in vivo fluorescence cellular imaging of internal organs in small animals,” Nat. Protoc. 7(8), 1456–1469 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Miller, C. M. Lee, B. P. Joshi, A. Gaustad, E. J. Seibel, T. D. Wang, “Targeted detection of murine colonic dysplasia in vivo with flexible multispectral scanning fiber endoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(2), 021103 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. F. Pasha, J. A. Leighton, A. Das, M. E. Harrison, S. R. Gurudu, F. C. Ramirez, D. E. Fleischer, V. K. Sharma, “Comparison of the yield and miss rate of narrow band imaging and white light endoscopy in patients undergoing screening or surveillance colonoscopy: a meta-analysis,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 107(3), 363–371 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (6)

J. L. Matloff, W. Abidi, R. Richards-Kortum, J. Sauk, S. Anandasabapathy, “High-resolution and optical molecular imaging for the early detection of colonic neoplasia,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 73(6), 1263–1273 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Winkler, P. F. Rice, J. Weichsel, J. M. Watson, M. V. Backer, J. M. Backer, J. K. Barton, “In vivo, dual-modality OCT/LIF imaging using a novel VEGF receptor-targeted NIR fluorescent probe in the AOM-treated mouse model,” Mol. Imaging Biol. 13(6), 1173–1182 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. E. Grosberg, A. J. Radosevich, S. Asfaha, T. C. Wang, E. M. Hillman, “Spectral characterization and unmixing of intrinsic contrast in intact normal and diseased gastric tissues using hyperspectral two-photon microscopy,” PLoS ONE 6(5), e19925 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zhuo, J. Yan, G. Chen, J. Chen, Y. Liu, J. Lu, X. Zhu, X. Jiang, S. Xie, “Label-free monitoring of colonic cancer progression using multiphoton microscopy,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2(3), 615–619 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Jeong, B. Lee, M. S. Jang, H. Nam, S. J. Yoon, T. Wang, J. Doh, B. G. Yang, M. H. Jang, K. H. Kim, “Combined two-photon microscopy and optical coherence tomography using individually optimized sources,” Opt. Express 19(14), 13089–13096 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Tang, Y. Zhou, K. K. Chan, T. Lai, “Multiscale multimodal imaging with multiphoton microscopy and optical coherence tomography,” Opt. Lett. 36(24), 4800–4802 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

L. P. Hariri, E. R. Liebmann, S. L. Marion, P. B. Hoyer, J. R. Davis, M. A. Brewer, J. K. Barton, “Simultaneous optical coherence tomography and laser induced fluorescence imaging in rat model of ovarian carcinogenesis,” Cancer Biol. Ther. 10(5), 438–447 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Kim, E. Chung, H. Yamashita, K. E. Hung, A. Mizoguchi, R. Kucherlapati, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, S. H. Yun, “In vivo wide-area cellular imaging by side-view endomicroscopy,” Nat. Methods 7(4), 303–305 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Lee, C. J. Engelbrecht, T. D. Soper, F. Helmchen, E. J. Seibel, “Scanning fiber endoscopy with highly flexible, 1 mm catheterscopes for wide-field, full-color imaging,” J. Biophoton. 3(5–6), 385–407 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

G. A. Sonn, S. N. Jones, T. V. Tarin, C. B. Du, K. E. Mach, K. C. Jensen, J. C. Liao, “Optical biopsy of human bladder neoplasia with in vivo confocal laser endomicroscopy,” J. Urol. 182(4), 1299–1305 (2009).
[PubMed]

Y. Wu, Y. Leng, J. Xi, X. Li, “Scanning all-fiber-optic endomicroscopy system for 3D nonlinear optical imaging of biological tissues,” Opt. Express 17(10), 7907–7915 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

2006 (2)

C. Becker, M. C. Fantini, M. F. Neurath, “High resolution colonoscopy in live mice,” Nat. Protoc. 1(6), 2900–2904 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Kara, F. P. Peters, P. Fockens, F. J. ten Kate, J. J. Bergman, “Endoscopic video-autofluorescence imaging followed by narrow band imaging for detecting early neoplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 64(2), 176–185 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (3)

C. Becker, M. C. Fantini, S. Wirtz, A. Nikolaev, R. Kiesslich, H. A. Lehr, P. R. Galle, M. F. Neurath, “In vivo imaging of colitis and colon cancer development in mice using high resolution chromoendoscopy,” Gut 54(7), 950–954 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Suzuki, H. Kohno, S. Sugie, T. Tanaka, “Dose-dependent promoting effect of dextran sodium sulfate on mouse colon carcinogenesis initiated with azoxymethane,” Histol. Histopathol. 20(2), 483–492 (2005).
[PubMed]

L. Fu, X. S. Gan, M. Gu, “Characterization of gradient-index lens-fiber spacing toward applications in two-photon fluorescence endoscopy,” Appl. Opt. 44(34), 7270–7274 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

A. R. Tumlinson, L. P. Hariri, U. Utzinger, J. K. Barton, “Miniature endoscope for simultaneous optical coherence tomography and laser-induced fluorescence measurement,” Appl. Opt. 43(1), 113–121 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Jung, A. D. Mehta, E. Aksay, R. Stepnoski, M. J. Schnitzer, “In vivo mammalian brain Imaging using one- and two-photon fluorescence microendoscopy,” J. Neurophysiol. 92(5), 3121–3133 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography for ultrahigh resolution in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21(11), 1361–1367 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Jung, M. J. Schnitzer, “Multiphoton endoscopy,” Opt. Lett. 28(11), 902–904 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

1975 (1)

S. Kozuka, “Premalignancy of the mucosal polyp in the large intestine: I. Histologic gradation of the polyp on the basis of epithelial pseudostratification and glandular branching,” Dis. Colon Rectum 18(6), 483–493 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Abidi, W.

J. L. Matloff, W. Abidi, R. Richards-Kortum, J. Sauk, S. Anandasabapathy, “High-resolution and optical molecular imaging for the early detection of colonic neoplasia,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 73(6), 1263–1273 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aggarwal, A.

T. Makino, M. Jain, D. C. Montrose, A. Aggarwal, J. Sterling, B. P. Bosworth, J. W. Milsom, B. D. Robinson, M. M. Shevchuk, K. Kawaguchi, N. Zhang, C. M. Brown, D. R. Rivera, W. O. Williams, C. Xu, A. J. Dannenberg, S. Mukherjee, “Multiphoton tomographic imaging: a potential optical biopsy tool for detecting gastrointestinal inflammation and neoplasia,” Cancer Prev. Res. 5(11), 1280–1290 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aksay, E.

