Abstract

Micro- and nano-patterned fluorescent materials are important for many photonic devices and applications. In this paper, we investigate the impact of three common lithographical techniques, deposition and removal of sacrificial masks, ultraviolet ablation, and focused ion beam milling, on self-assembled fluorophores. We find that different patterning techniques can dramatically change the fluorescence lifetime of the fluorophores and that the degree of modification depends on the patterning techniques.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. N. Kawatsuki, R. Ando, R. Ishida, M. Kondo, and Y. Minami, “Photoluminescent color and polarized light emission tuning of fluorene derivatives using a photoreactive H-bonded liquid crystalline polymer,” Macromol. Chem. Phys. 211(16), 1741–1749 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. Vannahme, S. Klinkhammer, U. Lemmer, and T. Mappes, “Plastic lab-on-a-chip for fluorescence excitation with integrated organic semiconductor lasers,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8179–8186 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. H. N. Kim, Z. Guo, W. Zhu, J. Yoon, and H. Tian, “Recent progress on polymer-based fluorescent and colorimetric chemosensors,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 40(1), 79–93 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. K. Doré, S. Dubus, H. A. Ho, I. Lévesque, M. Brunette, G. Corbeil, M. Boissinot, G. Boivin, M. G. Bergeron, D. Boudreau, and M. Leclerc, “Fluorescent polymeric transducer for the rapid, simple, and specific detection of nucleic acids at the zeptomole level,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126(13), 4240–4244 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. C. R. Lohani and K. H. Lee, “The effect of absorbance of Fe3+ on the detection of Fe3+ by fluorescent chemical sensors,” Sens. Act. B: Chem. 143(2), 649–654 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  6. W. Fudickar and T. Linker, “Novel anthracene materials for applications in lithography and reversible photoswitching by light and air,” Langmuir 26(6), 4421–4428 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. A. C. Grimsdale, K. L. Chan, R. E. Martin, P. G. Jokisz, and A. B. Holmes, “Synthesis of light-emitting conjugated polymers for applications in electroluminescent devices,” Chem. Rev. 109(3), 897–1091 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. H. Park, D. C. Han, D. H. Han, S. J. Kim, W. E. Lee, and G. Kwak, “Emission enhancement, photooxidative stability, and fluorescence image patterning of conjugated polymer film via in situ hybridization with UV-curable acrylate monomers,” Macromolecules 44(23), 9351–9355 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Tomasuloa and F. M. Raymo, “Optical writing and reading with bilayer assemblies of photosensitive and fluorescent films,” J. Mater. Chem. 15(40), 4354–4360 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  10. K. Rurack and M. Spieles, “Fluorescence quantum yields of a series of red and near-infrared dyes emitting at 600-1000 nm,” Anal. Chem. 83(4), 1232–1242 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. I. Díez and R. H. A. Ras, “Fluorescent silver nanoclusters,” Nanoscale 3(5), 1963–1970 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. S. Jaffar, K. T. Nam, A. Khademhosseini, J. Xing, R. S. Langer, and A. M. Belcher, “Layer-by-layer surface modification and patterned electrostatic deposition of quantum dots,” Nano Lett. 4(8), 1421–1425 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. Kim and S. Y. Park, “Photochemically gated protonation effected by intramolecular hydrogen bonding: towards stable fluorescence imaging in polymer films,” Adv. Mater. 15(16), 1341–1344 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  14. L. Gao, N. Lu, J. Hao, W. Hu, G. Shi, Y. Wang, and L. Chi, “Creating bicolor patterns via selective photobleaching with a single dye species,” Langmuir 25(6), 3894–3897 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. L. Zhao, M. Vaupel, D. A. Loy, and K. J. Shea, “Photoresponsive hybrid materials: synthesis and characterization of coumarin-dimer-bridged polysilsesquioxanes,” Chem. Mater. 20(5), 1870–1876 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  16. V. Nandwana, C. Subramani, Y. C. Yeh, B. Yang, S. Dickert, M. D. Barnes, M. T. Tuominenb, and V. M. Rotello, “Direct patterning of quantum dot nanostructures via electron beam lithography,” J. Mater. Chem. 21, 1870–1876 (2008).
  17. A. J. Martin, T. W. Saucer, G. V. Rodriguez, V. Sih, and J. M. Millunchick, “Lateral patterning of multilayer InAs/GaAs(001) quantum dot structures by in vacuo focused ion beam,” Nanotechnology 23(13), 135401 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. C. M. Kolodziej and H. D. Maynard, “Electron-beam lithography for patterning biomolecules at the micron and nanometer scale,” Chem. Mater. 24(5), 774–780 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  19. C. Kocher, A. Montali, P. Smith, and C. Weder, “Patterning of oriented photofunctional polymer systems through selective photobleaching,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 11(1), 31–35 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  20. W. Shi, Y. Lin, S. He, Y. Zhao, C. Li, M. Wei, D. G. Evansa, and X. Duana, “Patterned fluorescence films with reversible thermal response based on the host–guest superarchitecture,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(30), 11116–11122 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  21. F. Di Benedetto, A. Biasco, R. Bizzarri, D. Arosio, F. Ricci, F. Beltram, R. Cingolani, and D. Pisignano, “Two dimensional patterning of fluorescent proteins in hydrogels,” Langmuir 22(1), 29–31 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. J. Kerimo, D. M. Adams, P. F. Barbara, D. M. Kaschak, and T. E. Mallouk, “NSOM investigations of the spectroscopy and morphology of self-assembled multilayered thin films,” J. Phys. Chem. B 102(47), 9451–9460 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  23. W. Kern and D. A. Poutinen, “Cleaning solution based on hydrogen peroxide for use in silicon semiconductor technology,” RCA Rev. 31, 187–206 (1970).
  24. I. Ashry, B. Zhang, S. V. Stoianov, C. Daengngam, J. R. Heflin, H. D. Robinson, and Y. Xu, “Probing the photonic density of states using layer-by-layer self-assembly,” Opt. Lett. 37(11), 1835–1837 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

A. J. Martin, T. W. Saucer, G. V. Rodriguez, V. Sih, and J. M. Millunchick, “Lateral patterning of multilayer InAs/GaAs(001) quantum dot structures by in vacuo focused ion beam,” Nanotechnology 23(13), 135401 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. M. Kolodziej and H. D. Maynard, “Electron-beam lithography for patterning biomolecules at the micron and nanometer scale,” Chem. Mater. 24(5), 774–780 (2012).
[CrossRef]