J. C. Jung, A. D. Mehta, E. Aksay, R. Stepnoski, M. J. Schnitzer, “In vivo mammalian brain Imaging using one- and two-photon fluorescence microendoscopy,” J. Neurophysiol. 92(5), 3121–3133 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Allen, J.

Amiji, M.

Anandasabapathy, S.

J. L. Matloff, W. Abidi, R. Richards-Kortum, J. Sauk, S. Anandasabapathy, “High-resolution and optical molecular imaging for the early detection of colonic neoplasia,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 73(6), 1263–1273 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Asfaha, S.

L. E. Grosberg, A. J. Radosevich, S. Asfaha, T. C. Wang, E. M. Hillman, “Spectral characterization and unmixing of intrinsic contrast in intact normal and diseased gastric tissues using hyperspectral two-photon microscopy,” PLoS ONE 6(5), e19925 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Backer, J. M.

A. M. Winkler, P. F. Rice, J. Weichsel, J. M. Watson, M. V. Backer, J. M. Backer, J. K. Barton, “In vivo, dual-modality OCT/LIF imaging using a novel VEGF receptor-targeted NIR fluorescent probe in the AOM-treated mouse model,” Mol. Imaging Biol. 13(6), 1173–1182 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Backer, M. V.

A. M. Winkler, P. F. Rice, J. Weichsel, J. M. Watson, M. V. Backer, J. M. Backer, J. K. Barton, “In vivo, dual-modality OCT/LIF imaging using a novel VEGF receptor-targeted NIR fluorescent probe in the AOM-treated mouse model,” Mol. Imaging Biol. 13(6), 1173–1182 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bao, H. C.

Barton, J. K.

A. M. Winkler, P. F. Rice, J. Weichsel, J. M. Watson, M. V. Backer, J. M. Backer, J. K. Barton, “In vivo, dual-modality OCT/LIF imaging using a novel VEGF receptor-targeted NIR fluorescent probe in the AOM-treated mouse model,” Mol. Imaging Biol. 13(6), 1173–1182 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. P. Hariri, E. R. Liebmann, S. L. Marion, P. B. Hoyer, J. R. Davis, M. A. Brewer, J. K. Barton, “Simultaneous optical coherence tomography and laser induced fluorescence imaging in rat model of ovarian carcinogenesis,” Cancer Biol. Ther. 10(5), 438–447 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. R. Tumlinson, L. P. Hariri, U. Utzinger, J. K. Barton, “Miniature endoscope for simultaneous optical coherence tomography and laser-induced fluorescence measurement,” Appl. Opt. 43(1), 113–121 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Becker, C.

C. Becker, M. C. Fantini, M. F. Neurath, “High resolution colonoscopy in live mice,” Nat. Protoc. 1(6), 2900–2904 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Becker, M. C. Fantini, S. Wirtz, A. Nikolaev, R. Kiesslich, H. A. Lehr, P. R. Galle, M. F. Neurath, “In vivo imaging of colitis and colon cancer development in mice using high resolution chromoendoscopy,” Gut 54(7), 950–954 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benveniste, A. P.

J. L. Dobbs, H. Ding, A. P. Benveniste, H. M. Kuerer, S. Krishnamurthy, W. Yang, R. Richards-Kortum, “Feasibility of confocal fluorescence microscopy for real-time evaluation of neoplasia in fresh human breast tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(10), 106016 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bergman, J. J.

M. A. Kara, F. P. Peters, P. Fockens, F. J. ten Kate, J. J. Bergman, “Endoscopic video-autofluorescence imaging followed by narrow band imaging for detecting early neoplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 64(2), 176–185 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bosworth, B. P.

T. Makino, M. Jain, D. C. Montrose, A. Aggarwal, J. Sterling, B. P. Bosworth, J. W. Milsom, B. D. Robinson, M. M. Shevchuk, K. Kawaguchi, N. Zhang, C. M. Brown, D. R. Rivera, W. O. Williams, C. Xu, A. J. Dannenberg, S. Mukherjee, “Multiphoton tomographic imaging: a potential optical biopsy tool for detecting gastrointestinal inflammation and neoplasia,” Cancer Prev. Res. 5(11), 1280–1290 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brewer, M. A.

L. P. Hariri, E. R. Liebmann, S. L. Marion, P. B. Hoyer, J. R. Davis, M. A. Brewer, J. K. Barton, “Simultaneous optical coherence tomography and laser induced fluorescence imaging in rat model of ovarian carcinogenesis,” Cancer Biol. Ther. 10(5), 438–447 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, C. M.

T. Makino, M. Jain, D. C. Montrose, A. Aggarwal, J. Sterling, B. P. Bosworth, J. W. Milsom, B. D. Robinson, M. M. Shevchuk, K. Kawaguchi, N. Zhang, C. M. Brown, D. R. Rivera, W. O. Williams, C. Xu, A. J. Dannenberg, S. Mukherjee, “Multiphoton tomographic imaging: a potential optical biopsy tool for detecting gastrointestinal inflammation and neoplasia,” Cancer Prev. Res. 5(11), 1280–1290 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buckley, C.

Chan, K. K.

Chen, G.

Chen, J.

Chen, Y.

Choi, M.