I. Ashry, B. Zhang, S. V. Stoianov, C. Daengngam, J. R. Heflin, H. D. Robinson, and Y. Xu, “Probing the photonic density of states using layer-by-layer self-assembly,” Opt. Lett. 37(11), 1835–1837 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (5)

C. Vannahme, S. Klinkhammer, U. Lemmer, and T. Mappes, “Plastic lab-on-a-chip for fluorescence excitation with integrated organic semiconductor lasers,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8179–8186 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Rurack and M. Spieles, “Fluorescence quantum yields of a series of red and near-infrared dyes emitting at 600-1000 nm,” Anal. Chem. 83(4), 1232–1242 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Díez and R. H. A. Ras, “Fluorescent silver nanoclusters,” Nanoscale 3(5), 1963–1970 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Park, D. C. Han, D. H. Han, S. J. Kim, W. E. Lee, and G. Kwak, “Emission enhancement, photooxidative stability, and fluorescence image patterning of conjugated polymer film via in situ hybridization with UV-curable acrylate monomers,” Macromolecules 44(23), 9351–9355 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. Shi, Y. Lin, S. He, Y. Zhao, C. Li, M. Wei, D. G. Evansa, and X. Duana, “Patterned fluorescence films with reversible thermal response based on the host–guest superarchitecture,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(30), 11116–11122 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (4)

H. N. Kim, Z. Guo, W. Zhu, J. Yoon, and H. Tian, “Recent progress on polymer-based fluorescent and colorimetric chemosensors,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 40(1), 79–93 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. Lohani and K. H. Lee, “The effect of absorbance of Fe3+ on the detection of Fe3+ by fluorescent chemical sensors,” Sens. Act. B: Chem. 143(2), 649–654 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. Fudickar and T. Linker, “Novel anthracene materials for applications in lithography and reversible photoswitching by light and air,” Langmuir 26(6), 4421–4428 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Kawatsuki, R. Ando, R. Ishida, M. Kondo, and Y. Minami, “Photoluminescent color and polarized light emission tuning of fluorene derivatives using a photoreactive H-bonded liquid crystalline polymer,” Macromol. Chem. Phys. 211(16), 1741–1749 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

A. C. Grimsdale, K. L. Chan, R. E. Martin, P. G. Jokisz, and A. B. Holmes, “Synthesis of light-emitting conjugated polymers for applications in electroluminescent devices,” Chem. Rev. 109(3), 897–1091 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Gao, N. Lu, J. Hao, W. Hu, G. Shi, Y. Wang, and L. Chi, “Creating bicolor patterns via selective photobleaching with a single dye species,” Langmuir 25(6), 3894–3897 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

L. Zhao, M. Vaupel, D. A. Loy, and K. J. Shea, “Photoresponsive hybrid materials: synthesis and characterization of coumarin-dimer-bridged polysilsesquioxanes,” Chem. Mater. 20(5), 1870–1876 (2008).
[CrossRef]

V. Nandwana, C. Subramani, Y. C. Yeh, B. Yang, S. Dickert, M. D. Barnes, M. T. Tuominenb, and V. M. Rotello, “Direct patterning of quantum dot nanostructures via electron beam lithography,” J. Mater. Chem. 21, 1870–1876 (2008).

2006 (1)

F. Di Benedetto, A. Biasco, R. Bizzarri, D. Arosio, F. Ricci, F. Beltram, R. Cingolani, and D. Pisignano, “Two dimensional patterning of fluorescent proteins in hydrogels,” Langmuir 22(1), 29–31 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

M. Tomasuloa and F. M. Raymo, “Optical writing and reading with bilayer assemblies of photosensitive and fluorescent films,” J. Mater. Chem. 15(40), 4354–4360 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

K. Doré, S. Dubus, H. A. Ho, I. Lévesque, M. Brunette, G. Corbeil, M. Boissinot, G. Boivin, M. G. Bergeron, D. Boudreau, and M. Leclerc, “Fluorescent polymeric transducer for the rapid, simple, and specific detection of nucleic acids at the zeptomole level,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126(13), 4240–4244 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Jaffar, K. T. Nam, A. Khademhosseini, J. Xing, R. S. Langer, and A. M. Belcher, “Layer-by-layer surface modification and patterned electrostatic deposition of quantum dots,” Nano Lett. 4(8), 1421–1425 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

S. Kim and S. Y. Park, “Photochemically gated protonation effected by intramolecular hydrogen bonding: towards stable fluorescence imaging in polymer films,” Adv. Mater. 15(16), 1341–1344 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

C. Kocher, A. Montali, P. Smith, and C. Weder, “Patterning of oriented photofunctional polymer systems through selective photobleaching,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 11(1), 31–35 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

J. Kerimo, D. M. Adams, P. F. Barbara, D. M. Kaschak, and T. E. Mallouk, “NSOM investigations of the spectroscopy and morphology of self-assembled multilayered thin films,” J. Phys. Chem. B 102(47), 9451–9460 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

W. Kern and D. A. Poutinen, “Cleaning solution based on hydrogen peroxide for use in silicon semiconductor technology,” RCA Rev. 31, 187–206 (1970).

Adams, D. M.

J. Kerimo, D. M. Adams, P. F. Barbara, D. M. Kaschak, and T. E. Mallouk, “NSOM investigations of the spectroscopy and morphology of self-assembled multilayered thin films,” J. Phys. Chem. B 102(47), 9451–9460 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ando, R.

N. Kawatsuki, R. Ando, R. Ishida, M. Kondo, and Y. Minami, “Photoluminescent color and polarized light emission tuning of fluorene derivatives using a photoreactive H-bonded liquid crystalline polymer,” Macromol. Chem. Phys. 211(16), 1741–1749 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Arosio, D.

F. Di Benedetto, A. Biasco, R. Bizzarri, D. Arosio, F. Ricci, F. Beltram, R. Cingolani, and D. Pisignano, “Two dimensional patterning of fluorescent proteins in hydrogels,” Langmuir 22(1), 29–31 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ashry, I.

I. Ashry, B. Zhang, S. V. Stoianov, C. Daengngam, J. R. Heflin, H. D. Robinson, and Y. Xu, “Probing the photonic density of states using layer-by-layer self-assembly,” Opt. Lett. 37(11), 1835–1837 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barbara, P. F.

J. Kerimo, D. M. Adams, P. F. Barbara, D. M. Kaschak, and T. E. Mallouk, “NSOM investigations of the spectroscopy and morphology of self-assembled multilayered thin films,” J. Phys. Chem. B 102(47), 9451–9460 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, M. D.

V. Nandwana, C. Subramani, Y. C. Yeh, B. Yang, S. Dickert, M. D. Barnes, M. T. Tuominenb, and V. M. Rotello, “Direct patterning of quantum dot nanostructures via electron beam lithography,” J. Mater. Chem. 21, 1870–1876 (2008).

Belcher, A. M.

S. Jaffar, K. T. Nam, A. Khademhosseini, J. Xing, R. S. Langer, and A. M. Belcher, “Layer-by-layer surface modification and patterned electrostatic deposition of quantum dots,” Nano Lett. 4(8), 1421–1425 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Beltram, F.

F. Di Benedetto, A. Biasco, R. Bizzarri, D. Arosio, F. Ricci, F. Beltram, R. Cingolani, and D. Pisignano, “Two dimensional patterning of fluorescent proteins in hydrogels,” Langmuir 22(1), 29–31 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bergeron, M. G.

K. Doré, S. Dubus, H. A. Ho, I. Lévesque, M. Brunette, G. Corbeil, M. Boissinot, G. Boivin, M. G. Bergeron, D. Boudreau, and M. Leclerc, “Fluorescent polymeric transducer for the rapid, simple, and specific detection of nucleic acids at the zeptomole level,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126(13), 4240–4244 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biasco, A.

F. Di Benedetto, A. Biasco, R. Bizzarri, D. Arosio, F. Ricci, F. Beltram, R. Cingolani, and D. Pisignano, “Two dimensional patterning of fluorescent proteins in hydrogels,” Langmuir 22(1), 29–31 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bizzarri, R.

F. Di Benedetto, A. Biasco, R. Bizzarri, D. Arosio, F. Ricci, F. Beltram, R. Cingolani, and D. Pisignano, “Two dimensional patterning of fluorescent proteins in hydrogels,” Langmuir 22(1), 29–31 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boissinot, M.

K. Doré, S. Dubus, H. A. Ho, I. Lévesque, M. Brunette, G. Corbeil, M. Boissinot, G. Boivin, M. G. Bergeron, D. Boudreau, and M. Leclerc, “Fluorescent polymeric transducer for the rapid, simple, and specific detection of nucleic acids at the zeptomole level,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126(13), 4240–4244 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boivin, G.

K. Doré, S. Dubus, H. A. Ho, I. Lévesque, M. Brunette, G. Corbeil, M. Boissinot, G. Boivin, M. G. Bergeron, D. Boudreau, and M. Leclerc, “Fluorescent polymeric transducer for the rapid, simple, and specific detection of nucleic acids at the zeptomole level,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126(13), 4240–4244 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boudreau, D.

K. Doré, S. Dubus, H. A. Ho, I. Lévesque, M. Brunette, G. Corbeil, M. Boissinot, G. Boivin, M. G. Bergeron, D. Boudreau, and M. Leclerc, “Fluorescent polymeric transducer for the rapid, simple, and specific detection of nucleic acids at the zeptomole level,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126(13), 4240–4244 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brunette, M.

K. Doré, S. Dubus, H. A. Ho, I. Lévesque, M. Brunette, G. Corbeil, M. Boissinot, G. Boivin, M. G. Bergeron, D. Boudreau, and M. Leclerc, “Fluorescent polymeric transducer for the rapid, simple, and specific detection of nucleic acids at the zeptomole level,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126(13), 4240–4244 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chan, K. L.

A. C. Grimsdale, K. L. Chan, R. E. Martin, P. G. Jokisz, and A. B. Holmes, “Synthesis of light-emitting conjugated polymers for applications in electroluminescent devices,” Chem. Rev. 109(3), 897–1091 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chi, L.

L. Gao, N. Lu, J. Hao, W. Hu, G. Shi, Y. Wang, and L. Chi, “Creating bicolor patterns via selective photobleaching with a single dye species,” Langmuir 25(6), 3894–3897 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cingolani, R.

F. Di Benedetto, A. Biasco, R. Bizzarri, D. Arosio, F. Ricci, F. Beltram, R. Cingolani, and D. Pisignano, “Two dimensional patterning of fluorescent proteins in hydrogels,” Langmuir 22(1), 29–31 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Corbeil, G.

K. Doré, S. Dubus, H. A. Ho, I. Lévesque, M. Brunette, G. Corbeil, M. Boissinot, G. Boivin, M. G. Bergeron, D. Boudreau, and M. Leclerc, “Fluorescent polymeric transducer for the rapid, simple, and specific detection of nucleic acids at the zeptomole level,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126(13), 4240–4244 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Daengngam, C.

I. Ashry, B. Zhang, S. V. Stoianov, C. Daengngam, J. R. Heflin, H. D. Robinson, and Y. Xu, “Probing the photonic density of states using layer-by-layer self-assembly,” Opt. Lett. 37(11), 1835–1837 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Di Benedetto, F.

F. Di Benedetto, A. Biasco, R. Bizzarri, D. Arosio, F. Ricci, F. Beltram, R. Cingolani, and D. Pisignano, “Two dimensional patterning of fluorescent proteins in hydrogels,” Langmuir 22(1), 29–31 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dickert, S.

V. Nandwana, C. Subramani, Y. C. Yeh, B. Yang, S. Dickert, M. D. Barnes, M. T. Tuominenb, and V. M. Rotello, “Direct patterning of quantum dot nanostructures via electron beam lithography,” J. Mater. Chem. 21, 1870–1876 (2008).

Díez, I.

I. Díez and R. H. A. Ras, “Fluorescent silver nanoclusters,” Nanoscale 3(5), 1963–1970 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Doré, K.