J. K. Kim, W. M. Lee, P. Kim, M. Choi, K. Jung, S. Kim, S. H. Yun, “Fabrication and operation of GRIN probes for in vivo fluorescence cellular imaging of internal organs in small animals,” Nat. Protoc. 7(8), 1456–1469 (2012).
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P. Kim, E. Chung, H. Yamashita, K. E. Hung, A. Mizoguchi, R. Kucherlapati, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, S. H. Yun, “In vivo wide-area cellular imaging by side-view endomicroscopy,” Nat. Methods 7(4), 303–305 (2010).
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C. L. Zavaleta, E. Garai, J. T. C. Liu, S. Sensarn, M. J. Mandella, D. Van de Sompel, S. Friedland, J. Van Dam, C. H. Contag, S. S. Gambhir, “A Raman-based endoscopic strategy for multiplexed molecular imaging,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(25), E2288–E2297 (2013).
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P. Kim, M. Puoris’haag, D. Côté, C. P. Lin, S. H. Yun, “In vivo confocal and multiphoton microendoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(1), 010501 (2008).
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T. Makino, M. Jain, D. C. Montrose, A. Aggarwal, J. Sterling, B. P. Bosworth, J. W. Milsom, B. D. Robinson, M. M. Shevchuk, K. Kawaguchi, N. Zhang, C. M. Brown, D. R. Rivera, W. O. Williams, C. Xu, A. J. Dannenberg, S. Mukherjee, “Multiphoton tomographic imaging: a potential optical biopsy tool for detecting gastrointestinal inflammation and neoplasia,” Cancer Prev. Res. 5(11), 1280–1290 (2012).
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S. F. Pasha, J. A. Leighton, A. Das, M. E. Harrison, S. R. Gurudu, F. C. Ramirez, D. E. Fleischer, V. K. Sharma, “Comparison of the yield and miss rate of narrow band imaging and white light endoscopy in patients undergoing screening or surveillance colonoscopy: a meta-analysis,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 107(3), 363–371 (2012).
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L. P. Hariri, E. R. Liebmann, S. L. Marion, P. B. Hoyer, J. R. Davis, M. A. Brewer, J. K. Barton, “Simultaneous optical coherence tomography and laser induced fluorescence imaging in rat model of ovarian carcinogenesis,” Cancer Biol. Ther. 10(5), 438–447 (2010).
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J. L. Dobbs, H. Ding, A. P. Benveniste, H. M. Kuerer, S. Krishnamurthy, W. Yang, R. Richards-Kortum, “Feasibility of confocal fluorescence microscopy for real-time evaluation of neoplasia in fresh human breast tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(10), 106016 (2013).
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J. L. Dobbs, H. Ding, A. P. Benveniste, H. M. Kuerer, S. Krishnamurthy, W. Yang, R. Richards-Kortum, “Feasibility of confocal fluorescence microscopy for real-time evaluation of neoplasia in fresh human breast tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(10), 106016 (2013).
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C. Becker, M. C. Fantini, S. Wirtz, A. Nikolaev, R. Kiesslich, H. A. Lehr, P. R. Galle, M. F. Neurath, “In vivo imaging of colitis and colon cancer development in mice using high resolution chromoendoscopy,” Gut 54(7), 950–954 (2005).
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C. L. Zavaleta, E. Garai, J. T. C. Liu, S. Sensarn, M. J. Mandella, D. Van de Sompel, S. Friedland, J. Van Dam, C. H. Contag, S. S. Gambhir, “A Raman-based endoscopic strategy for multiplexed molecular imaging,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(25), E2288–E2297 (2013).
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C. L. Zavaleta, E. Garai, J. T. C. Liu, S. Sensarn, M. J. Mandella, D. Van de Sompel, S. Friedland, J. Van Dam, C. H. Contag, S. S. Gambhir, “A Raman-based endoscopic strategy for multiplexed molecular imaging,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(25), E2288–E2297 (2013).
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L. P. Hariri, E. R. Liebmann, S. L. Marion, P. B. Hoyer, J. R. Davis, M. A. Brewer, J. K. Barton, “Simultaneous optical coherence tomography and laser induced fluorescence imaging in rat model of ovarian carcinogenesis,” Cancer Biol. Ther. 10(5), 438–447 (2010).
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C. M. Lee, C. J. Engelbrecht, T. D. Soper, F. Helmchen, E. J. Seibel, “Scanning fiber endoscopy with highly flexible, 1 mm catheterscopes for wide-field, full-color imaging,” J. Biophoton. 3(5–6), 385–407 (2010).
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L. P. Hariri, E. R. Liebmann, S. L. Marion, P. B. Hoyer, J. R. Davis, M. A. Brewer, J. K. Barton, “Simultaneous optical coherence tomography and laser induced fluorescence imaging in rat model of ovarian carcinogenesis,” Cancer Biol. Ther. 10(5), 438–447 (2010).
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P. Kim, E. Chung, H. Yamashita, K. E. Hung, A. Mizoguchi, R. Kucherlapati, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, S. H. Yun, “In vivo wide-area cellular imaging by side-view endomicroscopy,” Nat. Methods 7(4), 303–305 (2010).
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Jang, M. S.

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G. A. Sonn, S. N. Jones, T. V. Tarin, C. B. Du, K. E. Mach, K. C. Jensen, J. C. Liao, “Optical biopsy of human bladder neoplasia with in vivo confocal laser endomicroscopy,” J. Urol. 182(4), 1299–1305 (2009).
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Ji, N.

Jiang, X.

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G. A. Sonn, S. N. Jones, T. V. Tarin, C. B. Du, K. E. Mach, K. C. Jensen, J. C. Liao, “Optical biopsy of human bladder neoplasia with in vivo confocal laser endomicroscopy,” J. Urol. 182(4), 1299–1305 (2009).
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S. J. Miller, C. M. Lee, B. P. Joshi, A. Gaustad, E. J. Seibel, T. D. Wang, “Targeted detection of murine colonic dysplasia in vivo with flexible multispectral scanning fiber endoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(2), 021103 (2012).
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J. C. Jung, A. D. Mehta, E. Aksay, R. Stepnoski, M. J. Schnitzer, “In vivo mammalian brain Imaging using one- and two-photon fluorescence microendoscopy,” J. Neurophysiol. 92(5), 3121–3133 (2004).
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M. A. Kara, F. P. Peters, P. Fockens, F. J. ten Kate, J. J. Bergman, “Endoscopic video-autofluorescence imaging followed by narrow band imaging for detecting early neoplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 64(2), 176–185 (2006).
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I. S. Ryu, S. H. Choi, H. Kim, M. W. Han, J. L. Roh, S. Y. Kim, S. Y. Nam, “Detection of the primary lesion in patients with cervical metastases from unknown primary tumors with narrow band imaging endoscopy: preliminary report,” Head Neck 35(1), 10–14 (2013).
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J. K. Kim, W. M. Lee, P. Kim, M. Choi, K. Jung, S. Kim, S. H. Yun, “Fabrication and operation of GRIN probes for in vivo fluorescence cellular imaging of internal organs in small animals,” Nat. Protoc. 7(8), 1456–1469 (2012).
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Kim, P.

J. K. Kim, W. M. Lee, P. Kim, M. Choi, K. Jung, S. Kim, S. H. Yun, “Fabrication and operation of GRIN probes for in vivo fluorescence cellular imaging of internal organs in small animals,” Nat. Protoc. 7(8), 1456–1469 (2012).
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P. Kim, E. Chung, H. Yamashita, K. E. Hung, A. Mizoguchi, R. Kucherlapati, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, S. H. Yun, “In vivo wide-area cellular imaging by side-view endomicroscopy,” Nat. Methods 7(4), 303–305 (2010).
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J. K. Kim, W. M. Lee, P. Kim, M. Choi, K. Jung, S. Kim, S. H. Yun, “Fabrication and operation of GRIN probes for in vivo fluorescence cellular imaging of internal organs in small animals,” Nat. Protoc. 7(8), 1456–1469 (2012).
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P. Kim, E. Chung, H. Yamashita, K. E. Hung, A. Mizoguchi, R. Kucherlapati, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, S. H. Yun, “In vivo wide-area cellular imaging by side-view endomicroscopy,” Nat. Methods 7(4), 303–305 (2010).
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J. L. Dobbs, H. Ding, A. P. Benveniste, H. M. Kuerer, S. Krishnamurthy, W. Yang, R. Richards-Kortum, “Feasibility of confocal fluorescence microscopy for real-time evaluation of neoplasia in fresh human breast tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(10), 106016 (2013).
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S. J. Miller, C. M. Lee, B. P. Joshi, A. Gaustad, E. J. Seibel, T. D. Wang, “Targeted detection of murine colonic dysplasia in vivo with flexible multispectral scanning fiber endoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(2), 021103 (2012).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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J. K. Kim, W. M. Lee, P. Kim, M. Choi, K. Jung, S. Kim, S. H. Yun, “Fabrication and operation of GRIN probes for in vivo fluorescence cellular imaging of internal organs in small animals,” Nat. Protoc. 7(8), 1456–1469 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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C. Becker, M. C. Fantini, S. Wirtz, A. Nikolaev, R. Kiesslich, H. A. Lehr, P. R. Galle, M. F. Neurath, “In vivo imaging of colitis and colon cancer development in mice using high resolution chromoendoscopy,” Gut 54(7), 950–954 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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S. F. Pasha, J. A. Leighton, A. Das, M. E. Harrison, S. R. Gurudu, F. C. Ramirez, D. E. Fleischer, V. K. Sharma, “Comparison of the yield and miss rate of narrow band imaging and white light endoscopy in patients undergoing screening or surveillance colonoscopy: a meta-analysis,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 107(3), 363–371 (2012).
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Li, X.

Liao, J. C.

G. A. Sonn, S. N. Jones, T. V. Tarin, C. B. Du, K. E. Mach, K. C. Jensen, J. C. Liao, “Optical biopsy of human bladder neoplasia with in vivo confocal laser endomicroscopy,” J. Urol. 182(4), 1299–1305 (2009).
[PubMed]

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L. P. Hariri, E. R. Liebmann, S. L. Marion, P. B. Hoyer, J. R. Davis, M. A. Brewer, J. K. Barton, “Simultaneous optical coherence tomography and laser induced fluorescence imaging in rat model of ovarian carcinogenesis,” Cancer Biol. Ther. 10(5), 438–447 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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P. Kim, M. Puoris’haag, D. Côté, C. P. Lin, S. H. Yun, “In vivo confocal and multiphoton microendoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(1), 010501 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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C. L. Zavaleta, E. Garai, J. T. C. Liu, S. Sensarn, M. J. Mandella, D. Van de Sompel, S. Friedland, J. Van Dam, C. H. Contag, S. S. Gambhir, “A Raman-based endoscopic strategy for multiplexed molecular imaging,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(25), E2288–E2297 (2013).
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L. P. Hariri, E. R. Liebmann, S. L. Marion, P. B. Hoyer, J. R. Davis, M. A. Brewer, J. K. Barton, “Simultaneous optical coherence tomography and laser induced fluorescence imaging in rat model of ovarian carcinogenesis,” Cancer Biol. Ther. 10(5), 438–447 (2010).
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S. J. Miller, C. M. Lee, B. P. Joshi, A. Gaustad, E. J. Seibel, T. D. Wang, “Targeted detection of murine colonic dysplasia in vivo with flexible multispectral scanning fiber endoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(2), 021103 (2012).
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T. Makino, M. Jain, D. C. Montrose, A. Aggarwal, J. Sterling, B. P. Bosworth, J. W. Milsom, B. D. Robinson, M. M. Shevchuk, K. Kawaguchi, N. Zhang, C. M. Brown, D. R. Rivera, W. O. Williams, C. Xu, A. J. Dannenberg, S. Mukherjee, “Multiphoton tomographic imaging: a potential optical biopsy tool for detecting gastrointestinal inflammation and neoplasia,” Cancer Prev. Res. 5(11), 1280–1290 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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P. Kim, E. Chung, H. Yamashita, K. E. Hung, A. Mizoguchi, R. Kucherlapati, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, S. H. Yun, “In vivo wide-area cellular imaging by side-view endomicroscopy,” Nat. Methods 7(4), 303–305 (2010).
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T. Makino, M. Jain, D. C. Montrose, A. Aggarwal, J. Sterling, B. P. Bosworth, J. W. Milsom, B. D. Robinson, M. M. Shevchuk, K. Kawaguchi, N. Zhang, C. M. Brown, D. R. Rivera, W. O. Williams, C. Xu, A. J. Dannenberg, S. Mukherjee, “Multiphoton tomographic imaging: a potential optical biopsy tool for detecting gastrointestinal inflammation and neoplasia,” Cancer Prev. Res. 5(11), 1280–1290 (2012).
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Mujat, M.

Mukherjee, S.

T. Makino, M. Jain, D. C. Montrose, A. Aggarwal, J. Sterling, B. P. Bosworth, J. W. Milsom, B. D. Robinson, M. M. Shevchuk, K. Kawaguchi, N. Zhang, C. M. Brown, D. R. Rivera, W. O. Williams, C. Xu, A. J. Dannenberg, S. Mukherjee, “Multiphoton tomographic imaging: a potential optical biopsy tool for detecting gastrointestinal inflammation and neoplasia,” Cancer Prev. Res. 5(11), 1280–1290 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mullins, J.

Nam, H.

Nam, S. Y.

I. S. Ryu, S. H. Choi, H. Kim, M. W. Han, J. L. Roh, S. Y. Kim, S. Y. Nam, “Detection of the primary lesion in patients with cervical metastases from unknown primary tumors with narrow band imaging endoscopy: preliminary report,” Head Neck 35(1), 10–14 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neurath, M. F.

C. Becker, M. C. Fantini, M. F. Neurath, “High resolution colonoscopy in live mice,” Nat. Protoc. 1(6), 2900–2904 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Becker, M. C. Fantini, S. Wirtz, A. Nikolaev, R. Kiesslich, H. A. Lehr, P. R. Galle, M. F. Neurath, “In vivo imaging of colitis and colon cancer development in mice using high resolution chromoendoscopy,” Gut 54(7), 950–954 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nikolaev, A.