K. Doré, S. Dubus, H. A. Ho, I. Lévesque, M. Brunette, G. Corbeil, M. Boissinot, G. Boivin, M. G. Bergeron, D. Boudreau, and M. Leclerc, “Fluorescent polymeric transducer for the rapid, simple, and specific detection of nucleic acids at the zeptomole level,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126(13), 4240–4244 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duana, X.

W. Shi, Y. Lin, S. He, Y. Zhao, C. Li, M. Wei, D. G. Evansa, and X. Duana, “Patterned fluorescence films with reversible thermal response based on the host–guest superarchitecture,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(30), 11116–11122 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dubus, S.

K. Doré, S. Dubus, H. A. Ho, I. Lévesque, M. Brunette, G. Corbeil, M. Boissinot, G. Boivin, M. G. Bergeron, D. Boudreau, and M. Leclerc, “Fluorescent polymeric transducer for the rapid, simple, and specific detection of nucleic acids at the zeptomole level,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126(13), 4240–4244 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Evansa, D. G.

W. Shi, Y. Lin, S. He, Y. Zhao, C. Li, M. Wei, D. G. Evansa, and X. Duana, “Patterned fluorescence films with reversible thermal response based on the host–guest superarchitecture,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(30), 11116–11122 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fudickar, W.

W. Fudickar and T. Linker, “Novel anthracene materials for applications in lithography and reversible photoswitching by light and air,” Langmuir 26(6), 4421–4428 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gao, L.

L. Gao, N. Lu, J. Hao, W. Hu, G. Shi, Y. Wang, and L. Chi, “Creating bicolor patterns via selective photobleaching with a single dye species,” Langmuir 25(6), 3894–3897 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grimsdale, A. C.

A. C. Grimsdale, K. L. Chan, R. E. Martin, P. G. Jokisz, and A. B. Holmes, “Synthesis of light-emitting conjugated polymers for applications in electroluminescent devices,” Chem. Rev. 109(3), 897–1091 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guo, Z.

H. N. Kim, Z. Guo, W. Zhu, J. Yoon, and H. Tian, “Recent progress on polymer-based fluorescent and colorimetric chemosensors,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 40(1), 79–93 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Han, D. C.

H. Park, D. C. Han, D. H. Han, S. J. Kim, W. E. Lee, and G. Kwak, “Emission enhancement, photooxidative stability, and fluorescence image patterning of conjugated polymer film via in situ hybridization with UV-curable acrylate monomers,” Macromolecules 44(23), 9351–9355 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Han, D. H.

H. Park, D. C. Han, D. H. Han, S. J. Kim, W. E. Lee, and G. Kwak, “Emission enhancement, photooxidative stability, and fluorescence image patterning of conjugated polymer film via in situ hybridization with UV-curable acrylate monomers,” Macromolecules 44(23), 9351–9355 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hao, J.

L. Gao, N. Lu, J. Hao, W. Hu, G. Shi, Y. Wang, and L. Chi, “Creating bicolor patterns via selective photobleaching with a single dye species,” Langmuir 25(6), 3894–3897 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

He, S.

W. Shi, Y. Lin, S. He, Y. Zhao, C. Li, M. Wei, D. G. Evansa, and X. Duana, “Patterned fluorescence films with reversible thermal response based on the host–guest superarchitecture,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(30), 11116–11122 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Heflin, J. R.

I. Ashry, B. Zhang, S. V. Stoianov, C. Daengngam, J. R. Heflin, H. D. Robinson, and Y. Xu, “Probing the photonic density of states using layer-by-layer self-assembly,” Opt. Lett. 37(11), 1835–1837 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ho, H. A.

K. Doré, S. Dubus, H. A. Ho, I. Lévesque, M. Brunette, G. Corbeil, M. Boissinot, G. Boivin, M. G. Bergeron, D. Boudreau, and M. Leclerc, “Fluorescent polymeric transducer for the rapid, simple, and specific detection of nucleic acids at the zeptomole level,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126(13), 4240–4244 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holmes, A. B.

A. C. Grimsdale, K. L. Chan, R. E. Martin, P. G. Jokisz, and A. B. Holmes, “Synthesis of light-emitting conjugated polymers for applications in electroluminescent devices,” Chem. Rev. 109(3), 897–1091 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hu, W.

L. Gao, N. Lu, J. Hao, W. Hu, G. Shi, Y. Wang, and L. Chi, “Creating bicolor patterns via selective photobleaching with a single dye species,” Langmuir 25(6), 3894–3897 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ishida, R.

N. Kawatsuki, R. Ando, R. Ishida, M. Kondo, and Y. Minami, “Photoluminescent color and polarized light emission tuning of fluorene derivatives using a photoreactive H-bonded liquid crystalline polymer,” Macromol. Chem. Phys. 211(16), 1741–1749 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jaffar, S.

S. Jaffar, K. T. Nam, A. Khademhosseini, J. Xing, R. S. Langer, and A. M. Belcher, “Layer-by-layer surface modification and patterned electrostatic deposition of quantum dots,” Nano Lett. 4(8), 1421–1425 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jokisz, P. G.

A. C. Grimsdale, K. L. Chan, R. E. Martin, P. G. Jokisz, and A. B. Holmes, “Synthesis of light-emitting conjugated polymers for applications in electroluminescent devices,” Chem. Rev. 109(3), 897–1091 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaschak, D. M.

J. Kerimo, D. M. Adams, P. F. Barbara, D. M. Kaschak, and T. E. Mallouk, “NSOM investigations of the spectroscopy and morphology of self-assembled multilayered thin films,” J. Phys. Chem. B 102(47), 9451–9460 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kawatsuki, N.

N. Kawatsuki, R. Ando, R. Ishida, M. Kondo, and Y. Minami, “Photoluminescent color and polarized light emission tuning of fluorene derivatives using a photoreactive H-bonded liquid crystalline polymer,” Macromol. Chem. Phys. 211(16), 1741–1749 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kerimo, J.

J. Kerimo, D. M. Adams, P. F. Barbara, D. M. Kaschak, and T. E. Mallouk, “NSOM investigations of the spectroscopy and morphology of self-assembled multilayered thin films,” J. Phys. Chem. B 102(47), 9451–9460 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kern, W.

W. Kern and D. A. Poutinen, “Cleaning solution based on hydrogen peroxide for use in silicon semiconductor technology,” RCA Rev. 31, 187–206 (1970).

Khademhosseini, A.