C. Becker, M. C. Fantini, S. Wirtz, A. Nikolaev, R. Kiesslich, H. A. Lehr, P. R. Galle, M. F. Neurath, “In vivo imaging of colitis and colon cancer development in mice using high resolution chromoendoscopy,” Gut 54(7), 950–954 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pan, Y.

Papadopoulos, I. N.

Pasha, S. F.

S. F. Pasha, J. A. Leighton, A. Das, M. E. Harrison, S. R. Gurudu, F. C. Ramirez, D. E. Fleischer, V. K. Sharma, “Comparison of the yield and miss rate of narrow band imaging and white light endoscopy in patients undergoing screening or surveillance colonoscopy: a meta-analysis,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 107(3), 363–371 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pattie, R.

Peters, F. P.

M. A. Kara, F. P. Peters, P. Fockens, F. J. ten Kate, J. J. Bergman, “Endoscopic video-autofluorescence imaging followed by narrow band imaging for detecting early neoplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 64(2), 176–185 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pitman, M.

Psaltis, D.

Puoris’haag, M.

P. Kim, M. Puoris’haag, D. Côté, C. P. Lin, S. H. Yun, “In vivo confocal and multiphoton microendoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(1), 010501 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Radosevich, A. J.

L. E. Grosberg, A. J. Radosevich, S. Asfaha, T. C. Wang, E. M. Hillman, “Spectral characterization and unmixing of intrinsic contrast in intact normal and diseased gastric tissues using hyperspectral two-photon microscopy,” PLoS ONE 6(5), e19925 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ramirez, F. C.

S. F. Pasha, J. A. Leighton, A. Das, M. E. Harrison, S. R. Gurudu, F. C. Ramirez, D. E. Fleischer, V. K. Sharma, “Comparison of the yield and miss rate of narrow band imaging and white light endoscopy in patients undergoing screening or surveillance colonoscopy: a meta-analysis,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 107(3), 363–371 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rice, P. F.

A. M. Winkler, P. F. Rice, J. Weichsel, J. M. Watson, M. V. Backer, J. M. Backer, J. K. Barton, “In vivo, dual-modality OCT/LIF imaging using a novel VEGF receptor-targeted NIR fluorescent probe in the AOM-treated mouse model,” Mol. Imaging Biol. 13(6), 1173–1182 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richards-Kortum, R.

J. L. Dobbs, H. Ding, A. P. Benveniste, H. M. Kuerer, S. Krishnamurthy, W. Yang, R. Richards-Kortum, “Feasibility of confocal fluorescence microscopy for real-time evaluation of neoplasia in fresh human breast tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(10), 106016 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. Matloff, W. Abidi, R. Richards-Kortum, J. Sauk, S. Anandasabapathy, “High-resolution and optical molecular imaging for the early detection of colonic neoplasia,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 73(6), 1263–1273 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rivera, D. R.

T. Makino, M. Jain, D. C. Montrose, A. Aggarwal, J. Sterling, B. P. Bosworth, J. W. Milsom, B. D. Robinson, M. M. Shevchuk, K. Kawaguchi, N. Zhang, C. M. Brown, D. R. Rivera, W. O. Williams, C. Xu, A. J. Dannenberg, S. Mukherjee, “Multiphoton tomographic imaging: a potential optical biopsy tool for detecting gastrointestinal inflammation and neoplasia,” Cancer Prev. Res. 5(11), 1280–1290 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Robinson, B. D.

T. Makino, M. Jain, D. C. Montrose, A. Aggarwal, J. Sterling, B. P. Bosworth, J. W. Milsom, B. D. Robinson, M. M. Shevchuk, K. Kawaguchi, N. Zhang, C. M. Brown, D. R. Rivera, W. O. Williams, C. Xu, A. J. Dannenberg, S. Mukherjee, “Multiphoton tomographic imaging: a potential optical biopsy tool for detecting gastrointestinal inflammation and neoplasia,” Cancer Prev. Res. 5(11), 1280–1290 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roh, J. L.

I. S. Ryu, S. H. Choi, H. Kim, M. W. Han, J. L. Roh, S. Y. Kim, S. Y. Nam, “Detection of the primary lesion in patients with cervical metastases from unknown primary tumors with narrow band imaging endoscopy: preliminary report,” Head Neck 35(1), 10–14 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ryu, I. S.

I. S. Ryu, S. H. Choi, H. Kim, M. W. Han, J. L. Roh, S. Y. Kim, S. Y. Nam, “Detection of the primary lesion in patients with cervical metastases from unknown primary tumors with narrow band imaging endoscopy: preliminary report,” Head Neck 35(1), 10–14 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sauk, J.

J. L. Matloff, W. Abidi, R. Richards-Kortum, J. Sauk, S. Anandasabapathy, “High-resolution and optical molecular imaging for the early detection of colonic neoplasia,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 73(6), 1263–1273 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saunter, C. D.

Schnitzer, M. J.

J. C. Jung, A. D. Mehta, E. Aksay, R. Stepnoski, M. J. Schnitzer, “In vivo mammalian brain Imaging using one- and two-photon fluorescence microendoscopy,” J. Neurophysiol. 92(5), 3121–3133 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Jung, M. J. Schnitzer, “Multiphoton endoscopy,” Opt. Lett. 28(11), 902–904 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seibel, E. J.

S. J. Miller, C. M. Lee, B. P. Joshi, A. Gaustad, E. J. Seibel, T. D. Wang, “Targeted detection of murine colonic dysplasia in vivo with flexible multispectral scanning fiber endoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(2), 021103 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Lee, C. J. Engelbrecht, T. D. Soper, F. Helmchen, E. J. Seibel, “Scanning fiber endoscopy with highly flexible, 1 mm catheterscopes for wide-field, full-color imaging,” J. Biophoton. 3(5–6), 385–407 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Semprini, S.

Sensarn, S.

C. L. Zavaleta, E. Garai, J. T. C. Liu, S. Sensarn, M. J. Mandella, D. Van de Sompel, S. Friedland, J. Van Dam, C. H. Contag, S. S. Gambhir, “A Raman-based endoscopic strategy for multiplexed molecular imaging,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(25), E2288–E2297 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sharma, V. K.

S. F. Pasha, J. A. Leighton, A. Das, M. E. Harrison, S. R. Gurudu, F. C. Ramirez, D. E. Fleischer, V. K. Sharma, “Comparison of the yield and miss rate of narrow band imaging and white light endoscopy in patients undergoing screening or surveillance colonoscopy: a meta-analysis,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 107(3), 363–371 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shevchuk, M. M.

T. Makino, M. Jain, D. C. Montrose, A. Aggarwal, J. Sterling, B. P. Bosworth, J. W. Milsom, B. D. Robinson, M. M. Shevchuk, K. Kawaguchi, N. Zhang, C. M. Brown, D. R. Rivera, W. O. Williams, C. Xu, A. J. Dannenberg, S. Mukherjee, “Multiphoton tomographic imaging: a potential optical biopsy tool for detecting gastrointestinal inflammation and neoplasia,” Cancer Prev. Res. 5(11), 1280–1290 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sonn, G. A.

G. A. Sonn, S. N. Jones, T. V. Tarin, C. B. Du, K. E. Mach, K. C. Jensen, J. C. Liao, “Optical biopsy of human bladder neoplasia with in vivo confocal laser endomicroscopy,” J. Urol. 182(4), 1299–1305 (2009).
[PubMed]

Soper, T. D.

C. M. Lee, C. J. Engelbrecht, T. D. Soper, F. Helmchen, E. J. Seibel, “Scanning fiber endoscopy with highly flexible, 1 mm catheterscopes for wide-field, full-color imaging,” J. Biophoton. 3(5–6), 385–407 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stepnoski, R.

J. C. Jung, A. D. Mehta, E. Aksay, R. Stepnoski, M. J. Schnitzer, “In vivo mammalian brain Imaging using one- and two-photon fluorescence microendoscopy,” J. Neurophysiol. 92(5), 3121–3133 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sterling, J.

T. Makino, M. Jain, D. C. Montrose, A. Aggarwal, J. Sterling, B. P. Bosworth, J. W. Milsom, B. D. Robinson, M. M. Shevchuk, K. Kawaguchi, N. Zhang, C. M. Brown, D. R. Rivera, W. O. Williams, C. Xu, A. J. Dannenberg, S. Mukherjee, “Multiphoton tomographic imaging: a potential optical biopsy tool for detecting gastrointestinal inflammation and neoplasia,” Cancer Prev. Res. 5(11), 1280–1290 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sugie, S.

R. Suzuki, H. Kohno, S. Sugie, T. Tanaka, “Dose-dependent promoting effect of dextran sodium sulfate on mouse colon carcinogenesis initiated with azoxymethane,” Histol. Histopathol. 20(2), 483–492 (2005).
[PubMed]

Suzuki, R.

R. Suzuki, H. Kohno, S. Sugie, T. Tanaka, “Dose-dependent promoting effect of dextran sodium sulfate on mouse colon carcinogenesis initiated with azoxymethane,” Histol. Histopathol. 20(2), 483–492 (2005).
[PubMed]

Tanaka, T.

R. Suzuki, H. Kohno, S. Sugie, T. Tanaka, “Dose-dependent promoting effect of dextran sodium sulfate on mouse colon carcinogenesis initiated with azoxymethane,” Histol. Histopathol. 20(2), 483–492 (2005).
[PubMed]

Tang, S.

Tarin, T. V.

G. A. Sonn, S. N. Jones, T. V. Tarin, C. B. Du, K. E. Mach, K. C. Jensen, J. C. Liao, “Optical biopsy of human bladder neoplasia with in vivo confocal laser endomicroscopy,” J. Urol. 182(4), 1299–1305 (2009).
[PubMed]

ten Kate, F. J.

M. A. Kara, F. P. Peters, P. Fockens, F. J. ten Kate, J. J. Bergman, “Endoscopic video-autofluorescence imaging followed by narrow band imaging for detecting early neoplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 64(2), 176–185 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tumlinson, A. R.

Utzinger, U.

Van Dam, J.

C. L. Zavaleta, E. Garai, J. T. C. Liu, S. Sensarn, M. J. Mandella, D. Van de Sompel, S. Friedland, J. Van Dam, C. H. Contag, S. S. Gambhir, “A Raman-based endoscopic strategy for multiplexed molecular imaging,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(25), E2288–E2297 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van de Sompel, D.

C. L. Zavaleta, E. Garai, J. T. C. Liu, S. Sensarn, M. J. Mandella, D. Van de Sompel, S. Friedland, J. Van Dam, C. H. Contag, S. S. Gambhir, “A Raman-based endoscopic strategy for multiplexed molecular imaging,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(25), E2288–E2297 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vance, R.

Wang, C.

Wang, T.

Wang, T. C.

L. E. Grosberg, A. J. Radosevich, S. Asfaha, T. C. Wang, E. M. Hillman, “Spectral characterization and unmixing of intrinsic contrast in intact normal and diseased gastric tissues using hyperspectral two-photon microscopy,” PLoS ONE 6(5), e19925 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, T. D.

S. J. Miller, C. M. Lee, B. P. Joshi, A. Gaustad, E. J. Seibel, T. D. Wang, “Targeted detection of murine colonic dysplasia in vivo with flexible multispectral scanning fiber endoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(2), 021103 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Watson, J. M.

A. M. Winkler, P. F. Rice, J. Weichsel, J. M. Watson, M. V. Backer, J. M. Backer, J. K. Barton, “In vivo, dual-modality OCT/LIF imaging using a novel VEGF receptor-targeted NIR fluorescent probe in the AOM-treated mouse model,” Mol. Imaging Biol. 13(6), 1173–1182 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weichsel, J.

A. M. Winkler, P. F. Rice, J. Weichsel, J. M. Watson, M. V. Backer, J. M. Backer, J. K. Barton, “In vivo, dual-modality OCT/LIF imaging using a novel VEGF receptor-targeted NIR fluorescent probe in the AOM-treated mouse model,” Mol. Imaging Biol. 13(6), 1173–1182 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, W. O.

T. Makino, M. Jain, D. C. Montrose, A. Aggarwal, J. Sterling, B. P. Bosworth, J. W. Milsom, B. D. Robinson, M. M. Shevchuk, K. Kawaguchi, N. Zhang, C. M. Brown, D. R. Rivera, W. O. Williams, C. Xu, A. J. Dannenberg, S. Mukherjee, “Multiphoton tomographic imaging: a potential optical biopsy tool for detecting gastrointestinal inflammation and neoplasia,” Cancer Prev. Res. 5(11), 1280–1290 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Winkler, A. M.

A. M. Winkler, P. F. Rice, J. Weichsel, J. M. Watson, M. V. Backer, J. M. Backer, J. K. Barton, “In vivo, dual-modality OCT/LIF imaging using a novel VEGF receptor-targeted NIR fluorescent probe in the AOM-treated mouse model,” Mol. Imaging Biol. 13(6), 1173–1182 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wirtz, S.