S. Jaffar, K. T. Nam, A. Khademhosseini, J. Xing, R. S. Langer, and A. M. Belcher, “Layer-by-layer surface modification and patterned electrostatic deposition of quantum dots,” Nano Lett. 4(8), 1421–1425 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. N.

H. N. Kim, Z. Guo, W. Zhu, J. Yoon, and H. Tian, “Recent progress on polymer-based fluorescent and colorimetric chemosensors,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 40(1), 79–93 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, S.

S. Kim and S. Y. Park, “Photochemically gated protonation effected by intramolecular hydrogen bonding: towards stable fluorescence imaging in polymer films,” Adv. Mater. 15(16), 1341–1344 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. J.

H. Park, D. C. Han, D. H. Han, S. J. Kim, W. E. Lee, and G. Kwak, “Emission enhancement, photooxidative stability, and fluorescence image patterning of conjugated polymer film via in situ hybridization with UV-curable acrylate monomers,” Macromolecules 44(23), 9351–9355 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Klinkhammer, S.

C. Vannahme, S. Klinkhammer, U. Lemmer, and T. Mappes, “Plastic lab-on-a-chip for fluorescence excitation with integrated organic semiconductor lasers,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8179–8186 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kocher, C.

C. Kocher, A. Montali, P. Smith, and C. Weder, “Patterning of oriented photofunctional polymer systems through selective photobleaching,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 11(1), 31–35 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kolodziej, C. M.

C. M. Kolodziej and H. D. Maynard, “Electron-beam lithography for patterning biomolecules at the micron and nanometer scale,” Chem. Mater. 24(5), 774–780 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kondo, M.

N. Kawatsuki, R. Ando, R. Ishida, M. Kondo, and Y. Minami, “Photoluminescent color and polarized light emission tuning of fluorene derivatives using a photoreactive H-bonded liquid crystalline polymer,” Macromol. Chem. Phys. 211(16), 1741–1749 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kwak, G.

H. Park, D. C. Han, D. H. Han, S. J. Kim, W. E. Lee, and G. Kwak, “Emission enhancement, photooxidative stability, and fluorescence image patterning of conjugated polymer film via in situ hybridization with UV-curable acrylate monomers,” Macromolecules 44(23), 9351–9355 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Langer, R. S.

S. Jaffar, K. T. Nam, A. Khademhosseini, J. Xing, R. S. Langer, and A. M. Belcher, “Layer-by-layer surface modification and patterned electrostatic deposition of quantum dots,” Nano Lett. 4(8), 1421–1425 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Leclerc, M.

K. Doré, S. Dubus, H. A. Ho, I. Lévesque, M. Brunette, G. Corbeil, M. Boissinot, G. Boivin, M. G. Bergeron, D. Boudreau, and M. Leclerc, “Fluorescent polymeric transducer for the rapid, simple, and specific detection of nucleic acids at the zeptomole level,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126(13), 4240–4244 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, K. H.

C. R. Lohani and K. H. Lee, “The effect of absorbance of Fe3+ on the detection of Fe3+ by fluorescent chemical sensors,” Sens. Act. B: Chem. 143(2), 649–654 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, W. E.

H. Park, D. C. Han, D. H. Han, S. J. Kim, W. E. Lee, and G. Kwak, “Emission enhancement, photooxidative stability, and fluorescence image patterning of conjugated polymer film via in situ hybridization with UV-curable acrylate monomers,” Macromolecules 44(23), 9351–9355 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lemmer, U.

C. Vannahme, S. Klinkhammer, U. Lemmer, and T. Mappes, “Plastic lab-on-a-chip for fluorescence excitation with integrated organic semiconductor lasers,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8179–8186 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lévesque, I.

K. Doré, S. Dubus, H. A. Ho, I. Lévesque, M. Brunette, G. Corbeil, M. Boissinot, G. Boivin, M. G. Bergeron, D. Boudreau, and M. Leclerc, “Fluorescent polymeric transducer for the rapid, simple, and specific detection of nucleic acids at the zeptomole level,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126(13), 4240–4244 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, C.

W. Shi, Y. Lin, S. He, Y. Zhao, C. Li, M. Wei, D. G. Evansa, and X. Duana, “Patterned fluorescence films with reversible thermal response based on the host–guest superarchitecture,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(30), 11116–11122 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y.

W. Shi, Y. Lin, S. He, Y. Zhao, C. Li, M. Wei, D. G. Evansa, and X. Duana, “Patterned fluorescence films with reversible thermal response based on the host–guest superarchitecture,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(30), 11116–11122 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Linker, T.

W. Fudickar and T. Linker, “Novel anthracene materials for applications in lithography and reversible photoswitching by light and air,” Langmuir 26(6), 4421–4428 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lohani, C. R.

C. R. Lohani and K. H. Lee, “The effect of absorbance of Fe3+ on the detection of Fe3+ by fluorescent chemical sensors,” Sens. Act. B: Chem. 143(2), 649–654 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Loy, D. A.

L. Zhao, M. Vaupel, D. A. Loy, and K. J. Shea, “Photoresponsive hybrid materials: synthesis and characterization of coumarin-dimer-bridged polysilsesquioxanes,” Chem. Mater. 20(5), 1870–1876 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lu, N.

L. Gao, N. Lu, J. Hao, W. Hu, G. Shi, Y. Wang, and L. Chi, “Creating bicolor patterns via selective photobleaching with a single dye species,” Langmuir 25(6), 3894–3897 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mallouk, T. E.

J. Kerimo, D. M. Adams, P. F. Barbara, D. M. Kaschak, and T. E. Mallouk, “NSOM investigations of the spectroscopy and morphology of self-assembled multilayered thin films,” J. Phys. Chem. B 102(47), 9451–9460 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mappes, T.

C. Vannahme, S. Klinkhammer, U. Lemmer, and T. Mappes, “Plastic lab-on-a-chip for fluorescence excitation with integrated organic semiconductor lasers,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8179–8186 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martin, A. J.

A. J. Martin, T. W. Saucer, G. V. Rodriguez, V. Sih, and J. M. Millunchick, “Lateral patterning of multilayer InAs/GaAs(001) quantum dot structures by in vacuo focused ion beam,” Nanotechnology 23(13), 135401 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Martin, R. E.