C. Becker, M. C. Fantini, S. Wirtz, A. Nikolaev, R. Kiesslich, H. A. Lehr, P. R. Galle, M. F. Neurath, “In vivo imaging of colitis and colon cancer development in mice using high resolution chromoendoscopy,” Gut 54(7), 950–954 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, Y.

Xi, J.

Xie, H.

Xie, S.

Xu, C.

T. Makino, M. Jain, D. C. Montrose, A. Aggarwal, J. Sterling, B. P. Bosworth, J. W. Milsom, B. D. Robinson, M. M. Shevchuk, K. Kawaguchi, N. Zhang, C. M. Brown, D. R. Rivera, W. O. Williams, C. Xu, A. J. Dannenberg, S. Mukherjee, “Multiphoton tomographic imaging: a potential optical biopsy tool for detecting gastrointestinal inflammation and neoplasia,” Cancer Prev. Res. 5(11), 1280–1290 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamashita, H.

P. Kim, E. Chung, H. Yamashita, K. E. Hung, A. Mizoguchi, R. Kucherlapati, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, S. H. Yun, “In vivo wide-area cellular imaging by side-view endomicroscopy,” Nat. Methods 7(4), 303–305 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yan, J.

Yang, B. G.

Yang, W.

J. L. Dobbs, H. Ding, A. P. Benveniste, H. M. Kuerer, S. Krishnamurthy, W. Yang, R. Richards-Kortum, “Feasibility of confocal fluorescence microscopy for real-time evaluation of neoplasia in fresh human breast tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(10), 106016 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoon, S. J.

Yun, S. H.

J. K. Kim, W. M. Lee, P. Kim, M. Choi, K. Jung, S. Kim, S. H. Yun, “Fabrication and operation of GRIN probes for in vivo fluorescence cellular imaging of internal organs in small animals,” Nat. Protoc. 7(8), 1456–1469 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Kim, E. Chung, H. Yamashita, K. E. Hung, A. Mizoguchi, R. Kucherlapati, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, S. H. Yun, “In vivo wide-area cellular imaging by side-view endomicroscopy,” Nat. Methods 7(4), 303–305 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Kim, M. Puoris’haag, D. Côté, C. P. Lin, S. H. Yun, “In vivo confocal and multiphoton microendoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(1), 010501 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zavaleta, C. L.

C. L. Zavaleta, E. Garai, J. T. C. Liu, S. Sensarn, M. J. Mandella, D. Van de Sompel, S. Friedland, J. Van Dam, C. H. Contag, S. S. Gambhir, “A Raman-based endoscopic strategy for multiplexed molecular imaging,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(25), E2288–E2297 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, N.

T. Makino, M. Jain, D. C. Montrose, A. Aggarwal, J. Sterling, B. P. Bosworth, J. W. Milsom, B. D. Robinson, M. M. Shevchuk, K. Kawaguchi, N. Zhang, C. M. Brown, D. R. Rivera, W. O. Williams, C. Xu, A. J. Dannenberg, S. Mukherjee, “Multiphoton tomographic imaging: a potential optical biopsy tool for detecting gastrointestinal inflammation and neoplasia,” Cancer Prev. Res. 5(11), 1280–1290 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, Y.

Zhu, X.

Zhuo, S.

Am. J. Gastroenterol. (1)

S. F. Pasha, J. A. Leighton, A. Das, M. E. Harrison, S. R. Gurudu, F. C. Ramirez, D. E. Fleischer, V. K. Sharma, “Comparison of the yield and miss rate of narrow band imaging and white light endoscopy in patients undergoing screening or surveillance colonoscopy: a meta-analysis,” Am. J. Gastroenterol. 107(3), 363–371 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Biomed. Opt. Express (5)

Cancer Biol. Ther. (1)

L. P. Hariri, E. R. Liebmann, S. L. Marion, P. B. Hoyer, J. R. Davis, M. A. Brewer, J. K. Barton, “Simultaneous optical coherence tomography and laser induced fluorescence imaging in rat model of ovarian carcinogenesis,” Cancer Biol. Ther. 10(5), 438–447 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cancer Prev. Res. (1)

T. Makino, M. Jain, D. C. Montrose, A. Aggarwal, J. Sterling, B. P. Bosworth, J. W. Milsom, B. D. Robinson, M. M. Shevchuk, K. Kawaguchi, N. Zhang, C. M. Brown, D. R. Rivera, W. O. Williams, C. Xu, A. J. Dannenberg, S. Mukherjee, “Multiphoton tomographic imaging: a potential optical biopsy tool for detecting gastrointestinal inflammation and neoplasia,” Cancer Prev. Res. 5(11), 1280–1290 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dis. Colon Rectum (1)

S. Kozuka, “Premalignancy of the mucosal polyp in the large intestine: I. Histologic gradation of the polyp on the basis of epithelial pseudostratification and glandular branching,” Dis. Colon Rectum 18(6), 483–493 (1975).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gastrointest. Endosc. (2)

J. L. Matloff, W. Abidi, R. Richards-Kortum, J. Sauk, S. Anandasabapathy, “High-resolution and optical molecular imaging for the early detection of colonic neoplasia,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 73(6), 1263–1273 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Kara, F. P. Peters, P. Fockens, F. J. ten Kate, J. J. Bergman, “Endoscopic video-autofluorescence imaging followed by narrow band imaging for detecting early neoplasia in Barrett’s esophagus,” Gastrointest. Endosc. 64(2), 176–185 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gut (1)

C. Becker, M. C. Fantini, S. Wirtz, A. Nikolaev, R. Kiesslich, H. A. Lehr, P. R. Galle, M. F. Neurath, “In vivo imaging of colitis and colon cancer development in mice using high resolution chromoendoscopy,” Gut 54(7), 950–954 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Head Neck (1)

I. S. Ryu, S. H. Choi, H. Kim, M. W. Han, J. L. Roh, S. Y. Kim, S. Y. Nam, “Detection of the primary lesion in patients with cervical metastases from unknown primary tumors with narrow band imaging endoscopy: preliminary report,” Head Neck 35(1), 10–14 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Histol. Histopathol. (1)

R. Suzuki, H. Kohno, S. Sugie, T. Tanaka, “Dose-dependent promoting effect of dextran sodium sulfate on mouse colon carcinogenesis initiated with azoxymethane,” Histol. Histopathol. 20(2), 483–492 (2005).
[PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt. (3)