A. C. Grimsdale, K. L. Chan, R. E. Martin, P. G. Jokisz, and A. B. Holmes, “Synthesis of light-emitting conjugated polymers for applications in electroluminescent devices,” Chem. Rev. 109(3), 897–1091 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maynard, H. D.

C. M. Kolodziej and H. D. Maynard, “Electron-beam lithography for patterning biomolecules at the micron and nanometer scale,” Chem. Mater. 24(5), 774–780 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Millunchick, J. M.

A. J. Martin, T. W. Saucer, G. V. Rodriguez, V. Sih, and J. M. Millunchick, “Lateral patterning of multilayer InAs/GaAs(001) quantum dot structures by in vacuo focused ion beam,” Nanotechnology 23(13), 135401 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Minami, Y.

N. Kawatsuki, R. Ando, R. Ishida, M. Kondo, and Y. Minami, “Photoluminescent color and polarized light emission tuning of fluorene derivatives using a photoreactive H-bonded liquid crystalline polymer,” Macromol. Chem. Phys. 211(16), 1741–1749 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Montali, A.

C. Kocher, A. Montali, P. Smith, and C. Weder, “Patterning of oriented photofunctional polymer systems through selective photobleaching,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 11(1), 31–35 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nam, K. T.

S. Jaffar, K. T. Nam, A. Khademhosseini, J. Xing, R. S. Langer, and A. M. Belcher, “Layer-by-layer surface modification and patterned electrostatic deposition of quantum dots,” Nano Lett. 4(8), 1421–1425 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nandwana, V.

V. Nandwana, C. Subramani, Y. C. Yeh, B. Yang, S. Dickert, M. D. Barnes, M. T. Tuominenb, and V. M. Rotello, “Direct patterning of quantum dot nanostructures via electron beam lithography,” J. Mater. Chem. 21, 1870–1876 (2008).

Park, H.

H. Park, D. C. Han, D. H. Han, S. J. Kim, W. E. Lee, and G. Kwak, “Emission enhancement, photooxidative stability, and fluorescence image patterning of conjugated polymer film via in situ hybridization with UV-curable acrylate monomers,” Macromolecules 44(23), 9351–9355 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Park, S. Y.

S. Kim and S. Y. Park, “Photochemically gated protonation effected by intramolecular hydrogen bonding: towards stable fluorescence imaging in polymer films,” Adv. Mater. 15(16), 1341–1344 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pisignano, D.

F. Di Benedetto, A. Biasco, R. Bizzarri, D. Arosio, F. Ricci, F. Beltram, R. Cingolani, and D. Pisignano, “Two dimensional patterning of fluorescent proteins in hydrogels,” Langmuir 22(1), 29–31 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Poutinen, D. A.

W. Kern and D. A. Poutinen, “Cleaning solution based on hydrogen peroxide for use in silicon semiconductor technology,” RCA Rev. 31, 187–206 (1970).

Ras, R. H. A.

I. Díez and R. H. A. Ras, “Fluorescent silver nanoclusters,” Nanoscale 3(5), 1963–1970 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raymo, F. M.

M. Tomasuloa and F. M. Raymo, “Optical writing and reading with bilayer assemblies of photosensitive and fluorescent films,” J. Mater. Chem. 15(40), 4354–4360 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ricci, F.

F. Di Benedetto, A. Biasco, R. Bizzarri, D. Arosio, F. Ricci, F. Beltram, R. Cingolani, and D. Pisignano, “Two dimensional patterning of fluorescent proteins in hydrogels,” Langmuir 22(1), 29–31 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Robinson, H. D.

I. Ashry, B. Zhang, S. V. Stoianov, C. Daengngam, J. R. Heflin, H. D. Robinson, and Y. Xu, “Probing the photonic density of states using layer-by-layer self-assembly,” Opt. Lett. 37(11), 1835–1837 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rodriguez, G. V.

A. J. Martin, T. W. Saucer, G. V. Rodriguez, V. Sih, and J. M. Millunchick, “Lateral patterning of multilayer InAs/GaAs(001) quantum dot structures by in vacuo focused ion beam,” Nanotechnology 23(13), 135401 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rotello, V. M.

V. Nandwana, C. Subramani, Y. C. Yeh, B. Yang, S. Dickert, M. D. Barnes, M. T. Tuominenb, and V. M. Rotello, “Direct patterning of quantum dot nanostructures via electron beam lithography,” J. Mater. Chem. 21, 1870–1876 (2008).

Rurack, K.

K. Rurack and M. Spieles, “Fluorescence quantum yields of a series of red and near-infrared dyes emitting at 600-1000 nm,” Anal. Chem. 83(4), 1232–1242 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Saucer, T. W.

A. J. Martin, T. W. Saucer, G. V. Rodriguez, V. Sih, and J. M. Millunchick, “Lateral patterning of multilayer InAs/GaAs(001) quantum dot structures by in vacuo focused ion beam,” Nanotechnology 23(13), 135401 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shea, K. J.

L. Zhao, M. Vaupel, D. A. Loy, and K. J. Shea, “Photoresponsive hybrid materials: synthesis and characterization of coumarin-dimer-bridged polysilsesquioxanes,” Chem. Mater. 20(5), 1870–1876 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shi, G.

L. Gao, N. Lu, J. Hao, W. Hu, G. Shi, Y. Wang, and L. Chi, “Creating bicolor patterns via selective photobleaching with a single dye species,” Langmuir 25(6), 3894–3897 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shi, W.

W. Shi, Y. Lin, S. He, Y. Zhao, C. Li, M. Wei, D. G. Evansa, and X. Duana, “Patterned fluorescence films with reversible thermal response based on the host–guest superarchitecture,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(30), 11116–11122 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sih, V.

A. J. Martin, T. W. Saucer, G. V. Rodriguez, V. Sih, and J. M. Millunchick, “Lateral patterning of multilayer InAs/GaAs(001) quantum dot structures by in vacuo focused ion beam,” Nanotechnology 23(13), 135401 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, P.

C. Kocher, A. Montali, P. Smith, and C. Weder, “Patterning of oriented photofunctional polymer systems through selective photobleaching,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 11(1), 31–35 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Spieles, M.

K. Rurack and M. Spieles, “Fluorescence quantum yields of a series of red and near-infrared dyes emitting at 600-1000 nm,” Anal. Chem. 83(4), 1232–1242 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stoianov, S. V.