J. L. Dobbs, H. Ding, A. P. Benveniste, H. M. Kuerer, S. Krishnamurthy, W. Yang, R. Richards-Kortum, “Feasibility of confocal fluorescence microscopy for real-time evaluation of neoplasia in fresh human breast tissue,” J. Biomed. Opt. 18(10), 106016 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Miller, C. M. Lee, B. P. Joshi, A. Gaustad, E. J. Seibel, T. D. Wang, “Targeted detection of murine colonic dysplasia in vivo with flexible multispectral scanning fiber endoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 17(2), 021103 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Kim, M. Puoris’haag, D. Côté, C. P. Lin, S. H. Yun, “In vivo confocal and multiphoton microendoscopy,” J. Biomed. Opt. 13(1), 010501 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biophoton. (1)

C. M. Lee, C. J. Engelbrecht, T. D. Soper, F. Helmchen, E. J. Seibel, “Scanning fiber endoscopy with highly flexible, 1 mm catheterscopes for wide-field, full-color imaging,” J. Biophoton. 3(5–6), 385–407 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Neurophysiol. (1)

J. C. Jung, A. D. Mehta, E. Aksay, R. Stepnoski, M. J. Schnitzer, “In vivo mammalian brain Imaging using one- and two-photon fluorescence microendoscopy,” J. Neurophysiol. 92(5), 3121–3133 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Urol. (1)

G. A. Sonn, S. N. Jones, T. V. Tarin, C. B. Du, K. E. Mach, K. C. Jensen, J. C. Liao, “Optical biopsy of human bladder neoplasia with in vivo confocal laser endomicroscopy,” J. Urol. 182(4), 1299–1305 (2009).
[PubMed]

Mol. Imaging Biol. (1)

A. M. Winkler, P. F. Rice, J. Weichsel, J. M. Watson, M. V. Backer, J. M. Backer, J. K. Barton, “In vivo, dual-modality OCT/LIF imaging using a novel VEGF receptor-targeted NIR fluorescent probe in the AOM-treated mouse model,” Mol. Imaging Biol. 13(6), 1173–1182 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Biotechnol. (1)

J. G. Fujimoto, “Optical coherence tomography for ultrahigh resolution in vivo imaging,” Nat. Biotechnol. 21(11), 1361–1367 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Methods (1)

P. Kim, E. Chung, H. Yamashita, K. E. Hung, A. Mizoguchi, R. Kucherlapati, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, S. H. Yun, “In vivo wide-area cellular imaging by side-view endomicroscopy,” Nat. Methods 7(4), 303–305 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Protoc. (2)

J. K. Kim, W. M. Lee, P. Kim, M. Choi, K. Jung, S. Kim, S. H. Yun, “Fabrication and operation of GRIN probes for in vivo fluorescence cellular imaging of internal organs in small animals,” Nat. Protoc. 7(8), 1456–1469 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Becker, M. C. Fantini, M. F. Neurath, “High resolution colonoscopy in live mice,” Nat. Protoc. 1(6), 2900–2904 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (5)

PLoS ONE (1)

L. E. Grosberg, A. J. Radosevich, S. Asfaha, T. C. Wang, E. M. Hillman, “Spectral characterization and unmixing of intrinsic contrast in intact normal and diseased gastric tissues using hyperspectral two-photon microscopy,” PLoS ONE 6(5), e19925 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

C. L. Zavaleta, E. Garai, J. T. C. Liu, S. Sensarn, M. J. Mandella, D. Van de Sompel, S. Friedland, J. Van Dam, C. H. Contag, S. S. Gambhir, “A Raman-based endoscopic strategy for multiplexed molecular imaging,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(25), E2288–E2297 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Supplementary Material (5)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

A system schematic and a photograph of the imaging system. (a) System schematic. HWP: half-wave plate, PL: polarizer, SM: scanning mirror, SL: scanner lens, TL: tube lens, DM: dichroic mirror, F: filter, PMT: photomultiplier tube, FM: flip mirror, REF: reference arm, C: circulator, BS: beam splitter, OL: objective lens, GL: gradient index (GRIN) lens, SP: sample, MS: motorized stage. TPM excitation and emission beams, and OCT beams were depicted in red, green, and yellow colors respectively. (b) A photograph of the GRIN lens based imaging system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

A photograph and a schematic of the GRIN lens probe with ray tracing. (a) A centerline of the GRIN rod lens. (b) A centerline of the prism. (c) The prism surface. (d) The outer surface of GRIN rod lens. (e) The outer surface of stainless-steel tube.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

OCT and TPM images of the normal mouse colon, ex vivo. (a) OCT cross-sectional images in the x-z plane along the colon covering 25 mm in length. Three images, which are parallel each other with 1.5 mm separation, are shown. The scale bar is 2 mm. (b) A zoomed OCT cross-sectional image of the normal region in a box of (a). An asterisk mark in (b) indicates the location of TPM imaging. The scale bar is 375 μm. (c) H&E stain histology of a normal colonic tissue. The scale bar is 100 μm. (d - g) TPM images in the x-y plane at various depths: epithelial layer at 10 μm deep from the surface, cellular gland structures at 15 μm, 50 μm, and 80 μm deep respectively. TPM movie clips with lateral and axial translation of the imaging plane were added in Media 1 and Media 2 respectively. The scale bar is 30 μm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

OCT and TPM images of the AOM-DSS mouse colon, ex vivo. (a) OCT cross-sectional images in the x-z plane along the colon covering 25 mm in length. Three images, which are parallel each other with 1.5 mm separation, are shown. The scale bar is 2 mm. (b) A zoomed OCT cross-sectional image of the polyp in a box of (a). The scale bar is 375 μm. (c) H&E stain histology of the tumorous colonic tissue. The scale bar is 200 μm. (d, e) TPM images of the polyp in the x-y plane at different regions. Imaging depths were approximately 20 μm from the surface. TPM movie clips of the polyp regions were added in Media 3 and Media 4 respectively. The scale bar is 30 μm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Endoscopic OCT and TPM images of the intact normal mouse colonic tissue, ex vivo. (a - c) OCT cross-sectional images at various locations: 20 mm, 15 mm, and 10 mm inside from the anus respectively. (d - g) TPM images in the x-y plane at various depths: 10 μm, 20 μm, 40 μm, and 60 μm deep from the surface respectively. A TPM movie clip with lateral and axial translation of the imaging plane was added in Media 5. The scale bar is 30 μm.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Characteristic of the probe based system

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