I. Ashry, B. Zhang, S. V. Stoianov, C. Daengngam, J. R. Heflin, H. D. Robinson, and Y. Xu, “Probing the photonic density of states using layer-by-layer self-assembly,” Opt. Lett. 37(11), 1835–1837 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Subramani, C.

V. Nandwana, C. Subramani, Y. C. Yeh, B. Yang, S. Dickert, M. D. Barnes, M. T. Tuominenb, and V. M. Rotello, “Direct patterning of quantum dot nanostructures via electron beam lithography,” J. Mater. Chem. 21, 1870–1876 (2008).

Tian, H.

H. N. Kim, Z. Guo, W. Zhu, J. Yoon, and H. Tian, “Recent progress on polymer-based fluorescent and colorimetric chemosensors,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 40(1), 79–93 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tomasuloa, M.

M. Tomasuloa and F. M. Raymo, “Optical writing and reading with bilayer assemblies of photosensitive and fluorescent films,” J. Mater. Chem. 15(40), 4354–4360 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Tuominenb, M. T.

V. Nandwana, C. Subramani, Y. C. Yeh, B. Yang, S. Dickert, M. D. Barnes, M. T. Tuominenb, and V. M. Rotello, “Direct patterning of quantum dot nanostructures via electron beam lithography,” J. Mater. Chem. 21, 1870–1876 (2008).

Vannahme, C.

C. Vannahme, S. Klinkhammer, U. Lemmer, and T. Mappes, “Plastic lab-on-a-chip for fluorescence excitation with integrated organic semiconductor lasers,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8179–8186 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vaupel, M.

L. Zhao, M. Vaupel, D. A. Loy, and K. J. Shea, “Photoresponsive hybrid materials: synthesis and characterization of coumarin-dimer-bridged polysilsesquioxanes,” Chem. Mater. 20(5), 1870–1876 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

L. Gao, N. Lu, J. Hao, W. Hu, G. Shi, Y. Wang, and L. Chi, “Creating bicolor patterns via selective photobleaching with a single dye species,” Langmuir 25(6), 3894–3897 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weder, C.

C. Kocher, A. Montali, P. Smith, and C. Weder, “Patterning of oriented photofunctional polymer systems through selective photobleaching,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 11(1), 31–35 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wei, M.

W. Shi, Y. Lin, S. He, Y. Zhao, C. Li, M. Wei, D. G. Evansa, and X. Duana, “Patterned fluorescence films with reversible thermal response based on the host–guest superarchitecture,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(30), 11116–11122 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Xing, J.

S. Jaffar, K. T. Nam, A. Khademhosseini, J. Xing, R. S. Langer, and A. M. Belcher, “Layer-by-layer surface modification and patterned electrostatic deposition of quantum dots,” Nano Lett. 4(8), 1421–1425 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Y.

I. Ashry, B. Zhang, S. V. Stoianov, C. Daengngam, J. R. Heflin, H. D. Robinson, and Y. Xu, “Probing the photonic density of states using layer-by-layer self-assembly,” Opt. Lett. 37(11), 1835–1837 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, B.

V. Nandwana, C. Subramani, Y. C. Yeh, B. Yang, S. Dickert, M. D. Barnes, M. T. Tuominenb, and V. M. Rotello, “Direct patterning of quantum dot nanostructures via electron beam lithography,” J. Mater. Chem. 21, 1870–1876 (2008).

Yeh, Y. C.

V. Nandwana, C. Subramani, Y. C. Yeh, B. Yang, S. Dickert, M. D. Barnes, M. T. Tuominenb, and V. M. Rotello, “Direct patterning of quantum dot nanostructures via electron beam lithography,” J. Mater. Chem. 21, 1870–1876 (2008).

Yoon, J.

H. N. Kim, Z. Guo, W. Zhu, J. Yoon, and H. Tian, “Recent progress on polymer-based fluorescent and colorimetric chemosensors,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 40(1), 79–93 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, B.

I. Ashry, B. Zhang, S. V. Stoianov, C. Daengngam, J. R. Heflin, H. D. Robinson, and Y. Xu, “Probing the photonic density of states using layer-by-layer self-assembly,” Opt. Lett. 37(11), 1835–1837 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, L.

L. Zhao, M. Vaupel, D. A. Loy, and K. J. Shea, “Photoresponsive hybrid materials: synthesis and characterization of coumarin-dimer-bridged polysilsesquioxanes,” Chem. Mater. 20(5), 1870–1876 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y.

W. Shi, Y. Lin, S. He, Y. Zhao, C. Li, M. Wei, D. G. Evansa, and X. Duana, “Patterned fluorescence films with reversible thermal response based on the host–guest superarchitecture,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(30), 11116–11122 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, W.

H. N. Kim, Z. Guo, W. Zhu, J. Yoon, and H. Tian, “Recent progress on polymer-based fluorescent and colorimetric chemosensors,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 40(1), 79–93 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

C. Kocher, A. Montali, P. Smith, and C. Weder, “Patterning of oriented photofunctional polymer systems through selective photobleaching,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 11(1), 31–35 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (1)

S. Kim and S. Y. Park, “Photochemically gated protonation effected by intramolecular hydrogen bonding: towards stable fluorescence imaging in polymer films,” Adv. Mater. 15(16), 1341–1344 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chem. (1)

K. Rurack and M. Spieles, “Fluorescence quantum yields of a series of red and near-infrared dyes emitting at 600-1000 nm,” Anal. Chem. 83(4), 1232–1242 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chem. Mater. (2)

L. Zhao, M. Vaupel, D. A. Loy, and K. J. Shea, “Photoresponsive hybrid materials: synthesis and characterization of coumarin-dimer-bridged polysilsesquioxanes,” Chem. Mater. 20(5), 1870–1876 (2008).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Kolodziej and H. D. Maynard, “Electron-beam lithography for patterning biomolecules at the micron and nanometer scale,” Chem. Mater. 24(5), 774–780 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Rev. (1)

A. C. Grimsdale, K. L. Chan, R. E. Martin, P. G. Jokisz, and A. B. Holmes, “Synthesis of light-emitting conjugated polymers for applications in electroluminescent devices,” Chem. Rev. 109(3), 897–1091 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chem. Soc. Rev. (1)

H. N. Kim, Z. Guo, W. Zhu, J. Yoon, and H. Tian, “Recent progress on polymer-based fluorescent and colorimetric chemosensors,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 40(1), 79–93 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

K. Doré, S. Dubus, H. A. Ho, I. Lévesque, M. Brunette, G. Corbeil, M. Boissinot, G. Boivin, M. G. Bergeron, D. Boudreau, and M. Leclerc, “Fluorescent polymeric transducer for the rapid, simple, and specific detection of nucleic acids at the zeptomole level,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126(13), 4240–4244 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Mater. Chem. (3)

M. Tomasuloa and F. M. Raymo, “Optical writing and reading with bilayer assemblies of photosensitive and fluorescent films,” J. Mater. Chem. 15(40), 4354–4360 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. Nandwana, C. Subramani, Y. C. Yeh, B. Yang, S. Dickert, M. D. Barnes, M. T. Tuominenb, and V. M. Rotello, “Direct patterning of quantum dot nanostructures via electron beam lithography,” J. Mater. Chem. 21, 1870–1876 (2008).

W. Shi, Y. Lin, S. He, Y. Zhao, C. Li, M. Wei, D. G. Evansa, and X. Duana, “Patterned fluorescence films with reversible thermal response based on the host–guest superarchitecture,” J. Mater. Chem. 21(30), 11116–11122 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

J. Kerimo, D. M. Adams, P. F. Barbara, D. M. Kaschak, and T. E. Mallouk, “NSOM investigations of the spectroscopy and morphology of self-assembled multilayered thin films,” J. Phys. Chem. B 102(47), 9451–9460 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Langmuir (3)

F. Di Benedetto, A. Biasco, R. Bizzarri, D. Arosio, F. Ricci, F. Beltram, R. Cingolani, and D. Pisignano, “Two dimensional patterning of fluorescent proteins in hydrogels,” Langmuir 22(1), 29–31 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Gao, N. Lu, J. Hao, W. Hu, G. Shi, Y. Wang, and L. Chi, “Creating bicolor patterns via selective photobleaching with a single dye species,” Langmuir 25(6), 3894–3897 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Fudickar and T. Linker, “Novel anthracene materials for applications in lithography and reversible photoswitching by light and air,” Langmuir 26(6), 4421–4428 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Macromol. Chem. Phys. (1)

N. Kawatsuki, R. Ando, R. Ishida, M. Kondo, and Y. Minami, “Photoluminescent color and polarized light emission tuning of fluorene derivatives using a photoreactive H-bonded liquid crystalline polymer,” Macromol. Chem. Phys. 211(16), 1741–1749 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Macromolecules (1)

H. Park, D. C. Han, D. H. Han, S. J. Kim, W. E. Lee, and G. Kwak, “Emission enhancement, photooxidative stability, and fluorescence image patterning of conjugated polymer film via in situ hybridization with UV-curable acrylate monomers,” Macromolecules 44(23), 9351–9355 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

S. Jaffar, K. T. Nam, A. Khademhosseini, J. Xing, R. S. Langer, and A. M. Belcher, “Layer-by-layer surface modification and patterned electrostatic deposition of quantum dots,” Nano Lett. 4(8), 1421–1425 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nanoscale (1)

I. Díez and R. H. A. Ras, “Fluorescent silver nanoclusters,” Nanoscale 3(5), 1963–1970 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nanotechnology (1)

A. J. Martin, T. W. Saucer, G. V. Rodriguez, V. Sih, and J. M. Millunchick, “Lateral patterning of multilayer InAs/GaAs(001) quantum dot structures by in vacuo focused ion beam,” Nanotechnology 23(13), 135401 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

C. Vannahme, S. Klinkhammer, U. Lemmer, and T. Mappes, “Plastic lab-on-a-chip for fluorescence excitation with integrated organic semiconductor lasers,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8179–8186 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

I. Ashry, B. Zhang, S. V. Stoianov, C. Daengngam, J. R. Heflin, H. D. Robinson, and Y. Xu, “Probing the photonic density of states using layer-by-layer self-assembly,” Opt. Lett. 37(11), 1835–1837 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

RCA Rev. (1)

W. Kern and D. A. Poutinen, “Cleaning solution based on hydrogen peroxide for use in silicon semiconductor technology,” RCA Rev. 31, 187–206 (1970).

Sens. Act. B: Chem. (1)

C. R. Lohani and K. H. Lee, “The effect of absorbance of Fe3+ on the detection of Fe3+ by fluorescent chemical sensors,” Sens. Act. B: Chem. 143(2), 649–654 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the self-assembled structure covered with (a) TR and (b) QDs. (c) An AFM image of the glass substrate covered with TR-PAH/PSS/TR-PAH. (d) An AFM image of the glass substrate covered with QDs. (e) TR fluorescence measured before adding aluminum mask (dashed black line), after mask removal (solid blue line), and QDs fluorescence measured before aluminum mask deposition (dotted red line).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) An illustration of UV-ablation based patterning of LbL films containing TR dye. (b) and (c) are the fluorescence microscope images of the sample obtained after finishing step 2 and 4, respectively. (d) Sample fluorescence obtained before and after the UV-ablation based patterning process.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Schematic of QDs patterning using UV ablation. (b) Fluorescent image of the patterned QDs. (c) Fluorescence decay produced by QDs assembled over flat and patterned LbL films.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Schematic of patterning based on FIB milling. (b) SEM image of the patterned TR-PAH + 75 PSS/PAH LbL film after step 4 and before step 5. (c) AFM image of the same film after step 5. (d) Fluorescence decay produced by TR after aluminum mask deposition (step 3) and before FIB milling (step 4) is shown as the dashed black line. TR fluorescence measured after FIB milling (step 4) and after aluminum mask removal (step 5) is shown as the solid blue line and the dotted red line, respectively.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Schematic of QDs self-assembly over plasmonic nanostructure. (b) A SEM image of the patterned gold substrate, taken after step 2 and before step 3. (c) Fluorescence image of the sample covered with QDs. The bright central square corresponds to the nanostructured region shown in (b). (d) Fluorescence decay produced by QDs assembled above 4.5 PAH/PSS bilayers on flat and patterned gold substrates.

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